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Sample records for splash single panel

  1. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  2. Theory and experimental validation of SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Porter, Jason M.

    2005-06-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as lamp number, power, position, and separation distance. Thermal radiation is the dominant mechanism of heat transfer and the SPLASH model solves a radiation enclosure problem to estimate temperature distributions in a shroud providing the boundary condition of interest. Irradiance distribution on a specified viewing plane is also estimated. This document provides the theoretical development for the underlying model. A series of tests were conducted to characterize SPLASH's ability to analyze lamp and shroud systems. The comparison suggests that SPLASH succeeds as a design tool. Simplifications made to keep the model tractable are demonstrated to result in estimates that are only approximately as uncertain as many of the properties and characteristics of the operating environment.

  3. The shape and dynamics of the generation of the splash forms in single-phase systems after drop hitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochan, Agata; Beczek, Michał; Mazur, Rafał; RyŻak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    The splash phenomenon is being increasingly explored with the use of modern measurement tools, including the high-speed cameras. Recording images at a rate of several thousand frames per second facilitates parameterization and description of the dynamics of splash phases. This paper describes the impact of a single drop of a liquid falling on the surface of the same liquid. Three single-phase liquid systems, i.e., water, petrol, and diesel fuel, were examined. The falling drops were characterized by different kinetic energy values depending on the height of the fall, which ranged from 0.1 to 7.0 m. Four forms, i.e., waves, crowns, semi-closed domes, and domes, were distinguished depending on the drop energy. The analysis of the recorded images facilitated determination of the static and dynamic parameters of each form, e.g., the maximum height of each splash form, the width of the splash form at its maximum height, and the rate of growth of the splash form. We, Re, Fr, and K numbers were determined for all analyzed liquid systems. On the basis of the obtained values of dimensionless numbers, the areas of occurrence of characteristic splash forms were separated.

  4. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Dynamics of splashing of molten metals during irradiation with single CO2 laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu; Bol'shov, Leonid A.; Dolgov, V. A.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Semak, V. V.

    1988-03-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the dynamics of the loss of the melt as a result of interaction with single-mode CO2 laser radiation pulses of 5-35 μs duration. The dynamics of splashing of the melt during irradiation with short pulses characterized by a Gaussian intensity distribution differed from that predicted by models in which the distribution of the vapor pressure was assumed to be radially homogeneous.

  5. The crown splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robert; Brunet, Philippe; Eggers, Jens

    2008-11-01

    The impact of a drop onto a liquid layer and the subsequent splash has important implications for diverse physical processes such as air-sea gas transfer, cooling, and combustion. In the crown splash parameter regime, the splash pattern is highly regular. We focus on this case as a model for the mechanism that leads to secondary droplets, and thus explain the drop size distribution resulting from the splash. We show that the mean number of secondary droplets is determined by the most unstable wavelength of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. Variations from this mean are governed by the width of the spectrum. Our results for the crown splash will provide the basis for understanding more complicated splashes.

  6. SPLASH'13 workshops summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, S.; Schultz, U. P.

    2013-01-01

    Following its long-standing tradition, SPLASH 2013 will host 19 high-quality workshops, allowing their participants to meet and discuss research questions with peers, to mature new and exciting ideas, and to build up communities and start new collaborations. SPLASH workshops complement the main t...

  7. Standardization of splash device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María; Peters, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The erosion is a complex process that has been studied extensively by numerous researchers, requiring a prolongued time effort and a large economic investment. To be effective, the measurements of erosion should be precise, controlled and replicable, and to assure efectiveness, measurement devices of erosion should be properly designed, constructed, well calibrated and also they should be operated by a trained person (Stroosnijder, 2005). Because researchers try to improve old devices, the equipment is constantly being redesigned, making the measurements not comparable and furthermore, producing a lack of available standarized device. The lack of standardization of erosion equipment is more obvious in the case of the local splash erosion, where the nature of the process makes very difficult to isolate its effects. In this article we compare the results obtained from five of the most common splash erosion devices (selected from more than 16 different currently types), under the same rain conditions, with the objective of facilitate the standardization of the method that will be more easy to build, minimizing the error. A set of six splash devices were setted in well known positions under simulated rain, to measured the differences, among devices and the accuracy of the data recovered after 10 minutes of rainfall simulation under different intensities (from 60 to 130 mm/h). The rainfall simulator of Wageningen was used, using sand as splash erosion source. Differences in the infiltration were also measured, and a calibration of sizes and speeds of the raindrops was done using the photography method (Hamidreza-Sadeghi et al., 2013). The splash devices selected for this study were unbounded splash devices (like the funnel, the cup (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010) and the splash flume (Jomaa et al., 2010)), and bounded devices that allow the calculation of splash rate, (like the new cup (Scholten et al., 2011) and the Morgan tray). The behaviour of different splash devices

  8. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF

  9. Complexities of splashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, R D; Brunet, P; Eggers, J

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of a drop of liquid onto a thin layer of the same liquid. We give an overview of the sequence of events that occur as the two most important dimensionless control parameters are varied. In particular, multiple cohorts of droplets can be ejected at different stages after impact due to different mechanisms. Edgerton's famous Milkdrop Coronet is only observed for a narrow range of parameters. Outside this range, the splash is either qualitatively different, or suffers from a much lower level of regularity. (cover illustration)

  10. The making of a splash

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    The splash resulting from the impact of a drop onto a pool is a particularly beautiful manifestation of a canonical problem, where a mass of fluid breaks up into smaller pieces. Despite over a century of experimental study, the splashing mechanics

  11. The making of a splash

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-12-20

    The splash resulting from the impact of a drop onto a pool is a particularly beautiful manifestation of a canonical problem, where a mass of fluid breaks up into smaller pieces. Despite over a century of experimental study, the splashing mechanics have eluded full description, the details often being obscured by the very rapid motions and small length scales involved. Zhang et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 690, 2012, pp. 515) introduce a powerful new tool to the experimental arsenal, when they apply X-ray imaging to study the fine ejecta sheets which emerge during the earliest contact of the drop. Their images reveal hidden details and complex underlying dynamics, which will directly affect the size and velocity of the splashing droplets. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  12. Water Quality Survey of Splash Pads After A Waterborne Salmonellosis Outbreak--Tennessee, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Joshua L; Manners, Judy; Miller, Susan; Shepherd, Craig; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-06-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of salmonellosis are uncommon. The Tennessee Department of Health investigated a salmonellosis outbreak of 10 cases with the only common risk factor being exposure to a single splash pad. Risks included water splashed in the face at the splash pad and no free residual chlorine in the water system. We surveyed water quality and patron behaviors at splash pads statewide. Of the 29 splash pads participating in the water quality survey, 24 (83%) used a recirculating water system. Of the 24, 5 (21%) water samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for E. coli, Giardia, norovirus, or Salmonella. Among 95 patrons observed, we identified common high-risk behaviors of sitting on the fountain or spray head and putting mouth to water. Water venue regulations and improved education of patrons are important to aid prevention efforts.

  13. Fifth Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project Expert Panel Meeting August 28-29, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Todd M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States; Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    On August 28th and 29th, 2014 the Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) Expert Panel (Panel) convened in Richland, Washington. This was the Panel’s first meeting since 2011 and, as a result, was focused primarily on updating the Panel on progress in response to the past recommendations (Single-Shell Tank Integrity Expert Panel Report, RPP-RPT-45921, Rev 0, May 2010). This letter documents the Panel’s discussions and feedback on Phase I activities and results.

  14. The gain of single-axis tracked panel according to extraterrestrial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the gain in extraterrestrial radiation received by a single-axis tracked panel relative to a fixed panel was systematically analyzed over a specific period of time. The dynamic angle that the tracked panel should rotate by in order to follow the sun was derived through a series of spherical trigonometric procedures. The instantaneous incident angle of sunlight upon the panel was then calculated, assuming that the panel would simultaneously follow the sun's position. Thus, instantaneous increments of solar energy received by the tracked panel relative to the fixed panel are originally presented. The results show that the angle the tracked panel has to rotate by is 0 deg. at solar noon, and increases towards dawn or dusk. The incident angle of sunlight upon the tracked panel is always smaller than that upon the fixed panel, except at solar noon. As for panels installed with a yearly optimal tilt angle in Taipei, the gains are between 36.3% and 62.1% for four particular days of year, between 37.8% and 60.8% for the four seasons and 49.3% over the entire year. The amount of radiation collected by the tracked panel is enhanced as the maximum rotation angle is increased. The irradiation ratio of the tracked panel to the fixed panel is close to 1.5 for latitudes below 65 deg. and gradually increases for latitudes above this. The yearly optimal tilt angle of a south-facing fixed panel is approximately equal to 0.9 multiplied by the latitude (i.e. 0.9 x φ) for latitudes below 65 deg. and is about 56 + 0.4 x (φ - 65) otherwise

  15. Splash Dynamics of Falling Surfactant-Laden Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nur; Buitrago, Lewis; Pereyra, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Splashing dynamics is a common issue in oil and gas separation technology. In this study, droplet impact of various surfactant concentrations onto solid and liquid surfaces is studied experimentally using a high-speed imaging analysis. Although this area has been widely studied in the past, there is still not a good understanding of the role of surfactant over droplet impact and characterization of resulting splash dynamics. The experiments are conducted using tap water laden with anionic surfactant. The effects of system parameters on a single droplet impingement such as surfactant concentration (no surfactant, below, at and above critical micelle concentration), parent drop diameter (2-5mm), impact velocity and type of impact surface (thin and deep pool) are investigated. Image analysis technique is shown to be an effective technique for identification of coalescence to splashing transition. In addition, daughter droplets size distributions are analyzed qualitatively in the events of splashing. As expected, it is observed that the formation of secondary droplets is affected by the surfactant concentration. A summary of findings will be discussed.

  16. COVER ILLUSTRATION: Complexities of splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, R. D.; Brunet, P.; Eggers, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of a drop of liquid onto a thin layer of the same liquid. We give an overview of the sequence of events that occur as the two most important dimensionless control parameters are varied. In particular, multiple cohorts of droplets can be ejected at different stages after impact due to different mechanisms. Edgerton's famous Milkdrop Coronet is only observed for a narrow range of parameters. Outside this range, the splash is either qualitatively different, or suffers from a much lower level of regularity.

  17. Optical performance of inclined south-north single-axis tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Runsheng

    2010-01-01

    To investigate optical performance of the inclined south-north single-axis (ISN-axis, in short) tracked solar panels, a mathematical procedure to estimate the annual collectible radiation on fixed and tracked panels was suggested based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. For solar panels tracking about ISN-axis, the yearly optimal tilt-angle of ISN-axis for maximizing annual solar gain was about 3 o deviating from the site latitude in most of China except in areas with poor solar resources, and the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISN-axis tracked panels was about 97-98% of that on dual-axis tracked panels; whereas for ISN-axis tracked panels with the tilt-angle of ISN-axis being adjusted four times in a year at three fixed tilt-angles, the annual collectible radiation was almost close to that on dual-axis tracked panels, the optimum date of tilt-angle adjustment of ISN-axis was 23 days from the equinoxes, and the optimum tilt-angle adjustment value for each adjustment was about 22 o . Compared to fixed south-facing solar panels inclined at an optimal tilt-angle, the increase in the annual solar gain due to using ISN-axis sun tracking was above 30% in the areas with abundant solar resources and less than 20% in the areas with poor solar resources.

  18. Performance study on the east-west oriented single-axis tracked panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study on the performance of an east-west oriented single-axis tracked panel was originally proposed in this paper. Mathematic expressions applicable for calculating the angle that the tracked panel should rotate by to follow the Sun are derived. The incident angle of sunlight upon the panel as well as the instantaneous increments of solar energy captured by the panel relative to a fixed horizontal surface are then demonstrated graphically. To simulate different operation environments, three kinds of radiation sources will be considered, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation, global radiation predicted by empirical models under clear sky situation and global radiation observed in Taiwan. Simulation results show that the yearly gains correlate positively with the radiation level, i.e. 21.2%, 13.5% and 7.4% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations, respectively, which are far less than those obtained from a north-south oriented single-axis tracked panel. The irradiation increases with the maximum rotation angle of the panel, the benefit of increasing the rotation in overcast environment is not as good as in clear sky, for annual energy collection 45 o is recommended. The irradiation received decreases with latitude, but it has a greater gain in higher latitude zone.

  19. Measuring splash erosion potential under vegetation using sand-filled splash cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Scholten, T.; Kühn, P.

    2009-04-01

    In soil erosion research it is widely accepted that vegetation is not only protecting the soil from the erosive power of rainfall. Under specific circumstances (like they occur e.g. in forests) vegetation can enhance the erosive power of rainfall by modifying its properties (esp. drop size distribution, kinetic energy). The adjacent processes are very complex and variable in time and space and depend on numerous variables (e.g. rainfall intensity, drop size distribution, drop fall velocity, height of the canopy, density of the canopy, crown and leaf traits, LAI). In the last decades a large number of studies focused this process-system using different methods and came to often different results (Brandt 1989; Calder 2001; Foot & Morgan 2005; Hall & Calder 1993; Mosley 1982; Nanko et al. 2006; Park & Cameron 2008; Vis 1986). The main objective of our field experiments in subtropical China is to quantify the modification of precipitation by its pass through the canopy layer for six different tree species, three different successional stages and three different biodiversity classes. For this, new splash cups were developed based on the archetype of Ellison (1947). In contrast to previous studies with splash cups (Vis 1986) or other forms of splash cups (Kinnell 1974; Morgan 1981) we measured the unit sand remaining inside the cup after single natural rainfall events. The new splash cups contain of a PE-flask to which a carrier system has been attached. In this carrier system a cup filled with unit sand of 125-200 µm particle size is inserted. At the bottom of the cup a silk cover is attached to avoid the loss of sand and to guarantee free drainage of water from the cup to the carrier and vice versa. Cup and PE-flask are hydraulically connected by a cotton wick to assure constant moisture content throughout the time of measuring. Additionally, vents in the carrier system ensure that the pressure arising from the insertion of the cup doesn't lead to a loss of sand. The

  20. Wavelength selection in the crown splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li V.; Brunet, Philippe; Eggers, Jens; Deegan, Robert D.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of a drop onto a liquid layer produces a splash that results from the ejection and dissolution of one or more liquid sheets, which expand radially from the point of impact. In the crown splash parameter regime, secondary droplets appear at fairly regularly spaced intervals along the rim of the sheet. By performing many experiments for the same parameter values, we measure the spectrum of small-amplitude perturbations growing on the rim. We show that for a range of parameters in the crown splash regime, the generation of secondary droplets results from a Rayleigh-Plateau instability of the rim, whose shape is almost cylindrical. In our theoretical calculation, we include the time dependence of the base state. The remaining irregularity of the pattern is explained by the finite width of the Rayleigh-Plateau dispersion relation. Alternative mechanisms, such as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, can be excluded for the experimental parameters of our study.

  1. Single-tube tetradecaplex panel of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M; Chen, M; Tan, A S C; Cheah, F S H; Mathew, J; Wong, P C; Chong, S S

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of severe hemophilia A relies on linkage analysis. Simultaneous multi-marker screening can simplify selection of informative markers in a couple. We developed a single-tube tetradecaplex panel of polymorphic markers for hemophilia A PGD use. Informative markers can be used for linkage analysis alone or combined with mutation detection. Background It is currently not possible to perform single-cell preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to directly detect the common inversion mutations of the factor VIII (F8) gene responsible for severe hemophilia A (HEMA). As such, PGD for such inversion carriers relies on indirect analysis of linked polymorphic markers. Objectives To simplify linkage-based PGD of HEMA, we aimed to develop a panel of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located near the F8 gene that could be simultaneously genotyped in a multiplex-PCR reaction. Methods We assessed the polymorphism of various microsatellite markers located ≤ 1 Mb from F8 in 177 female subjects. Highly polymorphic markers were selected for co-amplification with the AMELX/Y indel dimorphism in a single-tube reaction. Results Thirteen microsatellite markers located within 0.6 Mb of F8 were successfully co-amplified with AMELX/Y in a single-tube reaction. Observed heterozygosities of component markers ranged from 0.43 to 0.84, and ∼70-80% of individuals were heterozygous for ≥ 5 markers. The tetradecaplex panel successfully identified fully informative markers in a couple interested in PGD for HEMA because of an intragenic F8 point mutation, with haplotype phasing established through a carrier daughter. In-vitro fertilization (IVF)-PGD involved single-tube co-amplification of fully informative markers with AMELX/Y and the mutation-containing F8 amplicon, followed by microsatellite analysis and amplicon mutation-site minisequencing analysis. Conclusions The single-tube multiplex-PCR format of this highly polymorphic

  2. Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2017-11-01

    A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.

  3. Splash-cup plants accelerate raindrops to disperse seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Yamada, Yasukuni; McCurley, Matthew; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The conical flowers of splash-cup plants Chrysosplenium and Mazus catch raindrops opportunistically, exploiting the subsequent splash to disperse their seeds. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate their mechanism for maximizing dispersal distance. We fabricate conical plant mimics using three-dimensional printing, and use high-speed video to visualize splash profiles and seed travel distance. Drop impacts that strike the cup off-centre achieve the largest dispersal distances of up to 1 m. Such distances are achieved because splash speeds are three to five times faster than incoming drop speeds, and so faster than the traditionally studied splashes occurring upon horizontal surfaces. This anomalous splash speed is because of the superposition of two components of momentum, one associated with a component of the drop's motion parallel to the splash-cup surface, and the other associated with film spreading induced by impact with the splash-cup. Our model incorporating these effects predicts the observed dispersal distance within 6–18% error. According to our experiments, the optimal cone angle for the splash-cup is 40°, a value consistent with the average of five species of splash-cup plants. This optimal angle arises from the competing effects of velocity amplification and projectile launching angle. PMID:23235266

  4. Whole field strain measurement in critical thin adhesive layer of single- and double-sided repaired CFRP panel using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashfuddoja, Mohammad; Ramji, M.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, the behavior of thin adhesively layer in patch repaired carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) panel under tensile load is investigated experimentally using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The panel is made of Carbon/epoxy composite laminate and the stacking sequence in the panel is [0º]4. A circular hole of 10 mm diameter (d) is drilled at the center of the panel to mimic the case of low velocity impact damage removal. The panel with open hole is repaired with double sided (symmetrical) and single sided (unsymmetrical) rectangular patch made of same panel material having stacking sequence of [0º]3. Araldite 2011 is used for bonding the patch onto the panel over the damaged area. The global behavior of thin adhesive layer is examined by analyzing whole field strain distribution using DIC. Longitudinal, peel and shear strain field in both double and single sided repair configuration is studied and a compression is made between them. An estimate of shear transfer length which is an essential parameter in arriving at an appropriate overlap length in patch design is proposed from DIC and FEA. Damage development, failure mechanism and load displacement behavior is also investigated. The experimental results are compared with the numerical predictions.

  5. ATLAS Splash event - 6 April 2018

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The image shows a visualization of experimental data coming from the 'beam splash' tests run in April 2018 as part of the restart process of the LHC accelerator, after the winter break for maintenance. The image shows the hits of part of the tracking detector (in red, at the center), the energy deposits in the electromagnetic calorimeter (in green), and those in the hadronic calorimeter (in yellow). The semi-transparent azure volumes are part of the hadronic calorimeter, while the grey outer structure is part of the muon spectrometer.

  6. The measurement of the transmission loss of single leaf walls and panels by an impulse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balilah, Y. A.; Gibbs, B. M.

    1988-06-01

    The standard methods of measurement and rating of sound insulation of panels and walls are generally time-consuming and require expensive and often bulky equipment. In addition, the methods establish only that there has been failure to comply with insulation requirements without indicating the mode of failure. An impulse technique is proposed for the measurement of walls and partitions in situ. The method requires the digital capture of a short duration signal generated by a loudspeaker, and the isolation of the direct component from other reflected and scattered components by time-of-flight methods and windowing. The signal, when transferred from the time to frequency domain by means of fast Fourier transforms, can yield the sound insulation of a partition expressed as a transfer function. Experimental problems in the use of this technique, including those resulting from sphericity of the incident wave front and concentric bending excitation of the partition, are identified and methods proposed for their elimination. Most of the results presented are of single leaf panels subjected to sound at normal incidence, although some measurements were undertaken at oblique incidence. The range of surface densities considered was 7-500 kg/m 2, the highest value corresponding to a brick and plaster wall of thickness 285 mm. Measurement is compared with theoretical prediction, at one-third octave intervals in a frequency range of 100-5000 Hz, or as a continuous function of frequency with a typical resolution of 12·5 Hz. The dynamic range of the measurement equipment sets an upper limit to the measurable transmission loss. For the equipment eventually employed this was represented by a random incidence value of 50 dB.

  7. Imputation of single nucleotide polymorhpism genotypes of Hereford cattle: reference panel size, family relationship and population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes imputation of Hereford cattle. Purebred Herefords were from two sources, Line 1 Hereford (N=240) and representatives of Industry Herefords (N=311). Using different reference panels of 62 and 494 males with 1...

  8. The Stability of New Single-Layer Combined Lattice Shell Based on Aluminum Alloy Honeycomb Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a new type of single-layer combined lattice shell (NSCLS; which is based on aluminum alloy honeycomb panels. Six models with initial geometric defect were designed and precision made using numerical control equipment. The stability of these models was tested. The results showed that the stable bearing capacity of NSCLS was approximately 16% higher than that of a lattice shell with the same span without a reinforcing plate. At the same time; the properties of the NSCLS were sensitive to defects. When defects were present; its stable bearing capacity was decreased by 12.3% when compared with the defect-free model. The model with random defects following a truncated Gaussian distribution could be used to simulate the distribution of defects in the NSCLS. The average difference between the results of the nonlinear analysis and the experimental results was 5.7%. By calculating and analyzing nearly 20,000 NSCLS; the suggested values of initial geometric defect were presented. The results of this paper could provide a theoretical basis for making and revising the design codes for this new combined lattice shell structure.

  9. Droplet Splashing by a Slingshot Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-01-18

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid pool, it ejects a thin horizontal sheet of liquid, which emerges from the neck region connecting the two liquid masses. The leading section of this ejecta bends down to meet the pool liquid. When the sheet touches the pool, at an “elbow,” it ruptures and sends off microdroplets by a slingshot mechanism, driven by surface tension. High-speed imaging of the splashing droplets suggests the liquid sheet is of submicron thickness, as thin as 300 nm. Experiments in partial vacuum show that air resistance plays the primary role in bending the sheet. We identify a parameter regime where this slingshot occurs and also present a simple model for the sheet evolution, capable of reproducing the overall shape.

  10. Droplet Splashing by a Slingshot Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Thoraval, M.-J.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid pool, it ejects a thin horizontal sheet of liquid, which emerges from the neck region connecting the two liquid masses. The leading section of this ejecta bends down to meet the pool liquid. When the sheet touches the pool, at an “elbow,” it ruptures and sends off microdroplets by a slingshot mechanism, driven by surface tension. High-speed imaging of the splashing droplets suggests the liquid sheet is of submicron thickness, as thin as 300 nm. Experiments in partial vacuum show that air resistance plays the primary role in bending the sheet. We identify a parameter regime where this slingshot occurs and also present a simple model for the sheet evolution, capable of reproducing the overall shape.

  11. Micro-splashing by drop impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, Kohsei; Etoh, Takeharugoji

    2012-01-01

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to observe directly the earliest onset of prompt splashing when a drop impacts onto a smooth solid surface. We capture the start of the ejecta sheet travelling along the solid substrate and show how it breaks up immediately upon emergence from the underneath the drop. The resulting micro-droplets are much smaller and faster than previously reported and may have gone unobserved owing to their very small size and rapid ejection velocities, which approach 100 m s-1, for typical impact conditions of large rain drops. We propose a phenomenological mechanism which predicts the velocity and size distribution of the resulting microdroplets. We also observe azimuthal undulations which may help promote the earliest breakup of the ejecta. This instability occurs in the cusp in the free surface where the drop surface meets the radially ejected liquid sheet. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  12. Micro-splashing by drop impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2012-07-18

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to observe directly the earliest onset of prompt splashing when a drop impacts onto a smooth solid surface. We capture the start of the ejecta sheet travelling along the solid substrate and show how it breaks up immediately upon emergence from the underneath the drop. The resulting micro-droplets are much smaller and faster than previously reported and may have gone unobserved owing to their very small size and rapid ejection velocities, which approach 100 m s-1, for typical impact conditions of large rain drops. We propose a phenomenological mechanism which predicts the velocity and size distribution of the resulting microdroplets. We also observe azimuthal undulations which may help promote the earliest breakup of the ejecta. This instability occurs in the cusp in the free surface where the drop surface meets the radially ejected liquid sheet. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  13. First beam splashes at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year shutdown, the first beams of Run 2 circulated in the LHC last Sunday. On Tuesday, the LHC operators performed dedicated runs to allow some of the experiments to record their first signals coming from particles splashed out when the circulating beams hit the collimators. Powerful reconstruction software then transforms the electronic signals into colourful images.     “Splash” events are used by the experiments to test their numerous subdetectors and to synchronise them with the LHC clock. These events are recorded when the path of particles travelling in the LHC vacuum pipe is intentionally obstructed using collimators – one-metre-long graphite or tungsten jaws that are also used to catch particles that wander too far from the beam centre and to protect the accelerator against unavoidable regular and irregular beam losses. The particles sprayed out of the collision between the beam and the collimators are mostly muons. ATLAS and CMS&...

  14. Effect of splash on the deposition and re-entrainment in annular mist flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Heng; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is employed to simulate the deposition process of single droplet on the liquid film. The model accounts for the presence of inertial, gravitation, viscous and surface tension and is validated by comparison with experiment results. A one-dimensional mixture model is developed to calculate the necessary parameters for the simulation of deposition on the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) condition. The correlations and methods on void fraction, entertainment fraction and droplet velocity and size distribution are employed to get the parameters of droplet and liquid film. The simulation results are analyzed to study the effect of splash on the deposition and re-entrainment process in annular-mist flow on the condition of BWR. It is found that the splash plays an important role in the deposition and re-entrainment process in high quality conditions of BWR. (author)

  15. Measurement of joint kinematics using a conventional clinical single-perspective flat-panel radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seslija, Petar; Teeter, Matthew G.; Yuan Xunhua; Naudie, Douglas D. R.; Bourne, Robert B.; MacDonald, Steven J.; Peters, Terry M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to accurately measure joint kinematics is an important tool in studying both normal joint function and pathologies associated with injury and disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, accuracy, precision, and clinical safety of measuring 3D joint motion using a conventional flat-panel radiography system prior to its application in an in vivo study. Methods: An automated, image-based tracking algorithm was implemented to measure the three-dimensional pose of a sparse object from a two-dimensional radiographic projection. The algorithm was tested to determine its efficiency and failure rate, defined as the number of image frames where automated tracking failed, or required user intervention. The accuracy and precision of measuring three-dimensional motion were assessed using a robotic controlled, tibiofemoral knee phantom programmed to mimic a subject with a total knee replacement performing a stair ascent activity. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the measurements of the single-plane radiographic tracking technique to those of an optical tracking system, and quantified by the measurement discrepancy between the two systems using the Bland–Altman technique. Precision was assessed through a series of repeated measurements of the tibiofemoral kinematics, and was quantified using the across-trial deviations of the repeated kinematic measurements. The safety of the imaging procedure was assessed by measuring the effective dose of ionizing radiation associated with the x-ray exposures, and analyzing its relative risk to a human subject. Results: The automated tracking algorithm displayed a failure rate of 2% and achieved an average computational throughput of 8 image frames/s. Mean differences between the radiographic and optical measurements for translations and rotations were less than 0.08 mm and 0.07° in-plane, and 0.24 mm and 0.6° out-of-plane. The repeatability of kinematics measurements performed using the

  16. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  17. Splash Safety During Dermatologic Procedures Among US Dermatology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta, Dorota Z; Chapman, Lance W; Lee, Patrick K; Linden, Kenneth G

    2017-07-01

    Dermatologists are at potential risk of acquiring infections from contamination of the mucous membranes by blood and body fluids. However, there are little data on splash safety during procedural dermatology. To determine dermatology resident perceptions about splash risk during dermatologic procedures and to quantify the rate of protective equipment use. An anonymous on-line survey was sent to 108 United States ACGME-approved dermatology residency programs assessing frequency of facial protection during dermatologic procedures, personal history of splash injury, and, if applicable, reasons for not always wearing facial protection. A total of 153 dermatology residents responded. Rates of facial protection varied by procedure, with the highest rates during surgery and the lowest during local anesthetic injection. Over 54% of respondents reported suffering facial splash while not wearing facial protection during a procedure. In contrast, 88.9% of respondents correctly answered that there is a small risk of acquiring infection from mucosal splash. Residency program recommendations for facial protection seem to vary by procedure. The authors' results demonstrate that although facial splash is a common injury, facial protection rates and protective recommendations vary significantly by procedure. These data support the recommendation for enhanced facial protection guidelines during procedural dermatology.

  18. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  19. Damage Tolerant Analysis of Cracked Al 2024-T3 Panels repaired with Single Boron/Epoxy Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Akshay D.; Murthy, A. Ramachandra; Nanda Kumar, M. R.; Gopinath, Smitha

    2018-06-01

    It is known that damage tolerant analysis has two objectives, namely, remaining life prediction and residual strength evaluation. To achieve the these objectives, determination of accurate and reliable fracture parameter is very important. XFEM methodologies for fatigue and fracture analysis of cracked aluminium panels repaired with different patch shapes made of single boron/epoxy have been developed. Heaviside and asymptotic crack tip enrichment functions are employed to model the crack. XFEM formulations such as displacement field formulation and element stiffness matrix formulation are presented. Domain form of interaction integral is employed to determine Stress Intensity Factor of repaired cracked panels. Computed SIFs are incorporated in Paris crack growth model to predict the remaining fatigue life. The residual strength has been computed by using the remaining life approach, which accounts for both crack growth constants and no. of cycles to failure. From the various studies conducted, it is observed that repaired panels have significant effect on reduction of the SIF at the crack tip and hence residual strength as well as remaining life of the patched cracked panels are improved significantly. The predicted remaining life and residual strength will be useful for design of structures/components under fatigue loading.

  20. Drop impact splashing and air entrapment

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2013-03-01

    Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.

  1. Prediction of the niche effect for single flat panels with or without attached sound absorbing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgard, Franck; Atalla, Noureddine; Nélisse, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of a test sample measured in sound transmission facilities is affected by the opening in which it is located. This is called the niche effect. This paper uses a modal approach to study the STL of a rectangular plate with or without an attached porous material located inside a box-shaped niche. The porous material is modeled as a limp equivalent fluid. The proposed model is validated by comparison with finite element/boundary element computations. Using a condensation of the pressure fields in the niche, the niche effect is interpreted in terms of a modification of the modal blocked pressure fields acting on the panel induced by the front cavity and by a modification of the radiation efficiency of the panel modes due to the presence of the back cavity. The modal approach is then used to investigate the impact of (1) the presence of a porous material attached to the panel on the niche effect and (2) the niche effect on the assessment of the porous material insertion loss. A simplified model for the porous material based on a transfer matrix approach is also proposed to predict the STL of the system and its validity is discussed.

  2. A single-level random-effects cross-lagged panel model for longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Carroll, Ian A; Chen, Po-Yi

    2017-12-06

    Cross-lagged panel models (CLPMs) are widely used to test mediation with longitudinal panel data. One major limitation of the CLPMs is that the model effects are assumed to be fixed across individuals. This assumption is likely to be violated (i.e., the model effects are random across individuals) in practice. When this happens, the CLPMs can potentially yield biased parameter estimates and misleading statistical inferences. This article proposes a model named a random-effects cross-lagged panel model (RE-CLPM) to account for random effects in CLPMs. Simulation studies show that the RE-CLPM outperforms the CLPM in recovering the mean indirect and direct effects in a longitudinal mediation analysis when random effects exist in the population. The performance of the RE-CLPM is robust to a certain degree, even when the random effects are not normally distributed. In addition, the RE-CLPM does not produce harmful results when the model effects are in fact fixed in the population. Implications of the simulation studies and potential directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Compilation of a panel of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for bovine identification in the Northern Irish cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartshorne David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal identification is pivotal in governmental agricultural policy, enabling the management of subsidy payments, movement of livestock, test scheduling and control of disease. Advances in bovine genomics have made it possible to utilise inherent genetic variability to uniquely identify individual animals by DNA profiling, much as has been achieved with humans over the past 20 years. A DNA profiling test based on bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers would offer considerable advantages over current short tandem repeat (STR based industry standard tests, in that it would be easier to analyse and interpret. In this study, a panel of 51 genome-wide SNPs were genotyped across panels of semen DNA from 6 common breeds for the purposes of ascertaining allelic frequency. For SNPs on the same chromosome, the extent of linkage disequilbrium was determined from genotype data by Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm. Minimum probabilities of unique identification were determined for each breed panel. The usefulness of this SNP panel was ascertained by comparison to the current bovine STR Stockmarks II assay. A statistically representative random sampling of bovine animals from across Northern Ireland was assembled for the purposes of determining the population allele frequency for these STR loci and subsequently, the minimal probability of unique identification they conferred in sampled bovine animals from Northern Ireland. Results 6 SNPs exhibiting a minor allele frequency of less than 0.2 in more than 3 of the breed panels were excluded. 2 Further SNPs were found to reside in coding areas of the cattle genome and were excluded from the final panel. The remaining 43 SNPs exhibited genotype frequencies which were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. SNPs on the same chromosome were observed to have no significant linkage disequilibrium/allelic association. Minimal probabilities of uniquely identifying individual animals from

  4. Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise

    2014-05-01

    In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single

  5. Employment hardships and single mothers' self-rated health: evidence from the panel study of income dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2014-01-01

    Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.

  6. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  7. A Parameter Study of Coupling Properties in Finite Element Models of Single-Stud Double-Plate Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight building techniques are currently progressing fast and using such structures for multi-storey multi-family dwellings is becoming part of the industry standard. Partitions in lightweight buildings are often constructed as plates on frame structures made of either wood or steel. In any...... case the low frequency sound transmission is often an issue that needs attention. The present paper utilizes a finite element model of a single-stud double-plate panel structure to investigate how different couplings between the plates and the frame structure affect the direct sound transmission. Four...... different coupling configurations are considered: 1) All structural contact points are completely tied; 2) only nodes on the centre lines of the structure are tied; 3) a narrow strip of tied elements connect the frame to the plates; 4) evenly spaced discrete elements are tied. In all cases the interaction...

  8. Studies on Single-phase and Multi-phase Heat Pipe for LED Panel for Efficient Heat Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnave, K. C.; Rohit, G.; Maithreya, D. V. N. S.; Rakesh, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The popularity of LED panel as a source of illumination has soared recently due to its high efficiency. However, the removal of heat that is produced in the chip is still a major challenge in its design since this has an adverse effect on its reliability. If high junction temperature develops, the colour of the emitted light may diminish over prolonged usage or even a colour shift may occur. In this paper, a solution has been developed to address this problem by using a combination of heat pipe and heat fin technology. A single-phase and a two-phase heat pipes have been designed theoretically and computational simulations carried out using ANSYS FLUENT. The results of the theoretical calculations and those obtained from the simulations are found to be in agreement with each other.

  9. Ordinary Chondrites Viewed as Reassembled 'Splash Ejecta'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, I. S.

    1995-09-01

    A case has already been made favouring chondrites as re-assembled "splash ejecta" following low velocity collisions between molten planetesimals[1]. Here I briefly review this hypothesis, then develop further arguments in its support. The scenario envisaged may be summarized as follows. Planetesimals grew to radii greater than 30 km in less than 1 Ma after the formation of CAIs, and they were heated rapidly by the decay of 26Al. By 2 Ma each planetesimal had a molten interior insulated by a cool, dusty carapace. Low velocity collisions at this stage released enormous, turbulent, expanding clouds of incandescent spray mixed with dust and solid grains from the carapace. The cloud constituted a rather special, transient nebular environment; as it cooled the melt droplets became chondrules. Much of the cloud's contents re-assembled under gravity onto the surface of the hot, residual planetesimal and the accumulated debris became re-heated and metamorphosed. Collisions recurred over the few million years that relative velocities remained low and planetesimals remained molten. Thus, the cumulative debris contained many recycled and broken chondrules. This scenario is apparently reconcilable with chondrule cooling rates, the preservation of clasts of "planetary" rock in chondrites, the retention of volatiles in chondrules, the preservation of solar chemistry and more than a dozen other features. Is it reasonable to claim that 30 km radius bodies existed by 1 Ma, and were substantially molten by 2 Ma? Cameron[2] argued that CAIs were saved from drifting into the sun by their incorporation, soon after formation, into planetesimals whose mass was sufficient to hold them in orbits, decoupled from the drag of nebular gas. Wetherill's models [3] show that many bodies >100 km radius may have formed on a timescale of 10^5 years. In these terms, the proposed 30 km by 1 Ma is quite conservative. Regarding 26Al heating, the remarkably constant initial ratio of 26Al/27Al (5 x 10

  10. Cross Talk Study to the Single Photon Response of a Flat Panel PMT for the RICH Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnaboldi, C; Calvi, M; Fanchini, E; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Matteuzzi, C; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Wang, J C

    2009-01-01

    The Ring Imaging CHerenkov, RICH, detector at LHCb is now readout by Hybrid Photon Detectors. In view of its upgrade a possible option is the adoption of the flat panel Photon Multipliers Tubes, PMT. An important issue for the good determination of the rings produced in the sensitive media is a negligible level of cross talk. We have experimentally studied the cross talk from the 64x64 pixels of the H9500 PMT from Hamamatsu. Results have shown that at the single photon signal level, as expected at LHCb, the statistics applied to the small number of electrons generated at the first dynode of the PMT chain leads to a cross talk mechanism that must be interpreted in term of the percentage of the number of induced signals rather than on the amplitude of the induced signals. The threshold to suppress cross talk must be increased to a significant fraction of the single photon signal for the worst case. The number of electrons generated at the first dynode is proportional to the biasing voltage. Measurements have sh...

  11. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.

  12. Forced sound transmission through a finite-sized single leaf panel subject to a point source excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong

    2018-03-01

    In the case of a point source in front of a panel, the wavefront of the incident wave is spherical. This paper discusses spherical sound waves transmitting through a finite sized panel. The forced sound transmission performance that predominates in the frequency range below the coincidence frequency is the focus. Given the point source located along the centerline of the panel, forced sound transmission coefficient is derived through introducing the sound radiation impedance for spherical incident waves. It is found that in addition to the panel mass, forced sound transmission loss also depends on the distance from the source to the panel as determined by the radiation impedance. Unlike the case of plane incident waves, sound transmission performance of a finite sized panel does not necessarily converge to that of an infinite panel, especially when the source is away from the panel. For practical applications, the normal incidence sound transmission loss expression of plane incident waves can be used if the distance between the source and panel d and the panel surface area S satisfy d/S>0.5. When d/S ≈0.1, the diffuse field sound transmission loss expression may be a good approximation. An empirical expression for d/S=0  is also given.

  13. 2D-SPLASH spectroscopy to determine the fat/water ratio in the muscle of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koestler, H.; Kenn, W.; Huemmer, C.; Hahn, D.; Boehm, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The degree of fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff is an important factor for the prognosis of an operative reconstruction after rotator cuff tear. The aim of this work was to develop a method using a clinical MR scanner that allows the quantification of the fat/water ratio with the necessary spatial resolution. Method: A SPLASH sequence consisting of 19 complex 2D-FLASH images was implemented on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner. The echo time was gradually increased from 5.0 ms to 50.0 ms. A spatial in plane resolution of 1.17 mm, a spectral resolution of 0.33 ppm and a spectral width of 6.25 ppm were achieved in a total acquisition time of about 3 min. The quantitative evaluation of the spectra in arbitrarily shaped regions of interest (ROIs) was obtained using a home-built reconstruction program and the time domain fit program AMARES. Results: Phantom studies show a linear relation of the concentration determined by SPLASH spectroscopy (r=0.997). Because of the high spatial resolution and the possibility to evaluate arbitrarily shaped ROIs, the determination of the fat/water ratio in single muscles in the shoulder has been possible. Conclusions: By the use of the 2D-SPLASH sequence the degree of fatty infiltration in the rotator cuff can now be determined quantitatively for the first time. (orig.) [de

  14. Are splash plumes the origin of minor hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. H.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2006-05-01

    It has been claimed that focused hot cylindrical upwelling plumes cause many of the surface volcanic hotspots on Earth. It has also been argued that they must originate from thermal boundary layers. In this paper, we present spherical simulations of mantle circulation at close to Earth-like vigor with significant internal heating. These show, in addition to thermal boundary layer plumes, a new class of plumes that are not rooted in thermal boundary layers. These plumes develop as instabilities from the edge of bowls of hot mantle, which are produced by cold downwelling material deforming hot sheets of mantle. The resulting bowl and plume structure can look a bit like the “splash” of a water droplet. These splash plumes might provide an explanation for some hotspots that are not underlain by thermal boundary layer sourced plumes and not initiated by large igneous provinces. We suggest that in Earth's mantle, lithospheric instabilities or small pieces of subducting slab could play the role of the model downwelling material in initiating splash plumes. Splash plumes would have implications for interpreting ocean-island basalt geochemistry, plume fixity, excess plume temperature, and estimating core heat flux. Improved seismic imaging will ultimately test this hypothesis.

  15. Roughness influence on human blood drop spreading and splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona; Buntsma, Naomi; Brutin, David

    2017-11-01

    The impact behaviour of complex fluid droplets is a topic that has been extensively studied but with much debate. The Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) community is encountering this scientific problem with daily practical cases since they use bloodstains as evidence in crime scene reconstruction. We aim to provide fundamental explanations in the study of blood drip stains by investigating the influence of surface roughness and wettability on the splashing limit of droplets of blood, a non-Newtonian colloidal fluid. Droplets of blood impacting perpendicularly different surfaces at different velocities were recorded. The recordings were analysed as well as the surfaces characteristics in order to find an empirical solution since we found that roughness plays a major role in the threshold of the splashing/non-splashing behaviour of blood compared to the wettability. Moreover it appears that roughness alters the deformation of the drip stains. These observations are key in characterising features of drip stains with the impacting conditions, which would answer some forensic issues.

  16. SPLASH-SXDF Multi-wavelength Photometric Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Davidzon, Iary; Faisst, Andreas; Hsieh, Bau Ching; Ilbert, Olivier; Jarvis, Matt; Laigle, Clotilde; Phillips, John; Silverman, John; Strauss, Michael A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bowler, Rebecca; Coupon, Jean; Foucaud, Sébastien; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Masters, Daniel; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mobasher, Bahram; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-wavelength catalog in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF) as part of the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We include the newly acquired optical data from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program, accompanied by IRAC coverage from the SPLASH survey. All available optical and near-infrared data is homogenized and resampled on a common astrometric reference frame. Source detection is done using a multi-wavelength detection image including the u-band to recover the bluest objects. We measure multi-wavelength photometry and compute photometric redshifts as well as physical properties for ∼1.17 million objects over ∼4.2 deg2, with ∼800,000 objects in the 2.4 deg2 HSC-Ultra-Deep coverage. Using the available spectroscopic redshifts from various surveys over the range of 0 fraction of 3.2%. The SPLASH-SXDF catalog is a valuable, publicly available resource, perfectly suited for studying galaxies in the early universe and tracing their evolution through cosmic time.

  17. Evaluation of Droplet Splashing Algorithm in LEWICE 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, Hilary N.

    2004-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA Glenn Research has developed a computer program to simulate ice formation on the leading edge of an aircraft wing during flight through cold, moist air. As part of the branch's current research, members have developed software known as LEWICE. This program is capable of predicting the formation of ice under designated weather conditions. The success of LEWICE is an asset to airplane manufacturers, ice protection system manufacturers, and the airline industry. Simulations of ice formation conducted in the tunnel and in flight is costly and time consuming. However, the danger of in-flight icing continues to be a concern for both commercial and military pilots. The LEWICE software is a step towards inexpensive and time efficient prediction of ice collection. In the most recent version of the program, LEWICE contains an algorithm for droplet splashing. Droplet splashing is a natural occurrence that causes accumulation of ice on aircraft surfaces. At impingement water droplets lose a portion of their mass to splashing. With part of each droplet joining the airflow and failing to freeze, early versions of LEWICE without the splashing algorithm over-predicted the collection of ice on the leading edge. The objective of my project was to determine whether the revised version of LEWICE accurately reflected the ice collection data obtained from the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The experimental data from the IRT was collected by Mark Potapczuk in January, March and July of 2001 and April and December of 2002. Experimental data points were the result of ice tracings conducted shortly after testing in the tunnel. Run sheets, which included a record of velocity, temperature, liquid water content and droplet diameter, served as the input of the LEWICE computer program. Parameters identical to the tunnel conditions were used to run LEWICE 2.0 and LEWICE 3.0. The results from IRT and versions of LEWICE were compared graphically. After entering the raw

  18. Hypofolins A - L, ent-Labdane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Hypoestes phyllostachya 'Pink Splash'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bin; Ding, Lin-Fen; Yan, Tong; Xie, Zhang-Qiao; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Liu-Dong; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2018-06-01

    Twelve new ent-labdane diterpenoids, hypofolins A - F (1 - 6) and hypofolins G - L (7a/7b, 8a/8b, and 9a/9b), were isolated from the roots of Hypoestes phyllostachya 'Pink Splash'. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and HR-MS data. The absolute configurations of 1, 2, 5, and 7a/7b were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD analysis, as well as chemical transformations. Compounds 7a/7b, 8a/8b, and 9a/9b were isolated as three pairs of interconverting mixture of two isomers between ketone and hemiketal types. Compound 1 showed weak cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 cell line with IC 50 value of 31.40 μm. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. The Effect of Salt Splash on Nylon 6,6

    OpenAIRE

    Steward, Scott D

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: One of the most common environmental exposures that nylon undergoes, when used for automotive applications, is that of salt splash, which commonly occurs during winter driving. This study looks at the effect of various salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2) on the thermal and mechanical properties of nylon when exposed to one and four molar aqueous salt solutions. It was found that the diffusion of salt solutions into nylon 6,6 occurred in a pseudo-Fickian manner. Also, it was found that the p...

  20. Study of the effect of finite extent on sound transmission loss of single panel using a waveguide model

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetiyo , Iwan; Thompson , David

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The sound transmission loss (STL) of a panel is often estimated using an infinite plate model. However, some discrepancies are found between these predicted results and experimental ones. One of the sources of such discrepancies corresponds to the finite extent that is naturally found in real structures. In the present study an analytical waveguide model of sound transmission is used to study the effect of finite dimensions in one direction for a panel which is long in...

  1. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  2. 78 FR 18277 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... proposes to issue a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston... Country Splash is scheduled to take place on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston...

  3. Splash Dynamics of Watercolors on Dry, Wet, and Cooled Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, David; Vaidya, Ashwin; Su, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In his classic study in 1908, A.M. Worthington gave a thorough account of splashes and their formation through visualization experiments. In more recent times, there has been renewed interest in this subject, and much of the underlying physics behind Worthington's experiments has now been clarified. One specific set of such recent studies, which motivates this paper, concerns the fluid dynamics behind Jackson Pollock's drip paintings. The physical processes and the mathematical structures hidden in his works have received serious attention and made the scientific pursuit of art a compelling area of exploration. Our work explores the interaction of watercolors with watercolor paper. Specifically, we conduct experiments to analyze the settling patterns of droplets of watercolor paint on wet and frozen paper. Variations in paint viscosity, paper roughness, paper temperature, and the height of a released droplet are examined from time of impact, through its transient stages, until its final, dry state. Observable phenomena such as paint splashing, spreading, fingering, branching, rheological deposition, and fractal patterns are studied in detail and classified in terms of the control parameters.

  4. UNDESIRED SPLASH OVER ON EQUIPMENTS USING INDUCTIVE SENSORS FOR MONITORING AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES' CONTROLLED SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Monteiro

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate instruments that oversight traffic flow electronically, using inductive surface sensors, based on the change of local magnetic field. More specifically, we study the possibility of false speed detections, due to the manifestation of the phenomenon called splash over - which means a space splash of the magnetic field lines out of the measuring zone. We show, through the literature, and practical simulations, the damage that can be caused by splash on the correct speed measurement and identification of the car under suspicions. It is also presented solutions to inhibiting unwanted velocity measurements due to this effect.

  5. Panels with low-Q-factor resonators with theoretically infinite sound-proofing ability at a single frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    An infinite panel with two types of resonators regularly installed on it is theoretically considered. Each resonator is an air-filled cavity hermetically closed by a plate, which executes piston vibrations. The plate and air inside the cavity play the roles of mass and elasticity, respectively. Every other resonator is reversed. At a certain ratio between the parameters of the resonators at the tuning frequency of the entire system, the acoustic-pressure force that directly affects the panel can be fully compensated by the action forces of the resonators. In this case, the sound-proofing ability (transmission loss) tends to infinity. The presented calculations show that a complete transmission-loss effect can be achieved even with low- Q resonators.

  6. Two mechanisms of droplet splashing on a solid substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhen; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Sté phane; Ray, Pascal; Zaleski, Sté phane

    2017-01-01

    related to the gas density. The two different splashing mechanisms initially suggested theoretically are observed numerically, depending on whether a jet is created before or after the impacting droplet wets the substrate. Finally, we provide a phase

  7. SWFSC/MMTD/AK: Structure of Populations, Level of Abundance, and Status of Humpbacks (SPLASH) 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project was part of a larger international project (SPLASH) designed to estimate the abundance and determine the population structure for humpback whales...

  8. Beam Splashes seen by the CMS detector #RestartLHC 2017 (end of April 2017)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    CMS event display from LHC beam splash on Saturday, 29th April 2017. This is the first time the full detector has seen particles produced since the beginning of the Extended Year-End Technical Stop (EYETS) 2017. In contrast to proton-proton collisions where the particles come from the center of the detector, in splash events, particles traverse the detector horizontally from one side to the other.

  9. Beam Splashes seen by the CMS detector #RestartLHC 2018 (end of Mar 2018)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas; Olivito, Dominick

    2018-01-01

    CMS event displays from LHC beam splash on Friday, 30th March 2018. In contrast to proton-proton collisions where the particles come from the center of the detector, in splash events, particles traverse the detector horizontally from one side to the other. The time sampling for the picture, which is optimized for collisions at the center of the detector, amplifies the appearance of an asymmetric energy deposit in the end that the particles traverse last.

  10. ACCURATE OH MASER POSITIONS FROM THE SPLASH PILOT REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Walsh, Andrew J.; Jordan, Christopher H. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Green, James A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 2121 (Australia); Breen, Shari L. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ellingsen, Simon P. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37,University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, TAS (Australia); Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Paul A., E-mail: qiaohh@shao.ac.cn [Department of Astrophysics and Optic, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We report on high spatial resolution observations, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), of ground-state OH masers. These observations were carried out toward 196 pointing centers previously identified in the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl (SPLASH) pilot region, between Galactic longitudes of 334° and 344° and Galactic latitudes of −2° and +2°. Supplementing our data with data from the MAGMO (Mapping the Galactic Magnetic field through OH masers) survey, we find maser emission toward 175 of the 196 target fields. We conclude that about half of the 21 nondetections were due to intrinsic variability. Due to the superior sensitivity of the followup ATCA observations, and the ability to resolve nearby sources into separate sites, we have identified 215 OH maser sites toward the 175 fields with detections. Among these 215 OH maser sites, 111 are new detections. After comparing the positions of these 215 maser sites to the literature, we identify 122 (57%) sites associated with evolved stars (one of which is a planetary nebula), 64 (30%) with star formation, two sites with supernova remnants, and 27 (13%) of unknown origin. The infrared colors of evolved star sites with symmetric maser profiles tend to be redder than those of evolved star sites with asymmetric maser profiles, which may indicate that symmetric sources are generally at an earlier evolutionary stage.

  11. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    à and Doerr, 2008; Woods and Balfour, 2008; Zavala et al., 2009). The presence of an ash layer may be ephemeral, as it often is quickly removed or redistributed by water and wind erosion, animals or traffic (Zavala et al., 2009a). Many authors have observed that the capacity of ash to protect soil depends on properties as the topography, the meteorological conditions and the thickness of ash coverage (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2013; Woods and Balfour, 2010; Zavala et al., 2009). Taking this into account, in this study we hypothesized that the wettability / hydrophobicity of the ash layer may have a significant effect on the soil response to splash erosion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dispersion of sediments produced by the impact of raindrops in function of ash wettability after a prescribed fire at plot scale. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 20 November 2012, a prescribed fire was carried out in an area located in the public mount "Las Navas", near Almaden de la Plata, Sevilla (approx. 37° 50' 44.44'' N / 6° 3' 7.44''W and 428 masl). Soils are acidic and shallow, developed from acidic metamorphic rocks (schists, slates and pyrophyllites). Vegetation is dominated by shrub legumes (Calicotome villosa and several species of Ulex and Genista). The experimental area was framed and plowed to eliminate the risk of fire spreading during the experiment. Previously to burn, level staffs were installed for determination of flame height. The temperature reached in the soil was monitored during the fire by a set of six thermocouples which were buried in soil (2 cm depth) and connected to a data-logger for monitoring the topsoil temperature every 60 s. The environmental conditions were also monitored during the experiment by a mobile weather station. At the moment of the ignition, the temperature was around 20 °C and the wind speed was near 0.0 m/s. After ignition, the experimental area was allowed to burn during 2.5 h. During burning, flames

  12. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...... points in time. In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match...

  13. Assembling a dual purpose TaqMan-based panel of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers in rainbow trout and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for association mapping and population genetics analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette H H; Young, Sewall; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede

    2011-01-01

    We establish a TaqMan-based assay panel for genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms in rainbow trout and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We develop 22 novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers based on new steelhead sequence data and on assays from sister taxa. Additionally, we adapt 154 p...

  14. Reliability Study in Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Español Lifante, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline silicon Modules are formed by single silicon photovoltaic cells. Since each one of these cells individually contributes to the overall electric power of the panel, the failure of one of them directly affects to its benefits and performance. To Minimize these negative effects, junction boxes with few bypass diodes are usually included in Photovoltaic Solar panels. A still experimental way to built solar panels is to integrate bypass diodes in every single cell, which would in...

  15. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  16. Development of high quantum efficiency, flat panel, thick detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging: An experimental study of a single-pixel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, X.; Pang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall goal is to develop a new generation of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) with a quantum efficiency (QE) more than an order of magnitude higher and a spatial resolution equivalent to that of EPIDs currently used for portal imaging. A novel design of such a high QE flat-panel based EPID was introduced recently and its feasibility was investigated theoretically [see Pang and Rowlands, Med. Phys. 31, 3004 (2004)]. In this work, we constructed a prototype single-pixel detector based on the novel design. Some fundamental imaging properties including the QE, spatial resolution, and sensitivity of the prototype detector were measured with a 6 MV beam. It has been shown that the experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions and further development based on the novel design including the construction of a prototype area detector is warranted

  17. Screening for single nucleotide variants, small indels and exon deletions with a next-generation sequencing based gene panel approach for Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawitz, Peter M; Schiska, Daniela; Krüger, Ulrike; Appelt, Sandra; Heinrich, Verena; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Timmermann, Bernd; Millan, Jose M; Robinson, Peter N; Mundlos, Stefan; Hecht, Jochen; Gross, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized both by deafness and blindness. For the three clinical subtypes of Usher syndrome causal mutations in altogether 12 genes and a modifier gene have been identified. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, the molecular analysis is predestined for a comprehensive and parallelized analysis of all known genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. We describe here the targeted enrichment and deep sequencing for exons of Usher genes and compare the costs and workload of this approach compared to Sanger sequencing. We also present a bioinformatics analysis pipeline that allows us to detect single-nucleotide variants, short insertions and deletions, as well as copy number variations of one or more exons on the same sequence data. Additionally, we present a flexible in silico gene panel for the analysis of sequence variants, in which newly identified genes can easily be included. We applied this approach to a cohort of 44 Usher patients and detected biallelic pathogenic mutations in 35 individuals and monoallelic mutations in eight individuals of our cohort. Thirty-nine of the sequence variants, including two heterozygous deletions comprising several exons of USH2A, have not been reported so far. Our NGS-based approach allowed us to assess single-nucleotide variants, small indels, and whole exon deletions in a single test. The described diagnostic approach is fast and cost-effective with a high molecular diagnostic yield.

  18. Single-layer and dual-layer contrast-enhanced mammography using amorphous selenium flat panel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allec, N; Abbaszadeh, S; Karim, K S, E-mail: nallec@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-09-21

    The accumulation of injected contrast agents allows the image enhancement of lesions through the use of contrast-enhanced mammography. In this technique, the combination of two acquired images is used to create an enhanced image. There exist several methods to acquire the images to be combined, which include dual energy subtraction using a single detection layer that suffers from motion artifacts due to patient motion between image acquisition. To mitigate motion artifacts, a detector composed of two layers may be used to simultaneously acquire the low and high energy images. In this work, we evaluate both of these methods using amorphous selenium as the detection material to find the system parameters (tube voltage, filtration, photoconductor thickness and relative intensity ratio) leading to the optimal performance. We then compare the performance of the two detectors under the variation of contrast agent concentration, tumor size and dose. The detectability was found to be most comparable at the lower end of the evaluated factors. The single-layer detector not only led to better contrast, due to its greater spectral separation capabilities, but also had lower quantum noise. The single-layer detector was found to have a greater detectability by a factor of 2.4 for a 2.5 mm radius tumor having a contrast agent concentration of 1.5 mg ml{sup -1} in a 4.5 cm thick 50% glandular breast. The inclusion of motion artifacts in the comparison is part of ongoing research efforts.

  19. Single-layer and dual-layer contrast-enhanced mammography using amorphous selenium flat panel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allec, N.; Abbaszadeh, S.; Karim, K. S.

    2011-09-01

    The accumulation of injected contrast agents allows the image enhancement of lesions through the use of contrast-enhanced mammography. In this technique, the combination of two acquired images is used to create an enhanced image. There exist several methods to acquire the images to be combined, which include dual energy subtraction using a single detection layer that suffers from motion artifacts due to patient motion between image acquisition. To mitigate motion artifacts, a detector composed of two layers may be used to simultaneously acquire the low and high energy images. In this work, we evaluate both of these methods using amorphous selenium as the detection material to find the system parameters (tube voltage, filtration, photoconductor thickness and relative intensity ratio) leading to the optimal performance. We then compare the performance of the two detectors under the variation of contrast agent concentration, tumor size and dose. The detectability was found to be most comparable at the lower end of the evaluated factors. The single-layer detector not only led to better contrast, due to its greater spectral separation capabilities, but also had lower quantum noise. The single-layer detector was found to have a greater detectability by a factor of 2.4 for a 2.5 mm radius tumor having a contrast agent concentration of 1.5 mg ml-1 in a 4.5 cm thick 50% glandular breast. The inclusion of motion artifacts in the comparison is part of ongoing research efforts.

  20. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Koch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  1. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount... establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Wando River and Cooper River in Mount Pleasant... River and Cooper River along the shoreline of Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. The Lowcountry Splash...

  2. FORMING CHONDRULES IN IMPACT SPLASHES. II. VOLATILE RETENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Harsono, Daniel; Stammler, Sebastian Markus [Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Heidelberg University, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Johansen, Anders [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-11-20

    Solving the mystery of the origin of chondrules is one of the most elusive goals in the field of meteoritics. Recently, the idea of planet(esimal) collisions releasing splashes of lava droplets, long considered out of favor, has been reconsidered as a possible origin of chondrules by several papers. One of the main problems with this idea is the lack of quantitative and simple models that can be used to test this scenario by directly comparing to the many known observables of chondrules. In Paper I of this series, we presented a simple thermal evolution model of a spherically symmetric expanding cloud of molten lava droplets that is assumed to emerge from a collision between two planetesimals. The production of lava could be either because the two planetesimals were already in a largely molten (or almost molten) state due to heating by {sup 26}Al, or due to impact jetting at higher impact velocities. In the present paper, number II of this series, we use this model to calculate whether or not volatile elements such as Na and K will remain abundant in these droplets or whether they will get depleted due to evaporation. The high density of the droplet cloud (e.g., small distance between adjacent droplets) causes the vapor to quickly reach saturation pressure and thus shuts down further evaporation. We show to what extent, and under which conditions, this keeps the abundances of these elements high, as is seen in chondrules. We find that for most parameters of our model (cloud mass, expansion velocity, initial temperature) the volatile elements Mg, Si, and Fe remain entirely in the chondrules. The Na and K abundances inside the droplets will initially stay mostly at their initial values due to the saturation of the vapor pressure, but at some point start to drop due to the cloud expansion. However, as soon as the temperature starts to decrease, most or all of the vapor recondenses again. At the end, the Na and K elements retain most of their initial abundances, albeit

  3. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  4. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  5. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  6. Splash albedo protons between 4 and 315 MeV at high and low geomagnetic latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, K.; Stone, E.C.; Vogt, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The differential energy spectrum of splash albedo protons has been measured at high geomagnetic latitude near Fort Churchill, Manitoba, at three periods of the solar cycle in 1966, and 1969 and at low latitude near Palestine, Texas, in 1967 by using a balloon-borne solid state detector telescope. We observed splash albedo proton fluxes between 4 and 315 MeV of 81plus-or-minus11, 70plus-or-minus11, and 48plus-or-minus8 protons/(m 2 s sr) at high latitude in 1966, 1967, and 1969 and of 37plus-or-minus9 protons/(m 2 s sr) at low latitude in 1967. The decreases from 1966 to 1969 are due to solar modulation of the cosmic ray parent nuclei. The albedo spectrum shows a similar shape for both latitudes. The difference in intensity can be explained by different local geomagnetic cutoffs; i.e., a significant contribution to the splash albedo flux arises from primary particles with rigidity below 4.5 GV. The splash albedo flux near Fort Churchill is consistent with corresponding fluxes previously reported near 53degree--55degreeN. The flux below 100 MeV near Palestine is significantly lower than that reported by Verma (1967)

  7. Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Slope Angle on Splash Erosion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion is a critical global environmental problem, especially in the developing countries including Nigeria. In the humid and sub-humid tropics, splash erosion resulting from intense rainfall and slope degree pose severe land degradation problems. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of some rainfall ...

  8. The Effects of Mulch Cover on Splash Erosion in Makurdi Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion has continued to be a serious environmental problem, particularly among the farming communities. In Benue State, the dominant economic activity is subsistence farming which is done under sub humid rainfall conditions. Splash erosion resulting from intense rainfall therefore poses severe problems that can be ...

  9. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector - 5 Apr 2015 - run 260272 - event 6539

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Event display of one of the collimator "splash" events seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2, on Tuesday April the 5th : run 260272, event 6539 . The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point.

  10. Is splash erosion potential species specific? Measuring of splash erosion potential under forest in different succession stages along a biodiversity gradient in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Kühn, P.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that (forest) vegetation is a key control for the type and intensity of soil erosion. The current paradigm is that natural or quasi-natural vegetation protects the soil from erosion and that agricultural vegetation or land use generally enhances erosion. The latter was in focus of most research during the last decades and less interest was paid on natural systems, which are more difficult to study. Nevertheless, afforestation is widely used as a measure of soil protection against soil erosion. Rainfall can be highly erosive particularly in the humid subtropics. Regarding climate change, also precipitation regime may change in direction to even more severe storms and higher rainfall intensities; it is a research field of growing importance. Key mechanisms of a vegetation cover in reducing or enhancing erosion are modifications of drop-size distribution, retention of raindrop impact on the soil and changes in amount and spatial distribution of rainfall at the ground surface. Controlling determinants are rainfall intensity, drop size distribution, drop fall velocity, height of the canopy as well as density of the canopy, crown and leaf traits, LAI and coverage by a litter layer. Large drops are supposed to be significant sources of splash detachment in forests (Brandt 1989; Vis 1986). However, the mechanisms of reducing (or enhancing?) splash detachment under forest in relation to species richness and species composition are not well understood. Some studies indicate that raindrop impact is species specific (Calder 2001; Nanko et al. 2006) and some neglect the effects of species specific impacts (Foot & Morgan 2005). Our research uses different methods of rainfall characterization (splash cups, tipping-bucket rain gauge, laser distrometer) to reveal the described mechanisms from the canopy through different vegetation layers to the ground. First results of splash cup measurements (revised after Ellison 1947) show that sand loss under vegetation

  11. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  12. Visualization and mechanisms of splashing erosion of electrodes in a DC air arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi; Cui, Yufei; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Niu, Chunping; Fan, Shaodi; Murphy, Anthony B

    2017-01-01

    The splashing erosion of electrodes in a DC atmospheric-pressure air arc has been investigated by visualization of the electrode surface and the sputtered droplets, and tracking of the droplet trajectories, using image processing techniques. A particle tracking velocimetry algorithm has been introduced to measure the sputtering velocity distribution. Erosion of both tungsten–copper and tungsten–ceria electrodes is studied; in both cases electrode erosion is found to be dominated by droplet splashing rather than metal evaporation. Erosion is directly influenced by both melting and the formation of plasma jets, and can be reduced by the tuning of the plasma jet and electrode material. The results provide an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the long lifetime of tungsten–copper electrodes, and may provide a path for the design of the electrode system subjected to electric arc to minimize erosion. (letter)

  13. Model of liquid-metal splashing in the cathode spot of a vacuum arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.; Mesyats, G. A.; Uimanov, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of microjets is studied during the extrusion of a melted metal by the plasma pressure from craters formed on a cathode in a burning vacuum arc. An analytic model of liquid-metal splashing that includes two stages is proposed. At the first stage, the liquid motion has the axial symmetry and a liquid-metal wall surrounding the crater is formed. At the second stage, the axial symmetry is broken due to the development of the Plateau–Rayleigh instability in the upper part of the wall. The wall breakup process is shown to have a threshold. The minimal plasma pressure and the minimal electric current flowing through the crater required for obtaining the liquid-metal splashing regime are found. The basic spatial and temporal characteristics of the jet formation process are found using the analytic model.

  14. Visualization and mechanisms of splashing erosion of electrodes in a DC air arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Cui, Yufei; Rong, Mingzhe; Murphy, Anthony B.; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Niu, Chunping; Fan, Shaodi

    2017-11-01

    The splashing erosion of electrodes in a DC atmospheric-pressure air arc has been investigated by visualization of the electrode surface and the sputtered droplets, and tracking of the droplet trajectories, using image processing techniques. A particle tracking velocimetry algorithm has been introduced to measure the sputtering velocity distribution. Erosion of both tungsten-copper and tungsten-ceria electrodes is studied; in both cases electrode erosion is found to be dominated by droplet splashing rather than metal evaporation. Erosion is directly influenced by both melting and the formation of plasma jets, and can be reduced by the tuning of the plasma jet and electrode material. The results provide an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the long lifetime of tungsten-copper electrodes, and may provide a path for the design of the electrode system subjected to electric arc to minimize erosion.

  15. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector, 7 Apr 2015 - Run 260466 - event 22425

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Event display of one of the collimator "splash" event seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2 , on Tuesday April the 7th : event 22425, run 260466. The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point. The spray of particles enters ATLAS from the left hand side of the picture. The length of the yellow bars indicates the energy deposited in the ATLAS calorimeter.

  16. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  17. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Fortuño, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  18. Two mechanisms of droplet splashing on a solid substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhen

    2017-11-29

    We investigate droplet impact on a solid substrate in order to understand the influence of the gas in the splashing dynamics. We use numerical simulations where both the liquid and the gas phases are considered incompressible in order to focus on the gas inertial and viscous contributions. We first confirm that the dominant gas effect on the dynamics is due to its viscosity through the cushioning of the gas layer beneath the droplet. We then describe an additional inertial effect that is directly related to the gas density. The two different splashing mechanisms initially suggested theoretically are observed numerically, depending on whether a jet is created before or after the impacting droplet wets the substrate. Finally, we provide a phase diagram of the drop impact outputs as the gas viscosity and density vary, emphasizing the dominant effect of the gas viscosity with a small correction due to the gas density. Our results also suggest that gas inertia influences the splashing formation through a Kelvin–Helmholtz-like instability of the surface of the impacting droplet, in agreement with former theoretical works.

  19. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  20. Impact of a Panel of 88 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Risk of Breast Cancer in High-Risk Women: Results From Two Randomized Tamoxifen Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Brentnall, Adam R; Segal, Corrinne; Byers, Helen; Reuter, Caroline; Detre, Simone; Lopez-Knowles, Elena; Sestak, Ivana; Howell, Anthony; Powles, Trevor J; Newman, William G; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2017-03-01

    Purpose At least 94 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer. The extent to which an SNP panel can refine risk in women who receive preventive therapy has not been directly assessed previously. Materials and Methods A risk score on the basis of 88 SNPs (SNP88) was investigated in a nested case-control study of women enrolled in the International Breast Intervention Study (IBIS-I) or the Royal Marsden study. A total of 359 women who developed cancer were matched to 636 controls by age, trial, follow-up time, and treatment arm. Genotyping was done using the OncoArray. Conditional logistic regression and matched concordance indices (mC) were used to measure the performance of SNP88 alone and with other breast cancer risk factors assessed using the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) model. Results SNP88 was predictive of breast cancer risk overall (interquartile range odds ratio [IQ-OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.66; mC, 0.55), but mainly for estrogen receptor-positive disease (IQ-OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.79; P for heterogeneity = .10) versus estrogen receptor-negative disease. However, the observed risk of SNP88 was only 46% (95% CI, 19% to 74%) of expected. No significant interaction was observed with treatment arm (placebo IQ-OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.87; tamoxifen IQ-OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.64; P for heterogeneity = .5). The predictive power was similar to the TC model (IQ-OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.73; mC, 0.55), but SNP88 was independent of TC (Spearman rank-order correlation, 0.012; P = .7), and when combined multiplicatively, a substantial improvement was seen (IQ-OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.97; mC, 0.60). Conclusion A polygenic risk score may be used to refine risk from the TC or similar models in women who are at an elevated risk of breast cancer and considering preventive therapy. Recalibration may be necessary for accurate risk assessment.

  1. Panel surveys

    OpenAIRE

    MADRE, JL; ZUMKELLER, D; CHLOND, B; ARMOOGUM, J

    2004-01-01

    l'analyse du comportement humain constitue un enjeu important dans le domaine des transports, lequel se transforme radicalement sous la pression des évolutions économique, écologique et démographique. les premières grandes études ont commence il y a plus d'une dizaine d'années : parc auto sofres en france, puget sound panel a seattle. cet article fait le bilan de ces expériences et met en évidence les principaux problèmes méthodologiques rencontres tout en proposant de nouvelles directions d'...

  2. Blood splash from different diathermy instruments during tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, B C; Thompson, P; Smyth, C; Gallagher, G

    2006-11-01

    To compare the potential risk of blood contamination of the surgeon's conjunctiva during tonsillectomy using disposable bipolar diathermy and reusable monopolar diathermy. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Elective tonsillectomy was performed using either disposable bipolar diathermy or reusable monopolar diathermy. The operating surgeon wore a ViewsafeTM protective eyeshield which was later examined under an operating microscope by a blinded observer and the number of blood spots counted. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The relative risk of conjunctival contamination of the surgeon using disposable bipolar diathermy was 2.8 times that with reusable monopolar diathermy (chi-squared test, p blood splatter. The use of disposable bipolar diathermy for haemostasis during tonsillectomy poses a greater risk of conjunctival contamination for the surgeon than using reusable monopolar diathermy.

  3. Distribution and function of splash, an achaete-scute homolog in the adult olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Schmidt, Manfred; Walthall, William W.; Tai, Phang C.; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    achaete-scute complex (ASC) genes, which encode basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, regulate embryonic and adult neurogenesis in many animals. In adult arthropods, including crustaceans, ASC homologs have been identified but rarely functionally characterized. We took advantage of the recently identified crustacean homolog, splash (spiny lobster achaete scute homolog), in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus to examine its role in adult neurogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that splash is associated with but not restricted to sensory neuron formation in the olfactory organ, the antennular lateral flagellum (LF), of adult spiny lobsters. We demonstrated splash labeling in epithelial cells across LF developmental zones (i.e., proliferation and mature zones), in auxiliary cells surrounding dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), and in immature and mature ORNs, but not in granulocytes or chromatophores. Since ORN proliferation varies with molt stage, we examined splash expression across molt stages and found that molt stage affected splash expression in the ORN mature zone but not in the proliferation zone. In vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) showed no correlation in the cellular pattern of splash expression and BrdU labeling. The intensity of splash labeling was dramatically enhanced in the proliferation zones following LF damage, suggesting enhanced splash expression during repair and/or regeneration. We conclude that splash is not closely associated with the formation of sensory neurons under normal physiological conditions, and we propose that splash is involved in repair and regeneration. We also propose that splash has additional roles other than neurogenesis in adult crustaceans. PMID:21394934

  4. Investigation and prevention of droplet splashing during operation of a sodium free jet flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoppel, L.; Gordeev, S.; Wetzel, T.; Fellmoser, F.; Daubner, M.

    2010-01-01

    Many accelerator application concepts consider liquid metal as a windowless target, at which the particle beam does directly hit the liquid. One of such concepts is studied in the European project ''DIRAC-Secondary beams - Design Study''. This project is focused on the preliminary research work for construction of a new international particle accelerator - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The planned accelerator is aimed to work with high-energy heavy-ions, such as U 238 . One of the key elements of the FAIR facility is a liquid-metal-target, made in the form of a rectangular shaped Lithium jet aligned with the gravity vector. In the course of preliminary investigations the theoretical and practical conditions for a stable liquid-metal-jet conforming to the FAIR-requirements have been studied in the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) sodium facility. The acquired scientific and technological results can be transferred to liquid-metal targets in nuclear applications, for example, the IFMIF-Target for the study of fusion reactor materials and the Myrrah/XT-ADS target. The main goals of the KALLA-part of the project were to design and build a facility for experimental research on hydrodynamic phenomena of the free surface liquid metal flow as well as to look at technological problems influencing the hydrodynamic stability of such flows. One of such problems emerged already during the startup of the facility: Splashing of liquid metal drops in the vacuum volume of the target box. As a result of such splashing process, liquid metal droplets are accumulated on various internal constructional elements of the target box, for example, on the inspection windows. This effect prohibits long term operation with the facility. The present paper describes the methods used to reduce the splashing to a minimum. (orig.)

  5. 2D SPLASH: a new method to determine the fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenn, Werner; Huemmer, Christian; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert; Boehm, Dirk; Gohlke, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the fatty degeneration (infiltration) of rotator cuff muscles with a new spectroscopic FLASH (SPLASH) sequence. Before planned surgery (reconstruction or muscle transfer), 20 patients (13 men, 7 women; 35-75 years) with different stages of rotator cuff disease underwent an MR examination in a 1.5-T unit. The protocol consists of imaging sequences and a newly implemented SPLASH, which allows an exact quantification of the fat/water ratio with a high spatial resolution in an arbitrarily shaped region of interest (ROI). The percentages of fat in the rotator cuff muscles were determined. To determine statistically significant differences between the different stages of rotator cuff tear, a Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. Fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus muscle was correlated with cross-sectional area (CSA) measures (Bravais-Pearson). We found significant differences between different stages of rotator cuff disease, the fatty infiltration and the volume loss (determined by the occupation ratio) of the supraspinatus muscle. With the increasing extent of rotator cuff disease, fatty infiltration increases significantly, as does the volume loss of the supraspinatus muscle. Comparing fatty infiltration and the occupation ratio individually, there was only a moderate inverse correlation between fatty infiltration and the occupation ratio, with considerable variation of data. Fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus muscle occurred when the infraspinatus tendon was involved to a lesser extent. The SPLASH sequence allows exact quantification of fatty infiltration in an arbitrarily shaped ROI. The extent of atrophy and fatty infiltration correlates with the size of the tear. Atrophy and fatty infiltration correlate only moderately and should be evaluated separately. (orig.)

  6. A study on entrapment: splashing of liquid UO2 over small sodium volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Klein, K.; Jorzik, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were done in which each time more than 1 kg of liqid UO 2 was splashed over a plate in which different stainless steel cups full of sodium were contained. No whatsoever indication of entrapment of sodium could be found. The pressure tests indicate up to 1,8 atm and they relax in some second time. These pressure diagrams have been satisfactorily analysed as indicating a sodium vapor formation. In the third experiment e.g. the quenching of 800 g UO 2 in 720 g of sodium in a closed volume of argon of 225 l will provide the requested maximum pressure

  7. Experimental investigations on the contribution of the splash-zones in counter-flow cooling towers for water cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladea, I.; Barbu, V.

    1976-01-01

    The relatively high cost of cooling tower packs has led to investigate the contribution of the splash-zones in counter-flow cooling towers, and thereby to determine whether the pack could not be reduced so far, as to be - under certain circumstance - completely eliminated. In this case, one would come to a pure splash cooling tower which would contain inside the equipment required for drop formation only. This problem was investigated experimentally, and it was found that the pack of such a cooling tower could not be eliminated without a reduction in tower effectiveness. (orig.) [de

  8. Influence of Rust Permeability on Corrosion of E690 Steel in Industrial and Non-industrial Marine Splash Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mindong; Pang, Kun; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Junsheng; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behaviour of E690 steel in industrial and non-industrial marine splash environments was studied by environmental testing, morphology analysis, electrochemical measurements, and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Chloride and sulphide anions were found to diffuse across the rust layer following the evaporation of seawater splashed on the steel's surface. The cation-selective permeability of the rust layer resulted in an anion concentration gradient across the rust layer, which was more significant in the presence of sulphur dioxide. In addition, sulphur dioxide enhanced the formation of α-FeOOH, which led to the formation of distinct anode and cathode areas at the rust/steel interface.

  9. Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  10. Impact induced splash and spill in a quasi-confided granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogale, S. B.

    2005-03-01

    Dissipation of the energy of impact in a granular medium and its effects has been a subject of considerable scientific for quite some time. In this work we have explored and analyzed the splash and spill effects caused by the impact of a ball dropped from a height into a granular medium in a open container. Three different granular media, namely rice, mustard seeds, and cream of wheat were used. The amount of spilled-over granular matter was measured as a function of the ball-drop height. Digital pictures of the splash process were also recorded. The quantity of spilled granular matter varies linearly with the impact energy. However additional step like structures are also noted. Specifically, a distinct and large jump is seen in the spilled quantity at a specific impact energy in the case of mustard seeds, which also exhibit obvious charging effects and repulsion. Although the parameters such as mass per grain and packing density for the case of mustard seeds are intermediate between those for rice and cream of wheat, the spill quantity for comparable impact energy is considerably higher. These data will be presented and discussed.

  11. Impact-induced splash and spill in a quasi-confined granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogale, S. B.; Shinde, S. R.; Karve, P. A.; Ogale, Abhijit S.; Kulkarni, A.; Athawale, A.; Phadke, A.; Thakurdas, R.

    2006-05-01

    The splash and spill effects caused by the impact of a ball dropped from a height into a granular medium held in a small open container are examined. Different granular media, namely rice, mustard seeds, cream of wheat and plastic beads are used. The quantity of spilled-over granular matter ( W, grams) is measured as a function of the ball-drop height and compared for different cases. Digital pictures of the splash process are also recorded. The quantity W is seen to vary approximately linearly with the energy of impact. Interestingly, a distinct upward jump is seen in the spilled quantity at specific impact energy in the case of mustard seeds, which have spherical shape and also exhibit some charging effects. Similar jump was also confirmed for the case of plastic beads with broadly similar properties. Although the parameters such as mass per grain and packing density for the case of mustard seeds are intermediate between those for rice and cream of wheat, the spill quantity for comparable impact energy is considerably higher in the former case. The possible reasons for this non-monotonicity of behavior are discussed in terms of the differences in grain shapes and properties. Experiments are also performed using plastic beads of the same type but with four different sizes to explore the dependence of spilled quantity on bead size. The container size dependence is also examined for various bead types. Interesting systematics are seen, which are discussed qualitatively.

  12. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  13. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Low-C Medium-Mn Steel in Simulated Marine Immersion and Splash Zone Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dazheng; Gao, Xiuhua; Su, Guanqiao; Du, Linxiu; Liu, Zhenguang; Hu, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of low-C medium-Mn steel in simulated marine immersion and splash zone environment was studied by static immersion corrosion experiment and wet-dry cyclic corrosion experiment, respectively. Corrosion rate, corrosion products, surface morphology, cross-sectional morphology, elemental distribution, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra were used to elucidate the corrosion behavior of low-C medium-Mn steel. The results show that corrosion rate in immersion zone is much less than that in splash zone owing to its relatively mild environment. Manganese compounds are detected in the corrosion products and only appeared in splash zone environment, which can deteriorate the protective effect of rust layer. With the extension of exposure time, corrosion products are gradually transformed into dense and thick corrosion rust from the loose and porous one in these two environments. But in splash zone environment, alloying elements of Mn appear significant enrichment in the rust layer, which decrease the corrosion resistance of the steel.

  15. Growth and instability of the liquid rim in the crown splash regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaglah, G.; Deegan, R. D.

    2014-08-01

    We study the formation, growth, and disintegration of jets following impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid for We < 1000 and Re < 2000 using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory (Agbaglah et al. 2013). Our simulations faithfully capture this phenomena and are in good agreement with experimental profiles obtained from high-speed X-ray imaging.We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. The resulting prediction for the most unstable wavelength are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that the dominant destabilizing mechanism is a competition between capillarity and inertia but that deceleration of the rim provides an additional boost to growth. We also predict over the entire parameter range of our study the number and timescale for formation of secondary droplets formed during a splash, based on the assumption that the most unstable mode sets the droplet number.

  16. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverría, M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical and chemical soil properties, mineralogical composition and susceptibility to splash erosion. Topsoil samples (15 cm depth) were taken in the Remolinos mountain slopes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) from two soil types: Leptic Gypsisol (LP) in a convex slope and Haplic Gypsisol (GY) in a concave slope. To assess the heating effects on the mineralogy we burned the soils at 105 and 205 °C in an oven and to assess the splash effects we used a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions using undisturbed topsoil subsamples (0-5 cm depth of Ah horizon). LP soil has lower soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability (SAS) and higher gypsum content than GY soil. Gypsum and dolomite are the main minerals (>80%) in the LP soil, while gypsum, dolomite, calcite and quartz have similar proportions in GY soil. Clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) are scarce in both soils. Heating at 105 °C has no effect on soil mineralogy. However, heating to 205 °C transforms gypsum to bassanite, increases significantly the soil salinity (EC) in both soil units (LP and GY) and decreases pH only in GY soil. Despite differences in the content of organic matter and structural stability, both soils show no significant differences (P pores is reduced by heating, as derived from variations in soil water retention capacity.

  17. Effects of Fire on Soil Splash Erosion in Semi-steppe Rangelandof Karsanak Region,Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baharlooi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The detachment process can be conceptually divided in two sub-processes included aggregate breakdown (Le Bissonnais, 1996 and movement initiation of breakdown products(Kinnell, 2005. soil detachment depends on raindrop size and mass(Elison, 1944; Bisal, 1960, drop velocity(Elison, 1944; Bisal, 1960, intensity rainfall (Ting et al, 2008, kinetic energy (Kinnell, 2003; Fernandez- Raga et al, 2010, runoff depth(Torri et al, 1987; Kinnell,1991 and 2005, crop covers(Bancy, 1994; Ghahremani et al, 2011, wind speed( Erpul et al, 2000 and experimental area (cup size (Leguedois et al, 2005; Luk, 1979; Torri and poesen, 1988. Many of studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between splash and slope (Bryan, 1979; Torri and Poesen, 1992; Wan et al, 1996.Torri and Poesen (1992 expressed that in steep slope the gravity force adds to the drop detaching force and decreases of soil resistance, consequently increases splash erosion rate with increasing slope. Soil splash erosion is also strongly influenced by soil properties including soil particles size distribution (Mazurak and Mosher, 1968; Legout et al, 2005; fan and li, 1993, soil shear strength(Cruse and Larson, 1977; Al-Durrah and Bradford,1981; Ekwue and ohi; 1990 , soil cohesion(Torri et al, 1987, soil organic matter content and aggregate size (Ekwue and Maiduguri, 1991; Qinjuan et al, 2008, soil aggregates stability(Qinjuan et al, 2008, surface crust (Qinjuan et al, 2008. Fire, play an important role in splash erosion. The absence of vegetation cover in disturbed lands accelerates splash erosion rates by as much as several folds compared to undisturbed sites (Lal, 2001; Thomaz and luiz, 2012.The detachment of soil particles by splash depends on several raindrop characteristics, including raindrop size and mass, drop velocity, kinetic energy, and water drop impact angle (Sharma et al., 1993; Singer and Le Bissonnais, 1998; Cruse et al., 2000, Bhattacharyya et al., 2010

  18. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  19. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  20. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  1. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  2. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  3. LHC Beam Splash seen by the ATLAS detector - 7 Apr 2015 - Run 260466 - LB 731 - Event 16848

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, EXPERIMENT

    2015-01-01

    Event display of a collimator "splash" event seen by the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run-2, on Tuesday April the 7th 2015: event 16848, run 260466. The collimator position is 140m in front of the ATLAS interaction point. The figure on the left shows an axial view of the various components of the ATLAS detector. The figure on the right shows the energy deposits in the cells of the ATLAS calorimeter.

  4. Numerical analysis of splashing fluid using hybrid method of mesh-based and particle-based modelings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuatsu; Ogawara, Takuya; Kaneda, Takeshi; Maseguchi, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    In order to simulate splashing and scattering fluid behaviors, we developed a hybrid method of mesh-based model for large-scale continuum fluid and particle-based model for small-scale discrete fluid particles. As for the solver of the continuum fluid, we adopt the CIVA RefIned Multiphase SimulatiON (CRIMSON) code to evaluate two phase flow behaviors based on the recent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The phase field model has been introduced to the CRIMSON in order to solve the problem of loosing phase interface sharpness in long-term calculation. As for the solver of the discrete fluid droplets, we applied the idea of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Both continuum fluid and discrete fluid interact each other through drag interaction force. We verified our method by applying it to a popular benchmark problem of collapse of water column problems, especially focusing on the splashing and scattering fluid behaviors after the column collided against the wall. We confirmed that the gross splashing and scattering behaviors were well reproduced by the introduction of particle model while the detailed behaviors of the particles were slightly different from the experimental results. (author)

  5. Splash M-knife versus Flush Knife BT in the technical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Sho; Hayashi, Yasuyo; Yokoyama, Azusa; Abe, Shuichi; Hosokawa, Taizo; Ogino, Haruei; Akiho, Hirotada; Ihara, Eikichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-27

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard treatment for early gastric cancer. A new multi-functional ESD device was developed to achieve complete ESD with a single device. A metal plate attached to its distal sheath achieves better hemostasis during the procedure than the other needle-knife device, Flush Knife BT®, that has been conventionally used. The aim of this study was to compare the technical outcomes of ESD for early gastric cancer using the Splash M-Knife® with those using the Flush Knife BT. We conducted a retrospective review of the case records of 149 patients with early gastric cancer treated with ESD using the needle-type ESD knives between January 2012 and August 2016 at Kitakyushu Municipal Medical Center. Lesions treated with ESD using the Splash M-knife (ESD-M) and the Flush Knife BT (ESD-F) were compared. Multivariate analyses and propensity score matching were used to compensate for the differences in age, gender, underlying disease, antithrombotic drug use, lesion location, lesion position, macroscopic type, tumor size, presence of ulceration, operator level and types of electrosurgical unit used. The primary endpoint was the requirement to use hemostatic forceps in the two groups. The secondary endpoints of procedure time, en bloc and complete resection rates, and adverse events rates were evaluated for the two groups. There were 73 patients in the ESD-M group, and 76 patients in the ESD-F group. Propensity score matching analysis created 45 matched pairs. Adjusted comparisons between the two groups showed a significantly lower usage rate of hemostatic forceps in the ESD-M group than in the ESD-F group (6.7% vs 84.4%, p < 0.001). Treatment outcomes showed an en bloc resection rate of 100% in both groups; complete resection rate of 95.6% vs 100%, p = 0.49; median procedure time of 74.0 min vs 71.0 min, p = 0.90; post-procedure bleeding of 2.2% vs 2.2%, p = 1, in the ESD-M and ESD-F groups, respectively. There were

  6. Internal Stellar Kinematics of M32 from the SPLASH Survey: Dark Halo Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, K. M.; Guhathakurta, P.; van der Marel, R.; Geha, M.; Kalirai, J.; Yniguez, B.; Kirby, E.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gilbert, K.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the SPLASH survey of the Andromeda (M31) system, we have obtained Keck/DEIMOS spectra of the compact elliptical (cE) satellite M32. This is the first resolved-star kinematical study of any cE galaxy. In contrast to most previous kinematical studies that extended out to r information to account statistically for M31 contamination. The rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile extend well beyond the radius (r ~ 150'') where the isophotes are distorted. Unlike NGC 205, another close dwarf companion of M31, M32's kinematics appear regular and symmetric and do not show obvious sharp gradients across the region of isophotal elongation and twists. We interpret M31's kinematics using three-integral axisymmetric dynamical equilibrium models constructed using Schwarzschild's orbit superposition technique. Models with a constant mass-to-light ratio can fit the data remarkably well. However, since such a model requires an increasing tangential anisotropy with radius, invoking the presence of an extended dark halo may be more plausible. Such an extended dark halo is definitely required to bind a half-dozen fast-moving stars observed at the largest radii, but these stars may not be an equilibrium component of M32. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  8. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  9. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  10. Solar reflection panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  11. Results from the Splash Survey: Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; SPLASH Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Detailed studies of nearby galaxies provide vital clues about their formation and evolutionary history. This "fossil record" approach is complementary to direct look-back studies of distant galaxies. Our Galaxy and the Andromeda spiral galaxy (M31) have long been cornerstones in the former category. M31 provides an external perspective on a large galaxy similar to our own and yet is close enough to allow detailed studies of individual stars. In my talk, I will present results from the SPLASH collaboration: Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo. The collective data set from this large international team includes thousands of Keck/DEIMOS spectra of individual red giant branch stars, ground-based deep wide-field imaging and photometry with KPNO/Mosaic, CFHT/MegaCam, and Subaru/Suprime-Cam, and ultra-deep pencil-beam probes with HST/ACS imaging reaching below the main-sequence turnoff. Our recent discovery of an extended stellar halo in M31 (R > 150 kpc) shows that most previous studies of its spheroid have been sampling its inner bulge-like spheroidal component, not its halo. In my talk I will touch upon several related topics related to the general theme of hierarchical galaxy formation including: M31's global structure and subcomponents (halo, bulge/central bar, and disk), stellar dynamics, statistical properties of substructure, detailed chemical abundance measurements, detailed forensic reconstruction of recent collision events, dwarf satellites as tracers and building blocks of larger galaxies, and empirical constraints on the tangential motion of the M31 system. I will also discuss recent results on the chemical abundance of the lowest luminosity Galactic satellites (recently discovered by SDSS) and implications for the formation of the Milky Way halo. This research was supported by funds from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

  12. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, W.D., E-mail: wdwalls@ucalgary.ca [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Rusco, Frank; Kendix, Michael [US GAO (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research Highlights: > Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. > This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. > Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city

  13. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.; Rusco, Frank; Kendix, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research highlights: → Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. → This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. → Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal.

  14. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambric, Stephen; Shepherd, Micah; Koudela, Kevin; Wess, Denis; Snider, Royce; May, Carl; Kendrick, Phil; Lee, Edward; Cai, Liang-Wu

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft roof sandwich panel has been redesigned to optimize sound power transmission loss (TL) and minimize structure-borne sound for frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz where gear meshing noise from the transmission has the most impact on speech intelligibility. The roof section, framed by a grid of ribs, was originally constructed of a single honeycomb core/composite face sheet panel. The original panel has coincidence frequencies near 700 Hz, leading to poor TL across the frequency range of 1 to 4 kHz. To quiet the panel, the cross section was split into two thinner sandwich subpanels separated by an air gap. The air gap was sized to target the fundamental mass-spring-mass resonance of the double panel system to less than 500 Hz. The panels were designed to withstand structural loading from normal rotorcraft operation, as well as 'man-on-the-roof' static loads experienced during maintenance operations. Thin layers of VHB 9469 viscoelastomer from 3M were also included in the face sheet ply layups, increasing panel damping loss factors from about 0.01 to 0.05. Measurements in the NASA SALT facility show the optimized panel provides 6-11 dB of acoustic transmission loss improvement, and 6-15 dB of structure-borne sound reduction at critical rotorcraft transmission tonal frequencies. Analytic panel TL theory simulates the measured performance quite well. Detailed finite element/boundary element modeling of the baseline panel simulates TL slightly more accurately, and also simulates structure-borne sound well.

  15. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  16. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  17. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  18. Introduction of a theoretical splashing degree to assess the performance of low-viscosity oils in filling of capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederquell, Andreas; Kuentz, Martin

    2011-03-01

    These days an alternative to soft capsules is liquid-filled hard capsules. Their filling technology was investigated earlier with highly viscous formulations, while hardly any academic research focused on low-viscosity systems. Accordingly, this work addressed the filling of such oils that are splashing during the dosing process. It was aimed to first study capsule filling, using middle-chain triglycerides as reference oil, in order to then evaluate the concept of a new theoretical splashing degree for different oils. A laboratory-scale filling machine was used that included capsule sealing. Thus, the liquid encapsulation by microspray technology was employed to seal the dosage form. As a result of the study with reference oil, the filling volume and the temperature were found to be significant for the rate of leaking capsules. The filling volume was also important for weight variability of the capsules. However, most critical for this variability was the diameter of the filling nozzle. We proposed a power law for the coefficient of weight variability as a function of the nozzle diameter and the obtained exponent agreed with the proposed theory. Subsequently, a comparison of different oils revealed that the relative splashing degree shared a correlation with the coefficient of the capsule weight variability (Pearson product moment correlation of r=0.990). The novel theoretical concept was therefore found to be predictive for weight variability of the filled capsules. Finally, guidance was provided for the process development of liquid-filled capsules using low-viscosity oils. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  19. RECIPANEL: RECYCLED PAPER PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁN CAÑOLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la fabricación y el comportamiento mecánico de paneles a base de papel reciclado. El objetivo principal del proyecto es producir un prototipo de panel que emplee elementos provenientes de residuos sólidos (papel periódico y de un material conglomerante (cemento Portland blanco. El panel debe ser económico, debe tener buenas propiedades mecánicas y debe tener dimensiones comerciales para su uso en muros tabiques y en cielos falsos en la industria de la construcción. El Recipanel es un panel no estructural a base de papel reciclado. El Recipanel cumple las normas colombianas en lo relativo a los paneles de uso no estructural y presenta además unas excelentes características mecánicas.

  20. Puncture panel optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) to transport defense contact-handled transuranic wastes. The package has been designed to meet the normal and hypothetical accident conditions in 10CFR71 which includes the demonstrated ability to survive a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel pin. The puncture protection is provided by puncture resistant panels. In conjunction with the development of TRUPACT, a series of experiments has been conducted to reduce the weight of the puncture resistant panels. The initial scoping tests resulted in a preliminary design incorporating 30 layers of Kevlar. This design has been shown to meet the regulatory puncture test. To reduce the weight of this panel, subscale tests were conducted on panels utilizing Kevlar yarns with varying mass per unit length (denier) as well as different resins. This paper reviews the testing undertaken in the original panel development and discusses the results obtained from the recent subscale and full-scale optimization tests

  1. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  2. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  3. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  4. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  5. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  6. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  7. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  8. Honeycomb metal panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Product constituted by a honeycomb metal panel that can be employed to advantage for manufacturing lagging by sandwiching it between two plane sheets, utilized in particular in the nuclear industry where lagging has to have a very long life strength. The honeycomb metal panel is made of an expanded metal extrusion previously cut so as to form, after additional drawing, a honeycomb structure with square or rectangular cells with a plane surface [fr

  9. Planarity certification of ATLAS Micromegas detector panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Herrmann, Maximilian [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    During the second long LHC shutdown, 2019/20, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. A panel is composed of three consecutive layers FR4 - aluminum honeycomb - FR4. Single plane spatial particle resolution below 100 μm is achievable when the deviations from planarity of the strip-anodes do not exceed 80 μm RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μm. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. The sensor requirements to measure the planarity of the panels are a resolution of 0.3 μm and a beam spot diameter of ∼20 μm, well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. We report on achieved planarities of the panels and the performance of the laser sensor system. A panel with an RMS better than 30 μm was build and the evolution of its planarity due to humidity and temperature effects is shown.

  10. Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure loa...

  11. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, G. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel photobioreactors using the interaction between light and algae growth for the algae species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. The effect of location, variable sunlight and reactor layout on biomass production in single standing and parallel positioned flat panels was considered. Three latitudes were studied representing the Netherlands, France and Algeria. In single standing reactors the highest yearly biomass production is achieved in Algeria. During the year biomass production fluctuates the most in the Netherlands, while it is almost constant in Algeria. Several combinations of path lengths and biomass concentrations can result in the same optimal biomass production. The productivity in parallel place flat panels is strongly influenced by shading and diffuse light penetration between the panels. Panel orientation has a large effect on productivity and at higher latitudes the difference between north-south and east-west orientation may go up to 50%.

  12. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  13. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...... Norske Veritas', DNV, building rules concerning high-speed light craft, in which the panel scantlings are often restricted by a maximum lateral deflection connected with the panel span....

  14. Transmission loss optimization in acoustic sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, S. E.; Dym, C. L.; MacGregor Smith, J.

    1986-06-01

    Considering the sound transmission loss (TL) of a sandwich panel as the single objective, different optimization techniques are examined and a sophisticated computer program is used to find the optimum TL. Also, for one of the possible case studies such as core optimization, closed-form expressions are given between TL and the core-design variables for different sets of skins. The significance of these functional relationships lies in the fact that the panel designer can bypass the necessity of using a sophisticated software package in order to assess explicitly the dependence of the TL on core thickness and density.

  15. Control panel handling of a nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Polo, F.; Jimenez Fraustro, L.A.; Banuelos Galindo, A.; Diamant Rubinstein, A.

    1985-01-01

    The handling of the control panels for a Nuclear Simulator for operating training is described. The control panels are handled by a set of intelligent controllers, each with at least two processors (8035 - Communications Controller and a 8085 - Master processor). The Controllers are connected to the main computers (Two dual processor Gould concept 32/6780 and a single processor Gould concept 32/6705) via serial asynchronous channels in a multidrop, star-like architecture. The controllers transmit to the main computers only the changes detected and receive the whole set of output variables as computed by the mathematical models of the Nuclear Plant

  16. Panels of microporous insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.

    1990-08-07

    Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.

  17. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  18. Panel 3 - characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  19. Analysis of Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng

    2003-02-01

    Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.

  20. Advanced Solar Panel Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual-junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg.

  1. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics

  2. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-15

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics.

  3. Law Panel in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odulana, J

    In September 1976 the Africa Regional Council (ARC) of IPPF created a Law Panel to 1) advise the ARC on the emphasis of laws and parenthood programs in the region, 2) investigate legal obstacles to family planning and ways of removing them, 3) institute a monitoring service on laws and court decisions affecting planned parenthood, and 4) prepare a list of lawyers and legal reformers by country. The panel has 1) recommended adoption of an IPPF Central Medical Committee and Central Law Panel statement on sterilization, adolescent fertility control, and the use of medical and auxiliary personnel in family planning services with guidelines for Africa; 2) appointed National Legal Correspondents to carry on the monitoring service mentioned above in 18 countries; and 3) discussed solutions to problems in delivering family planning services with family planning associations in Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Kenya. Laws governing family planning education and services, marriage, divorce, and maternity benefits in these countries are summarized. In 1978 the panel will hold 2 workshops on law and the status of women.

  4. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  5. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  6. Dynamic panel data models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Sarafidis, V.

    2013-01-01

    This Chapter reviews the recent literature on dynamic panel data models with a short time span and a large cross-section. Throughout the discussion we considerlinear models with additional endogenous covariates. First we give a broad overview of available inference methods placing emphasis on GMM.

  7. Characterization of Air-Based Photovoltaic Thermal Panels with Bifacial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ooshaksaraei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels account for a majority of the cost of photovoltaic thermal (PVT panels. Bifacial silicon solar panels are attractive for PVT panels because of their potential to enhance electrical power generation from the same silicon wafer compared with conventional monofacial solar panels. This paper examines the performance of air-based bifacial PVT panels with regard to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Four air-based bifacial PVT panels were designed. The maximum efficiencies of 45% to 63% were observed for the double-path-parallel bifacial PVT panel based on the first law of thermodynamics. Single-path bifacial PVT panel represents the highest exergy efficiency (10%. Double-path-parallel bifacial PVT panel is the second preferred design as it generates up to 20% additional total energy compared with the single-path panel. However, the daily average exergy efficiency of a double-path-parallel panel is 0.35% lower than that of a single-path panel.

  8. Composite panel development at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, Paul; Helms, Rich

    1988-01-01

    Parametric computer studies can be use in a cost effective manner to determine optimized composite mirror panel designs. An InterDisciplinary computer Model (IDM) was created to aid in the development of high precision reflector panels for LDR. The materials properties, thermal responses, structural geometries, and radio/optical precision are synergistically analyzed for specific panel designs. Promising panels designs are fabricated and tested so that comparison with panel test results can be used to verify performance prediction models and accommodate design refinement. The iterative approach of computer design and model refinement with performance testing and materials optimization has shown good results for LDR panels.

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  10. An abbreviated SNP panel for ancestry assignment of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines whether an abbreviated panel of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has the same power as a larger and more expensive panel of 95 SNPs to assign ancestry of honeybees (Apis mellifera) to three ancestral lineages. We selected 37 SNPs from the original 95 SNP panel using alle...

  11. Panel and planar experimental shear behavior of wood panels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panel shear strength along the thickness and planar shear along the length of wood panels laminated softwood oriented OSB 10 mm thick, conditioned at different moisture contents (anhydrous medium, ambient temperature and humid medium) was measured on standardized test specimens, cut in half lengthwise panel ...

  12. Precast concrete sandwich panels subjected to impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Matthew W.

    multiple impacts. It was shown that panels impacted on the fascia wythe are capable of withstanding multiple impacts of energy levels in excess of 16 000 J while panels that were impacted on the structural wythe are capable of resisting a single impact delivering an energy level of 10 000 J or multiple impacts from an energy level of 5 000 J. A Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) model was developed to predict the maximum deflection of the panels and it provided a good approximation of the deflection observed during the experimental program. A high degree of composite action between the two wythes was determined to exist from the results of high speed video imaging and through SDOF modelling.

  13. FEMA DFIRM Panel Scheme Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer contains information about the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panel areas. The spatial entities representing FIRM panels are polygons. The polygon for...

  14. Report of Industry Panel Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Simon; Gier, Jochen; Heitland, Greg; Povinelli, Louis; Sharma, Om; VandeWall, Allen

    2006-01-01

    A final report is presented from the industry panel group. The contents include: 1) General comments; 2) Positive progress since Minnowbrook IV; 3) Industry panel outcome; 4) Prioritized turbine projects; 5) Prioritized compressor projects; and 6) Miscellaneous.

  15. Performance analysis of tracked panel according to predicted global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a south facing single-axis tracked panel was analyzed according to global radiation predicted by empirical model. Mathematic expressions appropriate for single-axis tracking system were derived to calculate the radiation on it. Instantaneous increments of solar energy collected by the tracked panel relative to fixed panel are illustrated. The validity of the empirical model to Taiwan area will also be examined with the actual irradiation data observed in Taipei. The results are summarized as follows: the gains made by the tracked panel relative to a fixed panel are between 20.0% and 33.9% for four specified days of year, between 20.9% and 33.2% for the four seasons and 27.6% over the entire year. For latitudes below 65 deg., the yearly optimal tilt angle of a fixed panel is close to 0.8 times latitude, the irradiation ratio of the tracked panel to the fixed panel is about 1.3, which are smaller than the corresponding values calculated from extraterrestrial radiation, suggesting us that the installation angle should be adjusted toward a flatter angle and that the gain of the tracked panel will reduce while it works in cloudy climate or in air pollution environment. Although the captured radiation increases with the maximal rotation angle of panel, but the benefit on the global radiation case is still not so good as that on extraterrestrial radiation case. The irradiation data observed is much less than the data predicted by the empirical model, however the trend of fitting curve to the observed data is somewhat in agreement with that to the predicted one; the yearly gain is 14.3% when a tracked panel is employed throughout the year.

  16. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  17. Experience with citizens panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, J.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999, 200 delegates attended a four-day UK Consensus Conference on radioactive waste management, which was organised by the UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development (UK CEED) and supported by the government, industry and environmental groups. The event brought together a Citizens' Panel of fifteen people, randomly selected to represent a cross section of the British public, together with the major players in the debate. The four-day conference saw the panel cross-examine expert witnesses from organisations such as NIREX, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, the Ministry of Defence, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. The findings of their investigations were put together in a report containing detailed recommendations for government and industry and presented to the Minister on the final day. (author)

  18. Panel data analysis using EViews

    CERN Document Server

    Agung, I Gusti Ngurah

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive and accessible guide to panel data analysis using EViews software This book explores the use of EViews software in creating panel data analysis using appropriate empirical models and real datasets. Guidance is given on developing alternative descriptive statistical summaries for evaluation and providing policy analysis based on pool panel data. Various alternative models based on panel data are explored, including univariate general linear models, fixed effect models and causal models, and guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of each one is given. Panel Data Analysis

  19. Lightweight, Thermally Insulating Structural Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.

  20. Large thermal protection system panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  1. Thermal insulating panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.T.

    1985-09-11

    A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).

  2. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  3. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Brown, Malcolm P [San Francisco, CA; Stancel, Robert [Loss Altos Hills, CA

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  4. Fracture Analysis of the FAA/NASA Wide Stiffened Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.; Young, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the fracture analyses conducted on the FAA/NASA stiffened and unstiffened panels using the STAGS (STructural Analysis of General Shells) code with the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. The STAGS code with the "plane-strain" core option was used in all analyses. Previous analyses of wide, flat panels have shown that the high-constraint conditions around a crack front, like plane strain, has to be modeled in order for the critical CTOA fracture criterion to predict wide panel failures from small laboratory tests. In the present study, the critical CTOA value was determined from a wide (unstiffened) panel with anti-buckling guides. The plane-strain core size was estimated from previous fracture analyses and was equal to about the sheet thickness. Rivet flexibility and stiffener failure was based on methods and criteria, like that currently used in industry. STAGS and the CTOA criterion were used to predict load-against-crack extension for the wide panels with a single crack and multiple-site damage cracking at many adjacent rivet holes. Analyses were able to predict stable crack growth and residual strength within a few percent (5%) of stiffened panel tests results but over predicted the buckling failure load on an unstiffened panel with a single crack by 10%.

  5. ALDS 1978 panel review. [PNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.L. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is examining the analysis of large data sets (ALDS). After one year's work, a panel was convened to evaluate the project. This document is the permanent record of that panel review. It consists of edited transcripts of presentations made to the panel by the PNL staff, a summary of the responses of the panel to these presentations, and PNL's plans for the development of the ALDS project. The representations of the PNL staff described various aspects of the project and/or the philosophy surrounding the project. Supporting materials appear in appendixes. 20 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  6. Sound transmission through stiffened double-panel structures lined with elastic porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Tran, Boi N.; Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, Nae-Ming

    This paper presents transmission loss prediction models for a periodically stiffened panel and stiffened double-panel structures using the periodic structure theory. The inter-panel cavity in the double-panels structures can be modeled as being separated by an airspace or filled with an elastic porous layer in various configurations. The acoustic behavior of elastic porous layer is described by a theory capable of accounting fully for multi-dimensional wave propagation in such materials. The predicted transmission loss of a single stiffened panel is compared with the measured data.

  7. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  8. Panel summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Previous Advisory Group Meetings have led to IAEA Technical Reports No.15=5 (1974) on thermal discharge, 118 (1970) and 169 (1975) on sampling, storage and analysis methods for marine radioactivity studies, 167 (1975) on design of marine biological studies permitting comparative evaluation, and 172 (1976) on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquative organisms and eco-systems. The aim of the present report was a bringing into perspective not only problems designing radioecological experiments but to describe reliable experimental methodology suitable for a successful evaluation of radioactivity cycling, and of the effects of such radioactive additions to aquatic environments, as a result of nuclear activities. Specific examples are described. Individual studies presented to the Panel have been treated in detail, and constitute 19 separate INIS entries

  9. A comparative study of mutation screening of sarcomeric genes (MYBPC3, MYH7, TNNT2 using single gene approach versus targeted gene panel next generation sequencing in a cohort of HCM patients in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: NGS enables simultaneous sequencing of large numbers of associated genes in genetic heterogeneous disorders, in a more rapid and cost-effective manner than traditional technologies. However there have been limited direct comparisons between NGS and more established technologies to assess the sensitivity and false negative rates of this new approach. The scope of the present manuscript is to compare variants detected in MYBPC3, MYH7 and TNNT2 genes using the stepwise dHPLC/Sanger versus targeted NGS. Methods: In this study, we have analysed a group of 150 samples of patients from the Bibliotheca Alexandrina-Aswan Heart Centre National HCM program. The genetic testing was simultaneously undertaken by high throughput denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC followed by Sanger based sequencing and targeted next generation deep sequencing using panel of inherited cardiac genes (ICC. The panel included over 100 genes including the 3 sarcomeric genes. Analysis of the sequencing data of the 3 genes was undertaken in a double blinded strategy. Results: NGS analysis detected all pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants identified by dHPLC (50 in total, some samples had double hits. There was a 0% false negative rate for NGS based analysis. Nineteen variants were missed by dHPLC and detected by NGS, thus increasing the diagnostic yield in this co- analysed cohort from 22.0% (33/150 to 31.3% (47/150.Of interest to note that the mutation spectrum in this Egyptian HCM population revealed a high rate of homozygosity in MYBPC3 and MYH7 genes in comparison to other population studies (6/150, 4%. None of the homozygous samples were detected by dHPLC analysis. Conclusion: NGS provides a useful and rapid tool to allow panoramic screening of several genes simultaneously with a high sensitivity rate amongst genes of known etiologic role allowing high throughput analysis of HCM patients and relevant control series in a less characterised

  10. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  11. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  12. Matlab Software for Spatial Panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.Paul

    2014-01-01

    Elhorst provides Matlab routines to estimate spatial panel data models at his website. This article extends these routines to include the bias correction procedure proposed by Lee and Yu if the spatial panel data model contains spatial and/or time-period fixed effects, the direct and indirect

  13. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  14. A benchmark study for the crown-type splashing dynamics of one- and two-component droplet wall-film interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, A.; Terzis, A.; Lamanna, G.; Marengo, M.; Weigand, B.

    2017-12-01

    The present paper investigates experimentally the impact dynamics of crown-type splashing for miscible two- and one-component droplet wall-film interactions over a range of Weber numbers and dimensionless film thicknesses. The splashing outcome is parametrised in terms of a set of quantifiable parameters, such as crown height, top and base diameter, wall inclination, number of fingers, and secondary droplet properties. The results show that the outcome of a splashing event is not affected by the choice of similar or dissimilar fluids, provided the dimensionless film thickness is larger than 0.1. Below this threshold, distinctive features of two-component interactions appear, such as hole formation and crown bottom breakdown. The observation of different crown shapes (e.g. V-shaped, cylindrical, and truncated-cone) confirms that vorticity production induces changes in the crown wall inclination, thus affecting the evolution of the crown height and top diameter. The evolution of the crown base diameter, instead, is mainly dependent on the relative importance of liquid inertia and viscous losses in the wall-film. The maximum number of liquid fingers decreases with increasing wall, film thickness, due to the enhanced attenuation of the effect of surface properties on the fingering process. The formation of secondary droplets is also affected by changes in the crown wall inclination. In particular, for truncated-cone shapes the occurrence of crown rim contraction induces a large scatter in the secondary droplet properties. Consequently, empirical models for the maximum number and mean diameter of the secondary droplets are derived for V-shaped crowns, as observed for the hexadecane-Hyspin interactions.

  15. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  16. Application of small panel damping measurements to larger walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Godfrey, Richard; Babcock, G. Madison

    1996-05-01

    Damping properties of a viscoelastic material were determined using a standard resonant beam technique. The damping material was then applied to 1 by 2 foot gypsum panels in a constrained layer construction. Damping loss factors in panels with and without the constrained layer were determined based on reverberation times after excitation at third-octave band center frequencies. The constrained damping layer had been designed to increase damping by an order of magnitude above that of a single gypsum panel at 2000 Hz; however, relative to a gypsum panel of the same overall thickness as the panel with the constrained layer, loss factors increased only by a factor of three to five. Next modal damping loss factors in 9 by 14 foot gypsum single and double walls were calculated from the experimentally determined quality factor for each modal resonance. Results showed that below 2500 Hz, modes in 1 by 2 foot gypsum panels had nearly the same damping loss factors as modes in a 9 by 14 foot gypsum wall of the same thickness; however, loss factors for the wall were an order of magnitude lower than those of the 1 by 2 foot panels at frequencies above 2500 Hz, the coincidence frequency for 5/8-inch thick gypsum plates. Thus it was inconclusive whether or not damping loss factors measured using small panels could be used to estimate the effect of a constrained damping layer on transmission loss through a 9 by 14 foot wall unless boundary conditions and modal frequencies were the same for each size.

  17. 1994 Panel 1 Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to receive, handle, and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this mission, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed a full-scale facility to demonstrate both technical and operational principles of the permanent isolation of TRU waste. The WIPP consists of surface and underground facilities. Panel 1 is situated in the underground facility horizon which is located approximately 2,150 feet below the surface in the predominantly halite Salado Formation. The Panel 1 Utilization Plan provides a strategy for the optimum use of Panel 1 which is consistent with the priorities established by the DOE to accomplish the WIPP mission. These priorities, which include maintaining personnel safety, conducting performance assessment, and continued operational enhancements, are the guiding premise for the decisions on the planned usage of the WIPP underground facility. The continuation of ongoing investigations along with the planned testing and training to be carried out in Panel 1 will enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the operational and geotechnical aspects of the panel configuration. This enhancement will ultimately lead to safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective methods of operation. Excavation of the waste storage area began in May 1986 with the mining of entries to Panel 1. The original design for the waste storage rooms at the WIPP provided a limited period of time during which to mine the openings and to emplace waste. Each panel, consisting of seven storage rooms, was scheduled to be mined and filled in less than 5 years. Panel 1 was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. The demonstration phase was deferred, and the experimental test program was modified to use contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste in bin-scale tests, planned for Room 1, Panel 1

  18. Thermal Analysis of Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Nicolas; de Correia, João Pedro Magalhães; Ahzi, Saïd; Khaleel, Mohammad Ahmed

    In this work, we propose to analyze the thermal behavior of PV panels using finite element simulations (FEM). We applied this analysis to compute the temperature distribution in a PV panel BP 350 subjected to different atmospheric conditions. This analysis takes into account existing formulations in the literature and, based on NOCT conditions, meteorological data was used to validate our approach for different wind speed and solar irradiance. The electrical performance of the PV panel was also studied. The proposed 2D FEM analysis is applied to different region's climates and was also used to consider the role of thermal inertia on the optimization of the PV device efficiency.

  19. Diversity between Panels of the Franks Casket – Spelling and Runic Paleography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sobol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Franks Casket, a small whalebone box from about 700 AD, contains 59 Old English words inscribed in runes. Systematic differences between its panels have never called into question the standard procedure of explaining one panel basing on the others. The present paper aims at a re-examination of the validity of this approach. The panels show a large enough differentiation of spelling and paleographical features to exclude the possibility of a single author for the whole Casket.

  20. Modal analysis and acoustic transmission through offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Adam Dustin

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by an earlier research that showed that double, offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels increased thermal resistance and, hence, decreased heat transfer through the panels. This result lead to the hypothesis that these panels could be used for acoustic insulation. Using commercial finite element modeling software, COMSOL Multiphysics, the acoustical properties, specifically the transmission loss across a variety of offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels, is studied for the case of a plane acoustic wave impacting the panel at normal incidence. The transmission loss results are compared with those of single-core honeycomb panels with the same cell sizes. The fundamental frequencies of the panels are also computed in an attempt to better understand the vibrational modes of these particular sandwich-structured panels. To ensure that the finite element analysis software is adequate for the task at hand, two relevant benchmark problems are solved and compared with theory. Results from these benchmark results compared well to those obtained from theory. Transmission loss results from the offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels show increased transmission loss, especially for large cell honeycombs when compared to single-core honeycomb panels.

  1. Exascale Workshop Panel Report Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.

  2. The effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss. [acoustic propagation through aircraft fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. These effects are incorporated into the classical equations for the TL of single panels, and the resulting double integral for field-incidence TL is numerically evaluated for a specific set of parameters.

  3. Study of noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, R.; Quayle, B.; Stevenson, S.; Graham, M.

    1983-05-01

    The noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type, flat, double-wall structures were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on 20-by-20 inch panels with an exposed area of 18 by 18 inches. A frequency range from 20 to 5000 Hz was covered. The experimental results, in general, follow the expected trends. At low frequencies the double-wall structures are no better than the single-wall structures. However, for depths normally used in the general aviation industry, the double-wall panels are very attractive. The graphite-spoxy skin panels have higher noise reduction at very low frequencies ( 100 Hz) than the Kevlar skin panels. But the aluminum panels have higher noise reduction in the high frequency region, due to their greater mass. Use of fiberglass insulation is not effective in the low frequency region, and at times it is even negative. But the insulation is effective in the high-frequency region. The theoretical model for predicting the transmission loss of these multilayered panels is also discussed.

  4. Weight reductions for the airbus A380; postbuckling of the A380 VTP skin panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, R.

    2014-01-01

    The skin panels of the Vertical Tail Plane (VTP) are the largest single piece composite components assembled on the Airbus A380. By allowing postbuckling to these skin panels might result in severe weight reductions for the VTP of the A380. The goal of the study is to give an indication of possible

  5. Analysis of 3-panel and 4-panel microscale ionization sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Srividya; Parker, Charles B.; Glass, Jeffrey T.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Two designs of a microscale electron ionization (EI) source are analyzed herein: a 3-panel design and a 4-panel design. Devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems technology. Field emission from carbon nanotube provided the electrons for the EI source. Ion currents were measured for helium, nitrogen, and xenon at pressures ranging from 10 -4 to 0.1 Torr. A comparison of the performance of both designs is presented. The 4-panel microion source showed a 10x improvement in performance compared to the 3-panel device. An analysis of the various factors affecting the performance of the microion sources is also presented. SIMION, an electron and ion optics software, was coupled with experimental measurements to analyze the ion current results. The electron current contributing to ionization and the ion collection efficiency are believed to be the primary factors responsible for the higher efficiency of the 4-panel microion source. Other improvements in device design that could lead to higher ion source efficiency in the future are also discussed. These microscale ion sources are expected to find application as stand alone ion sources as well as in miniature mass spectrometers.

  6. Mammalian odorant receptor tuning breadth persists across distinct odorant panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Kepchia

    Full Text Available The molecular receptive range (MRR of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space. When screened with such a panel, ORs with different odorant specificities, but equal tuning breadths, might appear to have different tuning breadths due to chance. We hypothesized that ORs would maintain their tuning breadths across distinct odorant panels. We constructed a new screening panel that was broadly distributed across an estimated odor space and contained compounds distinct from previous panels. We used this new screening panel to test several murine ORs that were previously characterized as having different tuning breadths. ORs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. MOR256-17, an OR previously characterized as broadly tuned, responded to nine novel compounds from our new screening panel that were structurally diverse and broadly dispersed across an estimated odor space. MOR256-22, an OR previously characterized as narrowly tuned, responded to a single novel compound that was structurally similar to a previously known ligand for this receptor. MOR174-9, a well-characterized receptor with a narrowly tuned MRR, did not respond to any novel compounds in our new panel. These results support the idea that variation in tuning breadth among these three ORs is not an artifact of the screening protocol, but is an intrinsic property of the receptors.

  7. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. PMID:22210604

  8. Evaluation of a Panel of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-146a and miR-196a2 Genomic Regions in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Priyanka; Lavu, Vamsi; RangaRao, Suresh; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial triggering of the host immune-inflammatory response, which in turn is regulated by microRNAs (miRNA). Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathways affect the expression of several target genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, which are associated with progression of disease. The objective of this study was to identify the association between the MiR-146a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382), the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) SNP and chronic periodontitis. Genotyping was performed for the MiR-146a (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382) and the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) polymorphisms in 180 healthy controls and 190 cases of chronic periodontitis by the direct Sanger sequencing technique. The strength of the association between the polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Haplotype and linkage analyses among the polymorphisms was performed. Multifactorial dimensionality reduction was performed to determine epistatic interaction among the polymorphisms. The MiR-196a2 polymorphism revealed a significant inverse association with chronic periodontitis. Haplotype analysis of MiR-146a and MiR-196a2 polymorphisms revealed 13 different combinations, of which 5 were found to have an inverse association with chronic periodontitis. The present study has demonstrated a significant inverse association of MiR-196a2 polymorphism with chronic periodontitis.

  9. A mobility based vibroacoustic energy transmission simulation into an enclosure through a double-wall panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Atanu; Bhattacharya, Partha; Niyogi, Arup Guha; Rose, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Double-wall panels are known for their superior sound insulation properties over single wall panels as a sound barrier. The sound transmission phenomenon through a double-wall structure is a complex process involving vibroacoustic interaction between structural panels, the air-cushion in between, and the secondary acoustic domain. It is in this context a versatile and a fully coupled technique based on the finite-element-boundary element model is developed that enables estimation of sound transfer through a double-wall panel into an adjacent enclosure while satisfying the displacement compatibility across the interface. The contribution of individual components in the transmitted energy is identified through numerical simulations.

  10. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  11. Virtual panel for FOTIA control and information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Kansara, M.J.; Padmini, S.; Ananthakrishnan, T.S.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Use of computers has provided an easy environment to tune machines like accelerators by integrating different subsystems and providing interface to control whole machine from a single node. Use of virtual panel in place of conventional shaft encoders and hard wired controls has provided an easy and efficient and interactive environment for accelerator operation. A graphical user interface is provided for system configuration (system data base change). FOTIA (Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator) is an indigenously designed accelerator at BARC. This paper describes the Virtual Panel features of the FOTIA Control and Information System. (author)

  12. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  13. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  14. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  15. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  16. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  17. Electron microprobe analysis (WDS EPMA) of Zhamanshin glass reveals the impactor and a common role of accretion in the origin of splash-form impact glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetvicka, I; Frank, J; Drtina, J

    2010-01-01

    Impact glass samples collected during expeditions to the Zhamashin and Lonar craters were subjected to a morphology survey and compared to Wabar, Henbury and Darwin impact glasses to reveal that the accretion of fibres and spherules is not exclusive for irghizites but occurs in other splash form glasses over the world. WDS EPMA and LA-ICP-MS assays of Zhamanshin and Lonar glasses enabled the definition of akmurynites as Zhamanshin glass of specific morphology, chemistry and absence of extraterrestrial contamination. However, extraterrestrial contamination in irghizites was verified and further WDS EPMA analyses led to the conclusion that the Zhamanshin crater had been formed by the impact of a primitive achondrite of Lodran chemistry.

  18. Partitioning washoff of manure-borne fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and stanols) into splash and hydraulic components: field rainfall simulations in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Rochelle-Newall, Emma J.; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Viguier, Marion; Jardé, Emilie; Latsachack, Keooudone; Henri-Des-Tureaux, Thierry; Thammahacksac, Chanthamousone; Mugler, Claude; Valentin, Christian; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2017-04-01

    Overland flow from manured fields and pastures is known to be an important mechanism by which organisms of faecal origin are transferred to streams in rural watersheds. In the tropical montane areas of South-East Asia, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion, in-stream suspended sediment loads resulting in increased microbial pathogen dissemination and contamination of stream waters. The majority of enteric and environmental bacteria in aquatic systems are associated with particles such as sediments which can strongly influence their survival and transport characteristics. Escherichia coli (E. coli) has emerged as one of the most appropriate microbial indicators of faecal contamination of natural waters, with the presence of E. coli indicating that faecal contamination is present. In association with E. coli, faecal stanols can also be used as microbial source tracking tool for the identification of the origin of the faecal contamination (e.g. livestock, human, etc). Field rain simulations were used to examine how E.coli and stanols are exported from the surface of upland, agricultural soils during overland flow events. The objectives were to characterize the loss dynamics of these indicators from agricultural soils contaminated with livestock waste, and to partition total detachment into the splash and hydraulic components. Nine 1m2 microplots were divided in triplicated treatment groups: (a) controls with no amendments, (b) amended with pig manure or (c) poultry manure. Each plot was divided into two 0.5m2 rectangular subplots. For each simulation, one subplot was designated as a rain splash treatment; the other was covered with 2-mm grid size wire screen 10 cm above the soil surface to break the raindrops into fine droplets, thus drastically reducing their kinetic energy. E. coli concentrations in overland flow were estimated for both the attached and free living fractions and stanols were measured on the particulate matter washed

  19. An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-02-01

    One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

  20. Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-In; Kwon, Yong-Hoan; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2007-03-01

    The authors propose a method to control the viewing angle of a liquid crystal (LC) panel using dual-mode switching. To realize both wide viewing angle (WVA) characteristics and narrow viewing angle (NVA) characteristics with a single LC panel, the authors use two different dark states. The LC layer can be aligned homogeneously parallel to the transmission axis of the bottom polarizer for WVA dark state operation, while it can be aligned vertically for NVA dark state operation. The authors demonstrated that viewing angle control can be achieved with a single panel without any loss of contrast at the front.

  1. Mobile response in web panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, M.A.; Wijnant, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates unintended mobile access to surveys in online, probability-based panels. We find that spontaneous tablet usage is drastically increasing in web surveys, while smartphone usage remains low. Further, we analyze the bias of respondent profiles using smartphones and tablets

  2. Keuringspanele ("Screening Panels") as Gepaste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this particular article attention is paid to screening panels as pre-trial mechanism with the exclusive purpose to select malpractice disputes, discourage unfounded disputes and to encourage an early settlement in case of a prima facie case. Several objections have been raised by critics in this regard, for instance, ...

  3. ASIST 2003: Part II: Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Forty-six panels address topics including women in information science; users and usability; information studies; reference services; information policies; standards; interface design; information retrieval; information networks; metadata; shared access; e-commerce in libraries; knowledge organization; information science theories; digitization;…

  4. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  5. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms.

  6. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  7. Sound-proof Sandwich Panel Design via Metamaterial Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ni

    the core material maintains the mechanical property and yields a sound transmission loss that is consistently greater than 50 dB at low frequencies. Furthermore, the absorption property of the proposed honeycomb sandwich panel was experimentally studied. The honeycomb sandwich panel shows an excellent sound absorbing performance at high frequencies by using reinforced glass fiber without adding too much mass. The effect of the panel size and the stiffness of the grid-like frame effect of the honeycomb sandwich structures on sound transmission are discussed lastly. For the second sound-proof sandwich panel design, each unit cell of the sandwich panel is replaced by a Helmholtz resonator by perforating a small hole on the top face sheet. A perfect sound absorber sandwich panel with coupled Helmholtz resonators is proposed by two types: single identical Helmholtz resonator in each unit cell and dual Helmholtz resonators with different orifices, arranged in each cell arranged periodically. The soundproof sandwich panel is modelled as a panel embedded in rigid panel and assumed as a semiinfinite space with hard boundary condition. The net/mutual impedance model is first proposed and derived by solving Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral by using the Green's function. The thermal-viscous energy dissipation at the thermal boundary layer dominates the total energy consumed. Two types of perfect sound absorber sandwich panel are designed in the last part. Two theoretical methods: the average energy and the equivalent surface impedance method are used to predict sound absorption performance. The geometry for perfect sound absorber sandwich panel at a target frequency can be obtained when the all the Helmholtz resonators are at resonance and the surface impedance of the sandwich panel matches the air impedance. The bandwidth for the identical sandwich panel mainly depends on the neck radius. The absorptive property of the dual Helmholtz resonators type of sandwich panel is studied by

  8. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  9. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  10. Retaining Ring Fastener for Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Simple articulating linkage secures solar panels into supporting framework. Five element linkage collapses into W-shape for easy placement into framework, then expands to form rectangle of same dimensions as those of panel.

  11. mode of collapse of square single panel reinforced concrete space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The models were loaded directly till collapse. The estimated and actual collapse loads of the five models were compared. The estimated collapse load for the slab was 35 kN/m2. Also, the numerical estimate of the collapse load for the beam was 10.2kN/m (with an equivalent slab load of 40.8kN/m2), while the shear capacity ...

  12. mode of collapse of square single panel reinforced concrete space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The behavior of the structural elements of a space-framed structure depends on their support conditions. These .... storey frame system, the combination of strut action and of a ... provided by concrete can be estimated using equation. (4). = +.

  13. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  14. 78 FR 63501 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... Humanities Panel will be held during November, 2013 as follows. The purpose of the meetings is for panel...

  15. 78 FR 74175 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... Humanities Panel will be held during January 2014 as follows. The purpose of the meetings is for panel review...

  16. Solar panel assembly and support pad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-10-07

    A solar panel assembly is described comprising at least one solar panel, support means for carrying said panel, and at least one support pad having a base plate, upstanding longitudinal sides, and spaced apart flange means for connection to said support means, said upstanding sides and opposed flange means defining an interior volume for receiving and holding weighting material.

  17. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  18. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  19. Comparisons between various cavity and panel noise reduction control in double-panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons between various panel and cavity resonance control methods to reduce the transmitted sound in a double-panel structure. The double-panel, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, has the advantages of low weight and effective transmission-loss at high

  20. Panel Resonance Control and Cavity Control in Double-Panel Structures for Active Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of panel resonance control and cavity control in a double-panel structure is presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its low

  1. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  2. Noise reduction in double-panel structures by cavity and panel resonance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.-H.; Berkhoff, A.P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‐panel structure. The double‐panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  3. Cavity Control and Panel Control Strategies in Double-Panel Structures for Transmitted Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation and comparisons of the cavity control and the panel control in a double-panel structure are presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which comprises two panels with air in the gap, provides the advantages of low sound-transmission at high frequency, low heat-transmission

  4. Integrated multigene expression panel to prognosticate patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Murotani, Kenta; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Miwa, Takashi; Umeda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Masamichi; Hattori, Norifumi; Suenaga, Masaya; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2018-04-10

    Most of the proposed individual markers had limited clinical utility due to the inherent biological and genetic heterogeneity of gastric cancer. We aimed to build a new molecular-based model to predict prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 200 patients who underwent gastric resection for gastric cancer were divided into learning and validation cohorts using a table of random numbers in a 1:1 ratio. In the learning cohort, mRNA expression levels of 15 molecular markers in gastric tissues were analyzed and concordance index (C-index) values of all single and combinations of the 15 candidate markers for overall survival were calculated. The multigene expression panel was designed according to C-index values and the subpopulation index. Expression scores were determined with weighting according to the coefficient of each constituent. The reproducibility of the panel was evaluated in the validation cohort. C-index values of the 15 single candidate markers ranged from 0.506-0.653. Among 32,767 combinations, the optimal and balanced expression panel comprised four constituents ( MAGED2, SYT8, BTG1 , and FAM46 ) and the C-index value was 0.793. Using this panel, patients were provisionally categorized with scores of 1-3, and clearly stratified into favorable, intermediate, and poor overall survival groups. In the validation cohort, both overall and disease-free survival rates decreased incrementally with increasing expression scores. Multivariate analysis revealed that the expression score was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival after curative gastrectomy. We developed an integrated multigene expression panel that simply and accurately stratified risk of patients with gastric cancer.

  5. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically...... and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm−2, and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm2. Panels were mounted on a tracking...... station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than...

  6. Prediction of sound transmission loss through multilayered panels by using Gaussian distribution of directional incident energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang; Ih; Kim; Kim

    2000-03-01

    In this study, a new prediction method is suggested for sound transmission loss (STL) of multilayered panels of infinite extent. Conventional methods such as random or field incidence approach often given significant discrepancies in predicting STL of multilayered panels when compared with the experiments. In this paper, appropriate directional distributions of incident energy to predict the STL of multilayered panels are proposed. In order to find a weighting function to represent the directional distribution of incident energy on the wall in a reverberation chamber, numerical simulations by using a ray-tracing technique are carried out. Simulation results reveal that the directional distribution can be approximately expressed by the Gaussian distribution function in terms of the angle of incidence. The Gaussian function is applied to predict the STL of various multilayered panel configurations as well as single panels. The compared results between the measurement and the prediction show good agreements, which validate the proposed Gaussian function approach.

  7. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  8. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  9. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  10. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2006-01-01

    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

  11. Laboratory panel and radiometer calibration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deadman, AJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16659 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LABORATORY PANEL... of Land surface imaging through a ground reference standard test site?, on http://qa4eo.org/documentation.html, 2009. [2] K. J. Thome, D. L. Helder, D. Aaron, and J. D. Dewald, ?Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ Absolute Radiometric Calibration Using...

  12. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  13. Optimum design of composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module. Absorbing effect of cooling panel; Hikari netsu fukugo panel no saiteki sekkei. Reikyaku panel no kyunetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Kikuchi, S; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module becomes higher in energy-saving than the conventional air-conditioning system by the independent radiational heating and cooling effect obtained when the generating panel using a solar cell module is combined with the heating and cooling panel using a thermo-element module. The output of a solar cell module can be directly used because the solar cell module operates in AC. This paper reports the relation between the absorbed value and power consumption of the cooling panel, while paying attention to the cooling panel. The performance coefficient of the maximum absorbed value from an non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 2 to 3. Assume that the cooling panel during non-adiabatic operation is operated using a solar cell module of 800 W/m{sup 2} in solar intensity and 15% in conversion efficiency. The cooling-surface temperature difference is 12.12 K, and the maximum absorbed value of a non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 39.12 W/m{sup 2}. The absorbed value of the outer temperature to the cooling panel is 74.4 W/m{sup 2}, and each performance coefficient is 3.26 and 0.62. The absorbed value must be calculated for evaluation from the cooling-surface temperature difference measured directly from the cooling panel. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lee, Joong-Kuen

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of piezoelectric shunt damping can reduce the transmission at resonance frequencies of the panel structure. To be able to reduce the sound transmission at low panel resonance frequencies, piezoelectric damping using the measured electrical impedance model is adopted. A resonant shunt circuit for piezoelectric shunt damping is composed of resistor and inductor in series, and they are determined by maximizing the dissipated energy through the circuit. The transmitted noise-reduction performance of smart panels is tested in an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is a square cross-sectional tube and a loudspeaker is mounted at one side of the tube as a sound source. Panels are mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmitted sound pressure across panels is measured. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in the midfrequency region is observed except for the fundamental resonance frequency of the plate. By enabling the piezoelectric shunt damping, noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequency as well. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and piezoelectric shunt damping is a promising technology for noise reduction over a broadband of frequencies.

  15. Experimental identification of noise reduction properties of honeycomb panels using a small cabin

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ortona, Vittorio; Vivolo, Marianna; Pluymers, Bert; Vandepitte, Dirk; Desmet, Wim

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to identify the noise reduction properties of panels by means of a single cabin test setup is discussed. The complexity of the sound pressure field that builds up in the acoustic volume requires the support of advanced numerical techniques allowing for the evaluation of noise and vibration performances. Numerical models are used to predict the structural dynamics and the vibro-acoustic behaviour of the tested panel. Both Finite Element and Boundary Element simulations are validate...

  16. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  17. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  19. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    PACURAR Ana Talida; TOADER Dumitru; PACURAR Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels wer...

  20. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  1. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  2. Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This online collection includes documents decided upon by the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) starting in Fiscal Year 2012. The documents...

  3. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  4. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  5. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  6. IMac G4/800 (Flat Panel)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Apple introduced the iMac G4/800 on January 7, 2002. The total cost was about $2000 (base price of $1799 plus RAM upgrade). The iMac G4/800 has an 800 MHz G4 processor. The G4/800 has the following ports: three USB 1.1 ports, two Fire Wire 400-Mbps ports, one RJ-45, 10/100BASE-T Ethernet port, one RJ-11 56K V.90 modem port, one Mini-VGA output port, one speaker jack, and one headphone jack. There is a built in microphone set on the front of the monitor in the bottom left corner. There is a single internal SuperDrive capable of reading and writing CDs and DVDs. The disk drive is on the front of the computer. It opens by pushing the disk drive button on the iMac's keyboard. The monitor size is 15 inches. The G4/800 has a NVIDIA GeForce2 MX graphics processor with AGP 2X support that provides 32 MB of dedicated Double Data Rate (DDR) video memory. Native resolution is 1024 x 768, but the built in monitor is also capable of 640 x 480 and 800 x 600. RAM can be changed by removing a panel on the bottom of the chas...

  7. Touch panel system for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.; Johnson, R.

    1976-12-01

    The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described

  8. Electronic unit for fotovoltaic solar panelling validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, J.; Valverde, J.; Garcia, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A low cost and easy to use electronic system for photovoltaic solar panelling validation is described. It measures, with a certain periodicity, voltage and current given by the panel, determines the supplied power, and every so often, its maximum valves. The unit is fitted with a data storage system which allows data recording for later analysis. (Author)

  9. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  10. 49 CFR 845.22 - Technical panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical panel. 845.22 Section 845.22... Technical panel. The Director, Bureau of Accident Investigation, or the Director, Bureau of Field Operations, shall designate members of the Board's technical staff to participate in the hearing and initially...

  11. Dynamic spatial panels : models, methods, and inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature on the specification and estimation of dynamic spatial panel data models, a collection of models for spatial panels extended to include one or more of the following variables and/or error terms: a dependent variable lagged in time, a dependent

  12. 78 FR 74174 - Humanities Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Humanities Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Charter Renewal for Humanities Panel Advisory... its implementing regulations, 41 CFR 102-3.65, the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) gives...

  13. 76 FR 6828 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  14. 75 FR 18906 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  15. 76 FR 14434 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice...-463, as amended), notice is hereby given that the following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held...

  16. 75 FR 50007 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  17. 75 FR 26285 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  18. 76 FR 77559 - Meeting of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meeting of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington...

  19. 77 FR 22359 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW...

  20. 76 FR 20375 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  1. 76 FR 70168 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  2. 76 FR 41826 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  3. 76 FR 52697 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  4. 76 FR 56242 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION... Humanities Panel at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20506 which was...

  5. 76 FR 70765 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice...-463, as amended), notice is hereby given that the following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held...

  6. 76 FR 63664 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  7. 77 FR 17102 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities ACTION... Humanities Panel at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20506, which was...

  8. An intersection test for panel unit roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a new panel unit root test based on Simes' ( 1986) classical intersection test. The test is robust to general patterns of cross-sectional dependence and yet is straightforward to implement, only requiring p-values of time series unit root tests of the series in the panel, and

  9. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico ampliado What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  10. Documentation Panels Enhance Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warash, Bobbie Gibson

    2005-01-01

    Documentation of children's projects is advantageous to their learning process and is also a good method for student teachers to observe the process of learning. Documentation panels are a unique way to help student teachers understand how children learn. Completing a panel requires a student teacher to think through a process. Teachers must learn…

  11. Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain. Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria.

  12. Response problems in a vacation panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  13. 78 FR 42982 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings SUMMARY... hereby given one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at...

  14. 77 FR 61643 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that sixteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  15. 78 FR 17942 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY... hereby given that five meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  16. 78 FR 59978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  17. 77 FR 49026 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  18. 78 FR 21978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... is hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will...

  19. 78 FR 26399 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  20. 77 FR 13154 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice--meeting. Pursuant to... given that a meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by...

  1. 77 FR 67836 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that fifteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  2. 78 FR 5213 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  3. 77 FR 75672 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that seven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  4. 77 FR 41808 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  5. 78 FR 68099 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that twenty- one meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts...

  6. 78 FR 50451 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  7. 77 FR 56875 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  8. 77 FR 13367 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that a meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  9. Research challenges for energy data management (panel)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This panel paper aims at initiating discussion at the Second International Workshop on Energy Data Management (EnDM 2013) about the important research challenges within Energy Data Management. The authors are the panel organizers, extra panelists will be recruited before the workshop...

  10. Robust block bootstrap panel predictability tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlund, J.; Smeekes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Most panel data studies of the predictability of returns presume that the cross-sectional units are independent, an assumption that is not realistic. As a response to this, the current paper develops block bootstrap-based panel predictability tests that are valid under very general conditions. Some

  11. Air loads on solar panels during launch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of solar panels during launch is significantly affected by the thin layers of air trapped between the panels. For narrow gaps the air manifests itself not only as a considerable added mass, but its viscosity can result in a substantial amount of damping. A model has been

  12. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  13. A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single-Father Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1980 to 2003 panels of the Consumer Expenditure Survey, this article examines purchasing decisions in father-headed single-parent families. Single-father expenditures are compared to both married-parent expenditures and single-mother expenditures on 17 broad categories of household-level goods and services. Multivariate…

  14. Differing professional opinions: 1987 special review panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In November 1987, the five-member Differing Professional Opinions Special Review Panel established by the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review agency policies and procedures for handling differing professional opinions (DPOs) presented its findings and recommendations in NUREG-1290. The issuance of that report completed the first task of the panel's charter. In accordance with Manual chapter 4125, Section L, and the charter of the Special Review Panel, the panel's second task was to ''...review...the DPOs submitted subsequent to the previous Panel's review, in order to identify any employee whose DPO made a significant contribution to the Agency or to the public safety but who has not yet been recognized for such contribution.'' This Addendum provides the findings of that review

  15. Graphite/epoxy orthogrid panel fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The structural concept considered for a spacecraft body structure is a grid stiffened skin with a skin laminate configuration and the stiffener grid geometry selected to best suit the design requirements. The orthogrid panel developed weighs 0.55 lb/sq ft and resisted an ultimate in-plane shear load of 545 lbf/in. The basic concept of a grid stiffener composite panel is that a relatively thin skin is reinforced with a gridwork of stiffeners so that the overall panel can resist design loads without becoming structurally unstable or being overstressed. The main feature of the orthogrid panel design is that it provides the potential for low cost structural panels when advanced to the production phase. The most innovative part of the fabrication method is the foam/fiberglass stiffener web grid billet fabrication and machining to size.

  16. The Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the Atomic Energy Act, Congress made is possible for the public to get a full and fair hearing on civilian nuclear matters. Individuals who are directly affected by any licensing action involving a facility producing or utilizing nuclear materials may participate in a formal hearing, on the record, before independent judges on the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (ASLBP or Panel). Frequently, in deciding whether a license, permit, amendment, or extension should be granted to a particular applicant, the Panel members must be more than mere umpires. If appropriate, they are authorized to go beyond the issues the parties place before them in order to identify, explore, and resolve significant questions involving threats to the public health and safety that come to a board's attention during the proceedings. This brochure explains the purpose of the panel. Also addressed are: type of hearing handled; method of public participation; formality of hearings; high-level waste; other panel responsibilities and litigation technology

  17. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  18. Report of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-31

    The Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) was established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to reassess Federal requirements for open systems networks and to recommend policy on the Government`s use of networking standards. The Panel was chartered to recommend actions which the Federal Government can take to address the short and long-term issues of interworking and convergence of networking protocols--particularly the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS) and Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite and, when appropriate, proprietary protocols. The Panel was created at the request of the Office of Management and Budget in collaboration with the Federal Networking Council and the Federal Information Resources Management Policy Council. The Panel`s membership and charter are contained in an appendix to this report.

  19. Photoelectric panel with equatorial mounting of drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Krauinsh, P. Y.; Krauinsh, D. P.; Sokolov, A. P.; Mainy, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the work is determined by the need to create effective models for sunny energy. The article considers a photoelectric panel equipped with a system for tracking the sun. Efficiency of the system is provided by equatorial mounting, which compensates for the rotation of the Earth by rotating the sunny panel in the plane of the celestial equator. The specificity of climatic and geographical conditions of Tomsk is estimated. The dynamics of power variations of photoelectric panels with equatorial mounting during seasonal fluctuations in Tomsk is calculated. A mobile photovoltaic panel with equatorial mounting of the drive has been developed. The methods of design strategy for placing photovoltaic panels in the architectural environment of the city are presented. Key words: sunny energy, photovoltaics, equatorial mounting, mechatronic model, wave reducer, electric drive.

  20. Gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J; Forman, Andrea D; Pilarski, Robert; Wiesner, Georgia; Giri, Veda N

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have ushered in the capability to assess multiple genes in parallel for genetic alterations that may contribute to inherited risk for cancers in families. Thus, gene panel testing is now an option in the setting of genetic counseling and testing for cancer risk. This article describes the many gene panel testing options clinically available to assess inherited cancer susceptibility, the potential advantages and challenges associated with various types of panels, clinical scenarios in which gene panels may be particularly useful in cancer risk assessment, and testing and counseling considerations. Given the potential issues for patients and their families, gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk is recommended to be offered in conjunction or consultation with an experienced cancer genetic specialist, such as a certified genetic counselor or geneticist, as an integral part of the testing process. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  1. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  2. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  3. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective transmission‿loss at high frequency. However, the resonance of the cavity and the poor transmission‿loss at low frequency limit its noise control performance. Applying active control forces on the panels or utili...

  4. Global Properties of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. III. Measuring the Stellar Velocity Dispersion Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James S.; Chiba, Masashi; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Tanaka, Mikito

    2018-01-01

    We present the velocity dispersion of red giant branch stars in M31’s halo, derived by modeling the line-of-sight velocity distribution of over 5000 stars in 50 fields spread throughout M31’s stellar halo. The data set was obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) Survey, and covers projected radii of 9 to 175 kpc from M31’s center. All major structural components along the line of sight in both the Milky Way (MW) and M31 are incorporated in a Gaussian Mixture Model, including all previously identified M31 tidal debris features in the observed fields. The probability that an individual star is a constituent of M31 or the MW, based on a set of empirical photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics, is included as a prior probability in the mixture model. The velocity dispersion of stars in M31’s halo is found to decrease only mildly with projected radius, from 108 km s‑1 in the innermost radial bin (8.2 to 14.1 kpc) to ∼80 to 90 km s‑1 at projected radii of ∼40–130 kpc, and can be parameterized with a power law of slope ‑0.12 ± 0.05. The quoted uncertainty on the power-law slope reflects only the precision of the method, although other sources of uncertainty we consider contribute negligibly to the overall error budget. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  5. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  6. Aluminum ''egg-box'' panel as an energy absorber for pedestrian protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowpada, Sravanthi; Chirwa, Efford C.; Myler, Peter; Matsika, Emmanuel [Bolton Automotive and Aerospace Research Group (BAARG), School of Built Environment and Engineering, University of Bolton (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This paper evaluates the quasi-static performance of lightweight aluminum ''egg-box'' panels which have an improved architecture specifically designed to increase the energy absorption capability. In its entirety, the egg-box panel structure investigated herein is made up of arrays of positive and negative frusta. To understand the collapse mechanism and the factors influencing the energy absorption thereof, compressive tests were conducted under similar test conditions on two single frusta, one constrained in situ and the other separated from the egg-box panel exposing the free-free edges. Their load-displacement histories show characteristics that are similar, with a rise in load to a point where they plateau at a steady state load for the entire collapse time. But the energy absorbed by the in situ constrained frustum is 80% greater than that separated from the egg-box panel with free-free edges. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Experimental vibroacoustic testing of plane panels using synthesized random pressure fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain; Moreau, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    The experimental reproduction of random pressure fields on a plane panel and corresponding induced vibrations is studied. An open-loop reproduction strategy is proposed that uses the synthetic array concept, for which a small array element is moved to create a large array by post-processing. Three possible approaches are suggested to define the complex amplitudes to be imposed to the reproduction sources distributed on a virtual plane facing the panel to be tested. Using a single acoustic monopole, a scanning laser vibrometer and a baffled simply supported aluminum panel, experimental vibroacoustic indicators such as the Transmission Loss for Diffuse Acoustic Field, high-speed subsonic and supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer excitations are obtained. Comparisons with simulation results obtained using a commercial software show that the Transmission Loss estimation is possible under both excitations. Moreover and as a complement to frequency domain indicators, the vibroacoustic behavior of the panel can be studied in the wave number domain.

  8. PERBANDINGAN UNJUK KERJA ANTARA PANEL SEL SURYA BERPENJEJAK DENGAN PANEL SEL SURYA DIAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafaruddin Ch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce electrical energy at Solar Power Plant  is highly dependent on the magnitude and duration of sun exposure on the solar cell panels. The movement of the sun from east to west that periodicity in every day is a problem at  the  optimization generation of electricity at  Solar Power Plant   if using solar panel that motionless. This is because the solar cell panel can not catch the maximum sun exposure. To solve the above problem then designed a solar cell panel  tracker  capable of follo-wing the movements of the sun. Then conducted a test to see the performance of solar cell pa-nel  tracker  and compare it with the performance of solar cell panel was motionless. The testing doing along 6 days, with way to irradiate the panel of solar cells  tracker  and panels of solar cell motionless with sun exposure  along a  full day. Then the electric current generated each panel were recorded. The comparison of current then generating comparison of electric power delivery. The result show that the solar cell panel  tracker  produce the average current is 2.19 A whereas solar-cell panel still 1.97 A.  This result   indicate that average power for solar cell panel  tracker  39.41 W while for solar cell panel that motionless is  35.46 W. These results indicate that the performance of solar cell panel  tracker  better than  solar cell panel motionless.

  9. Modeling of trim panels in the energy finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravaeji, Seyed-Javid

    Modeling a trim panel is divided into finding the power exchange through two different paths: (i) the connection of the outer and inner panels (ii) through the layers directly. The vibrational power exchanged through the mounts is modeled as the connection of two parallel plates connected via a beam. Wave matrices representing plates and beams are derived separately; then a matrix method is proposed to solve for the wave amplitudes and hence the vibrational power exchange between the plates accordingly. A closed form formula for the case of connection of two identical plates is derived. For the power transmission loss directly through the layers, first transfer matrices representing layers made of different materials is considered. New matrices for a porous layer are derived. A method of finding the layered structure transfer matrix is proposed. It is concluded that in general a single isotropic layer cannot replace a structure accurately. Finally, on the basis of an equivalent transfer matrix, an optimization process for is proposed to replace the panel by a suitable set of layers.

  10. PVT Panels. Fully renewable and competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2003-10-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. PVT panels generate more solar energy per unit surface area than a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors, and share the aesthetic advantage of PV. After several years of research, PVT panels have been developed into a product that is now ready for market introduction. One of the most promising system concepts, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS, and has been found to be able to fully cover both the building related electricity and heat consumption, while keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost and payback time of such a system have been determined; it has been found that the payback time of this system is approximately two-thirds of the payback time of an identical system but with 21 m 2 of PV panels and 4 m 2 of solar thermal collectors. Finally, by looking at the expected growth in the PV and solar thermal collector market, the market potential for for PVT panels has been found to be very large

  11. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Andrew J; Lilliedal, Mathilde R; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Aarø, Dennis; Pakalski, Heinz; Fyenbo, Jan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-09-13

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm⁻², and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm². Panels were mounted on a tracking station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than a month, while R2R encapsulated cells showed around 50% degradation after 6 months but suffered from poor performance due to de-lamination during panel production. A third generation of panels with various barrier layers was produced to optimize the choice of barrier foil and it was found that the inclusion of a thin protective foil between the cell and the barrier foil is critical. The findings provide a preliminary foundation for the production and optimization of large-area polymer solar panels and also enabled a cost analysis of solar panels based on polymer solar cells.

  12. 76 FR 19147 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-030)] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announce a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel.... Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space...

  13. 76 FR 62455 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-088)] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Administrative Officer, National Aeronautics and Space...

  14. 78 FR 56941 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-114] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel.... Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space...

  15. 77 FR 25502 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-030)] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announce a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director...

  16. 77 FR 38090 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-044] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel.... Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space...

  17. 78 FR 1265 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-001] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel..., Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  18. 75 FR 6407 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10- 020)] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announce a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National...

  19. 75 FR 61219 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-116)] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  20. 77 FR 58413 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-074] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel.... Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space...

  1. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  2. Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Burgess, Joshua [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Schrecengost, Robert [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Alstom Power Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Electric Company (GE), has completed the project “Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development” under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Award Number DE-FE0024076. This project was part of DOE’s Novel Crosscutting Research and Development to Support Advanced Energy Systems program. AUSC Tube Membrane Panel Development was a two and one half year project to develop and verify the manufacturability and serviceability of welded tube membrane panels made from high performance materials suitable for the AUSC steam cycles, defined as high pressure steam turbine inlet conditions of 700-760°C (1292-1400°F) and 24.5-35MPa (3500-5000psi). The difficulty of this challenge lies in the fact that the membrane-welded construction imposes demands on the materials that are unlike any that exist in other parts of the boiler. Tube membrane panels have been designed, fabricated, and installed in boilers for over 50 years with relatively favorable experience when fabricated from carbon and Cr-Mo low alloy steels. The AUSC steam cycle requires membrane tube panels fabricated from materials that have not been used in a weldment with metal temperatures in the range of 582-610°C (1080-1130°F). Fabrication materials chosen for the tubing were Grade 92 and HR6W. Grade 92 is a creep strength enhanced ferritic Cr-Mo alloy and HR6W is a high nickel alloy. Once the materials were chosen, GE performed the engineering design of the panels, prepared shop manufacturing drawings, and developed manufacturing and inspection plans. After the materials were purchased, GE manufactured and inspected the tube membrane panels, determined if post fabrication heat treatment of the tube membrane panels was needed, performed pre- and post-weld heat treatment on the Grade 92 panels, conducted final nondestructive inspection of any heat treated tube membrane panels, conducted destructive inspection of the completed tube

  3. Flat or curved thin optical display panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-01-10

    An optical panel includes a plurality of waveguides stacked together, with each waveguide having a first end and an opposite second end. The first ends collectively define a first face, and the second ends collectively define a second face of the panel. The second face is disposed at an acute face angle relative to the waveguides to provide a panel which is relatively thin compared to the height of the second face. In an exemplary embodiment for use in a projection TV, the first face is substantially smaller in height than the second face and receives a TV image, with the second face defining a screen for viewing the image enlarged. 7 figures.

  4. KUALITAS AKUSTIK PANEL DINDING BERBAHAN BAKU JERAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of study to explore possibility in using paddy-straw as main material to construct cheap and high quality panels has been developed. Prior to this study, laboratory research to examine strength of compression and tensile of the panels have been conducted, which is showed a significant value for a non-structural panel. The compression is 15 N/mm2 and tensile averaged at 0,5 N/mm2 . In this study, acoustic properties of the panels is to be examined, i.e.: transmission loss (TL, absorption coefficient (, and reverberation time (RT60. The test showed TL of 10 dB and 16 dB,  of 0,4 and 0,8 and improve RT60 from 0,88 sec to 0,35 sec and 0,16 sec (500 Hz is used for reference. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Ketersediaan panel pelapis dinding yang bersifat akustik dengan harga yang lebih terjangkau seperti yang terbuat dari bahan limbah sangatlah penting. Pada penelitian awal telah diselidiki penggunaan jerami sebagai bahan baku pembuatan panel akustik, sekaligus telah dilakukan pengujian terhadap kareakteristik struktural (uji desak dan lentur dari panel tersebut. Dari uji kekuatan struktural, panel memiliki kekuatan desak mencapai 15 N/mm2 dan kuat lentur reta-rata 0,5 N/mm2. Kekuatan ini dianggap mencukupi bagi panel non-struktural yang hanya bertugas untuk memikul beban sendiri. Oleh karena tujuan awal pembuatan panel adalah untuk kepentingan akustik, maka pada penelitian lanjutan, dilakukan uji laboratorium dan lapangan untuk melihat karakterisktik akustiknya. Adapun pengujian meliputi: redaman/insulasi (TL, koefisien serap ( dan waktu dengung (RT60. Dari hasil pengujian, panel mempunyai TL 10 dB dan 16 dB,  0,4 dan 0,8, serta mampu memperbaiki RT60 ruangan dari 0,88 detik menjadi 0,35 detik dan 0,16 detik. Kesemua pengujian menggunakan band frekuensi 500 Hz sebagai acuan. Kata kunci: panel jerami, insulasi, koefisien serap, waktu dengung.

  5. Differing professional opinions: 1987 Special Review Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    In mid-1987, the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission appointed a Special Review Panel to review the existing NRC policy for expressing differing professional views and to recommend possible improvements to the policy, if warranted. Through its own efforts and those of three subpanels and three consultants, the Panel developed recommendations for changes and improvements in five major areas. This report presents those recommendations, along with a detailed explanation of the Panel's findings, copies of the reports of the subpanels and consultants, and the results of a survey of NRC non-clerical employees on the issue

  6. Moonshot Panel Moving Toward Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog from acting NCI Director Dr. Doug Lowy providing an update on the activities of the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative’s Blue Ribbon Panel and its work to develop a final report.

  7. Panel data analysis of cardiotocograph (CTG) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2013-01-01

    Panel data analysis is a statistical method, widely used in econometrics, which deals with two-dimensional panel data collected over time and over individuals. Cardiotocograph (CTG) which monitors fetal heart rate (FHR) using Doppler ultrasound and uterine contraction by strain gage is commonly used in intrapartum treatment of pregnant women. Although the relationship between FHR waveform pattern and the outcome such as umbilical blood gas data at delivery has long been analyzed, there exists no accumulated FHR patterns from large number of cases. As time-series economic fluctuations in econometrics such as consumption trend has been studied using panel data which consists of time-series and cross-sectional data, we tried to apply this method to CTG data. The panel data composed of a symbolized segment of FHR pattern can be easily handled, and a perinatologist can get the whole FHR pattern view from the microscopic level of time-series FHR data.

  8. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  9. F-111 Bonded Panel Repair Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rider, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    A visit was made to Amberley Airbase between the 6th and 9th of September to consult with RAAF staff on current procedures and problems involved in the maintenance and repair of F-lll honeycomb panels...

  10. Integrally rigidized acoustic interior spacecraft panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A sandwich panel concept is described which utilizes a monolithic I-beam design as the core. The core and skins are integrally bonded with thermosetting resin into a homogeneous structure. In addition to possessing a high strength to weight ratio, the panel resists combustion, delamination, aging due to fatigue, localized stresses, and exhibits good acoustic properties. Since the panel concept has definite potential as a high flame retardant and low smoke emission panel with excellent structural integrity, aerospace materials were used to optimize the construction for highly demanding space shuttle applications. The specific materials of construction were chosen for low flammability and off-gassing properties as well as for strength, light weight, and sound dampening.

  11. New directions in theory - the panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1990-01-01

    This is a personalized summary of the panel session of 7 July, 1989. The intent of the session was to discuss important questions in few particle theory. The vigorous participation of the audience was sought and received. (orig.)

  12. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  13. Behavior of sandwich panels in a fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelekova, Eugenia

    2018-03-01

    For the last decades there emerged a vast number of buildings and structures erected with the use of sandwich panels. The field of application for this construction material is manifold, especially in the construction of fire and explosion hazardous buildings. In advanced evacu-ation time calculation methods the coefficient of heat losses is defined with dire regard to fire load features, but without account to thermal and physical characteristics of building envelopes, or, to be exact, it is defined for brick and concrete walls with gross heat capacity. That is why the application of the heat loss coefficient expression obtained for buildings of sandwich panels is impossible because of different heat capacity of these panels from the heat capacities of brick and concrete building envelopes. The article conducts an analysis and calculation of the heal loss coefficient for buildings and structures of three layer sandwich panels as building envelopes.

  14. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  15. Panel backs next-generation synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Service, R F

    1999-01-01

    A key federal panel recommended continued research into development of a fourth-generation synchrotron. It would be capable of creating x-ray pulses billions of times more intense than current designs (1 page).

  16. Ultrafast Thermal Cycling of Solar Panels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, T

    1998-01-01

    Two new cyclers that utilize a novel hybrid approach to perform fast thermal cycling of solar panels have been built and are now operational in the Mechanics and Materials Technology Center at The Aerospace Corporation...

  17. The CRRES high efficiency solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP) experiments which is to provide both engineering and scientific information concerning the effects of space radiation on advanced gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The HESP experiment consists of an ambient panel, and annealing panel and a programmable load. This experiment, in conjunction with the radiation measurement experiments abroad the CREES, provides the first opportunity to simultaneously measure the trapped radiation belts and the results of radiation damage to solar cells. The engineering information will result in a design guide for selecting the optimum solar array characteristics for different orbits and different lifetimes. The scientific information will provide both correlation of laboratory damage effects to space damage effects and a better model for predicting effective solar cell panel lifetimes

  18. Supersonic Panel Flutter Test Results for Flat Fiber-Glass Sandwich Panels with Foamed Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovila, W. J.; Presnell, John G., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Flutter tests have been made on flat panels having a 1/4 inch-thick plastic-foam core covered with thin fiber-glass laminates. The testing was done in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.76 t o 2.87. The flutter boundary for these panels was found to be near the flutter boundary of thin metal panels when compared on the basis of an equivalent panel stiffness. The results also demonstrated that the depth of the cavity behind the panel has a pronounced influence on flutter. Changing the cavity depth from 1 1/2 inches to 1/2 inch reduced the dynamic pressure at start of flutter by 40 percent. No flutter was obtained when the spacers on the back of the panel were against the bottom of the cavity.

  19. Panel Resource Management (PRM) Implementation and Effects within Safety Review Panel Settings and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W.; Nash, Sally K.

    2007-01-01

    While technical training and advanced degree's assure proficiency at specific tasks within engineering disciplines, they fail to address the potential for communication breakdown and decision making errors familiar to multicultural environments where language barriers, intimidating personalities and interdisciplinary misconceptions exist. In an effort to minimize these pitfalls to effective panel review, NASA's lead safety engineers to the ISS Safety Review Panel (SRP), and Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) initiated training with their engineers, in conjunction with the panel chairs, and began a Panel Resource Management (PRM) program. The intent of this program focuses on the ability to reduce the barriers inhibiting effective participation from all panel attendees by bolstering participants confidence levels through increased communication skills, situational awareness, debriefing, and a better technical understanding of requirements and systems.

  20. Panel-basierte Mixed-Methods-Studien

    OpenAIRE

    Legewie, Nicolas; Tucci, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-Methods-Studien erfreuen sich wachsender Beliebtheit. Immer mehr Studien nutzen dabei auch Panel-basierte Mixed-Methods-Designs, in denen bestehende Längsschnittstudien durch qualitative Befragungsformen ergänzt werden. Innerhalb der reichhaltigen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema Mixed-Methods-Forschung finden sich bisher aber kaum Diskussionen solcher Mixed-Methods-Designs. Im vorliegenden Artikel diskutieren wir Design, Durchführung, sowie Potenzialeund Herausforderungen von Panel-basiert...

  1. Adhesion aspects of polyurethane foam sandwich panels.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panels, polyurethane foam sandwiched between two sheets of steel, form the walls and roofs in the construction of buildings. ArcelorMittal is a manufacturer of the steel as well as these finished panels. For this project they combined with a supplier of the polyurethane foams, Huntsman Polyurethanes, to joint-fund a research project investigating the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion, as well as the causes of failures in the product which manifests primarily in two different ways...

  2. Lateral resistance of plybamboo wall-panels

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Beltran, G.E.; Herwijnen, van, F.; Janssen, J.J.A.; Moonen, S.P.G.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical behavior of plybamboo (kind of plywood made out of bamboo) wall-panels subjected to lateral load. The wall-panels are part of a house design method proposed in the author's PhD thesis for prefabricated social housing in developing countries. Sixteen fullscaled wallpanels with or without window and door openings were tested and their theoretical capacities estimated. Design wind and seismic loads were determined according to the Internatio...

  3. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  4. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    3.2.4 Band-Gap/Phononic Crystal Structure-borne Sound Barriers 43 3.2.5 Split Panel Concept for Airborne Sound Transmission Reduction 69 3.3 Final...radiated by the transmission housing also impacts the ceiling panels acoustically, which transmit a portion of that sound into the interior. Composite...3.2.4 Band-Gap/Phononic Crystal Structure-borne Sound Barriers Phononic crystals , or arrays of structural discontinuities, can mitigate structure-borne

  5. The Improvement of Thermal Insulating Concrete Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Nasser Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi houses flattening the roof by a concrete panel, and because of the panels on the top directly exposed to the solar radiation become unbearably hot and cold during the summer and winter. The traditional concrete panel components are cement, sand, and aggregate, which have a poor thermal property. The usage of materials with low thermal conductivity with no negative reflects on its mechanical properties gives good improvements to the thermal properties of the concrete panel. The practical part of this work was built on a multi-stage mixing plan. In the first stage the mixing ratio based on the ratios of the sand to cement. The second stage mixing ratios based on replacing the coarse aggregate quantities with the Alabaster aggregates, and the third stage the mixing ratios based on the replacement of wood ash instead of the sand. While the fourth stage mixing ratios based on decreasing the thermal conductivity and increasing mechanical properties by adding a multilayer of a plastic net. The result shows that using a concrete panel with components (cement, sand, coarse aggregate, wood ash, and Alabaster aggregates with a mass ratio of (1:1:2:1:1 and 3-plastic layers, gives the best improvement of the thermal properties. Where, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 42% and the specific heat increased by 41.2% as compared to the traditional concrete panel mixing ratio, with mechanical properties are agreed with the Iraqi standards.

  6. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  7. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jong; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Park, Il-Ryong; Kim, Jin

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60) hull and KRISO container ship (KCS), a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI). The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  8. PERBANDINGAN UNJUK KERJA ANTARA PANEL SEL SURYA BERPENJEJAK DENGAN PANEL SEL SURYA DIAM

    OpenAIRE

    Syafaruddin Ch

    2010-01-01

    The ability to produce electrical energy at Solar Power Plant  is highly dependent on the magnitude and duration of sun exposure on the solar cell panels. The movement of the sun from east to west that periodicity in every day is a problem at  the  optimization generation of electricity at  Solar Power Plant   if using solar panel that motionless. This is because the solar cell panel can not catch the maximum sun exposure. To solve the above problem then designed a solar cell panel  tracker...

  9. Expanding the genotype-phenotype spectrum in hereditary colorectal cancer by gene panel testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, Anna; Rambech, Eva; Kvist, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary syndromes causing colorectal cancer include both polyposis and non-polyposis syndromes. Overlapping phenotypes between the syndromes have been recognized and this make targeted molecular testing for single genes less favorable, instead there is a gaining interest for multi-gene panel...

  10. Panel Data Models of New Firm Formation in New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parajuli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the determinants of new firm formation in New England at the county level from 1999 to 2009. Based on the Spatial Durbin panel model that accounts for spillover effects, it is found that population density and human capital positively affect single-unit firm births within a county and its neighbors. Population growth rate also exerts a significant positive impact on new firm formation, but most of the effect is from spatial spillovers. On the contrary, the ratio of large to small firm in terms of employment size and unemployment rate negatively influence single-unit firm births both within counties and among neighbors. However, there is no significant impact of local financial capital and personal income growth on new firm formation.

  11. Gas fluxing of aluminum: a bubble probe for optimization of bubbles/bubble distribution and minimization of splashing/droplet formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James W. Evans; Auitumn Fjeld

    2006-01-01

    totaling 1.549 million lbs. for only thirteen of the twenty three primary smelters then in operation in the US. The research work described in the body of this report (the doctoral dissertation of Dr. Autumn M. Fjeld) had as its objective the improvement of gas fluxing technology to reduce emissions while still maintaining fluxing unit metal throughput. A second objective was a better understanding of the splashing and droplet emission that occurs during fluxing at high gas throughput rates. In the extreme such droplets can form undesired accretions on the walls and gas exit lines of the fluxing unit. Consequently, the productivity of a fluxing unit is sometimes limited by the need to avoid such spraying of droplets produced as gas bubbles break at the metal surface. The approach used was a combination of experimental work in laboratories at UC Berkeley and at the Alcoa Technical Center. The experimental work was mostly on a bubble probe that could be used to determine the extent of dispersion of gas bubbles in the fluxing unit (a parameter affecting the utilization of the injected chlorine). Additionally a high speed digital movie camera was used to study droplet formation due to gas bubbles bursting at the surface of a low melting point alloy. The experimental work was supported by mathematical modeling. In particular, two FLUENT? base mathematical models were developed to compute the metal flow and distribution of the gas within a fluxing unit. Results from these models were then used in a third model to compute emissions and the progress of impurity removal as a function of parameters such as rotor speed. The project was successful in demonstrating that the bubble probe could detect bubbles in a gas fluxing unit at the Alcoa technical Center outside Pittsburgh, PA. This unit is a commercial sized one and the probe, with its associated electronics, was subjected to the hostile molten aluminum, electrical noise etc. Despite this the probes were, on several occasions

  12. Panel Discussion: Creating a Spirit of Inquiry in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Sandra Kundrik; Melincavage, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of published literature exists related to the use of panel discussion as a teaching strategy. This article describes the panel discussion, the underpinnings of constructivism and the use of panel discussion to create a constructivist classroom environment. Details of planning, evaluating, and challenges of a panel discussion are also…

  13. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... choose members for the qualified expert panel in accordance with selection criteria listed in paragraph... whether the proposed qualified expert panel meets the selection criteria prior to the panel beginning its... Committee Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. (b) Criteria for the selection of a qualified expert panel. (1) A...

  14. 45 CFR 1801.22 - Interview of Finalists with panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interview of Finalists with panel. 1801.22 Section... FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM The Competition § 1801.22 Interview of Finalists with panel. The Foundation invites each Finalist to an interview with a regional review panel. Panels evaluate...

  15. Ultra-low-density genotype panels for breed assignment of Angus and Hereford cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M M; Kelleher, M M; Kearney, J F; Sleator, R D; Berry, D P

    2017-06-01

    Angus and Hereford beef is marketed internationally for apparent superior meat quality attributes; DNA-based breed authenticity could be a useful instrument to ensure consumer confidence on premium meat products. The objective of this study was to develop an ultra-low-density genotype panel to accurately quantify the Angus and Hereford breed proportion in biological samples. Medium-density genotypes (13 306 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were available on 54 703 commercial and 4042 purebred animals. The breed proportion of the commercial animals was generated from the medium-density genotypes and this estimate was regarded as the gold-standard breed composition. Ten genotype panels (100 to 1000 SNPs) were developed from the medium-density genotypes; five methods were used to identify the most informative SNPs and these included the Delta statistic, the fixation (F st) statistic and an index of both. Breed assignment analyses were undertaken for each breed, panel density and SNP selection method separately with a programme to infer population structure using the entire 13 306 SNP panel (representing the gold-standard measure). Breed assignment was undertaken for all commercial animals (n=54 703), animals deemed to contain some proportion of Angus based on pedigree (n=5740) and animals deemed to contain some proportion of Hereford based on pedigree (n=5187). The predicted breed proportion of all animals from the lower density panels was then compared with the gold-standard breed prediction. Panel density, SNP selection method and breed all had a significant effect on the correlation of predicted and actual breed proportion. Regardless of breed, the Index method of SNP selection numerically (but not significantly) outperformed all other selection methods in accuracy (i.e. correlation and root mean square of prediction) when panel density was ⩾300 SNPs. The correlation between actual and predicted breed proportion increased as panel density increased. Using

  16. Data quality in probability-based online panels: Nonresponse, attrition, and panel conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struminskaya, B.; Methodology and statistics for the behavioural and social sciences

    2014-01-01

    Online panels – surveys administered over the Internet in which persons are asked to complete surveys regularly – offer cost reductions compared to surveys that use more traditional modes of data collection (face-to-face, telephone, and mail). However, some characteristics of online panels may cause

  17. Performance comparison between silicon solar panel and dye-sensitized solar panel in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, N. K. A.; Ahmad, M. K.; Urus, N. S. T.; Mohamad, F.; Nafarizal, N.; Ahmad, N.; Soon, C. F.; Ameruddin, A. S.; Faridah, A. B.; Shimomura, M.; Murakami, K.

    2017-09-01

    In carrying out experimental research in performance between silicon solar panel and dye-sensitive solar panel, we have been developing a device and a system. This system has been developed consisting of controllers, hardware and software. This system is capable to get most of the input sources. If only need to change the main circuit and coding for a different source input value. This device is able to get the ambient temperature, surface temperature, surrounding humidity, voltage with load, current with load, voltage without load and current without load and save the data into external memory. This device is able to withstand the heat and rain as it was fabricated in a waterproof box. This experiment was conducted to examine the performance of both the solar panels which are capable to maintain their stability and performance. A conclusion based on data populated, the distribution of data for dye-sensitized solar panel is much better than silicon solar panel as dye-sensitized solar panel is very sensitive to heat and not depend only on midday where is that is the maximum ambient temperature for both solar panel as silicon solar panel only can give maximum and high output only when midday.

  18. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  19. Validation of consensus panel diagnosis in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Matthew J; Foster, Norman L; Heidebrink, Judith L; Higdon, Roger; Aizenstein, Howard J; Arnold, Steven E; Barbas, Nancy R; Boeve, Bradley F; Burke, James R; Clark, Christopher M; Dekosky, Steven T; Farlow, Martin R; Jagust, William J; Kawas, Claudia H; Koeppe, Robert A; Leverenz, James B; Lipton, Anne M; Peskind, Elaine R; Turner, R Scott; Womack, Kyle B; Zamrini, Edward Y

    2010-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of dementing diseases largely depends on the subjective interpretation of patient symptoms. Consensus panels are frequently used in research to determine diagnoses when definitive pathologic findings are unavailable. Nevertheless, research on group decision making indicates that many factors can adversely affect panel performance. To determine conditions that improve consensus panel diagnosis. Comparison of neuropathologic diagnoses with individual and consensus panel diagnoses based on clinical scenarios only, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography images only, and scenarios plus images. Expert and trainee individual and consensus panel deliberations using a modified Delphi method in a pilot research study of the diagnostic utility of fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography. Forty-five patients with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease or frontotemporal dementia. Statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy, agreement, and confidence for individual raters and panelists before and after consensus deliberations. The consensus protocol using trainees and experts surpassed the accuracy of individual expert diagnoses when clinical information elicited diverse judgments. In these situations, consensus was 3.5 times more likely to produce positive rather than negative changes in the accuracy and diagnostic certainty of individual panelists. A rule that forced group consensus was at least as accurate as majority and unanimity rules. Using a modified Delphi protocol to arrive at a consensus diagnosis is a reasonable substitute for pathologic information. This protocol improves diagnostic accuracy and certainty when panelist judgments differ and is easily adapted to other research and clinical settings while avoiding the potential pitfalls of group decision making.

  20. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefancich, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerce, Istituto dei Materiali per l’Elettronica ed il Magnetismo (CNR-IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy; Simpson, Lin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  1. 78 FR 41937 - Joint Meeting of the Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and the Radiological Devices Panel of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0816] Joint Meeting of the Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and the Radiological Devices Panel of the Medical...: Gastroenterology-Urology Panel and Radiological Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  2. Fabrication and testing of fire resistant graphite composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight different graphite composite panels were fabricated using four different resin matrices. The resin matrices included Hercules 71775, a blend of vinylpolystyrpyridine and bismaleimide, H795, a bismaleimide, Cycom 6162, a phenolic, and PSP 6022m, a polystyrylpyridine. Graphite panels were fabricated using fabric or unidirectional tape. Described are the processes for preparing these panels and some of their mechanical, thermal and flammability properties. Panel properties are compared with state-of-the-art epoxy fiberglass composite panels.

  3. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, David [Home Innovation Research Labs; Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs

    2018-03-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a roof/attic energy retrofit solution using nail-base insulated panels for existing homes where traditional attic insulation approaches are not effective or feasible. Nail-base insulated panels (retrofit panels) consist of rigid foam insulation laminated to one face of a wood structural panel. The prefabricated panels are installed above the existing roof deck during a reroofing effort.

  4. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  5. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. BWR plant advanced central control panel PODIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Neda, T.; Suto, O.; Takamiya, S.

    1983-01-01

    BWR plant central control panels have become more and more enlarged and complicated recently due to the magnification of the scale of a plant and the requirement to reinforce safety. So, it is important to make communication between men and the complicated central control panel smooth. Toshiba has developed an advanced central control panel, named PODIA, which uses many computers and color CRTs, and PODIA is now in the stage of application to practical plants. In this article, the writers first touch upon control functions transition in the central control room, the PODIA position concerning the world-wide trend in this technology phase and the human engineering on the design. Then they present concrete design concepts for the control board and computer system which constitute PODIA

  7. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  8. Atmospheric plasma generation for LCD panel cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen; Choi, Ju-Yeop; Yim, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    UV lamp systems have been used for cleaning of display panels of TFT LCD or Plasma Display Panel (PDP). However, the needs for high efficient cleaning and low cost made high voltage plasma cleaning techniques to be developed and to be improved. Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as barrier discharges or silent discharges have for a long time been exclusively related to ozone generation. In this paper, a 6kW high voltage plasma power supply system was developed for LCD cleaning. The -phase input voltage is rectified and then inverter system is used to make a high frequency pulse train, which is rectified after passing through a high-power transformer. Finally, bi-directional high voltage pulse switching circuits are used to generate the high voltage plasma. Some experimental results showed the usefulness of atmospheric plasma for LCD panel cleaning.

  9. Sustainable Absorption Panels from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail F.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become a serious environmental problem and there are demands for alternative sustainable materials which capable to reduce the noise level at various frequency ranges. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the potential of turning the agricultural waste and waste paper into a sound absorption panel. For the purpose of this study, combination of two materials was under studied; coconut coir fibre from agriculture waste and shredded waste paper from the office. There were two main objective of the research; first is to develop absorption panels from coconut coir powder that available locally with a combination of shredded paper at different percentage of mixture. Second objective is to identify the absorption rate of the panels. The study encompasses the fabrication of the particle board using the coconut husk powder mix with shredded waste paper and using the gypsum powder as the binder for the two materials. Four acoustic panels of size 0.5m x 0.5m and 0.012 m thick were fabricated with different mix ratio; 25% of coconut coir powder mixed with 75% of shredded waste papers for sample 1, 50% both of the material for sample 2, 75% of coconut coir powder mixed with 25% of shredded waste paper for sample 3, and lastly 100% of coconut coir powder for sample 4. The absorption coefficient of the panels was tested in a reverberation chamber and in accordance with ISO 354:1985 standards. Based on the results, sample 1 gave the highest absorption coefficient compared to sample 2, 3 and 4. It can be concluded that the acoustic panel made from a mixture of 25% coconut coir powder with 75% shredded waste paper provided higher absorption coefficient compared to the performance of the other samples. This might be caused by the size of the coir powder which is very small, creating less void space in between the panel and thus causing it to absorb less sound. Since sound absorption is very much affected by the availability of void space of

  10. Development of a vacuum superinsulation panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, H; Seefeldt, D; Nitze, C

    1983-05-01

    After completion of the investigations the vacuum-insulated panel is available as prototype. The aim of the investigations was to optimize and to finalize the vacuum superinsulation system with regard to a pressure-resistant, temperature-resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency. In this connection, particularly investigations with regard to vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performed. The application-specific utilization of the vacuum-insulated panel and the adjustment to special operational conditions can now be started. Application possibilities are at present seen in coverings or linings with high temperature and/or pressure requirements.

  11. Pantex Falling Man - Independent Review Panel Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Nathan Gregory; L. Bertolini, N. Brannon, J. Olsen, B. Price, M. Steinzig, R. Wardle, & M. Winfield

    2014-11-01

    Consolidated Nuclear Security (CNS) Pantex took the initiative to organize a Review Panel of subject matter experts to independently assess the adequacy of the Pantex Tripping Man Analysis methodology. The purpose of this report is to capture the details of the assessment including the scope, approach, results, and detailed Appendices. Along with the assessment of the analysis methodology, the panel evaluated the adequacy with which the methodology was applied as well as congruence with Department of Energy (DOE) standards 3009 and 3016. The approach included the review of relevant documentation, interactive discussion with Pantex staff, and the iterative process of evaluating critical lines of inquiry.

  12. Fire Resistant Panels for the Tunnel Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of experimental and theoretical research fire resistance fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T. Owing to the assembly simplicity, materials cheapness, high ecological standard, recycling, reuse potential, are benefit. Research work is running to improve the knowledge about fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T for tunnel lining, its basic performance, its long term behavior and in particular also its fire proof for example when used for the lining of road tunnels.

  13. Compressive strength of thick composite panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used in the structu......The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used...

  14. Layout of 'hard' and 'soft' control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Large control panels, containing hundreds of indicators and controls, have long been used in process plants. The general arrangement of instruments on the panel should reflect ergonomic principles to help operators to quickly and accurately locate, identify and select controls and displays as they monitor and supervise plant systems and processes. For the multiplexed systems now displacing dedicated components, there is a corresponding set of design problems involving display-page formats and the design of display ensembles. A list of alternative organizing principles is presented, with particular emphasis on those based on plant function. Methodologies for selecting and applying the principles are discussed

  15. Impact of mixed modes on measurement errors and estimates of change in panel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Cernat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed mode designs are receiving increased interest as a possible solution for saving costs in panel surveys, although the lasting effects on data quality are unknown. To better understand the effects of mixed mode designs on panel data we will examine its impact on random and systematic error and on estimates of change. The SF12, a health scale, in the Understanding Society Innovation Panel is used for the analysis. Results indicate that only one variable out of 12 has systematic differences due to the mixed mode design. Also, four of the 12 items overestimate variance of change in time in the mixed mode design. We conclude that using a mixed mode approach leads to minor measurement differences but it can result in the overestimation of individual change compared to a single mode design.

  16. Experimental investigation of sound absorption properties of perforated date palm fibers panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwaleed, A K; Nikabdullah, N; Nor, M J M; Tahir, M F M; Zulkifli, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the sound absorption properties of a natural waste of date palm fiber perforated panel. A single layer of the date palm fibers was tested in this study for its sound absorption properties. The experimental measurements were carried out using impedance tube at the acoustic lab, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The experiment was conducted for the panel without air gap, with air gap and with perforated plate facing. Three air gap thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm were used between the date palm fiber sample and the rigid backing of the impedance tube. The results showed that when facing the palm date fiber sample with perforated plate the sound absorption coefficient improved at the higher and lower frequency ranges. This increase in sound absorption coincided with reduction in medium frequency absorption. However, this could be improved by using different densities or perforated plate with the date palm fiber panel.

  17. A double-panel active segmented partition module using decoupled analog feedback controllers: numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, Jason D; Leishman, Timothy W; Blotter, Jonathan D

    2009-06-01

    Low-frequency sound transmission has long plagued the sound isolation performance of lightweight partitions. Over the past 2 decades, researchers have investigated actively controlled structures to prevent sound transmission from a source space into a receiving space. An approach using active segmented partitions (ASPs) seeks to improve low-frequency sound isolation capabilities. An ASP is a partition which has been mechanically and acoustically segmented into a number of small individually controlled modules. This paper provides a theoretical and numerical development of a single ASP module configuration, wherein each panel of the double-panel structure is independently actuated and controlled by an analog feedback controller. A numerical model is developed to estimate frequency response functions for the purpose of controller design, to understand the effects of acoustic coupling between the panels, to predict the transmission loss of the module in both passive and active states, and to demonstrate that the proposed ASP module will produce bidirectional sound isolation.

  18. Low frequency noise as a control test for spacial solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsal, B.; Alabedra, R.; Ruas, R.

    1986-07-01

    The present study of low frequency noise in a forward-biased dark solar cell, in order to develop an NDE test method for solar panels, notes that a single cell with a given defect is thus detectable under dark conditions. The test subject was a space solar panel consisting of five cells in parallel and five in series; these cells are of the n(+)-p monocrystalline Si junction type. It is demonstrated that the noise associated with the defective cell is 10-15 times higher than that of a good cell. Replacement of a good cell by a defective one leads to a 30-percent increase in the noise level of the panel as a whole.

  19. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame. To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  20. Genotyping panel for assessing response to cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel Heather

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variants in numerous genes are thought to affect the success or failure of cancer chemotherapy. Interindividual variability can result from genes involved in drug metabolism and transport, drug targets (receptors, enzymes, etc, and proteins relevant to cell survival (e.g., cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis. The purpose of the current study is to establish a flexible, cost-effective, high-throughput genotyping platform for candidate genes involved in chemoresistance and -sensitivity, and treatment outcomes. Methods We have adopted SNPlex for genotyping 432 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 160 candidate genes implicated in response to anticancer chemotherapy. Results The genotyping panels were applied to 39 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia undergoing flavopiridol chemotherapy, and 90 patients with colorectal cancer. 408 SNPs (94% produced successful genotyping results. Additional genotyping methods were established for polymorphisms undetectable by SNPlex, including multiplexed SNaPshot for CYP2D6 SNPs, and PCR amplification with fluorescently labeled primers for the UGT1A1 promoter (TAnTAA repeat polymorphism. Conclusion This genotyping panel is useful for supporting clinical anticancer drug trials to identify polymorphisms that contribute to interindividual variability in drug response. Availability of population genetic data across multiple studies has the potential to yield genetic biomarkers for optimizing anticancer therapy.

  1. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-01-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame.To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme

  2. Online pretreatment verification of high-dose rate brachytherapy using an imaging panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Podesta, Mark; Bellezzo, Murillo; Van den Bosch, Michiel R.; Lutgens, Ludy; Vanneste, Ben G. L.; Voncken, Robert; Van Limbergen, Evert J.; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Brachytherapy is employed to treat a wide variety of cancers. However, an accurate treatment verification method is currently not available. This study describes a pre-treatment verification system that uses an imaging panel (IP) to verify important aspects of the treatment plan. A detailed modelling of the IP was only possible with an extensive calibration performed using a robotic arm. Irradiations were performed with a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source within a water phantom. An empirical fit was applied to measure the distance between the source and the detector so 3D Cartesian coordinates of the dwell positions can be obtained using a single panel. The IP acquires 7.14 fps to verify the dwell times, dwell positions and air kerma strength (Sk). A gynecological applicator was used to create a treatment plan that was registered with a CT image of the water phantom used during the experiments for verification purposes. Errors (shifts, exchanged connections and wrong dwell times) were simulated to verify the proposed verification system. Cartesian source positions (panel measurement plane) have a standard deviation of about 0.02 cm. The measured distance between the source and the panel (z-coordinate) have a standard deviation up to 0.16 cm and maximum absolute error of  ≈0.6 cm if the signal is close to sensitive limit of the panel. The average response of the panel is very linear with Sk. Therefore, Sk measurements can be performed with relatively small errors. The measured dwell times show a maximum error of 0.2 s which is consistent with the acquisition rate of the panel. All simulated errors were clearly identified by the proposed system. The use of IPs is not common in brachytherapy, however, it provides considerable advantages. It was demonstrated that the IP can accurately measure Sk, dwell times and dwell positions.

  3. Improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels by oil coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Fouad, M.M.; Khalil, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is possible to improve the efficiency of PV panels by increasing the amount of light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the amount of sun light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the power output of the panel. • Coating PV panels with a layer of Labovac oil has to be applied in cold countries and not in hot regions. - Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a new technique for improving the efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) panels. This technique is done by coating the front surface of the PV panel by a fine layer of oil in order to increase the amount of light transmitted to the panel, and consequently its efficiency. Different types of oils are examined, including both mineral oils and natural oils. In case of mineral oils; vacuum pump oil (Labovac oil), engine oil (Mobil oil) and brake oil (Abro oil) are examined, while in case of natural oils; olive and sunflower oils are examined. An experimental setup has been developed to examine the performance of the PV panels as a function of oil coatings. The experimental setup consists of an artificial sun, the PV panel under investigation, a cooling system and a measuring system to measure the performance of the panel. It has been found that coating the PV panel with a fine layer of Labovac oil, ∼1 mm thick, improves the efficiency of the PV panel by more than 20%, and this is due to the high transmissivity of the Labovac oil compared to other oils. However, the Labovac oil has a drawback which is overheating of the panel due to its high transmissivity. Coating of PV panels with a fine layer of Labovac oil should be done only in cold regions, in order to avoid the heating effect that can decrease the power output of PV panels.

  4. Analysing sensory panel performance in a proficiency test using the PanelCheck software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, O.; Luciano, G.; Nilsen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Check software, a workflow is proposed that guides the user through the data analysis process. This allows practitioners and non-statisticians to get an overview over panel performances in a rapid manner without the need to be familiar with details on the statistical methods. Visualisation of data analysis...... results plays an important role as this provides a time saving and efficient way of screening and investigating sensory panel performances. Most of the statistical methods used in this paper are available in the open source software PanelCheck, which may be downloaded and used for free....

  5. Decontamination Efficacy of Three Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sporicidal Agents on Medium-Sized Panels Contaminated with Surrogates of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Pressure-treated (PT) wood lumber All the panels were made with 7/16 in. thick 4 ft2 oriented strand board ( OSB ) as a backing material (Home Depot...No. 2B finish 20 gauge) stainless steel sheets glued to the OSB backing board with construction adhesive to form a single 4 ft2 panel. PT lumber...PT lumber was secured to the OSB with a single VA in. exterior screw (Home Depot [Cat. No. 131-537]) at each end of the board. The brick panels were

  6. Photovoltaic panels, the waste of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levilly, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    In use for some years now as alternative means of generating electricity, photovoltaic panels contain heavy metals, end-of-life management of which is already raising questions. The collection and treatment sector is beginning to structure itself by developing new processes, the impacts of which in terms of chemical risks remain to be defined. (author)

  7. 76 FR 32957 - Hydrographic Services Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    .... SUMMARY: This notice responds to the Hydrographic Service Improvements Act Amendments of 2002, Public Law...), to solicit nominations for membership on the Hydrographic Services Review Panel (HSRP). The HSRP, a...; fisheries management; coastal and marine spatial planning; geodesy; water levels; and other science-related...

  8. X-joints in composite sandwich panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.W.; Janssen, G.Th.M.

    1998-01-01

    The small structural weight of fast large ships such as fast mono hulls or catamaran type of ships is of extreme importance to their success. One possible light weight structural solution is the sandwich panel with fibre reinforced laminates and a balsa, honeycomb or foam core. A severe obstacle for

  9. Multiple-Panel Cylindrical Solar Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Trough composed of many panels concentrates Sun's energy on solar cells, even when trough is not pointed directly at Sun. Tolerates deviation as great as 5 degrees from direction of sun. For terrestrial applications, multiple-flat-plate design offers potential cost reduction and ease of fabrication.

  10. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  11. 77 FR 48552 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given that 10 meetings of the Humanities...

  12. 78 FR 49550 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given that 11 meetings of the Humanities...

  13. 77 FR 75198 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given that 4 meetings of the Humanities...

  14. Heavy water lattices: Second panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-09-15

    The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the laboratories engaged in the field of heavy water lattices throughout the world. The participants presented written contributions and status reports describing the past history and plans for further development of heavy-water reactors. Valuable discussions took place, during which recommendations for future work were formulated. Refs, figs, tabs.

  15. Heavy water lattices: Second panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the laboratories engaged in the field of heavy water lattices throughout the world. The participants presented written contributions and status reports describing the past history and plans for further development of heavy-water reactors. Valuable discussions took place, during which recommendations for future work were formulated. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. On modeling panels of time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews research issues in modeling panels of time series. Examples of this type of data are annually observed macroeconomic indicators for all countries in the world, daily returns on the individual stocks listed in the S&P500, and the sales records of all items in a

  17. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  18. Identification of Macroeconomic Factors in Large Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Dewachter, Hans; Houssa, Romain

    standard practices in the SVAR literature. Estimators based on the EM algorithm are developped. We apply this framework to a large panel of US monthly macroeconomic series. In particular, we identify nine macroeconomic factors and discuss the economic impact of monetary policy stocks. The results...

  19. Foil Panel Mirrors for Nonimaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, D. J.; Castillo, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Large durable, lightweight mirrors made by bonding thick aluminum foil to honeycomb panels or other rigid, flat backings. Mirrors suitable for use as infrared shields, telescope doors, solar-furnance doors, advertising displays, or other reflectors that require low thermal emissivity and high specularity but do not require precise surface figure necessary for imaging.

  20. Developing a solar panel testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Rácz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is increasingly used togenerate electricity for individual households. There isa wide variety of solar panel technologies, whichshould be tested at an individual level during theirlifetime. In this paper, the development of a testingstation at the University of Debrecen is presented. Thetesting system can be used for research andeducational purposes and for in field applicationsequally well.

  1. Use of informatics in radiation control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Grimont, B.; Mai, V.

    1980-03-01

    Radiation control panels with programmed systems have developed at the CEA over the last few years. Each monitored location is provided with an monitoring station containing: - a radiation detector and associated electronics (the output signal is normalised calibrated pulses), - an alarm unit to warn personnal of any danger inside the detection zone covered [fr

  2. 77 FR 76001 - Hydrographic Services Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... disciplines and fields relating to hydrographic data and hydrographic services, marine transportation, port... represented on the Panel and encourages individuals with expertise in navigation data, products and services... variety of other data in order to fulfill this responsibility. The HSRP provides advice on current and...

  3. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...

  4. Robust control investigations for equipment loaded panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Langley, R.S.; Rogers, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a modelling technique for equipment load panels which directly produces (adequate) models of the underlying dynamics on which to base robust controller design/evaluations. This technique is based on the use of the Lagrange's equations of motion and the resulting models...

  5. 75 FR 56146 - Arts Advisory Panel; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory... amended, notice is hereby given that four meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks Center, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20506...

  6. 77 FR 2766 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY... and Regional/Folk and Traditional Arts (state folk arts projects review) meeting, scheduled for...

  7. Discussion panel: field test design & data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Schmitt; William E. Waters; B. Leo Cadogan; Gerald S. Walton

    1985-01-01

    I think it is time to open the panel. On my left respectively are Bill Waters, Professor of Entomology and Forestry, University of California, Berkeley; Gerald S. Walton, Biometrician, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Hamden; and Leo Cadogan, Forest Pest Management Institute, Canadian Forestry Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. My name is Dan Schmitt, Program...

  8. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel

  9. Panel data specifications in nonparametric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    parametric panel data estimators to analyse the production technology of Polish crop farms. The results of our nonparametric kernel regressions generally differ from the estimates of the parametric models but they only slightly depend on the choice of the kernel functions. Based on economic reasoning, we...

  10. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  11. 76 FR 77327 - Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel AGENCY: Department of Veterans... Affairs Health Care Personnel Act of 1991 (Pub. L. 102-40), dated May 7, 1991, revised the disciplinary grievance and appeal procedures for employees appointed under 38 U.S.C. 7401(1). It also required the...

  12. 76 FR 8848 - Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel AGENCY: Department of Veterans... Affairs Health Care Personnel Act of 1991 (Pub. L. 102-40), dated May 7, 1991, revised the disciplinary grievance and appeal procedures for employees appointed under 38 U.S.C. 7401(1). It also required the...

  13. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  14. Panel discussion: Chemistry aspects of pet radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A panel discussion on the radiotracer development process opened with a question regarding the role of toxicological studies in the process of obtaining a physician-sponsored Investigational New Drug (IND) for a new radiopharmaceutical. Panel members were uniformly supportive of new radiotracer development, expressing their opinions that the regulatory hurdles were there but could be overcome. Several institutions are actively working with regulatory agencies to determine just what toxicology data are relevant to new radiopharmaceutical development in the PET field. The FDA is beginning to understand that the pharmacology of PET tracer doses may be completely different from what is usually important in drug trials. The second part of the panel discussion centered on the role, if any, of the pharmaceutical companies in new radiotracer development. It was pointed out that what the radiochemist is looking for in a radiopharmaceutical is different from what these companies are searching for in a therapeutic drug. Panel and audience members responded to the question: What would a pharmaceutical company gain from collaboration with radiopharmaceutical research laboratories? Several examples were given such as providing crucial data from humans rather than animals; determining individualized drug doses to maximize the therapeutic index of a new drug regimen; and replacing the large amounts of time and money currently invested by drug companies in the radiolabeling and evaluation of metabolites of new drugs

  15. Low frequency noise reduction using stiff light composite panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yongchang; LIN Weizheng

    2003-01-01

    The experiment presented in this paper is to investigate and analyze the noise reduction at low frequency using stiff light composite panels. Since these composite panels are made of lightweight and stiff materials, this actuation strategy will enable the creation of composite panels for duct noise control without using traditional heavy structural mass. The results suggest that the mass-spring resonance absorption in the case of a comparatively stiff thick panel with a thin flexible plate is more efficient with minimum weight, when subjected to low-frequency (<500 Hz). The efficiency of the panel absorber depends on the mass of the thin flexible plate and the stiffness of the panel.

  16. Numerical simulation of wind loads on solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kao-Chun; Chung, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Shu-Tsung

    2018-05-01

    Solar panels mounted on the roof of a building or ground are often vulnerable to strong wind loads. This study aims to investigate wind loads on solar panels using computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The results show good agreement with wind tunnel data, e.g. the streamwise distribution of mean surface pressure coefficient of a solar panel. Wind uplift for solar panels with four aspect ratios is evaluated. The effect of inclined angle and clearance (or height) of a solar panel is addressed. It is found that wind uplift of a solar panel increases when there is an increase in inclined angle and the clearance above ground shows an opposite effect.

  17. Prediction of break-out sound from a rectangular cavity via an elastically mounted panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Li, Wen L; Du, Jingtao; Li, Wanyou

    2016-02-01

    The break-out sound from a cavity via an elastically mounted panel is predicted in this paper. The vibroacoustic system model is derived based on the so-called spectro-geometric method in which the solution over each sub-domain is invariably expressed as a modified Fourier series expansion. Unlike the traditional modal superposition methods, the continuity of the normal velocities is faithfully enforced on the interfaces between the flexible panel and the (interior and exterior) acoustic media. A fully coupled vibro-acoustic system is obtained by taking into account the strong coupling between the vibration of the elastic panel and the sound fields on the both sides. The typical time-consuming calculations of quadruple integrals encountered in determining the sound power radiation from a panel has been effectively avoided by reducing them, via discrete cosine transform, into a number of single integrals which are subsequently calculated analytically in a closed form. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the system model, understand the effects on the sound transmissions of panel mounting conditions, and demonstrate the dependence on the size of source room of the "measured" transmission loss.

  18. Effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. Flow is shown to provide a modest increase in TL that is uniform with frequency up to the critical frequency. The increase is about 2 dB at Mach number M = 0.5, and about 3.5 dB at M = 1. Above the critical frequency where TL is damping controlled, the increase can be slightly larger at certain frequencies. Curvature is found to stiffen the panel, thereby increasing the TL at low frequencies, but also to introduce a dip at the 'ring frequency' of a full cylinder having the same radius as the panel. Pressurization appears to produce a slight decrease in TL throughout the frequency range, and also slightly shifts the dips at the critical frequency and at the ring frequency.

  19. Unitized Stiffened Composite Textile Panels: Manufacturing, Characterization, Experiments, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztowny, Cyrus Joseph Robert

    Use of carbon fiber textiles in complex manufacturing methods creates new implementations of structural components by increasing performance, lowering manufacturing costs, and making composites overall more attractive across industry. Advantages of textile composites include high area output, ease of handling during the manufacturing process, lower production costs per material used resulting from automation, and provide post-manufacturing assembly mainstreaming because significantly more complex geometries such as stiffened shell structures can be manufactured with fewer pieces. One significant challenge with using stiffened composite structures is stiffener separation under compression. Axial compression loading conditions have frequently observed catastrophic structural failure due to stiffeners separating from the shell skin. Characterizing stiffener separation behavior is often costly computationally and experimentally. The objectives of this research are to demonstrate unitized stiffened textile composite panels can be manufactured to produce quality test specimens, that existing characterization techniques applied to state-of-the-art high-performance composites provide valuable information in modeling such structures, that the unitized structure concept successfully removes stiffener separation as a primary structural failure mode, and that modeling textile material failure modes are sufficient to accurately capture postbuckling and final failure responses of the stiffened structures. The stiffened panels in this study have taken the integrally stiffened concept to an extent such that the stiffeners and skin are manufactured at the same time, as one single piece, and from the same composite textile layers. Stiffener separation is shown to be removed as a primary structural failure mode for unitized stiffened composite textile panels loaded under axial compression well into the postbuckling regime. Instead of stiffener separation, a material damaging and

  20. Seismic hazard analysis. Review panel, ground motion panel, and feedback results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern U.S. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern U.S. Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. (author)

  1. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  2. Low and High Frequency Models of Response Statistics of a Cylindrical Orthogrid Vehicle Panel to Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David; Gardner, Bryce; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This presentation further develops the orthogrid vehicle panel work. Employed Hybrid Module capabilities to assess both low/mid frequency and high frequency models in the VA One simulation environment. The response estimates from three modeling approaches are compared to ground test measurements. Detailed Finite Element Model of the Test Article -Expect to capture both the global panel modes and the local pocket mode response, but at a considerable analysis expense (time & resources). A Composite Layered Construction equivalent global stiffness approximation using SEA -Expect to capture response of the global panel modes only. An SEA approximation using the Periodic Subsystem Formulation. A finite element model of a single periodic cell is used to derive the vibroacoustic properties of the entire periodic structure (modal density, radiation efficiency, etc. Expect to capture response at various locations on the panel (on the skin and on the ribs) with less analysis expense

  3. 75 FR 29600 - Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... claims; occupational analysis, including definitions, ratings and capture of physical and mental... 2010 Occupational Information System Development Project activities and the proposed integration with Panel activities; subcommittee chair reports; individual and organizational public comment; Panel...

  4. 75 FR 71787 - Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... disability claims; occupational analysis, including definitions, ratings and capture of physical and mental... activities and the proposed integration with Panel milestones; OIDAP Chair and subcommittee reports; individual and organizational public comment; public comment; Panel discussion and deliberation; and, an...

  5. Hepatitis Panel: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hepatitispanel.html Hepatitis Panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hepatitis Panel? Hepatitis is a type of liver disease. ...

  6. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-2 Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    This Task has investigated the benefits derived from the projects sponsored by SNAME Ship Production Committee Panel SP-2 on Outfitting and Production Aids during the 15 year period when this Panel...

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine, providing advice on caffeine intakes, from all dietary sources that do not give rise to concerns about adverse health...... not give rise to safety concerns. The same amount does not give rise to safety concerns when consumed .../L of caffeine, taurine and d-glucurono-γ-lactone, respectively), as well as alcohol at doses up to about 0.65 g/kg bw, would not affect the safety of single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg. Habitual caffeine consumption up to 400 mg per day does not give rise to safety concerns for non-pregnant adults. Habitual...

  8. Panel 3 Studies in Childhood, Chuldren's Culture and Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    A presentation of the collected Works of Flemming Mouritsen as published in "Mouritsen's Metode'. Herdis Toft as Panel Chair introduces the publication and also the panel of 6 researchers discussing his influence in the field.......A presentation of the collected Works of Flemming Mouritsen as published in "Mouritsen's Metode'. Herdis Toft as Panel Chair introduces the publication and also the panel of 6 researchers discussing his influence in the field....

  9. Panel Data Evidence on the Demand for Money

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vaccaro, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for money using panel data for 48 countries over the 1980-95 time period. In our examination of the conventional money demand function, we begin by empirically exploiting traditional panel methodology and fi nd support for heterogeneity among the countries. However, specifi cation and diagnostic tests also indicate serial correlation in all of the estimated models. Recent state-of-the art advances in panel unit root and panel cointegration methodology allow us t...

  10. Sound transmission through lined, composite panel structures: Transversely isotropic poro-elastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo

    A joint experimental and analytical investigation of the sound transmission loss (STL) and two-dimensional free wave propagation in composite sandwich panels is presented here. An existing panel, a Nomex honeycomb sandwich panel, was studied in detail. For the purpose of understanding the typical behavior of sandwich panels, a composite structure comprising two aluminum sheets with a relatively soft, poro-elastic foam core was also constructed and studied. The cores of both panels were modeled using an anisotropic (transversely isotropic) poro-elastic material theory. Several estimation methods were used to obtain the material properties of the honeycomb core and the skin plates to be used in the numerical calculations. Appropriate values selected from among the estimates were used in the STL and free wave propagation models. The prediction model was then verified in two ways: first, the calculated wave speeds and STL of a single poro-elastic layer were numerically verified by comparison with the predictions of a previously developed isotropic model. Secondly, to physically validate the transversely isotropic model, the measured STL and the phase speeds of the sandwich panels were compared with their predicted values. To analyze the actual treatment of a fuselage structure, multi-layered configurations, including a honeycomb panel and several layers such as air gaps, acoustic blankets and membrane partitions, were formulated. Then, to find the optimal solution for improving the sound barrier performance of an actual fuselage system, air layer depth and glass fiber lining effects were investigated by using these multi-layer models. By using the free wave propagation model, the first anti-symmetric and symmetric modes of the sandwich panels were characterized to allow the identification of the coincidence frequencies of the sandwich panel. The behavior of the STL could then be clearly explained by comparison with the free wave propagation solutions. By performing a

  11. 7 CFR 205.509 - Peer review panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review panel. 205.509 Section 205.509 Agriculture... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.509 Peer review panel. The Administrator shall establish a peer review panel pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (5 U.S.C...

  12. 75 FR 73166 - Art Advisory Panel-Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Art Advisory Panel--Closed Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting of Art Advisory Panel for Decorative Art. SUMMARY: A closed meeting of the Art Advisory Panel will be held in Washington, DC. DATES: The...

  13. 50 CFR 600.760 - Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime. 600... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishery Negotiation Panels § 600.760 Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime. (a) An FNP shall terminate upon either: (1) Submission of...

  14. 32 CFR 724.104 - NDRB Traveling Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NDRB Traveling Panel. 724.104 Section 724.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.104 NDRB Traveling Panel. An NDRB Panel that travels for the purpose of...

  15. 78 FR 36793 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-068] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... Aeronautics and Space Administration announce a forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel..., Huntsville, AL 35805 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  16. 78 FR 57903 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-116] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... and amendment of the charter of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14... determined that renewal and amendment of the charter of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public...

  17. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-105)] Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel... and amendment of the charter of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to... determined that a renewal and amendment of the charter of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the...

  18. 75 FR 17701 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of... Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires... Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy; SC-25/ Germantown Building, 1000 Independence...

  19. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  20. Option Panels in Pure-Jump Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop parametric inference procedures for large panels of noisy option data in the setting where the underlying process is of pure-jump type, i.e., evolve only through a sequence of jumps. The panel consists of options written on the underlying asset with a (different) set of strikes...... specification for the risk-neutral asset return dynamics, the option prices are nonlinear functions of a time-invariant parameter vector and a time-varying latent state vector (or factors). Furthermore, no-arbitrage restrictions impose a direct link between some of the quantities that may be identified from...... the return and option data. These include the so-called jump activity index as well as the time-varying jump intensity. We propose penalized least squares estimation in which we minimize L_2 distance between observed and model-implied options and further penalize for the deviation of model-implied quantities...

  1. Insights from the panel review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searborn, B.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental review process for nuclear waste management and disposal was unusual in that the Panel was asked to examine a concept rather than a specific project at a specific site. The Panel was charged with commenting on the safety and acceptability of the AECL concept, examining criteria for determining the safety and acceptability of any concept for managing nuclear fuel waste, and examining future steps which should be taken. In short, it was asked to provide policy advice to governments. The Panel concluded that safety is a key part, but only one part, of acceptability, and that safety must be viewed from both a technical and a social perspective. It judged that safety of the AECL concept had been adequately demonstrated from a technical perspective, but not from a social perspective. It also concluded that the AECL concept does not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted as Canada's approach for managing nuclear fuel wastes. The paper examines in some detail the various aspects of the public concerns surrounding the nuclear cycle in general, and the safety of the proposals put forward by AECL for nuclear fuel waste management in particular. It notes the differences between those who look at safety from a technical perspective, and those who look at safety from a social perspective. And it lists the concerns related to acceptability in addition to the key factor of safety. After outlining the Panel's recommendations to governments on future steps to be taken, the paper discusses the extent to which the recommendations respond to the public's concerns. It stresses the importance of Aboriginal participation; of the creation of a new agency to deal with the full range of activities, technical and social, related to long-term management; of the public and decision-makers having more than one viable option to choose from; and of the essentiality of an inter-active process of public participation at all stages of decision-making. Finally

  2. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  3. All-star sports medicine film panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.; Braunstein, E.M.; DeSmet, A.A.; Helms, C.A.; Pavlov, H.; Sukaer, J.R.; Torg, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    All Star Sports Panel cases are selected to test the mettle of the panelists and familiarize the audience with injuries peculiar to participation in a variety of sports. Match wits with the experts on the field. Gear up for the big game by previewing the clinical histories and initial radiographic examinations. Diagnosis requires familiarity with stresses incurred in the performance of various athletic pursuits, knowledge of specific radiographic findings, and awareness of imaging techniques that best demonstrate underlying injury

  4. Brushless Cleaning of Solar Panels and Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    Machine proposed for cleaning solar panels and reflectors uses multiple vortexes of air, solvent, and water to remove dust and dirt. Uses no brushes that might abrade solar surfaces and thereby reduce efficiency. Machine can be readily automated and can be used on curved surfaces such as aparbolic reflectors as well as on flat ones. Cleaning fluids are recycled, so that large quantities of water and solvent are not needed.

  5. Solar panels offer array of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The installation of what is believed to be the largest array of solar thermal panels currently in use at a UK NHS hospital has taken place at an ideal time for the facility in question, Harlow's Princess Alexandra Hospital, with the hospital's gas bill alone having risen by 153% over the past nine months thanks to soaring energy prices, and the estates department keen to mitigate the effects in any way possible. Jonathan Baillie reports.

  6. Report of panel 3: Concept improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.; Ripin, B.H.; Batchelor, D.; Berkner, K.; Kaye, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Marmar, E.; Navratil, G.; Ellis, W.R.; Gentle, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The charge to Panel 3 was to look at the idea of concept improvements in the context of US DOE management of the magnetic fusion program. The panel suggested that if DOE were commited to the idea of concept improvement, it needed to overcome the existing impression it was not receptive to new ideas. In part the long time scale for development of fusion energy, coupled with the rate of change of scientific programs and research based on emerging knowledge, means that in general the program will be much different ten to twenty years in the future. To be able to meet this changing direction, the US program must maintain an openness to look at promising alternative ideas, spend money on developing the ideas, and consider funding some to intermediate development levels. Stellerator research was offered as one alternative to consider in light of present international work. The panel urged supporting the development of new concepts and ideas, as well as continued support for plasma physics basic research

  7. Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarbi, M.; Haddouche, K.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach for estimating the model parameters of a photovoltaic solar panel according to the irradiance and temperature. The parameters of the one diode model are given from the knowledge of three operating points: short-circuit, open circuit, and maximum power. In the first step, the adopted approach concerns the resolution of the system of equations constituting the three operating points to write all the model parameters according to series resistance. Secondly, we make an iterative resolution at the optimal operating point by using the Newton-Raphson method to calculate the series resistance value as well as the model parameters. Once the panel model is identified, we consider other equations for taking into account the irradiance and temperature effect. The simulation results show the convergence speed of the model parameters and the possibility of visualizing the electrical behaviour of the panel according to the irradiance and temperature. Let us note that a sensitivity of the algorithm at the optimal operating point was observed owing to the fact that a small variation of the optimal voltage value leads to a very great variation of the identified parameters values. With the identified model, we can develop algorithms of maximum power point tracking, and make simulations of a solar water pumping system.(Author)

  8. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  9. Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raeisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation.

  10. Spacecraft with gradual acceleration of solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Tamir R. (Inventor); Festa, Michael T. (Inventor); Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A spacecraft (8) includes a movable appendage such as solar panels (12) operated by a stepping motor (28) driven by pulses (311). In order to reduce vibration andor attitude error, the drive pulses are generated by a clock down-counter (312) with variable count ratio. Predetermined desired clock ratios are stored in selectable memories (314a-d), and the selected ratio (R) is coupled to a comparator (330) together with the current ratio (C). An up-down counter (340) establishes the current count-down ratio by counting toward the desired ratio under the control of the comparator; thus, a step change of solar panel speed never occurs. When a direction change is commanded, a flag signal generator (350) disables the selectable memories, and enables a further store (360), which generates a count ratio representing a very slow solar panel rotational rate, so that the rotational rate always slows to a low value before direction is changed. The principles of the invention are applicable to any movable appendage.

  11. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Mexico and the People's Republic of China. This determination was published in the Federal Register (75... Panel Review. SUMMARY: On December 22, 2010, the Government of Mexico filed a First Request for Panel... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  12. Effect of manual tilt adjustments on incident irradiance on fixed and tracking solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubitz, William David

    2011-01-01

    Hourly typical meteorological year (TMY3) data was utilized with the Perez radiation model to simulate solar radiation on fixed, azimuth tracking and two axis tracking surfaces at 217 geographically diverse temperate latitude sites across the contiguous United States of America. The optimum tilt angle for maximizing annual irradiation on a fixed south-facing panel varied from being equal to the latitude at low-latitude, high clearness sites, to up to 14 o less than the latitude at a north-western coastal site with very low clearness index. Across the United States, the optimum tilt angle for an azimuth tracking panel was found to be on average 19 o closer to vertical than the optimum tilt angle for a fixed, south-facing panel at the same site. Azimuth tracking increased annual solar irradiation incident on a surface by an average of 29% relative to a fixed south-facing surface at optimum tilt angle. Two axis tracking resulted in an average irradiation increase of 34% relative to the fixed surface. Introduction of manual surface tilt changes during the year produced a greater impact for non-tracking surfaces than it did for azimuth tracking surfaces. Even monthly tilt changes only resulted in an average annual irradiation increase of 5% for fixed panels and 1% for azimuth tracked surfaces, relative to using a single optimized tilt angle in each case. In practice, the decision whether to manually tilt panels requires balancing the added cost in labor and the panel support versus the extra energy generation and the cost value of that energy. A spreadsheet file is available that gives individual results for each of the 217 simulated sites.

  13. Clinical application of multigene panels: challenges of next generation counseling and cancer risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Paul Slavin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multigene panels can be a cost- and time-effective alternative to sequentially testing multiple genes, especially with a mixed family cancer phenotype. However, moving beyond our single-gene testing paradigm has unveiled many new challenges to the clinician. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with some of the challenges, as well as potential opportunities, of expanded hereditary cancer panel testing. Methods: We include results from 348 commercial multigene panel tests ordered from January 1, 2014, through October 1, 2014, by clinicians associated with the City of Hope’s Clinical Cancer Genetics Community of Practice. We also discuss specific challenging cases that arose during this period involving abnormalities in the genes: CDH1, TP53, PMS2, PALB2, CHEK2, NBN, and RAD51C. Results: If historically high risk genes only were included in the panels (BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH6, PMS2, TP53, APC, CDH1, the results would have been positive only 6.2% of the time, instead of 17%. Results returned with variants of uncertain significance (VUS 42% of the time. Conclusion: These figures and cases stress the importance of adequate pretest counseling in anticipation of higher percentages of positive, VUS, unexpected, and ambiguous test results. Test result ambiguity can be limited by the use of phenotype specific panels; if found, multiple resources (the literature, reference laboratory, colleagues, national experts, and research efforts can be accessed to better clarify counseling and management for the patient and family. For pathogenic variants in low and moderate risk genes, empiric risk modeling based on the patient’s personal and family history of cancer may supersede gene-specific risk. Commercial laboratory and patient contributions to public databases and research efforts will be needed to better classify variants and reduce clinical ambiguity of multigene panels.

  14. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Michael [Acuity Brands Lighting, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Spindler, Jeff [OLEDWorks, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    For this DOE award, Acuity Brands Lighting developed a novel OLED luminaire system featuring panel-integrated drivers at each individual OLED panel. The luminaire has a base station that receives user commands and performs AC/DC conversion. A power line communication (PLC) protocol is used to provide both power and digital control to each panel. A 66-panel CanvisTM luminaire using state-of-art OLED panels based on this system was successfully constructed. This is a first demonstration of such a luminaire architecture. It is also the first known implementation of this number of independently addressable nodes with a PLC protocol. This luminaire system architecture has added benefits in the flexibility of using multiple panel vendors for a given product, forward compatibility with future panels, and reduced luminaire wiring complexity and assembly time.

  15. Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwa, Toshihiko, E-mail: kiwa@okayama-u.ac.jp; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been developed. •The electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board were visualized. •The electric properties of the commercial solar panels were demonstrated. -- Abstract: The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized.

  16. Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwa, Toshihiko; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been developed. •The electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board were visualized. •The electric properties of the commercial solar panels were demonstrated. -- Abstract: The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized

  17. 77 FR 13389 - Art Advisory Panel of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... 2512 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. In order for the Panel to perform this function, Panel... Administration, has also approved renewal of the Panel. The membership of the Panel is balanced between museum...

  18. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...

  19. Quantitative digital radiography with two dimensional flat panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinten, J.M.; Robert-Coutant, C.; Darboux, M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Attenuation law relates radiographic images to irradiated object thickness and chemical composition. Film radiography exploits qualitatively this property for diagnosis. Digital radiographic flat panels present large dynamic range, reproducibility and linearity properties which open the gate for quantification. We will present, through two applications (mammography and bone densitometry), an approach to extract quantitative information from digital 2D radiographs. Material and method: The main difficulty for quantification is X-rays scatter, which superimposes to acquisition data. Because of multiple scatterings and 3D geometry dependence, it cannot be directly exploited through an exact analytical model. Therefore we have developed an approach for its estimation and subtraction from medical radiographs, based on approximations and derivations of analytical models of scatter formation in human tissues. Results: In digital mammography, the objective is to build a map of the glandular tissue thickness. Its separation from fat tissue is based on two equations: height of compression and attenuation. This last equation needs X-Rays scatter correction. In bone densitometry, physicians look for quantitative bone mineral density. Today, clinical DEXA systems use collimated single or linear detectors to eliminate scatter. This scanning technology induces poor image quality. By applying our scatter correction approach, we have developed a bone densitometer using a digital flat panel (Lexxos, DMS). It provides with accurate and reproducible measurements while presenting radiological image quality. Conclusion: These applications show how information processing, and especially X-Rays scatter processing, enables to extract quantitative information from digital radiographs. This approach, associated to Computer Aided Diagnosis algorithms or reconstructions algorithms, gives access to useful information for diagnosis. (author)

  20. A novel dual-marker expression panel for easy and accurate risk stratification of patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Murotani, Kenta; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Miwa, Takashi; Umeda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Masamichi; Hattori, Norifumi; Suenaga, Masaya; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2018-05-07

    Development of specific biomarkers is necessary for individualized management of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to design a simple expression panel comprising novel molecular markers for precise risk stratification. Patients (n = 200) who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were randomly assigned into learning and validation sets. Tissue mRNA expression levels of 15 candidate molecular markers were determined using quantitative PCR analysis. A dual-marker expression panel was created according to concordance index (C-index) values of overall survival for all 105 combinations of two markers in the learning set. The reproducibility and clinical significance of the dual-marker expression panel were evaluated in the validation set. The patient characteristics of the learning and validation sets were well balanced. The C-index values of combinations were significantly higher compared with those of single markers. The panel with the highest C-index (0.718) of the learning set comprised SYT8 and MAGED2, which clearly stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. The reproducibility of the panel was demonstrated in the validation set. High expression scores were significantly associated with larger tumor size, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal metastasis, and advanced disease. The dual-marker expression panel provides a simple tool that clearly stratifies patients with gastric cancer into low-, intermediate-, and high risk after gastrectomy. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [The property and applications of the photovoltaic solar panel in the region of diagnostic X-ray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Jun'ichi; Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei

    2010-10-20

    In this study, the sensitivity in the diagnostic X-ray region of the single crystalline Si photovoltaic solar panel, which is expected to grow further, was measured by using an X-ray tube. The output voltage of the solar panel was clearly proportional to the tube voltage and a good time response in the irradiation time setting of the tube was measured. The factor which converts measured voltage to irradiation dose was extracted experimentally using a correction filter to investigate the ability of the solar panel as a dose monitor. The obtained conversion factors were N(S) = 13 ± 1[µV/µSv/s] for the serial and N(P) = 58 ± 2[µV/µSv/s] for the parallel connected solar panels, both with the Al 1 mm + Cu 0.1 mm correction filter, respectively. Therefore, a good dose dependence of the conversion factor was confirmed by varying the distance between the X-ray tube and the solar panel with that filter. In conclusion, a simple extension of our results pointed out the potential of a new concept of measurements using, for example, the photovoltaic solar panel, the direct dose measurement from X-ray tube and real time estimation of the exposed dose in IVR.

  2. Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jie; Howie, Bryan; Mccarthy, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Imputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced at low de...

  3. Evaluation of the iPLEX® ADME PGx Pro Panel and allele frequencies of pharmacogenetic markers in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Børsting, Claus; Dalhoff, Kim

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to perform a technical evaluation of the iPlex® ADME PGx Pro Panel by genotyping 50 unrelated Danes and estimate preliminary genotype frequencies among Danes. DESIGN AND METHODS: The investigations were performed by the use of PCR, single base extension (SBE) and Matrix Assisted Laser...

  4. Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jie); B. Howie (Bryan); S. McCarthy (Shane); Y. Memari (Yasin); K. Walter (Klaudia); J.L. Min (Josine L.); P. Danecek (Petr); G. Malerba (Giovanni); E. Trabetti (Elisabetta); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); J.B. Richards (Brent); R. Durbin (Richard); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J. Marchini (Jonathan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.H. Al Turki (Saeed); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); C. Anderson (Carl); R. Anney (Richard); D. Antony (Dinu); M.S. Artigas; M. Ayub (Muhammad); S. Bala (Senduran); J.C. Barrett (Jeffrey); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P.L. Beales (Philip); M. Benn (Marianne); J. Bentham (Jamie); S. Bhattacharya (Shoumo); E. Birney (Ewan); D.H.R. Blackwood (Douglas); M. Bobrow (Martin); E. Bochukova (Elena); P.F. Bolton (Patrick F.); R. Bounds (Rebecca); C. Boustred (Chris); G. Breen (Gerome); M. Calissano (Mattia); K. Carss (Keren); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); J.C. Chambers (John C.); R. Charlton (Ruth); K. Chatterjee (Krishna); L. Chen (Lu); A. Ciampi (Antonio); S. Cirak (Sebahattin); P. Clapham (Peter); G. Clement (Gail); G. Coates (Guy); M. Cocca (Massimiliano); D.A. Collier (David); C. Cosgrove (Catherine); T. Cox (Tony); N.J. Craddock (Nick); L. Crooks (Lucy); S. Curran (Sarah); D. Curtis (David); A. Daly (Allan); I.N.M. Day (Ian N.M.); A.G. Day-Williams (Aaron); G.V. Dedoussis (George); T. Down (Thomas); Y. Du (Yuanping); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); I. Dunham (Ian); T. Edkins (Ted); R. Ekong (Rosemary); P. Ellis (Peter); D.M. Evans (David); I.S. Farooqi (I. Sadaf); D.R. Fitzpatrick (David R.); P. Flicek (Paul); J. Floyd (James); A.R. Foley (A. Reghan); C.S. Franklin (Christopher S.); M. Futema (Marta); L. Gallagher (Louise); P. Gasparini (Paolo); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); M. Geihs (Matthias); D. Geschwind (Daniel); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); H. Griffin (Heather); D. Grozeva (Detelina); X. Guo (Xiaosen); X. Guo (Xueqin); H. Gurling (Hugh); D. Hart (Deborah); A.E. Hendricks (Audrey E.); P.A. Holmans (Peter A.); L. Huang (Liren); T. Hubbard (Tim); S.E. Humphries (Steve E.); M.E. Hurles (Matthew); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); V. Iotchkova (Valentina); A. Isaacs (Aaron); D.K. Jackson (David K.); Y. Jamshidi (Yalda); J. Johnson (Jon); C. Joyce (Chris); K.J. Karczewski (Konrad); J. Kaye (Jane); T. Keane (Thomas); J.P. Kemp (John); K. Kennedy (Karen); A. Kent (Alastair); J. Keogh (Julia); F. Khawaja (Farrah); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); M. Van Kogelenberg (Margriet); A. Kolb-Kokocinski (Anja); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); G. Lachance (Genevieve); C. Langenberg (Claudia); C. Langford (Cordelia); D. Lawson (Daniel); I. Lee (Irene); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); M. Lek (Monkol); R. Li (Rui); Y. Li (Yingrui); J. Liang (Jieqin); H. Lin (Hong); R. Liu (Ryan); J. Lönnqvist (Jouko); L.R. Lopes (Luis R.); M.C. Lopes (Margarida); J. Luan; D.G. MacArthur (Daniel G.); M. Mangino (Massimo); G. Marenne (Gaëlle); W. März (Winfried); J. Maslen (John); A. Matchan (Angela); I. Mathieson (Iain); P. McGuffin (Peter); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); A.G. McKechanie (Andrew G.); A. McQuillin (Andrew); S. Metrustry (Sarah); N. Migone (Nicola); H.M. Mitchison (Hannah M.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); J. Morris (James); R. Morris (Richard); D. Muddyman (Dawn); F. Muntoni; B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge G.); K. Northstone (Kate); M.C. O'donovan (Michael); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); A. Onoufriadis (Alexandros); K. Oualkacha (Karim); M.J. Owen (Michael J.); A. Palotie (Aarno); K. Panoutsopoulou (Kalliope); V. Parker (Victoria); J.R. Parr (Jeremy R.); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); T. Paunio (Tiina); F. Payne (Felicity); S.J. Payne (Stewart J.); J.R.B. Perry (John); O.P.H. Pietiläinen (Olli); V. Plagnol (Vincent); R.C. Pollitt (Rebecca C.); S. Povey (Sue); M.A. Quail (Michael A.); L. Quaye (Lydia); L. Raymond (Lucy); K. Rehnström (Karola); C.K. Ridout (Cheryl K.); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.R.S. Ritchie (Graham R.S.); N. Roberts (Nicola); R.L. Robinson (Rachel L.); D.B. Savage (David); P.J. Scambler (Peter); S. Schiffels (Stephan); M. Schmidts (Miriam); N. Schoenmakers (Nadia); R.H. Scott (Richard H.); R.A. Scott (Robert); R.K. Semple (Robert K.); E. Serra (Eva); S.I. Sharp (Sally I.); A.C. Shaw (Adam C.); H.A. Shihab (Hashem A.); S.-Y. Shin (So-Youn); D. Skuse (David); K.S. Small (Kerrin); C. Smee (Carol); G.D. Smith; L. Southam (Lorraine); O. Spasic-Boskovic (Olivera); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D. St. Clair (David); B. St Pourcain (Beate); J. Stalker (Jim); E. Stevens (Elizabeth); J. Sun (Jianping); G. Surdulescu (Gabriela); J. Suvisaari (Jaana); P. Syrris (Petros); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); R. Taylor (Rohan); J. Tian (Jing); M.D. Tobin (Martin); D. Toniolo (Daniela); M. Traglia (Michela); A. Tybjaerg-Hansen; A.M. Valdes; A.M. Vandersteen (Anthony M.); A. Varbo (Anette); P. Vijayarangakannan (Parthiban); P.M. Visscher (Peter); L.V. Wain (Louise); J.T. Walters (James); G. Wang (Guangbiao); J. Wang (Jun); Y. Wang (Yu); K. Ward (Kirsten); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); P.H. Whincup (Peter); T. Whyte (Tamieka); H.J. Williams (Hywel J.); K.A. Williamson (Kathleen); C. Wilson (Crispian); S.G. Wilson (Scott); K. Wong (Kim); C. Xu (Changjiang); J. Yang (Jian); G. Zaza (Gianluigi); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); F. Zhang (Feng); P. Zhang (Pingbo); W. Zhang (Weihua)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractImputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced

  5. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  6. Re-active Passive (RAP) Devices for Control of Noise Transmission through a Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneal, James P.; Giovanardi, Marco; Fuller, Chris R.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Re-Active Passive (RAP) devices have been developed to control low frequency (transmission through a panel. These devices use a combination of active, re-active, and passive technologies packaged into a single unit to control a broad frequency range utilizing the strength of each technology over its best suited frequency range. The RAP device uses passive constrained layer damping to cover the relatively high frequency range (>200 Hz), reactive distributed vibration absorber) to cover the medium frequency range (75 to 250 Hz), and active control for controlling low frequencies (transmission through a panel mounted in a transmission loss test facility. Experimental results are presented for the bare panel, and combinations of passive treatment, reactive treatment, and active control. Results indicate that three RAP devices were able to increase the overall broadband (15-1000 Hz) transmission loss by 9.4 dB. These three devices added a total of 285 grams to the panel mass of 6.0 kg, or approximately 5%, not including control electronics.

  7. Re-Active Passive devices for control of noise transmission through a panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneal, James P.; Giovanardi, Marco; Fuller, Chris R.; Palumbo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Re-Active Passive devices have been developed to control low-frequency (transmission through a panel. These devices use a combination of active, re-active, and passive technologies packaged into a single unit to control a broad frequency range utilizing the strength of each technology over its best suited frequency range. The Re-Active Passive device uses passive constrained layer damping to cover relatively high-frequency range (>150 Hz), reactive distributed vibration absorber to cover the medium-frequency range (50-200 Hz), and active control for controlling low frequencies (transmission through a panel mounted in the Transmission Loss Test Facility at Virginia Tech. Experimental results are presented for the bare panel, and combinations of passive treatment, reactive treatment, and active control. Results indicate that three Re-Active Passive devices were able to increase the overall broadband (15-1000 Hz) transmission loss by 9.4 dB. These three devices added a total of 285 g to the panel mass of 6.0 kg, or approximately 5%, not including control electronics.

  8. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries: A dynamic panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, A.; Zarraga, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market.

  9. Alternative Shutdown Panel. Amaraz Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Santa Maria Valin, J.

    2016-07-01

    Between 2010 and 2014 the Nuclear Power Plant of Almaraz conducted one of the most complex projects in its history: The installation of an Alternative Shutdown Panel with the capability to stop the plant in case of fire in the Control room or in the Cable room. This project represented a great economic and organizational effort for the plant, but at the same time has been a great improvement in the safety of the installation, which was demonstrated by the achievement of a major milestone in the history of Almaraz: The actual shutdown from outside of the Control room. (Author)

  10. Safe handling of plutonium: a panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This guide results from a meeting of a Panel of Experts held by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 8 to 12 November 1971. It is directed to workers in research laboratories handling plutonium in gram amounts. Contents: aspects of the physical and chemical properties of plutonium; metabolic features of plutonium; facility design features for safe handling of plutonium (layout of facility, working zones, decontamination room, etc.); glove boxes; health surveillance (surveillance of environment and supervision of workers); emergencies; organization. Annexes: types of glove boxes; tables; mobile ..cap alpha.. air sampler; aerosol monitor; bio-assay limits of detection; examples of contamination control monitors.

  11. Sound transmission reduction with intelligent panel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Chris R.; Clark, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations are performed of the use of intelligent panel systems to control the sound transmission and radiation. An intelligent structure is defined as a structural system with integrated actuators and sensors under the guidance of an adaptive, learning type controller. The system configuration is based on the Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) concept where control inputs are applied directly to the structure to minimize an error quantity related to the radiated sound field. In this case multiple piezoelectric elements are employed as sensors. The importance of optimal shape and location is demonstrated to be of the same order of influence as increasing the number of channels of control.

  12. Acoustic Panel Liner for an Engine Nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ayle, Earl (Inventor); Ichihashi, Fumitaka (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic panel liner includes a face sheet, back plate, and liner core positioned there-between, which may be used in an engine nacelle. Elongated chambers contain variable amounts of septa at a calibrated depth or depths. The septa may have varying DC flow resistance. The chambers may have a hexagonal or other polygonal cross sections. The septa, such as mesh caps, may be bonded to an inner wall of a corresponding chamber. The insertion depths may be the same or different. If different, the pattern of distribution of the depths may be randomized.

  13. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  14. Front panel human interface for FASTBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.; Holmes, T.L.; Paffrath, L.; Steffani, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A human interface based on the Snoop diagnostic module has been designed to facilitate checkout of FASTBUS devices, diagnosis of system faults, and monitoring of system performance. This system, which is a generalization of the usual computer front panel or control console, includes logic analyzer functions, display and manual-control access to other modules, a microprocessor which allows the user to create and execute diagnostic programs and store them on a minifloppy disk, and a diagnostic network which allows remote console operation and coordination of information from multiple segments' Snoops

  15. Fabrication of dense panels in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, P.; Roger, J.; Pointud, R.

    1958-04-01

    The authors report a study aimed at the fabrication of large and dense lithium fluoride panels. This sintered lithium fluoride is then supposed to be used for the construction of barriers of protection against a flow of thermal neutrons. They briefly present the raw material which is used under the form of chamotte obtained through a pre-sintering process which is also described. Grain size measurements and sample preparation are indicated. Shaping, drying, and thermal treatment are briefly described, and characteristics of the sintered product are indicated

  16. Development of panel loudspeaker system: design, evaluation and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, M R; Huang, T

    2001-06-01

    Panel speakers are investigated in terms of structural vibration and acoustic radiation. A panel speaker primarily consists of a panel and an inertia exciter. Contrary to conventional speakers, flexural resonance is encouraged such that the panel vibrates as randomly as possible. Simulation tools are developed to facilitate system integration of panel speakers. In particular, electro-mechanical analogy, finite element analysis, and fast Fourier transform are employed to predict panel vibration and the acoustic radiation. Design procedures are also summarized. In order to compare the panel speakers with the conventional speakers, experimental investigations were undertaken to evaluate frequency response, directional response, sensitivity, efficiency, and harmonic distortion of both speakers. The results revealed that the panel speakers suffered from a problem of sensitivity and efficiency. To alleviate the problem, a woofer using electronic compensation based on H2 model matching principle is utilized to supplement the bass response. As indicated in the result, significant improvement over the panel speaker alone was achieved by using the combined panel-woofer system.

  17. Global status of recycling waste solar panels: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Li, Jinhui; Tan, Quanyin; Peters, Anesia Lauren; Yang, Congren

    2018-05-01

    With the enormous growth in the development and utilization of solar-energy resources, the proliferation of waste solar panels has become problematic. While current research into solar panels has focused on how to improve the efficiency of the production capacity, the dismantling and recycling of end-of-life (EOL) panels are seldom considered, as can be seen, for instance, in the lack of dedicated solar-panel recycling plants. EOL solar-panel recycling can effectively save natural resources and reduce the cost of production. To address the environmental conservation and resource recycling issues posed by the huge amount of waste solar panels regarding environmental conservation and resource recycling, the status of the management and recycling technologies for waste solar panels are systemically reviewed and discussed in this article. This review can provide a quantitative basis to support the recycling of PV panels, and suggests future directions for public policy makers. At present, from the technical aspect, the research on solar panel recovery is facing many problems, and we need to further develop an economically feasible and non-toxic technology. The research on solar photovoltaic panels' management at the end of life is just beginning in many countries, and there is a need for further improvement and expansion of producer responsibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. JERAMI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PANEL AKUSTIK PELAPIS DINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of walling panels with acoustic qualification has surprisingly increased, due to the needs for home theaters and mini recording studios in the increase of environmental noise. Therefore, good supply of acoustic panels, especially those with lower price are necessary. A series of study to explore possibility in using paddy-straw as main material to construct cheap and high quality panels has been developed. Prior to this study, an earlier small research showed there was a great potency in using paddy-straw as panels, especially ones drawn from paddy in type IR. The earlier study recommends further research to examine strength of compression and tensile of the constructed panels to go for building materials, which is presented in this paper. Acoustic qualification of the panels is subject for further reserach. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Kebutuhan akan panel pelapis dinding yang bersifat akustik terus meningkat seiring meningkatnya kebisingan dan kebutuhan terhadap ruang studio pribadi. Ketersediaan panel pelapis dinding dengan harga yang lebih terjangkau seperti yang terbuat dari bahan limbah sangatlah dibutuhkan. Pada penelitian awal telah diselidiki kemungkinan penggunaan jerami yang merupakan limbah sebagai bahan baku pembuatan panel akustik. Penelitian tersebut menunjukkan bahwa jerami sangat potensial digunakan sebagai bahan aku panel, terutama jerami padi berjenis IR. Selanjutnya panel jerami ini perlu mendapatkan perlakukan uji desak dan lentur untuk memastikan kemampuannya menahan berat sendiri dan kekuatannya saat proses penggunaan, sebelum akhirnya mengalami pengujian berkaitan dengan kualitas akustik. Kekuatan desak dan lentur panel dimaksud, tersaji dalam tulisan ini. Kata kunci: panel jerami, uji desak, uji lentur.

  19. Manufacturing and Structural Feasibility of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Structural Insulated Panels for Panelized Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are emerging in the fields of automobile and aerospace industries to replace the parts such as body panels, seats, and other parts subjected to higher bending strength. In the construction industries, they have the potential to replace the wood and oriented strand boards (OSB laminates in the structural insulated panels (SIPs. They possess numerous advantages over traditional OSB SIPs such as being environmental friendly, recyclable, energy efficient, inherently flood resistant, and having higher strength and wind resistance. This paper mainly focuses on the manufacturing feasibility and structural characterization of natural fiber reinforced structural insulated panels (NSIPs using natural fiber reinforced polymeric (NFRP laminates as skin. To account for the use of natural fibers, the pretreatments are required on natural fibers prior to use in NFRP laminates, and, to address this issue properly, the natural fibers were given bleaching pretreatments. To this end, flexure test and low-velocity impact (LVI tests were carried out on NSIPs in order to evaluate the response of NSIPs under sudden impact loading and uniform bending conditions typical of residential construction. The paper also includes a comparison of mechanical properties of NSIPs with OSB SIPs and G/PP SIPs. The results showed significant increase in the mechanical properties of resulting NSIP panels mainly a 53% increase in load-carrying capacity compared to OSB SIPs. The bending modulus of NSIPs is 190% higher than OSB SIPs and 70% weight reduction compared to OSB SIPs.

  20. Moderately reverberant learning ultrasonic pinch panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Tactile sensing is widely used in human-computer interfaces. However, mechanical integration of touch technologies is often perceived as difficult by engineers because it often limits the freedom of style or form factor requested by designers. Recent work in active ultrasonic touch technologies has made it possible to transform thin glass plates, metallic sheets, or plastic shells into interactive surfaces. The method is based on a learning process of touch-induced, amplitude-disturbed diffraction patterns. This paper proposes, first, an evolution in the design with multiple dipole transducers that improves touch sensitivity or maximum panel size by a factor of ten, and improves robustness and usability in moderately reverberant panels, and second, defines a set of acoustic variables in the signal processing for the evaluation of sensitivity and radiating features. For proof of concept purposes, the design and process are applied to 3.2- and 6-mm-thick glass plates with variable damping conditions. Transducers are bonded to only one short side of the rectangular substrates. Measurements show that the highly sensitive free lateral sides are perfectly adapted for pinch-touch and pinch-slide interactions. The advantage of relative versus absolute touch disturbance measurement is discussed, together with tolerance to abutting contaminants.