WorldWideScience

Sample records for spitzer infrared radius

  1. A Spitzer Survey for Outflows in Infrared Dark Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Cyganowski, Claudia; Smith, Howard; Foster, Jonathan; Povich, Matthew; Finn, Susanna; Jackson, James

    2015-08-01

    We recently completed a survey of Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) with Spitzer to search for new outflows and to study the low-mass young stellar object (YSO) population associated with the IRDCs. The star formation activity of the sample ranges from candidate starless cores to IR-bright massive YSOs. The new, much deeper data will enable us to probe these clouds to lower mass limits to obtain a better census of YSOs in the regions, and to find outflows from deeply embedded objects using the 4.5 micron emission that were previously undetected. We will present some early results from this survey.

  2. The Spitzer IRS infrared spectrum and abundances of the planetary nebula IC 2448

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiles, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Roellig, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 2448. In order to determine the chemical composition of the nebula, we use the infrared line fluxes from the Spitzer spectrum along with optical line fluxes from the literature and ultraviolet line fluxes from archival IUE spectra. We

  3. Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of NEOs: Characterization Of Targets Of The ExploreNEOs (Spitzer) Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Dave, R.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to complement the ExploreNEOs program, we are characterizing surface compositions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (0.7 to 2.5 microns). The core ExploreNEOs program is an ambitious exploration of the history of near-Earth space using NASA's Spitzer space

  4. NEOs in the mid-infrared: from Spitzer to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2016-10-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) account for a surprisingly large fraction of the Spitzer observing time devoted to Solar System science. As a community, we should think of ways to repeat that success with JWST. JWST is planning an open Early Release Science Program, with the expected deadline for letters of intent in early 2017. We can't wait for next year's DPS to develop ideas. The time is now!In order to stir up the discussion, we will present ideas for NEO observing programs that are well adapted to JWST's capabilities and limitations, based on our recent PASP paper (Thomas et al., 2016). Obvious measurement objectives would include* size and albedo from thermal continuum (MIRI photometry)* thermal inertia for objects with well-known shape and spin state (MIRI)* taxonomy through reflection spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy in the NIR and MIR; NIR colors for faint objects.In all cases, JWST's sensitivity will allow us to go deeper than currently possible by at least an order of magnitude. Meter-sized NEOs similar to 2009 BD or 2011 MD are easy targets for MIRI spectrophotometry!The following limitations must be kept in mind, however: JWST's large size makes it slow to move. Most problematic for NEOs is probably the resulting 'speed limit': non-sidereal tracking is supported up to a rate of 30 mas/s, NEOs can easily move faster than that (ways to relax this constraint are under discussion). The average slew to a new target is budgeted to take 30 min, effectively ruling out programs many-target programs like ExploreNEOs or NEOSurvey (see D. Trilling's paper). Additionally, JWST will only observe close to quadrature, translating to large solar phase angles for NEO observations; this is familiar from other space-based IR facilities.

  5. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations in Deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Images: Data Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S.; Mather, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations that would otherwise corrupt the results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large-scale ([greater, similar]30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power-law components. We discuss the relationship between fluctuations measured at different wavelengths and depths, and the relations between constraints on the mean intensity of the CIB and its fluctuation spectrum. Consistent with growing evidence that the [approx]1-5 [mu]m mean intensity of the CIB may not be as far above the integrated emission of resolved galaxies as has been reported in some analyses of DIRBE and IRTS observations, our measurements of spatial fluctuations of the CIB intensity indicate the mean emission from the objects producing the fluctuations is quite low ([greater, similar]1 nW m-2 sr-1 at 3-5 [mu]m), and thus consistent with current [gamma]-ray absorption constraints. The source of the fluctuations may be high-z Population III objects, or a more local component of very low luminosity objects with clustering properties that differ from the resolved galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the upcoming space-based surveys to directly measure the epochs

  6. Star Formation as Seen by the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard A.; Allen, L.; Megeath, T.; Barmby, P.; Calvet, N.; Fazio, G.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P.; Marengo, M.; Gutermuth, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) onboard Spitzer has imaged regions of star formation (SF) in its four IR bands with spatial resolutions of approximately 2"/pixel. IRAC is sensitive enough to detect very faint, embedded young stars at levels of tens of Jy, and IRAC photometry can categorize their stages of development: from young protostars with infalling envelopes (Class 0/1) to stars whose infrared excesses derive from accreting circumstellar disks (Class 11) to evolved stars dominated by photospheric emission. The IRAC images also clearly reveal and help diagnose associated regions of shocked and/or PDR emission in the clouds; we find existing models provide a good start at explaining the continuum of the SF regions IRAC observes.

  7. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  8. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, James G. [Spitzer Space Telescope Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Boulanger, F. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris Sud, Bat. 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Draine, B. T. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Falgarone, E. [Laboratoire de Radio-Astronomie, LERMA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Hily-Blant, P., E-mail: ingalls@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: bania@bu.edu, E-mail: francois.boulanger@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: edith.falgarone@lra.ens.fr, E-mail: pierre.hilyblant@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [LAOG, CNRS UMR 5571, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-20

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v = 0-0) transitions of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) toward six positions in two translucent high Galactic latitude clouds, DCld 300.2-16.9 and LDN 1780. The detection of these lines raises important questions regarding the physical conditions inside low-extinction clouds that are far from ultraviolet radiation sources. The ratio between the S(2) flux and the flux from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 7.9 {mu}m averages 0.007 for these six positions. This is a factor of about four higher than the same ratio measured toward the central regions of non-active Galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. Thus, the environment of these translucent clouds is more efficient at producing rotationally excited H{sub 2} per PAH-exciting photon than the disks of entire galaxies. Excitation analysis finds that the S(1) and S(2) emitting regions are warm (T {approx}> 300 K), but comprise no more than 2% of the gas mass. We find that UV photons cannot be the sole source of excitation in these regions and suggest mechanical heating via shocks or turbulent dissipation as the dominant cause of the emission. The clouds are located on the outskirts of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association and may be dissipating recent bursts of mechanical energy input from supernova explosions. We suggest that pockets of warm gas in diffuse or translucent clouds, integrated over the disks of galaxies, may represent a major source of all non-active galaxy H{sub 2} emission.

  9. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Veilleux, S. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96825 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bothun, G. [Physics Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97402 (United States); Bridge, C. R., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  10. THE SPITZER INTERACTING GALAXIES SURVEY: A MID-INFRARED ATLAS OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassington, N. J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Klein, C., E-mail: n.brassington@herts.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength”; the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  11. Spitzer Observations of Long-term Infrared Variability among Young Stellar Objects in Chamaeleon I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; DeMarchi, Lindsay; Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Herbst, William; Megeath, S. Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about 1 month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster, whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 200-day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find that such variability is common, occurring in ˜80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]-[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200-day survey. Such long timescales are difficult to explain with variations driven by the interaction between the disk and stellar magnetic field, which has a dynamical timescale of days to weeks. The most likely explanation is either structural or temperature fluctuations spread throughout the inner ˜0.5 au of the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic dust structure is highly dynamic.

  12. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-TERM INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN CHAMAELEON I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Herbst, William [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); DeMarchi, Lindsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about 1 month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster, whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 200-day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find that such variability is common, occurring in ∼80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]–[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200-day survey. Such long timescales are difficult to explain with variations driven by the interaction between the disk and stellar magnetic field, which has a dynamical timescale of days to weeks. The most likely explanation is either structural or temperature fluctuations spread throughout the inner ∼0.5 au of the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic dust structure is highly dynamic.

  13. Evolution of Cluster Scaling Relations with Near-infrared and Spitzer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Brian E.; Arnold, R. L.; Welch, T. J.; Rines, K.; Finn, R. A.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present scaling relations for a unique sample of 41 X-ray-selected clusters at moderate redshift (z = 0.35 -- 0.90). Chandra data of the clusters have been used to constrain dark energy (the Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project). We have deep Flamingos/ISPI Ks-band imaging from the NOAO 4m telescopes and mid-infrared IRAC imaging from Spitzer for all 41 clusters. We use these data to estimate the cluster richnesses and stellar masses. We compare these infrared properities to X-ray properties (TX, YX, M500) from Chandra data to measure the evolution of cluster scaling relations and the halo occupation function. Both semi-analytic models and simulations incorporating radiative cooling and galaxy formation overpredict the stellar masses of clusters by a factor of 2-3. Our data will help constrain models of galaxy formation and evolution in clusters. The evolution of cluster scaling relations is an important input for understanding cosmological constraints from future cluster surveys. Companion posters study the evolution of luminosity functions and star formation in these clusters.

  14. Ultraviolet+Infrared Star Formation Rates: Hickson Compact Groups with Swift and SPitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Gallagher, S. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Gronwall, C.; Immler, S.; Reines, A. E.; Hoversten, E.; Charlton, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present Swift UVOT ultraviolet (UV; 1600-3000 A) data with complete three-band UV photometry for a sample of 41 galaxies in 11 nearby ( 1.2 x lO)exp -10)/yr) systems. We compare this bimodality to the previously discovered bimodality in alpha-IRAC, the MIR activity index from a power-law fit to the Spitzer IRAC 4.5-8 micron data for these galaxies. We find that all galaxies with alpha-IRAC 0) are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, as expected if high levels of star-forming activity power MIR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and a hot dust continuum. Consistent with this finding, all elliptical/SO galaxies are in the low-SSFR locus, while 22 out of 24 spirals / irregulars are in the high-SSFR locus, with two borderline cases. We further divide our sample into three subsamples (I, II, and III) according to decreasing H I richness of the parent galaxy group to which a galaxy belongs. Consistent with the SSFR and alpha-IRAC bimodality, 12 out of 15 type I (11 out of 12 type III) galaxies are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, while type II galaxies span almost the full range of SSFR values. We use the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS) to construct a comparison subsample of galaxies that (1) match HCG galaxies in J-band total galaxy luminosity and (2) are not strongly interacting and largely isolated. This selection eliminates mostly low-luminosity dwarfs and galaxies with some degree of peculiarity, providing a substantially improved, quiescent control sample. Unlike HCG galaxies, galaxies in the comparison SINGS subsample are continuously distributed both in SSFR and alpha-IRAC, although they show ranges in SFR(sub TOTAL) values, morphologies and stellar masses similar to those for HCG systems. We test the SSFR bimodality against a number of uncertainties, and find that these can only lead to its further enhancement. Excluding galaxies belonging to HCGs with three giant galaxies (triplets) leaves both the SSFR and the alpha

  15. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: quarkosmos@kasi.re.kr [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  16. Spitzer Reveals Infrared Optically Thin Synchrotron Emission from the Compact Jet of the Neutron Star X-Ray Binary 4U 0614+091

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliari, S.; Tomsick, J.A.; Maccarone, T.J.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R.P.; Nelemans, G.A.; Russell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Spitzer observations of the neutron star (ultracompact) X-ray binary (XRB) 4U 0614+091 with the Infrared Array Camera reveal emission of nonthermal origin in the range 3.5-8 mum. The mid-infrared spectrum is well fit by a power law with spectral index of alpha=-0.57+/-0.04 (where the flux density is

  17. A Search to Uncover the Infrared Excess (IRXS) Sources in the Spitzer Enhanced Imaging Products (SEIP) Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jamie Lynn; Duranko, Gary; Gorjian, Varoujan; Lineberger, Howard; Orr, Laura; Adewole, Ayomikun; Bradford, Eric; Douglas, Alea; Kohl, Steven; Larson, Lillia; Lascola, Gus; Orr, Quinton; Scott, Mekai; Walston, Joseph; Wang, Xian

    2018-01-01

    The Spitzer Enhanced Imaging Products catalog (SEIP) is a collection of nearly 42 million point sources obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope during its 5+ year cryogenic mission. Strasburger et al (2014) isolated sources with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >10 in five infrared (IR) wavelength channels (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8 and 24 microns) to begin a search for sources with infrared excess (IRXS). They found 76 objects that were never catalogued before. Based on this success, we intend to dig deeper into the catalog in an attempt to find more IRXS sources, specifically by lowering the SNR on the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 micron channels. The ultimate goal is to use this large sample to seek rare astrophysical sources that are transitional in nature and evolutionarily very important.Our filtering of the database at SNR > 5 yielded 461,000 sources. This was further evaluated and reduced to only the most interesting based on source location on a [3.6]-[4.5] vs [4.5]-[24] color-color diagram. We chose a sample of 985 extreme IRXS sources for further inspection. All of these candidate sources were visually inspected and cross-referenced against known sources in existing databases, resulting in a list of highly reliable IRXS sources.These sources will prove important in the study of galaxy and stellar evolution, and will serve as a starting point for further investigation.

  18. OUTFLOWS IN {rho} OPHIUCHI AS SEEN WITH THE SPITZER INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang Miaomiao

    2009-01-01

    .... In addition, at the positions of previously observed HH objects or near-infrared emission, we detected 31 mid-infrared outflows, among which seven correspond to previously observed HH objects and 30...

  19. BROADBAND ESO/VISIR-SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE OBSCURED SUPERGIANT X-RAY BINARY IGR J16318-4848

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaty, S.; Rahoui, F., E-mail: sylvain.chaty@cea.fr, E-mail: frahoui@cfa.harvard.edu [AIM (UMR-E 9005 CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot) Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, Centre de Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-06-01

    A new class of X-ray binaries has recently been discovered by the high-energy observatory INTEGRAL. It is composed of intrinsically obscured supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries, unveiled by means of multi-wavelength X-ray, optical, near- and mid-infrared observations, in particular, photometric and spectroscopic observations using ESO facilities. However, the fundamental questions about these intriguing sources, namely, their formation, evolution, and the nature of their environment, are still unsolved. Among them, IGR J16318-4848, a compact object orbiting around a supergiant B[e] star, seems to be one of the most extraordinary celestial sources of our Galaxy. We present here new ESO/Very Large Telescope (VLT) VISIR mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observations of this source. First, line diagnostics allow us to confirm the presence of absorbing material (dust and cold gas) enshrouding the whole binary system, and to characterize the nature of this material. Second, by fitting broadband near- to mid-infrared spectral energy distribution, including ESO NTT/SofI, VLT/VISIR, and Spitzer data, with a phenomenological model for sgB[e] stars, we show that the star is surrounded by an irradiated rim heated to a temperature of {approx}3800-5500 K, along with a viscous disk component at an inner temperature of {approx}750 K. VISIR data allow us to exclude the spherical geometry for the dust component. This detailed study will allow us in the future to get better constraints on the formation and evolution of such rare and short-living high-mass X-ray binary systems in our Galaxy.

  20. Spitzer study of an extreme tidal disruption event in a luminous infrared galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Seppo; Kool, Erik; Ryder, Stuart; Perez-Torres, Miguel; Kankare, Erkki; Reynolds, Thomas; Fraser, Morgan; Kotak, Rubina

    2017-10-01

    Observations of thermal emission from warm dust surrounding tidal disruption events (TDEs) are still very sparse. We propose short IRAC observations to follow the 3.6 and 4.5 um light curve evolution of an extreme TDE candidate in a nearby luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IRAS 23436+5257. Although LIRGs are locally a rare class of galaxies, they already appear to be over-abundant among TDE hosts. This event was discovered using adaptive optics (AO) assisted near-IR observations with the Keck telescope and is consistent with an extremely energetic TDE with much of its emission reprocessed by dense gas, and re-radiated at IR wavelengths by local dust. Combined with our already ongoing ground-based near-IR and multifrequency radio interferometric monitoring, we will be able to determine the nature of the event, its bolometric luminosity and the total radiated energy. Finally, events similar to the one in IRAS 23436+5257 would not be detectable by optical surveys nor ultraviolet or soft X-ray observations and could be just the tip of the iceberg of a hitherto missed TDE population which remains to be unveiled by the JWST.

  1. NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS IN DEEP SPITZER/IRAC SURVEY DATA AND THEIR COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashlinsky, A. [SSAI, Lanham MD 20706 (United States); Arendt, R. G.; Mather, J.; Moseley, S. H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G., E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov [Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We extend previous measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign using new data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Two fields with depths of {approx_equal} 12 hr pixel{sup -1} over three epochs are analyzed at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Maps of the fields were assembled using a self-calibration method uniquely suitable for probing faint diffuse backgrounds. Resolved sources were removed from the maps to a magnitude limit of mag{sub AB} {approx_equal} 25, as indicated by the level of the remaining shot noise. The maps were then Fourier transformed and their power spectra were evaluated. Instrumental noise was estimated from the time-differenced data, and subtracting this isolates the spatial fluctuations of the actual sky. The power spectra of the source-subtracted fields remain identical (within the observational uncertainties) for the three epochs indicating that zodiacal light contributes negligibly to the fluctuations. Comparing to 8 {mu}m power spectra shows that Galactic cirrus cannot account for the fluctuations. The signal appears isotropically distributed on the sky as required for an extragalactic origin. The CIB fluctuations continue to diverge to >10 times those of known galaxy populations on angular scales out to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign . The low shot-noise levels remaining in the diffuse maps indicate that the large-scale fluctuations arise from the spatial clustering of faint sources well below the confusion noise. The spatial spectrum of these fluctuations is in reasonable agreement with an origin in populations clustered according to the standard cosmological model ({Lambda}CDM) at epochs coinciding with the first stars era.

  2. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential

  3. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  4. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.; Werner, M. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Soifer, B. T.; Levine, D. A.; Romana, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  5. Proper Motions of Young Stellar Outflows in the Mid-infrared with Spitzer (IRAC). I. The NGC 1333 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G.

    2013-02-01

    We use two 4.5 μm Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a ~7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of ~9-13 km s-1, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from ~10 to 100 km s-1. The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities <=20 km s-1. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  6. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  7. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds. W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours. Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars. This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities. This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

  8. SSGSS: The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Charlot, Stéphane; Heckman, Timothy M.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Seibert, Mark; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) provides a new sample of 101 star-forming galaxies at z <0.2 with unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage. New mid-to far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope is added to a rich suite of previous imaging and spectroscopy,

  9. Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events

  10. A Short and Personal History of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, born as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and later the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (still SIRTF), was under discussion and development within NASA and the scientific community for more than 30 years prior to its launch in 2003. This brief history chronicles a few of the highlights and the lowlights of those 30 years from the authors personal perspective. A much more comprehensive history of SIRTF/Spitzer has been written by George Rieke (2006).

  11. The Great Exoplanet Eclipse: Spitzer Observations of the Benchmark Sub-Saturn-Mass Planet KELT-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Knicole; Beatty, Thomas; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Lopez, Eric; Stassun, Keivan; Rodriguez, Joseph; Pepper, Joshua; James, David

    2017-10-01

    KELT-11b is a unique sub-Saturn-mass planet with a super-Jupiter radius that is in orbit around a bright, metal-rich, sub-giant star. We propose to observe a single eclipse of KELT-11b with Spitzer in IRAC Channel 2, which will allow us to precisely constrain the orbital eccentricity of the planet, study atmospheric circulation in an as yet unexplored regime of planetary surface gravity and temperature, and perform comparative science with other exoplanets in order to explore the correlation between surface gravity and thermal structure. Spitzer is the only active facility capable of providing the high precision, continuous infrared eclipse photometry of KELT-11b that is required to reach these objectives. The Spitzer infrared eclipse combined with near-infrared transmission spectroscopy that we will obtain with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope will ultimately enable a detailed investigation of the atmospheric properties of KELT-11b and will provide a benchmark for planning thermal observations of exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Spitzer IRS spectroscopy of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Mata, H.; Fang, X.; Nigoche-Netro, A.; Toalá, J. A.; Rubio, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ~= 900 +/-70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar III], [S IV], and [Ne II] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.

  13. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  14. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS). IV. Discovery of High-redshift AGB Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. L.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Whitelock, P. A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sonneborn, G.; Sloan, G. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Meixner, M.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O. C.; Javadi, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The survey for DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) identified several candidate Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in nearby dwarf galaxies and showed that dust can form even in very metal-poor systems ({\\boldsymbol{Z}}∼ 0.008 {Z}ȯ ). Here, we present a follow-up survey with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), using filters that are capable of distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) stars: F127M, F139M, and F153M. We include six star-forming DUSTiNGS galaxies (NGC 147, IC 10, Pegasus dIrr, Sextans B, Sextans A, and Sag DIG), all more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds and spanning 1 dex in metallicity. We double the number of dusty AGB stars known in these galaxies and find that most are carbon rich. We also find 26 dusty M-type stars, mostly in IC 10. Given the large dust excess and tight spatial distribution of these M-type stars, they are most likely on the upper end of the AGB mass range (stars undergoing Hot Bottom Burning). Theoretical models do not predict significant dust production in metal-poor M-type stars, but we see evidence for dust excess around M-type stars even in the most metal-poor galaxies in our sample (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.26{--}7.50). The low metallicities and inferred high stellar masses (up to ∼10 {M}ȯ ) suggest that AGB stars can produce dust very early in the evolution of galaxies (∼30 Myr after they form), and may contribute significantly to the dust reservoirs seen in high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14073.

  15. The Vega Debris Disk: A Surprise from Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Misselt, K. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Moro-Martin, A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Bendo, G. J.; Gordon, K. D.; Hines, D. C.; Wyatt, M. C.; Holland, W. S.; Marengo, M.; Megeath, S. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2005-07-01

    We present high spatial resolution mid- and far-infrared images of the Vega debris disk obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The disk is well resolved, and its angular size is much larger than found previously. The radius of the disk is at least 43" (330 AU), 70" (543 AU), and 105" (815 AU) in extent at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. The disk images are circular, smooth, and without clumpiness at all three wavelengths. The radial surface brightness profiles follow radial power laws of r-3 or r-4 and imply an inner boundary at a radius of 11''+/-2'' (86 AU). Assuming an amalgam of amorphous silicate and carbonaceous grains, the disk can be modeled as an axially symmetric and geometrically thin disk, viewed face-on, with the surface particle number density following an inverse radial power law. The disk radiometric properties are consistent with a range of models using grains of sizes ~1 to ~50 μm. The exact minimum and maximum grain size limits depend on the adopted grain composition. However, all of these models require an r-1 surface number density profile and a total mass of (3+/-1.5)×10-3M⊕ in grains. We find that a ring, containing grains larger than 180 μm and at radii of 86-200 AU from the star, can reproduce the observed 850 μm flux, while its emission does not violate the observed MIPS profiles. This ring could be associated with a population of larger asteroidal bodies analogous to our own Kuiper Belt. Cascades of collisions starting with encounters among these large bodies in the ring produce the small debris that is blown outward by radiation pressure to much larger distances, where we detect its thermal emission. The relatively short lifetime (<1000 yr) of these small grains and the observed total mass, ~3×10-3M⊕, set a lower limit on the dust production rate, ~1015 g s-1. This rate would require a very massive asteroidal reservoir for the dust to be produced in a steady state throughout Vega's life. Instead

  16. Multiple asteroid systems : Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the

  17. Spitzer IRS Analysis of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, Michael R.; Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Mahmud, A.; Moses, J. I.; Mainzer, A. K.; Yung, Y. L.

    2008-09-01

    Recent (2005) Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) data of Neptune between 5 and 20 um contain a wealth of information about the chemical composition and temperature structure of its cold atmospheres. Emission features in its spectrum arise from many hydrocarbons, including ethane, acetylene and methane, and they appear to be superimposed on top of a collision-induced H2 continuum. As the derivation of all other parameters depends on the assumed temperature profile, special efforts were taken to ensure that the stratospheric profile between 1 bar and 0.3 mbar matched the H2 continuum and the H2 S(1) quadrupole feature at 17 um. Additionally we matched the methane v4 feature at 7.7 um in order to constrain the stratospheric temperature profile above the 0.3-mbar level as well as the methane stratospheric volume mixing ratios (VMRs). After the determination of the temperature profile and methane VMRs, the VMRs for several species were then determined through fitting their corresponding features in the spectrum, initially by scaling existing photochemical models (see Mahmud et al., this conference). These species include methylacetylene, diacetylene, benzene, acetylene, ethane, methyl radical, ethylene and carbon dioxide which are all derived from methane photochemistry. I would like to acknowledge the NASA USRP program for supporting this work.

  18. Galactic Cepheids with Spitzer. I. Leavitt Law and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Barmby, P.; Bono, G.; Welch, D. L.; Romaniello, M.

    2010-01-01

    Classical Cepheid variable stars have been important indicators of extragalactic distance and Galactic evolution for over a century. The Spitzer Space Telescope has opened the possibility of extending the study of Cepheids into the mid- and far-infrared, where interstellar extinction is reduced. We have obtained photometry from images of a sample of Galactic Cepheids with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Infrared Photometer for Spitzer instruments on Spitzer. Here we present the first mid-infrared period-luminosity relations for Classical Cepheids in the Galaxy, and the first ever Cepheid period-luminosity relations at 24 and 70 μm. We compare these relations with theoretical predictions, and with period-luminosity relations obtained in recent studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud. We find a significant period-color relation for the [3.6] - [8.0] IRAC color. Other mid-infrared colors for both Cepheids and non-variable supergiants are strongly affected by variable molecular spectral features, in particular deep CO absorption bands. We do not find strong evidence for mid-infrared excess caused by warm (~500 K) circumstellar dust. We discuss the possibility that recent detections with near-infrared interferometers of circumstellar shells around δ Cep, ell Car, Polaris, Y Oph, and RS Pup may be a signature of shocked gas emission in a dust-poor wind associated with pulsation-driven mass loss.

  19. Brown dwarf distances and atmospheres: Spitzer Parallaxes and the Keck/NIRSPEC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily C.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in infrared technology have been essential towards improving our understanding of the solar neighborhood, revealing a large population of brown dwarfs, which span the mass regime between planets and stars. My thesis combines near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and astrometric analysis of nearby low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with instrumentation work to upgrade the NIRSPEC instrument for the Keck II Telescope. I will present results from a program using Spitzer/IRAC data to measure precise locations and distances to 22 of the coldest and closest brown dwarfs. These distances allow us to constrain absolute physical properties, such as mass, radius, and age, of free-floating planetary-mass objects through comparison to atmospheric and evolutionary models. NIR spectroscopy combined with the Spitzer photometry reveals a detailed look into the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and gaseous extrasolar planets. Additionally, I will discuss the improvements we are making to the NIRSPEC instrument at Keck. NIRSPEC is a NIR echelle spectrograph, capable of R~2000 and R~25,000 observations in the 1-5 μm range. As part of the upgrade, I performed detector characterization, optical design of a new slit-viewing camera, mechanical testing, and electronics design. NIRSPEC’s increased efficiency will allow us to obtain moderate- and high-resolution NIR spectra of objects up to a magnitude fainter than the current NIRSPEC design. Finally, I will demonstrate the utility of a NIR laser frequency comb as a high-resolution calibrator. This new technology will revolutionize precision radial velocity measurements in the coming decade.

  20. RR Lyrae period luminosity relations with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Jillian R.; Marengo, Massimo; CRRP Team

    2017-01-01

    RR Lyrae variable stars have long been known to be valuable distance indicators, but only recently has a well defined period luminosity relationship been utilized at infrared wavelengths. In my thesis, I am combining Spitzer Space Telescope data of RR Lyrae stars obtained as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Program with ground based NIR data to characterize the period-luminosity-metallicity (PLZ) relation and provide an independent Population II calibration of the cosmic distance scale. I will discuss the ongoing efforts to calibrate this relation using objects such as M4 and NGC 6441 and how the first data release from the Gaia mission impacts our findings. I will also compare my preliminary empirical relations to theoretical PLZ relations derived from stellar pulsation models.

  1. Repeatability of Spitzer/IRAC exoplanetary eclipses with Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths $>$3 $\\mu$m, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in the past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same datasets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measureme...

  2. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: Identification of Spitzer-IRS staring mode targets in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Olivia; Sage-Spec Team

    2017-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope observed over 1000 point sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As a follow up to the SAGE-Spec legacy program (Kemper et al. 2010), we have now extended the initial classification of 197 sources in the LMC (Woods et al. 2011) to all 1000 Spitzer-IRS staring mode targets in the SAGE footprint. We classify these point sources into evolutionary and chemical types according to their infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership, and variability information. This spectral classification will allow us improve our understanding of the stellar populations in the LMC, study the composition, and characteristics of dust species in a variety of LMC objects, and to verify the photometric classification methods used by mid-IR surveys. Finally we discuss the application of mid-IR spectral and photometric classifications to data that will be obtained from the MIRI instrument on JWST.

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Marley, Mark S.; Gizis, John E.; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 microns and 0.6 mag at 4.5 microns. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 microns) and W2 (4.6 microns) from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude approximately 0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude approximately 0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune's atmosphere than for K2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune's atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 micron filters.

  4. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, Tanya [Leibniz Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Lacy, Mark [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Spoon, Henrik [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 219 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Petric, Andreea [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: turrutia@aip.de, E-mail: mlacy@nrao.edu, E-mail: spoon@isc.astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: eilat.glikman@yale.edu, E-mail: ap@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: bschulz@ipac.caltech.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 A emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  5. Cometary Orbital Trends with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S.; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Knight, Matthew M.; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane H.; Bauer, James M.

    2017-10-01

    Cometary mass-loss, i.e., activity, is nominally driven by the sublimation of volatiles. The three most abundant volatiles in the average comet are water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Of the three, CO2 is the most challenging to measure directly, and cannot be observed from the ground due to telluric absorptions. Owing to observations made by several space telescopes, including ISO, Spitzer, Akari, and WISE, as well as spacecraft missions to comets, we have a good estimate of the range of CO2 abundances in the comet population (~5-30% with respect to water). However, spacecraft missions have shown that the production of H2O, CO2 and CO are not fully understood. At each of three well-studied comets (9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2, and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko), CO2 and H2O have had distinct distributions in the coma, suggesting different release mechanisms or heterogeneous source regions. For 67P, this resulted in relative abundances that varied along the comet’s orbit, demonstrating that a single measurement of the CO2-to-water abundance ratio in a cometary coma is not necessarily reflective of the bulk nucleus composition.To improve our understanding of CO2 production in comets, we began a time-domain survey of 24 targets with the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2015. Most targets are observed multiple times on month-long timescales, and some comets are observed on year-long timescales. We present a summary of the Spitzer project at the 2.5-year mark, including total CO2 production rates at heliocentric distances beyond 3 au, number and size of CO2 active areas, and seasonal variations in dust and CO2 production. We also compare the Spitzer results to comets observed in the NEOWISE survey (Bauer et al. 2017, this meeting). The NEOWISE data is complementary in that it provides observations of many targets with limited selection biases, whereas the Orbital Trends Survey observes a small number of targets in detail.This work is based on observations made with the

  6. Observations of Near Earth Objects with Spitzer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven R.; Emery, Joshua P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard Alan

    2016-01-01

    We are carrying out an Exploration Science Warm Spitzer program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 550 Near Earth Objects in 710 hours of Spitzer time. For each object we use a thermal model to derive diameter and albedo. For each object we also derive a (partial) lightcurve; total elapsed

  7. Spitzer Science Center within an Enterprise Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, T.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center's (SSC) evolutionary development approach, coupled with a flexible, scaleable hardware and software architecture has been key in Spitzer's ability to handle an explosion of data products, evolving data definitions, and changing data quality requirements. Spitzer is generating (depending on the campaign and instrument) about 10 TB of pre-archive data every 14 to 20 days. This generally reduces to between 3 TB and 6 TB of standard products, again depending on the campaign and instrument. This paper will discuss (1) the Spitzer Science Center's responses to evolving data, quality, and processing requirements and (2) how robust or not was the original architecture to allow Spitzer to accommodate on-going change.

  8. Spitzer IRS Observations of FU Orionis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. D.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Watson, D. M.; Ibrahimov, M.; Furlan, E.; Sargent, B.; Forrest, W. J.

    2006-09-01

    We present 5-35 μm spectra, taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, of five FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, BBW 76, and V346 Nor. All but V346 Nor reveal amorphous silicate grains in emission at 10 and 20 μm, and show water-vapor absorption bands at 5.8 and 6.8 μm and SiO or possibly methane absorption at 8 μm. These absorption features closely match these bands in model stellar photospheres-signs of the gaseous photospheres of the inner regions of these objects' accretion disks. The continuum emission at 5-8 μm is also consistent with such disks, and, for FU Orionis and BBW 76, longer wavelength emission may be fit by a model that includes moderate disk flaring. V1057 Cyg and V1515 Cyg have much more emission at longer wavelengths than the others, perhaps evidence of a substantial remnant of their natal, infalling envelopes.

  9. Cold disks : Spitzer spectroscopy of disks around young stars with large gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G. A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Merin, B.; Augereau, J. C.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Evans, N. J.; Geers, V. C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brown, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified four circumstellar disks with a deficit of dust emission from their inner 15-50 AU. All four stars have F-G spectral type and were uncovered as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope "Cores to Disks" Legacy Program Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) first-look survey of similar to 100 pre -

  10. Pediatric Distal Radius Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Karan; Abzug, Joshua M; Sesko Bauer, Andrea; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2017-02-15

    Distal radius fractures are the most common orthopaedic injury that occur in the pediatric population. The annual incidence of distal radius fractures has increased as a result of earlier participation in sporting activities, increased body mass index, and decreased bone mineral density. Most distal radius fractures are sustained after a fall onto an outstretched arm that results in axial compression on the extremity or from direct trauma to the extremity. Physeal fractures of the distal radius are described based on the Salter-Harris classification system. Extraphyseal fractures of the distal radius are described as incomplete or complete based on the amount of cortical involvement. A thorough physical examination of the upper extremity is necessary to rule out any associated injuries. PA and lateral radiographs of the wrist usually are sufficient to diagnose a distal radius fracture. The management of distal radius fractures is based on several factors, including patient age, fracture pattern, and the amount of growth remaining. Nonsurgical management is the most common treatment option for patients who have distal radius fractures because marked potential for remodeling exists. If substantial angulation or displacement is present, closed reduction maneuvers with or without percutaneous pinning should be performed. Patients with physeal fractures of the distal radius that may result in malunion who present more than 10 days postinjury should not undergo manipulation of any kind because of the increased risk for physeal arrest.

  11. Parallel MOPEX: Computing Mosaics of Large-Area Spitzer Surveys on a Cluster Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spitzer Science Center's MOPEX software is a part of the Spitzer Space Telescope's operational pipeline that enables detection of cosmic ray collisions with the detector array, masking of the corrupted pixels due to these collisions, subsequent mosaicking of image fields, and extraction of point sources to create catalogs of celestial objects. This paper reports on our experiences in parallelizing the parts of MOPEX related to cosmic ray rejection and mosaicking on a 1,024-processor cluster computer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The architecture and performance of the new Parallel MOPEX software are described. This work was done in order to rapidly mosaic the IRAC shallow survey data, covering a region of the sky observed with one of Spitzer's infrared instruments for the study of galaxy clusters, large-scale structure, and brown dwarfs.

  12. Using drift scans to improve astrometry with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, James G.; Carey, Sean J.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Stauffer, John R.

    2014-08-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) is the only space-based instrument currently capable of continuous long duration monitoring of brown dwarfs to detect variability and characterize their atmospheres. Any such studies are limited, however, by the accuracy to which we know the positions and distances to these targets (most of which are newly discovered and therefore do not yet have multiple epochs of astrometric data). To that end, we have begun a new initiative to adapt the astrometric drift scanning technique employed by the Hubble Space Telescope to enhance Spitzer measurements of parallaxes and proper motions of brown dwarfs and other targets. A suite of images are taken with a set of sources scanned across the array. This technique reduces random noise by coaddition, and because each target covers multiple pixels we are able to average over residual instrumental distortion and intra-pixel variations. Although these benefits can be realized with appropriate dithering, scanning is much more effcient because we can take data concurrently with the spacecraft motion, covering many pixels without waiting to reposition and settle. In this contribution we demonstrate that the observing mode works and describe our software for analyzing the observations. We outline ongoing efforts towards simultaneously solving for source position and residual distortion. Initial testing shows a factor of more than 2 improvement in the astrometric precision can be obtained with Spitzer. We anticipate being able to measure parallaxes for sources out to about 50 pc, increasing the volume surveyed by a factor of 100 and enabling luminosity measurements of the young population of brown dwarfs in the β Pictoris moving group. This observing mode will be ready for public use around Winter of 2015.

  13. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downie E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  14. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  15. SPITZER IRAC COLOR DIAGNOSTICS FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexíco, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada BC (Mexico); Lada, Elizabeth A., E-mail: jybarra@astro.unam.mx [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study, we calculate the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color space of UV fluorescent H{sub 2} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine and Li. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV-excited and shock-excited H{sub 2} emission. To test this method, we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster.

  16. Spitzer Observations of the Naked Eye GRB080319B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Rau, Arne; Berger, Edo; Fox, Derek; Ofek, Eran; Werner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    We request a single epoch of IRS blue peak-up imaging of GRB080319B, the brightest optical counterpart to a gamma-ray burst ever detected. The peak optical magnitude observed from GRB080319B, R ~ 6 mag, implies the event was (briefly) visible to the naked eye and almost 3 magnitudes brighter than the previous record holder, GRB990123. Like GRB990123, GRB080319B shows a dramatic rise and fall at early times indicative that we are probing the shocked ejecta of the outflow via reverse shock emission. Spitzer infrared imaging, when coupled with our broadband optical, X-ray, and radio campaign, should help unravel what underlying properties distinguish events like GRB080319B and GRB990123 from the majority of GRB afterglows.

  17. Rotationally Resolved Spitzer Spectra of Comet-Asteroid Transition Object 944 Hidalgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Humberto; Kelley, M. S.; Fernández, Y. R.; Ziffer, J.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Hergenrother, C.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Hargrove, K.; Clautice, D.

    2007-10-01

    Last year (Campins et al. 2006), we reported near-infrared rotational variability in ground-based spectra of comet-asteroid transition object 944 Hidalgo. Since then, we carried out a rotationally resolved study of Hidalgo at mid-infrared wavelengths using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. We obtained 7 to 38 micron spectra of Hidalgo at 10 different rotational phases. These observations were carried out on July 24, 2006, when Hidalgo was at heliocentric and Spitzer-centric distances of 4.83 AU and 4.84 AU. In an initial analysis, we normalized the spectra with a thermal model fit to the continuum (which varied as the cross section of this non-spherical object changed with rotational phase). No detectable rotational variability in the emissivity was found across the wavelength range. All the spectra show clear emissions from silicates. These emissions are qualitatively similar to those seen in the spectra of Trojan asteroids (Emery et al. 2006) and in the spectrum of comet Hale-Bopp (Crovisier et al. 1997). Given the lack of emissivity variability, we averaged all our spectra and compared them with the other Spitzer spectrum of Hidalgo, which was obtained as part of the guaranteed time observations (GTO) on February 10, 2005 when Hidalgo was at heliocentric and Spitzer-centric distances of 1.96 AU and 1.71 AU. Although the 2005 spectrum has better signal-to-noise than the combined 2006 spectra, the two are identical within the uncertainties, save for changes in the thermal continuum. It is not clear why there is spectral variability in the near-infrared and not the longer wavelengths. One possible explanation is that the mineralogy across Hidalgo's surface is similar but some areas have been affected differently by space weathering, i.e., one or more collisions may have exposed fresh material on some of Hidalgo's surface.

  18. Spitzer Survey of the Karin Cluster Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, M.; Lisse, C.; Cheng, A.; Osip, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Karin cluster is one of the youngest known families of main-belt asteroids, dating back to a collisional event only 5.8 Myr ago. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope we have sampled the thermal continua of 17 Karin cluster asteroids, down to the smallest members discovered so far, in order to

  19. SPITZER PARALLAX of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Novati, S. Calchi

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real...

  20. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. III. CH4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Karin I.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2008-01-01

    CH4 is proposed to be the starting point of a rich organic chemistry. Solid CH4 abundances have previously been determined mostly toward high-mass star-forming regions. Spitzer IRS now provides a unique opportunity to probe solid CH4 toward low-mass star-forming regions as well. Infrared spectra

  1. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of

  2. Distal radius triplane fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, A A H; Marya, S; Auplish, S

    2014-11-01

    A triplane fracture is so named because of the three planes traversed by the fracture line. These are physeal fractures that result from injury during the final phase of maturation and cessation of growth. This fracture pattern typically involves the distal tibia. We present a rare case of a triplane fracture involving the distal radius.

  3. Malunion of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Pillukat, Thomas; Mühldorfer, Marion; van Schoonhoven, Jörg

    2012-05-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries, which are steadily becoming a public health issue. One of the most common complications following distal radius fractures is still malunion of the distal radius. This review of the literature surrounding distal radius malunion covers the biomechanics of distal radial malunion, treatment options, indications for surgery, surgical techniques, and results.

  4. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gil

    2017-09-01

    In 2010 the proton charge radius was extracted for the first time from muonic hydrogen, a bound state of a muon and a proton. The value obtained was five standard deviations away from the regular hydrogen extraction. Taken at face value, this might be an indication of a new force in nature coupling to muons, but not to electrons. It also forces to reexamine our understanding of the structure of the proton. In this talk I will describe an ongoing theoretical research effort that seeks to address and resolve this ''proton radius puzzle''. In particular, I will present a reevaluation of the proton structure effects, correcting 40 years of such calculations, and the development of new effective field theoretical tools that would allow to directly connect muonic hydrogen and muon-proton scattering.

  5. A Spitzer-selected Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Momcheva, I.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Tran, K.-V.; Brodwin, M.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; Khan, S. A.; Lotz, J.; McCarthy, P.; McLure, R. J.; Rieke, M.; Rudnick, G.; Sivanandam, S.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report the discovery of a galaxy cluster at z = 1.62 located in the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey XMM-LSS field. This structure was selected solely as an overdensity of galaxies with red Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera colors, satisfying ([3.6] - [4.5])AB> - 0.1 mag. Photometric redshifts derived from the Subaru XMM Deep Survey (BViz bands), the UKIRT Infrared Deep Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UKIDSS-UDS, JK bands), and from the Spitzer Public UDS survey (3.6-8.0 μm) show that this cluster corresponds to a surface density of galaxies at z ≈ 1.6 that is >20σ above the mean at this redshift. We obtained optical spectroscopic observations of galaxies in the cluster region using IMACS on the Magellan telescope. We measured redshifts for seven galaxies in the range z = 1.62-1.63 within 2.8 arcmin (population of red galaxies with (z - J)>1.7 mag. The photometric-redshift probability distributions for the red galaxies are strongly peaked at z = 1.62, coincident with the spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. The rest-frame (U - B) color and scatter of galaxies on the red sequence are consistent with a mean luminosity-weighted age of 1.2 ± 0.1 Gyr, yielding a formation redshift \\overline{z_f}=2.35 ± 0.10, and corresponding to the last significant star formation period in these galaxies. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. This paper also includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This work is based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  6. The (w)hole survey: An unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, N.; Verhaar, B. W.; van Terwisga, S.; Merín, B.; Herczeg, G.; Ligterink, N. F. W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, I.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen candidates, selected by their spectral energy distribution (SED), have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased toward the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star-forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 young stellar objects. Using color criteria, we selected a sample of ~150 candidates and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid- and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC-3D disk models with a limited number of parameters: disk mass, inner disk mass, scale height and flaring, and disk cavity radius, where the latter is the main parameter of interest. About 72% of our targets possibly have dust cavities based on the SED. The derived cavity sizes are consistent with imaging/modeling results in the literature, where available. Trends are found with Ldisk over L∗ ratio and stellar mass and a possible connection with exoplanet orbital radii. A comparison with a previous study where color observables are used reveals large overlap between their category of planet-forming disks and our transition disks with cavities. A large number of the new transition disk candidates are suitable for follow-up observations with ALMA. Full Tables 4, 5, A.1-A.3, C.1, and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  7. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ˜115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (˜98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (˜55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ˜5.4 million sources.

  8. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, A.; Amaro, F. D.; Biraben, F.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Covita, D. S.; Dax, A.; Dhawan, S.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Giesen, A.; Graf, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Indelicato, P.; Julien, L.; Kao, C.-Y.; Knowles, P.; Kottmann, F.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Liu, Y.-W.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Ludhova, L.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mulhauser, F.; Nebel, T.; Nez, F.; Rabinowitz, P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Schaller, L. A.; Schuhmann, K.; Schwob, C.; Taqqu, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Pohl, R.

    2011-09-01

    By means of pulsed laser spectroscopy applied to muonic hydrogen (μ- p) we have measured the 2SF = 11/2 - 2PF = 23/2 transition frequency to be 49881.88(76) GHz [1]. By comparing this measurement with its theoretical prediction [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] based on bound-state QED we have determined a proton radius value of rp = 0.84184(67) fm. This new value differs by 5.0 standard deviations from the COD ATA value of 0.8768(69) fm [8], and 3 standard deviation from the e-p scattering results of 0.897(18) fm [9]. The observed discrepancy may arise from a computational mistake of the energy levels in μp or H, or a fundamental problem in bound-state QED, an unknown effect related to the proton or the muon, or an experimental error.

  9. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real......-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet...

  10. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Rogers, Leslie [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Horch, Elliott [Department of Physics, 501 Crescent Street, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Sullivan, Peter [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Smalley, Barry, E-mail: demory@mit.edu [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST55BG (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M{sub *}= 0.539{sup +0.047}{sub -0.043} M{sub sun} and a radius of R{sub *}= 0.568{sup +0.037}{sub -0.031} R{sub sun}. We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 {+-} 0.10 and an effective temperature of T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R{sub p}= 4.83{sub -0.21}{sup +0.22} R{sub Circled-Plus} that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M{sub p}= 13.9{sup +1.5}{sub -1.4} M{sub Circled-Plus} that translates to a very low planetary density, {rho}{sub p}= 0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}, which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  11. Observations of Hot-Jupiter occultations combining Spitzer and Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of an ongoing program which aim at measuring occultations by their parent stars of transiting hot giant exoplanets discovered recently by Kepler. The observations are obtained in the near infrared with WarmSpitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of measuring the mid-occultation times and the relative occultation depths in each band-passes. Our measurements of occultations depths in the Kepler bandpass is turned into the determination of the optical geometric albedo Ag in this wavelength domain. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations. We combine the optical and near infrared planetary emergent fluxes to obtain broad band emergent spectra of individual planet. We finally compare these spectra to hot Jupiter atmospheric models in order broadly distinguishing these atmospheres between different classes of models.

  12. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of the Aftermath of Microlensing Event MACHO-LMC-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallivayalil, N.; Nguyen, H. T.; Werner, M. W.; Alcock, C.; Patten, B. M.; Stern, D.

    2004-05-01

    Over the past decade a number of teams have clearly detected microlensing towards the Large Magellanic Cloud with the rate of microlensing exceeding what is expected from previously known populations of stars. The interpretation of this excess remains controversial but one of the potential explanations is that the lenses belong to a previously undetected cool component of the disk of the Milky Way. Spitzer with its unprecedented sensitivity in the infra-red could be used very effectively to place bounds on this hypothesis. In this regard we have carried out photometry with the IRAC of the LMC star that was magnified during microlensing event MACHO-LMC-5. This event is unique in the annals of gravitational microlensing: it is the only event for which the lens itself has been observed (once with WFPC2 and twice with ACS/HRC both on the HST). The recent ACS/HRC data confirm that this event shows the phenomenon of ``jerk parallax'', which allowed the identification of the lens as an M dwarf at ˜ 600 pc. The separation between source and lens at the epoch of the Spitzer observations was ˜ 0.24'', and thus the two stars cannot be resloved in the Spitzer images, but a cool stellar lens in a Galactic disk population typically will show up as an infrared excess. In fact MACHO-LMC-5 is detected in all 4 IRAC bands and the photometry clearly shows the red excess expected from the combination of the source and lens star. We report from the colors that the lens is a late M dwarf. We also confirm from this study that we can use this event as a model for further analysis of other LMC events proving that Spitzer will be a very useful tool for studying MACHOs. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  13. Spitzer Observations of MF 16 Nebula and the Associated Ultraluminous X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF MF 16 NEBULA AND THE ASSOCIATED ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE C. T. Berghea and R. P. Dudik United...associated nebula MF 16. This ULX has very similar properties to the famous Holmberg II ULX, the first ULX to show a prominent infrared [O iv] emission...the most interesting developments in ULX history is the discovery in recent years of large ionized bubble nebulae around some of the most famous ULXs

  14. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI): Infrared Detection and Characterization of Exozodiacal Dust to Super-Earths, A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a structurally connected infrared space interferometer with 0.5 m diameter telescopes on a 12.5 m baseline, and is passively cooled to approx.60K. The FKSI operates in the thermal infrared from 3-8 microns in a nulling (or starlight suppressing) mode for the detection and characterization of exoplanets, debris disks, extrasolar zodiacal dust levels. The FKSI will have the highest angular resolution of any infrared space instrument ever made with its nominal resolution of 40 mas at a 5 micron center wavelength. This resolution exceeds that of Spitzer by a factor of 38 and JWST by a factor of 5. The FKSI mission is conceived as a "probe class" or "mid-sized" strategic mission that utilizes technology advances from flagship projects like JWST, SIM, Spitzer, and the technology programs of TPF-I/Darwin. During the past year we began investigating an enhanced version of FKSI with 1-2 m diameter telescopes, passively cooled to 40K, on a 20-m baseline, with a sunshade giving a +/- 45 degree Field-of-Regard. This enhanced design is capable of detecting and characterizing the atmospheres of many 2 Earth-radius super-Earths and a few Earth-twins. We will report progress on the design of the enhanced mission concept and current status of the technologies needed for this mission.

  15. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  16. Spitzer's View of Galaxies in the High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    One of the most important observations made by the Spitzer Space Telescope has been the detection of luminous galaxies back to the era of reionization (z ~ 8), when the universe was less than 700 million years old. The key advance made by Spitzer imaging isthe ability, for the first time, to sample the redshifted rest-frame visible light of these galaxies. When combined with broadband multi-wavelength data, Spitzer observations can be fit to stellar population synthesis models to determine the spectral energy distribution of these galaxies and to constrain their stellar masses and ages and their star formation histories. As a result, there is evidence that most of the stellar mass of these galaxies formed at even higher redshifts (z > 10 to 12) and that asignificant number of galaxies should exist in this region.Searches for galaxies at z ~ 9 to 10 continue. Spitzer observations of massive lensing clusters have also played a pivotal role in this study. The first IRAC detection of a z >6 galaxy came from such observations. Since most of these results were obtained with Spitzer/IRAC 3.6/4.5 μm bands, the Spitzer Warm Mission, when combined with future HST/WFC3 observations, will provide a unique opportunity to obtain the first complete census of the assembly of stellar mass as a function of cosmic time back to the era of reionization, yielding unique information on galaxy formation in the early universe.

  17. SPITZER SEARCH FOR DUST DISKS AROUND CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilikova, Jana; Chu Youhua; Gruendl, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); De Marco, Orsola, E-mail: jbiliko2@astro.illinois.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Two types of dust disks have been discovered around white dwarfs (WDs): small dust disks within the Roche limits of their WDs and large dust disks around hot WDs extending to radial distances of 10-10{sup 2} AU. The majority of the latter WDs are central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). We have therefore used archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of PNs to search for CSPNs with IR excesses and to make a comparative investigation of dust disks around stars at different evolutionary stages. We have examined available images of 72 resolved PNs in the Spitzer archive and found 56 of them large enough for the CSPN to be resolved from the PN. Among these, only 42 CSPNs are visible in IRAC and/or MIPS images and selected for photometric measurements. From the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these CSPNs, we find 19 cases with clear IR excess. Of these, seven are [WC]-type stars, two have apparent visual companions that account for the observed excess emission, two are symbiotic CSPNs, and in eight cases the IR excess originates from an extended emitter, likely a dust disk. For some of these CSPNs, we have acquired follow-up Spitzer MIPS images, Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and Gemini NIRI and Michelle spectroscopic observations. The SEDs and spectra show a great diversity in the emission characteristics of the IR excesses, which may imply different mechanisms responsible for the excess emission. For CSPNs whose IR excesses originate from dust continuum, the most likely dust production mechanisms are (1) breakup of bodies in planetesimal belts through collisions and (2) formation of circumstellar dust disks through binary interactions. A better understanding of post-asymptotic giant branch binary evolution as well as debris disk evolution along with its parent star is needed to distinguish between these different origins. Future observations to better establish the physical parameters of

  18. Spitzer observations of spacecraft target 162173 (1999 JU3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, H.; Emery, J. P.; Kelley, M.; Fernández, Y.; Licandro, J.; Delbó, M.; Barucci, A.; Dotto, E.

    2009-08-01

    Context: Near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999 JU3) is the primary target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Hayabusa-2 sample return mission, and is also on the list of potential targets for the European Space Agency (ESA) Marco Polo sample return mission. Earth-based studies of this object are fundamental to these missions. Aims: Our aim is to provide new constraints on the surface properties of this asteroid. Methods: We present a mid-infrared spectrum (5-38 μm) obtained with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope in May 2008 and results from the application of thermal models. Results: These observations place new constraints on the surface properties of this asteroid. To fit our spectrum we used the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and the more complex thermophysical model (TPM). However, the position of the spin-pole, which is uncertain, is a crucial input parameter for constraining the thermal inertia with the TPM; hence, we consider two pole orientations. First is the extreme case of an equatorial retrograde geometry from which we derive a rigorous lower limit to the thermal inertia of 150 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1. Second, when we adopt the pole orientation of Abe et al. (2008a, 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly) our best-fit thermal model yields a value for the thermal inertia of 700 ± 200 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1 and even higher values are allowed by the uncertainty in the spectral shape due to the absolute flux calibration. Our best estimates of the diameter (0.90 ± 0.14 km) and geometric albedo (0.07 ± 0.01) of asteroid 162173 are consistent with values based on previous mid-infrared observations. Conclusions: We establish a rigorous lower limit to the thermal inertia, which is unlikely but possible, and would be consistent with a fine regolith similar to wthat is found for asteroid 433 Eros. However, the thermal inertia is expected to be higher, possibly similar to or greater than that on asteroid 25143 Itokawa. An Accurately determining the spin-pole of

  19. Mineralogy and Thermal Properties of V-Type Asteroid 956 Elisa: Evidence for Diogenitic Material from the Spitzer IRS (5-35 Micrometers) Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the thermal infrared (5-35 micrometer) spectrum of 956 Elisa as measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph ("IRS"; Houck,1.R. et .11. [20041. Astrophys, 1. SuppL 154, 18-24) together with new ground-based lightcurve data and near-IR spectra. From the visible lightcurve photometry, we determine a rotation period of 16.494 +/- 0.001 h, identify the rotational phase of the Spitzer observations, and estimate the visible absolute magnitude (Hv) at that rotational phase to be 12.58 +/- 0.04. From radiometric analysis of the thermal flux spectrum, we find that at the time of observation 956 Elisa had a projected radius of 5.3 +/- 0.4 km with a visible albedo pv = 0.142+/- 0.022, significantly lower than that of the prototype V-type asteroid, 4 Vesta. (This corresponds to a radius of 5.2 +/- 0.4 km at lightcurve mean.) Analysis with the standard thermal model (STM) results in a sub-solar temperature of 292.3 +/- 2.8 K and beaming parameter eta = 1.16 +/- 0.05. Thermophysical modeling places a lower limit of 20 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) on the thermal inertia of the asteroid's surface layer (if the surface is very smooth) but more likely values fall between 30 and 150 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) depending on the sense of rotation. The emissivity spectrum, calculated by dividing the measured thermal flux spectrum by the modeled thermal continuum, exhibits mineralogically interpretable spectral features within the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen band, the 15-16.5 micrometer Si-O-Si stretching region, and the 16-25 micrometer reststrahlen region that are consistent with pyroxene of diogenitic composition: extant diogenitic pyroxenes fall within the narrow compositional range W0(sub 2+/-1)En(sub 74+/-2)Fs(sub 24+/-1). Spectral deconvolution of the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen features indicates that up to approximately 20% olivine may also be present, suggesting an olivine-diogenite-like mineralogy. The mid-IR spectrum is inconsistent with non

  20. Best Approximation in Numerical Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven; Lewicki, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a reflexive Banach space. In this paper we give a necessary and sufficient condition for an operator $T\\in \\mathcal{K}(X)$ to have the best approximation in numerical radius from the convex subset $\\mathcal{U} \\subset \\mathcal{K}(X),$ where $\\mathcal{K}(X)$ denotes the set of all linear, compact operators from $X$ into $X.$ We will also present an application to minimal extensions with respect to the numerical radius. In particular some results on best approximation in norm will be...

  1. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  2. Spitzer observations of NGC 2264: the nature of the disk population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, P. S.; Lada, C. J.; Marengo, M.; Lada, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: NGC 2264 is a young cluster with a rich circumstellar disk population which makes it an ideal target for studying the evolution of stellar clusters. Our goal is to study the star formation history of NGC 2264 and to analyse the primordial disk evolution of its members. Methods: The study presented is based on data obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with deep near-infrared (NIR) ground-based FLAMINGOS imaging and previously published optical data. Results: We build NIR dust extinction maps of the molecular cloud associated with the cluster, and determine it to have a mass of 2.1 × 103 M⊙ above an AV of 7 mag. Using a differential Ks-band luminosity function (KLF) of the cluster, we estimate the size of the population of NGC 2264, within the area observed by FLAMINGOS, to be 1436 ± 242 members. The star formation efficiency is ≥ ~25%. We identify the disk population and divide it into 3 groups based on their spectral energy distribution slopes from 3.6 μm to 8 μm and on the 24 μm excess emission: (i) optically thick inner disks, (ii) anaemic inner disks, and (iii) disks with inner holes, or transition disks. We analyse the spatial distribution of these sources and find that sources with thick disks segregate into sub-clusterings, whereas sources with anaemic disks do not. Furthermore, sources with anaemic disks are found to be unembedded (i.e., with AV evolution, our findings support the emerging disk evolution paradigm of two distinct evolutionary paths for primordial optically thick disks: a homologous one where the disk emission decreases uniformly at NIR and mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths, and a radially differential one where the emission from the inner region of the disk decreases more rapidly than from the outer region (forming transition disks).

  3. Albedo Corrections for High Albedo Near Earth Objects Observed With Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.

    2017-10-01

    Thermal infrared observations are the most effective way to measure asteroid diameter and albedo. Major surveys like NEOWISE and NEOSurvey return a small fraction of objects with albedo values higher than that believed to exist in the near-Earth object (NEO) population. About 10% of Spitzer-observed NEOs have nominal albedo solutions greater than 0.5. There are many possible causes for these unrealistically high albedos, including thermal lightcurves (leading to a mis-estimate of asteroid diameter) or inaccurate absolute visual magnitudes (either from poor photometry or lightcurve effects). We present here the results of a ground-based optical photometric study of 36 high albedo NEOs from NEOSurvey (Trilling et al. 2016) using measurements from the Discovery Channel Telescope. Our findings indicate that uncertainty in the diameter has the most impact on the derived albedo of our targets, while the uncertainty in the H-magnitude and slope parameter have smaller effects. We supply corrected albedos for our target list, as well as a systematic offset dependent on the solar phase angle of the object (Mommert el al. 2017). These corrected albedo values will help constrain the albedo range in the population to better reflect its physical characteristics. This work is based in part on the observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  5. Spitzer/JWST Cross Calibration: IRAC Observations of Potential Calibrators for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Gordon, Karl D.; Lowrance, Patrick; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; E Krick, Jessica; Laine, Seppo J.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Bohlin, Ralph

    2017-06-01

    We present observations at 3.6 and 4.5 microns using IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope of a set of main sequence A stars and white dwarfs that are potential calibrators across the JWST instrument suite. The stars range from brightnesses of 4.4 to 15 mag in K band. The calibration observations use a similar redundancy to the observing strategy for the IRAC primary calibrators (Reach et al. 2005) and the photometry is obtained using identical methods and instrumental photometric corrections as those applied to the IRAC primary calibrators (Carey et al. 2009). The resulting photometry is then compared to the predictions based on spectra from the CALSPEC Calibration Database (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/observatory/crds/calspec.html) and the IRAC bandpasses. These observations are part of an ongoing collaboration between IPAC and STScI investigating absolute calibration in the infrared.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer IRAC events observed in crowded fields (Calchi+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymanski, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mroz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group

    2017-10-01

    In Table 1 we list the 170 events monitored in 2015. For each, we report the event name, the coordinates, the first and last day of observation, and the number of observed epochs. The events were chosen based on the microlensing alerts provided by the OGLE (Udalski et al. 2015AcA....65....1U) and MOA (Bond et al. 2004ApJ...606L.155B) collaborations. The current analysis is based on the preliminary reduced data made available by the Spitzer Science Center almost in real time (on average, 2-3 days after the observations). The final reduction of the data is now publicly available at the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Database (IRSA, http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/frontpage/). (1 data file).

  7. A deep Spitzer survey of circumstellar disks in the young double cluster, h and χ Persei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutier, Ryan; Currie, Thayne; Jayawardhana, Ray [University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2J7 (Canada); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Balog, Zoltan, E-mail: cloutier@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: currie@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze very deep Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) photometry of ∼12, 500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and χ Persei, building upon our earlier, shallower Spitzer Cycle 1 studies. Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 μm and 24 μm, indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 μm excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems, but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 μm reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, though similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide constraints. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times (τ{sub 0}) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr, respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters, these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime than previously thought. In both cases, the transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is ≈1 Myr. Finally, 24 μm excess frequencies for 4-6 M {sub ☉} stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M {sub ☉} stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.

  8. Morphological parameters of a Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, B. W. [ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Muñoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Sheth, K.; Kim, T. [National Radio Astronomfy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Comerón, S.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J. [Astronomy Division, Department of Physical Sciences, FI-90014 University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, Oulu (Finland); Meidt, S.; Mizusawa, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie/Königstühl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Laine, S. [Spitzer Science Center, Mail Stop 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinz, J. L.; Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Regan, M. W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gil de Paz, A. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Seibert, M.; Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gadotti, D. A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Erroz-Ferrer, S., E-mail: benne.holwerda@esa.int, E-mail: benne.holwerda@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); and others

    2014-01-20

    The morphology of galaxies can be quantified to some degree using a set of scale-invariant parameters. Concentration (C), asymmetry (A), smoothness (S), the Gini index (G), the relative contribution of the brightest pixels to the second-order moment of the flux (M {sub 20}), ellipticity (E), and the Gini index of the second-order moment (G{sub M} ) have all been applied to morphologically classify galaxies at various wavelengths. Here, we present a catalog of these parameters for the Spitzer Survey of stellar structure in Galaxies, a volume-limited, near-infrared (NIR) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using the 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels of the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our goal is to provide a reference catalog of NIR quantified morphology for high-redshift studies and galaxy evolution models with enough detail to resolve stellar mass morphology. We explore where normal, non-interacting galaxies—those typically found on the Hubble tuning fork—lie in this parameter space and show that there is a tight relation between concentration (C {sub 82}) and M {sub 20} for normal galaxies. M {sub 20} can be used to classify galaxies into earlier and later types (i.e., to separate spirals from irregulars). Several criteria using these parameters exist to select systems with a disturbed morphology, i.e., those that appear to be undergoing a tidal interaction. We examine the applicability of these criteria to Spitzer NIR imaging. We find that four relations, based on the parameters A and S, G and M {sub 20}, G{sub M} , C, and M {sub 20}, respectively, select outliers in morphological parameter space, but each selects different subsets of galaxies. Two criteria (G{sub M} > 0.6, G > –0.115 × M {sub 20} + 0.384) seem most appropriate to identify possible mergers and the merger fraction in NIR surveys. We find no strong relation between lopsidedness and most of these morphological parameters, except for a weak dependence of lopsidedness on

  9. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Thomas, C. A.; Harris, A. W.; Hagen, A. R.; Mommert, M.; Benner, L.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed some 600 near Earth objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope. We derive the albedo and diameter for each NEO to characterize global properties of the NEO population, among other goals.

  10. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  11. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. I. CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Gan, Cong-Gui; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He, Jin-Hua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming, 650011 Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-05-01

    We have produced a catalog containing 98 newly identified massive young stellar object (MYSO) candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects, or EGOs). These have been identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) II data set and our new identifications increase the number of known EGOs to {approx}400 in our Galaxy, adding to the {approx}300 previously identified EGOs reported by Cyganowski et al. from the GLIMPSE I survey. The high detection rate ({approx}70%) of 95 GHz class I methanol masers achieved in a survey toward 57 of these new EGOs with the Mopra 22 m radio telescope demonstrates that the new EGOs are associated with outflows. Investigations of the mid-infrared properties and physical associations with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, class I and II methanol masers, and millimeter Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey sources) reveal that the newly identified EGOs are very similar in nature to those in the sample of Cyganowski et al. All of the observational evidence supports the hypothesis that EGOs correspond to MYSOs at the earliest evolutionary stage, with ongoing outflow activity, and active rapid accretion.

  12. A Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O.C.; McDonald, I.; Rich, R.M.; Kemper, F.; Boyer, M.L.; Zijlstra, A.A.; Bendo, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcminutes of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dustproducing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 magnitudes below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of 'extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be 7.5 x 10 (sup -7) solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10 (sup -4) solar masses per year. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 billion years ago.

  13. A New Look at Stellar Outflows: Spitzer Observations of the HH 46/47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Morris, Patrick; Marleau, Francine R.; Carey, Sean; Boogert, Adwin; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Evans, Neal J., II; Keene, Jocelyn; Muzerolle, James; Stapelfeldt, Karl; hide

    2004-01-01

    We present the Early Release Observations of the HH 46/47 system and HH 46 IRS 1 source, taken with the three instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The optically invisible southwest lobe, driven by the HH 47C bow shock, is revealed in full detail by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images and displays a 'loop'-like morphology. Both of the mid-infrared outflow lobes are narrower than those of CO flow. We believe that the combination of emission by H2 rotational lines [S(11)-S(4)] and some atomic lines, which fall within the IRAC passbands, are responsible for the bulk of the observed emission, although contributions from the 3.3, 6.2, and 7.7 micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission bands cannot be ruled out. Weak spectral features corresponding to these emitters are present in the Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of the HH 47A bow shock. The spectrum of HH 46 IRS 1 shows remarkable similarities to those of high-mass protostars, which include the presence of H2O, CO2, CH4, and possibly NH3, CH3OH, and ices. The high ice abundances and the lack of signs of thermal processing indicate that these ices in the envelope are well shielded from the powerful outflow and its cavity. Emission from the Bok globule at 24 micron is detected and displays a similar structure to that observed at 8 micron.

  14. Coherent source radius in ppbar collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Q. H.; Li, X. Q.

    1997-01-01

    We use a recently derived result to extract from two-pion interferometry data from $p\\bar{p}$ collisions the radius of the coherent component in the source. We find a coherent source radius of about $2 fm$.

  15. Distal radius fractures in the athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beleckas, Casey; Calfee, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are one of the most common upper extremity fractures. Athletes with distal radius fractures are treated according to the same principles as non-athletes but present several unique considerations...

  16. Characterizing the Completeness of Spitzer IRAC Imaging and the GLIMPSE Point Source Catalog in High-background Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, M.; Brian, B.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B.; Churchwell, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Galactic Legacy MidPlane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) programs (GLIMPSE I, II, 3D, 360) have surveyed hundreds of square degrees of the Galactic Plane in four (two for GLIMPSE 360) mid-infrared bandpasses with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The resulting GLIMPSE Point Source Catalog contains over 100 million objects and has become a widely used resource. Other large and Legacy Spitzer programs have used IRAC to survey additional regions totaling over 100 square degrees. The utility of the data and of the point source catalogs from ANY IRAC observations is limited, however, by the fact that the completeness of the photometric catalogs vary inversely with background surface brightness. This is especially significant in the 5.8 and 8.0 micron (IRAC1 and IRAC2) bands where diffuse interstellar PAH features are strong. In this contribution we use fake star tests to characterize the completeness and reliability of single-frame, single-band data from the commonly used short-exposure IRAC observing modes as a function of background surface brightness and stellar magnitude. We also explore empirically the completeness of the GLIMPSE Point Source Catalog as a function of background brightness and magnitude. We provide plots and analytical prescriptions to allow an end user to asses the completeness over specified magnitude and background brightness ranges.

  17. Searching for Wide, Planetary-Mass Companions in Archival Spitzer/IRAC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces their observed characteristics will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are searching for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images with an automated pipeline. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts a χ2-minimizing instrumental PSF, producing a residuals image that is also assessed to ascertain the presence of a potential companion. In this work, we present the preliminary results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). Initial runs of the pipeline have recovered 7 of the companions from the 11 systems. An additional binary companion PSF-fitting pipeline is being developed to simultaneously measure astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). We also find 3 of these systems to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be detailed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for

  18. SpIES: The Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gordon; Lacy, Mark; Strauss, Michael; Spergel, David; Anderson, Scott; Bauer, Franz; Bochanski, John; Brandt, Niel; Cushing, Michael; Fan, Xiaohui; Gallagher, Sarah; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Hewett, Paul; Hodge, Jaqueline; Hopkins, Philip; Hughes, Jack; Jiang, Linhua; Knapp, Gillian; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lupton, Robert; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; McMahon, Richard; Menanteau, Felipe; Myers, Adam; Nichol, Robert; Ross, Nic; Ryan, Erin; Schneider, Donald; Szalay, Alex; Urry, C. Megan; Viero, Marco; Warren, Stephen; Zakamska, Nadia

    2012-09-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has opened up entirely new realms of astronomy, but unlike ground-based optical and NIR surveys, it has not yet conducted a wide-area survey that samples enough volume to perform investigations of quasar clustering and the quasar luminosity function at z>3. We propose to remedy this situation by performing a moderately deep Spitzer-IRAC survey of 175 sq. deg. along the Celestial Equator (SDSS 'Stripe 82'), complemented with one of the CFHT Legacy Survey wide fields with which it overlaps. With this dataset, we will 1) probe quasar clustering and the luminosity function in order to test different 'feedback' models of galaxy evolution; 2) identify obscured and unobscured AGNs with a combination of mid-IR, optical, and variability selection---taking advantage of ancillary multi-wavelength, multi-epoch data to produce accurate photometric redshifts; 3) identify ~25 6Spitzer-IRAC imaging to complete the wavelength coverage in Stripe 82, to provide a wide-area survey of lasting value. At our optimal depth, covering this area (~175 sq. deg.) will require 1270 hours of new observations. Such a survey will complement existing Spitzer Legacy programs and provide crucial input for future missions such as JWST. Reduced images and catalogs will be made available to the public using the existing SDSS, NVO, and IRSA database structures.

  19. Early 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Demory, B.-O.; de Wit, J.; Ingalls, J. G.; Agol, E.; Bolmont, E.; Burdanov, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Carey, S. J.; Jehin, E.; Leconte, J.; Lederer, S.; Queloz, D.; Selsis, F.; Van Grootel, V.

    2018-01-01

    The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with Spitzer/IRAC in February and March 2017. We combine these observations with previously published Spitzer transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive dataset. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-μm band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11% at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyze the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the Spitzer transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. Spitzer IRS Observations of Uranus and Neptune: Implications for Temperature Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Fletcher, Leigh; Hines, Dean; Hammel, Heidi; Burgdorf, Martin; Merlet, Cecile; Line, Michael; Moses, Julianne

    We overview the results of the sensitive Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, covering in some detail the observations of Uranus shortly after its equinox. IRS observations of Neptune in the Spitzer cycles 1 and 2 and Uranus in Cycle 1 and DD time near its equinox (2007 December 17) used the IRS in several modes. The low-resolution (R 90) spectral modes covered wavelengths between 5 and 21.5 microns, and its high-resolution (R 600) modes covered wavelengths between 10 and 36.5 microns. Spectral features arising from methane, ethane, acetylene, diacetylene and methylacetylene are easily detectable in both planets, and features of CH3 were detected for Neptune. For Uranus, sufficient coverage of the spectrum which is dominated by the opacity provided by the collision-induced absorption of molecular hydrogen allowed disk-averaged temperatures to be determined between 100 and 600 mbar pressure. An upward extension of this coverage to the lower stratosphere was facilitated by matching discrete hydrogen quadrupole S(1) and S(2) lines, which also provided constraints on the para-vs. ortho-hydrogen ratio. These constraints were merged with those at lower pressures derived from Voyager-2 occultation experiments. Regular and deuterated methane absorption and emission are consistent with vapor-pressure-limited mixing of methane in the stratosphere, an upper-tropospheric abundance which is 40 percent of its fully saturated value, and a D/H ratio consistent with one derived from earlier measurements by ISO. Observations of the disk-averaged spectrum over different longitudes imply substantial spatial variability of stratospheric temperatures at pressures below 1 mbar, but no variability above the 3 percent noise level of the spectra for deeper levels. These spectra are consistent with the somewhat noisier Cycle-1 observations taken on 6-7 July 2005.

  1. Knot a Bad Idea: Testing BLISS Mapping for Spitzer Space Telescope Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J. C.; Cowan, N. B.

    2017-01-01

    Much of transiting exoplanet science relies on high-precision photometry. The current generation of instruments can exhibit sensitivity variations greater than the astrophysical signals. For the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, a popular way to handle this is BiLinearly-Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity (BLISS) mapping. As part of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), BLISS mapping estimates the sensitivity at many locations (knots) on the pixel, then interpolates to the target star’s centroids. We show that such embedded optimization schemes can misfit or bias parameters. Thus, we construct a model of Spitzer eclipse light curves to test the accuracy and precision of BLISS mapping. We compare standard BLISS mapping to a variant where the knots are fit during the MCMC, as well as to a polynomial model. Both types of BLISS mapping give similar eclipse depths, and we find that standard knots behave like real parameters. Standard BLISS mapping is therefore a reasonable shortcut to fitting for knots in an MCMC. BLISS maps become inaccurate when the photon noise is low, but typically approximate the real sensitivity well. We also find there is no perfect method for choosing the ideal number of BLISS knots to use on given data. BLISS mapping gives fits that are usually more accurate than precise (i.e., they are overly conservative), and the routine is more precise than polynomial models for significant eclipses or pixels with more varied sensitivities. BLISS mapping has better predictive power for most of these particular synthetic data, depending on how one treats time-correlated residuals. Overall, we conclude that BLISS mapping can be a reasonable sensitivity model for IRAC photometry.

  2. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of Ices toward Low-Mass Embedded Protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Lahuis, Fred; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Brooke, Timothy Y.; Brown, Joanna; Dullemond, C. P.; Evans, Neal J., II; Geers, Vincent; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline; Knez, Claudia; Morris, Pat; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Schöier, Fredrik L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori E.; Harvey, Paul M.; Koerner, David W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Myers, Philip C.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2004-09-01

    Sensitive 5-38 μm Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based 3-5 μm spectra of the embedded low-mass protostars B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS show deep ice absorption bands superposed on steeply rising mid-infrared continua. The ices likely originate in the circumstellar envelopes. The CO2 bending mode at 15 μm is a particularly powerful tracer of the ice composition and processing history. Toward these protostars, this band shows little evidence for thermal processing at temperatures above 50 K. Signatures of lower temperature processing are present in the CO and OCN- bands, however. The observed CO2 profile indicates an intimate mixture with H2O, but not necessarily with CH3OH, in contrast to some high-mass protostars. This is consistent with the low CH3OH abundance derived from the ground-based L-band spectra. The CO2:H2O column density ratios are high in both B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS (~35%). Clearly, the Spitzer spectra are essential for studying ice evolution in low-mass protostellar environments and for eventually determining the relation between interstellar and solar system ices. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The VLT ISAAC spectra were obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, in the observing program 272.C-5008.

  4. First Detection of Mid-infrared Variability from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ryan; Heida, Marianne; Kasliwal, Mansi; Walton, Dominic

    2018-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (IR) light curves of the Ultraluminous X-ray Source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1 from observations taken between 2014 January 13 and 2017 January 5 with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 4.5 μm in the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. The mid-IR light curves, which reveal the first detection of mid-IR variability from a ULX, is determined to arise primarily from dust emission rather than from a jet or an accretion disk outflow. We derived the evolution of the dust temperature (Td ~ 600 - 800 K), IR luminosity LIR ~ 3 × 104 L⊙ ), mass (Md ~ 1 - 3 × 10-6 M⊙), and equilibrium temperature radius (Req ~ 10 - 20 AU). A comparison of X-1 with a sample of spectroscopically identified massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud on a mid-IR color-magnitude diagram suggests that the mass donor in X-1 is a supergiant (sg) B[e]-star. The sgB[e]-interpretation is consistent with the derived dust properties and the presence of the [Fe II] (λ = 1.644 μm) emission line revealed from previous near-IR studies of X-1. We attribute the mid-IR variability of X-1 to the increased heating of dust located in a circumbinary torus. It is unclear what physical processes are responsible for the increased dust heating; however, it does not appear to be associated with the X-ray flux from the ULX, given the constant X-ray luminosities provided by serendipitous, near-contemporaneous X-ray observations around the first mid-IR variability event in 2014. Our results highlight the importance of mid-IR observations of luminous X-ray sources traditionally studied at X-ray and radio wavelengths.

  5. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-05-20

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  6. Evidence for Infrared-faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z >~ 1) active galactic nuclei.

  7. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  8. Long Term Preservation of Data Analysis Software at the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teplitz, H.I.; Groom, S.; Brooke, T.; Desai, V.; Engler, D.; Fowler, J.; Good, J.; Khan, I.; Levine, D.; Alexov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) curates both data and analysis tools from NASA's infrared missions. As part of our primary goal, we provide long term access to mission-specific software from projects such as IRAS and Spitzer. We will review the efforts by IRSA (and within the greater

  9. The NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA): The Demo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexov, A.; Berriman, G. B.; Chiu, N.-M.; Good, J. C.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kong, M.; Laity, A. C.; Monkewitz, S. M.; Tahir-Kheli, N. D.; Norton, S. W.; Zhang, A.

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the services available at the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Currently there are nearly 250,000 data requests a month, taking advantage of IRSA's data repository which includes 660 million sources (60 catalogs), 10 million images (22 image sets; 10.4 TB) and over 30,000 spectra (7 spectroscopic datasets). These data are the science products of: The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS), The Spitzer First Look Survey (FLS), Spitzer Legacy & Ancillary data, Spitzer Reserved Observations (ROC) and the Spitzer Space Telescope data. IRSA is also seamlessly interoperable with ten remote archives and services: GOODS, ISO, MAST, VizieR, DSS, NVSS, FIRST, HEASARC, NED and JPL, which help expand the available dataset wavelength range from X-ray to radio. The majority of IRSA's image collections are Simple Image Access (SIA) compliant and are available through the Virtual Observatory (VO) data mining tools. The IRSA demo includes IRSA's five main services: inventory service RADAR, catalog query service Gator, data fusion service OASIS, general search service for complex data collections Atlas, and IRSA's 2MASS Image data access services. IRSA's website is http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu.

  10. The Demographics and Properties of Wide-Orbit, Planetary-Mass Companions from PSF Fitting of Spitzer/IRAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel; Kraus, Adam L.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces the observed characteristics of the PMCs will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are developing an automated pipeline to search for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts χ2-minimizing instrumental PSFs, simultaneously measuring astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). In this work, we present the results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). We characterize the systems found to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be discussed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for further characterization with ground- or space-based telescopes, and increase the number of widely-separated PMCs known.

  11. SPITZER survey of dust grain processing in stable discs around binary post-AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, C.; van Winckel, H.; Min, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Lloyd Evans, T.

    2008-11-01

    Aims: We investigate the mineralogy and dust processing in the circumbinary discs of binary post-AGB stars using high-resolution TIMMI2 and SPITZER infrared spectra. Methods: We perform a full spectral fitting to the infrared spectra using the most recent opacities of amorphous and crystalline dust species. This allows for the identification of the carriers of the different emission bands. Our fits also constrain the physical properties of different dust species and grain sizes responsible for the observed emission features. Results: In all stars the dust is oxygen-rich: amorphous and crystalline silicate dust species prevail and no features of a carbon-rich component can be found, the exception being EP Lyr, where a mixed chemistry of both oxygen- and carbon-rich species is found. Our full spectral fitting indicates a high degree of dust grain processing. The mineralogy of our sample stars shows that the dust is constituted of irregularly shaped and relatively large grains, with typical grain sizes larger than 2 μm. The spectra of nearly all stars show a high degree of crystallinity, where magnesium-rich end members of olivine and pyroxene silicates dominate. Other dust features of e.g. silica or alumina are not present at detectable levels. Temperature estimates from our fitting routine show that a significant fraction of grains must be cool, significantly cooler than the glass temperature. This shows that radial mixing is very efficient is these discs and/or indicates different thermal conditions at grain formation. Our results show that strong grain processing is not limited to young stellar objects and that the physical processes occurring in the discs are very similar to those in protoplanetary discs. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, observing program 072.D-0263, on observations made with the 1.2 m Flemish Mercator telescope at Roque de los Muchachos, Spain, the 1.2 m Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla

  12. Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C. M.; Yin, H. X.; Kojima, Y.; Chang, H. K.; Xu, R. X.; Li, X. D.; Zhang, B.; Kiziltan, B.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sou...

  13. KIC 8462852: THE INFRARED FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Massimo; Hulsebus, Alan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Willis, Sarah [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We analyzed the warm Spitzer/IRAC data of KIC 8462852. We found no evidence of infrared excess at 3.6 μm and a small excess of 0.43 ± 0.18 mJy at 4.5 μm below the 3σ threshold necessary to claim a detection. The lack of strong infrared excess 2 years after the events responsible for the unusual light curve observed by Kepler further disfavors the scenarios involving a catastrophic collision in a KIC 8462852 asteroid belt, a giant impact disrupting a planet in the system or a population of dust-enshrouded planetesimals. The scenario invoking the fragmentation of a family of comets on a highly elliptical orbit is instead consistent with the lack of strong infrared excess found by our analysis.

  14. Probing Large-scale Coherence between Spitzer IR and Chandra X-Ray Source-subtracted Cosmic Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelluti, N.; Urry, M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Arendt, R. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kashlinsky, A. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Li, Y.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Helgason, K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Natarajan, P. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Finoguenov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-09-20

    We present new measurements of the large-scale clustering component of the cross-power spectra of the source-subtracted Spitzer -IRAC cosmic infrared background and Chandra -ACIS cosmic X-ray background surface brightness fluctuations Our investigation uses data from the Chandra Deep Field South, Hubble Deep Field North, Extended Groth Strip/AEGIS field, and UDS/SXDF surveys, comprising 1160 Spitzer hours and ∼12 Ms of Chandra data collected over a total area of 0.3 deg{sup 2}. We report the first (>5 σ ) detection of a cross-power signal on large angular scales >20″ between [0.5–2] keV and the 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands, at ∼5 σ and 6.3 σ significance, respectively. The correlation with harder X-ray bands is marginally significant. Comparing the new observations with existing models for the contribution of the known unmasked source population at z < 7, we find an excess of about an order of magnitude at 5 σ confidence. We discuss possible interpretations for the origin of this excess in terms of the contribution from accreting early black holes (BHs), including both direct collapse BHs and primordial BHs, as well as from scattering in the interstellar medium and intra-halo light.

  15. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  16. LOW FALSE POSITIVE RATE OF KEPLER CANDIDATES ESTIMATED FROM A COMBINATION OF SPITZER AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Brown, Timothy M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Charbonneau, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, François; Ballard, Sarah; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryson, Stephen T.; Borucki, William J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: desert@colorado.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02159 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    NASA’s Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates during the 4 yr of its nominal mission, yet only a small subset of these candidates have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) among the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital, and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 μm. We use these observations to measures the candidate’s transit depths and infrared magnitudes. An authentic planet produces an achromatic transit depth (neglecting the modest effect of limb darkening). Conversely a bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the transit depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5% and depending on the Kepler Objects of Interest. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3σ. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated

  17. Numerical Radius Norms on Operator Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Takashi; Nagisa, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a numerical radius operator space $(X, \\mathcal{W}_n)$. The conditions to be a numerical radius operator space are weaker than the Ruan's axiom for an operator space $(X, \\mathcal{O}_n)$. Let $w(\\cdot)$ be the numerical radius norm on $\\mathbb{B}(\\mathcal{H})$. It is shown that if $X$ admits a norm $\\mathcal{W}_n(\\cdot)$ on the matrix space $\\mathbb{M}_n(X)$ which satisfies the conditions, then there is a complete isometry, in the sense of the norms $\\mathcal{W}_n(\\cdot)$ and $w_...

  18. Properties of gravity near the Schwarzschild radius

    OpenAIRE

    Verozub, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The radius of the observable region of the Universe is of the order of its Schwarzschild radius. Due to the spherical symmetry, this allows to check the properties of the gravitational force in the vicinity of the Schwarzschild radius by comparing the theoretical and observed Hubble diagram at high redshifts. This can be done in a simple model that fellows from projective-invariant equations of gravitation.This paper shows that the Hubble diagram up to $z=8$ testifies in favor of the specific...

  19. Albedo and Diameter Distributions of Asteroid Families Using the Spitzer Asteroid Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enga, Marie-Therese; Trilling, D.; Mueller, M.; Wasserman, L.; Sykes, M.; Blaylock, M.; Stansberry, J.; Bhattacharya, B.; Spahr, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Asteroid Catalog contains flux measurements of asteroidsserendipitously observed in publicly available Spitzer data. At present,this catalog contains some 10,000 measurements at 24 microns only, andwill ultimately contain 100,000 measurements or more. These measurements, along with with

  20. A SPITZER IRS SURVEY OF NGC 1333: INSIGHTS INTO DISK EVOLUTION FROM A VERY YOUNG CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, L. A.; Watson, Dan M.; Kim, K. H.; Manoj, P.; Remming, I.; Sheehan, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Mamajek, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Adame, L.; McClure, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Furlan, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 264-723, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Espaillat, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ausfeld, K.; Rapson, V. A., E-mail: laa@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We report on the {lambda} = 5-36 {mu}m Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 79 young stellar objects in the very young nearby cluster NGC 1333. NGC 1333's youth enables the study of early protoplanetary disk properties, such as the degree of settling and the formation of gaps and clearings. We construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using our IRS data as well as published photometry and classify our sample into SED classes. Using 'extinction-free' spectral indices, we determine whether the disk, envelope, or photosphere dominates the spectrum. We analyze the dereddened spectra of objects that show disk-dominated emission using spectral indices and properties of silicate features in order to study the vertical and radial structure of protoplanetary disks in NGC 1333. At least nine objects in our sample of NGC 1333 show signs of large (several AU) radial gaps or clearings in their inner disk. Disks with radial gaps in NGC 1333 show more nearly pristine silicate dust than their radially continuous counterparts. We compare properties of disks in NGC 1333 to those in three other well-studied regions, Taurus-Auriga, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon I, and find no difference in their degree of sedimentation and dust processing.

  1. Spitzer IR Sudy of Sar Formation in an Embedded Young Cluster NGC2316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Thompson, T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of embedded young star clusters, still contained within their parent molecular clouds provide unique data of stars of similar age to study star formation issues, such as, (i) the IMF, (ii) the frequency and lifetimes of protoplanetary disks, (iii) the history of star formation in the cluster, (iv) the evolution of the cloud and its eventual dispersal, and (v) the subsequent termination or triggering of star formation. To analyze some of these issues we obtained Spitzer IRAC observations at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8µm and MIPS observations at 24µm of NGC 2316, a young (2-3 Myr) embedded star cluster containing a central HII region powered by a B3 star. In the infrared, we detect more than 200 objects in this cluster. We used Hires deconvolution to enable the detection of point sources more efficiently in the 5.8 and 8µm images (here point source detection is severely limited by the confusion from the bright HII region and the extended dust emission within the cluster). We present results on a statistically significant sample of young stars in this cluster and discuss some of the issues on star formation in the cluster environment, listed above. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Track Reconstruction and the Proton Radius Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven; Cline, Ethan; Gilman, Ron; MUSE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Pohl et al. measured the proton charge radius to be 0.84184(67) fm using muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. This value differs about 5 σ from the CODATA proton radius from measurements with electrons. Other experiments with muons and electrons have confirmed the difference and the discrepancy has been termed the `Proton Radius Puzzle.' Currently there are no explanations for the puzzle. The MUon proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will make a significant measurement of the proton radius with muon scattering for the first time. The experiment tracks elastic scattering of electrons and muons off of liquid hydrogen. Particle tracks are reconstructed with track fitting software GenFit. Using a simulation of MUSE, GenFit has been determined to be proficient at track reconstruction. This project has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1560077.

  3. Nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Andreas; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kreim, Kim; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Neff, Thomas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Novotny, Christian; Sanchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be was precisely determined using the technique of collinear laser spectroscopy on the $2s_{1/2}\\rightarrow 2p_{1/2, 3/2}$ transition in the Be$^{+}$ ion. The mean square charge radius increases from $^{10}$Be to $^{12}$Be by $\\delta ^{10,12} = 0.69(5)$ fm$^{2}$ compared to $\\delta ^{10,11} = 0.49(5)$ fm$^{2}$ for the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be. Calculations in the fermionic molecular dynamics approach show a strong sensitivity of the charge radius to the structure of $^{12}$Be. The experimental charge radius is consistent with a breakdown of the N=8 shell closure.

  4. SPITZER EVIDENCE FOR A LATE-HEAVY BOMBARDMENT AND THE FORMATION OF UREILITES IN {eta} CORVI At {approx}1 Gyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Morlok, A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Open University, Milton-Keynes (United Kingdom); Watson, D. M.; Manoj, P.; Sheehan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Currie, T. M. [NASA-GSFC, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Sitko, M. L., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: wyatt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: a.morlok@open.ac.uk, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: manoj@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: psheeha2@mail.rochester.edu, E-mail: thayne.m.currie@nasa.gov, E-mail: philippe.thebault@obspm.fr, E-mail: sitko@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, 475 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We have analyzed Spitzer and NASA/IRTF 2-35 {mu}m spectra of the warm, {approx}350 K circumstellar dust around the nearby MS star {eta} Corvi (F2V, 1.4 {+-} 0.3 Gyr). The spectra show clear evidence for warm, water- and carbon-rich dust at {approx}3 AU from the central star, in the system's terrestrial habitability zone. Spectral features due to ultra-primitive cometary material were found, in addition to features due to impact produced silica and high-temperature carbonaceous phases. At least 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} kg of 0.1-100 {mu}m warm dust is present in a collisional equilibrium distribution with dn/da {approx} a{sup -3.5}, the equivalent of a 130 km radius Kuiper Belt object (KBO) of 1.0 g cm{sup 3} density and similar to recent estimates of the mass delivered to the Earth at 0.6-0.8 Gyr during the late-heavy bombardment. We conclude that the parent body was a Kuiper Belt body or bodies which captured a large amount of early primitive material in the first megayears of the system's lifetime and preserved it in deep freeze at {approx}150 AU. At {approx}1.4 Gyr they were prompted by dynamical stirring of their parent Kuiper Belt into spiraling into the inner system, eventually colliding at 5-10 km s{sup -1} with a rocky planetary body of mass {<=}M{sub Earth} at {approx}3 AU, delivering large amounts of water (>0.1% of M{sub Earth'sOceans}) and carbon-rich material. The Spitzer spectrum also closely matches spectra reported for the Ureilite meteorites of the Sudan Almahata Sitta fall in 2008, suggesting that one of the Ureilite parent bodies was a KBO.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical & Spitzer photometry in IC 1805 (Sung+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H.; Bessell, M. S.; Chun, M.-Y.; Yi, J.; Naze, Y.; Lim, B.; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, B.-G.; Hur, H.

    2017-06-01

    For a study of the IMF and the star-formation history of the young open cluster IC 1805, we obtained deep wide-field VRI and Hα images of IC 1805 using the CFH12K mosaic CCD camera of the CFHT on 2002 January 6 and 7. We also observed several regions in IC 1805, for a study of the reddening and massive star content, using the SITe 2000x800 CCD (Maidanak 2k CCD) and standard UBVRI filters of the AZT-22 1.5m telescope at the Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan on 2003 August 18 and 2004 december 25,30. Later, we obtained additional images of the central region of IC 1805 with the Fairchild 486 CCD (SNUCam) and UBVI and Hα filters of the AZT-22 telescope on 2007 October 7 and 2009 January 19. The Spitzer mapping observations were performed on 2006 September 20 under program ID 20052 (PI: S. Wolff). For complete photometry of stars in the CFH12K FOV in 3.6 and 4.5um, we also downloaded and reduced the GLIMPSE360 data (AOR: 38753280, 38763264, 38769408, 38799104, 38798592, 38784512, PI: B. A. Whitney). MIPS scans of IC 1805 were obtained on 2005 August 31 and 2005 September 2 (PID 3234, PI: J. S. Greeves). The Chandra X-ray Observatory Observations of IC 1805 (ObsID: 7033, PI: L. Townley) were made on 2006 November 25. The total exposure time was about 79ks. The properties of 647 X-ray sources were published in Townsley+ (2014,J/ApJS/213/1). We searched for the optical and MIR counterparts of these X-ray sources with a matching radius of up to 1.5". (4 data files).

  6. A SPITZER MIPS STUDY OF 2.5-2.0 M{sub Sun} STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H.; Bitner, Martin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pecaut, Mark; Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper-motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25{sup +6}{sub -5}%), 36/131 (27{sup +4}{sub -4}%), and 23/95 (24{sup +5}{sub -4}%) for Upper Scorpius ({approx}11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus ({approx}15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux ({approx}17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L{sub IR}/L{sub *} = 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} and grain temperatures ranging from T{sub gr} = 40 to 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A-type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G-type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10-200 AU. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at {approx}10-100 Myr.

  7. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN SPITZER/IRS MAPS. I. CATALOG AND SIMPLE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Choi, W. D.-Y.; Moya, L. G. V.; Otaguro, J. N.; Sorkhou, S.; Peeters, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M., E-mail: dstock4@uwo.ca [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic H ii regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5–15 μm. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of ∼4″ in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, and 12.7 μm, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 μm. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups: the first comprising the H ii regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources—the reflection nebula NGC 7023, the Horsehead nebula PDR (an interface between the H ii region IC 434 and the Orion B molecular cloud), and M17—resist this categorization, with the Horsehead PDR points mimicking the RNe and the NGC 7023 fluxes displaying a unique bifurcated appearance in our correlation plots. These discrepancies seem to be due to the very low radiation field experienced by the Horsehead PDR and the very clean separation between the PDR environment and a diffuse environment in the NGC 7023 observations.

  8. A global analysis of Spitzer and new HARPS data confirms the loneliness and metal-richness of GJ 436 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanotte, A. A.; Gillon, M.; Demory, B.-O.; Fortney, J. J.; Astudillo, N.; Bonfils, X.; Magain, P.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N.; Udry, S.

    2014-12-01

    Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further investigation. Independent analyses of several individual datasets obtained with Spitzer have led to contradicting results attributed to the different techniques used to treat the instrumental effects. Aims: We aim at investigating these previous controversial results and developing our knowledge of the system based on the full Spitzer photometry dataset combined with new Doppler measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We also want to search for additional planets. Methods: We optimise aperture photometry techniques and the photometric deconvolution algorithm DECPHOT to improve the data reduction of the Spitzer photometry spanning wavelengths from 3-24 μm. Adding the high-precision HARPS radial velocity data, we undertake a Bayesian global analysis of the system considering both instrumental and stellar effects on the flux variation. Results: We present a refined radius estimate of RP = 4.10 ± 0.16 R⊕ , mass MP = 25.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, and eccentricity e = 0.162 ± 0.004 for GJ 436b. Our measured transit depths remain constant in time and wavelength, in disagreement with the results of previous studies. In addition, we find that the post-occultation flare-like structure at 3.6 μm that led to divergent results on the occultation depth measurement is spurious. We obtain occultation depths at 3.6, 5.8, and 8.0 μm that are shallower than in previous works, in particular at 3.6 μm. However, these depths still appear consistent with a metal-rich atmosphere depleted in methane and enhanced in CO/CO2, although perhaps less than previously thought. We could not detect a significant orbital modulation in the 8 μm phase curve. We find no evidence of a potential planetary companion, stellar activity, or a stellar spin-orbit misalignment. Conclusions: Recent theoretical

  9. The climate of HD 189733b from fourteen transits and eclipses measured by Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, E.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Cowan, Nicolas B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Knutson, Heather A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.; Deming, Drake; /NASA, Goddard; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Henry, Gregory W.; /Tennessee State U.; Charbonneau, David; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-07-01

    We present observations of six transits and six eclipses of the transiting planet system HD 189733 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC camera at 8 microns, as well as a re-analysis of previously published data. We use several novel techniques in our data analysis, the most important of which is a new correction for the detector 'ramp' variation with a double-exponential function which performs better and is a better physical model for this detector variation. Our main scientific findings are: (1) an upper limit on the variability of the day-side planet flux of 2.7% (68% confidence); (2) the most precise set of transit times measured for a transiting planet, with an average accuracy of 3 seconds; (3) a lack of transit-timing variations, excluding the presence of second planets in this system above 20% of the mass of Mars in low-order mean-motion resonance at 95% confidence; (4) a confirmation of the planet's phase variation, finding the night side is 64% as bright as the day side, as well as an upper limit on the night-side variability of 17% (68% confidence); (5) a better correction for stellar variability at 8 micron causing the phase function to peak 3.5 hours before secondary eclipse, confirming that the advection and radiation timescales are comparable at the 8 micron photosphere; (6) variation in the depth of transit, which possibly implies variations in the surface brightness of the portion of the star occulted by the planet, posing a fundamental limit on non-simultaneous multi-wavelength transit absorption measurements of planet atmospheres; (7) a measurement of the infrared limb-darkening of the star, which is in good agreement with stellar atmosphere models; (8) an offset in the times of secondary eclipse of 69 seconds, which is mostly accounted for by a 31 second light travel time delay and 33 second delay due to the shift of ingress and egress by the planet hot spot; this confirms that the phase variation is due to an offset hot

  10. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  11. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  12. Radio and infrared study of the star-forming region IRAS 20286+4105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varsha; Das, S. R.; Tej, A.; Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the star-forming complex IRAS 20286+4105, located in the Cygnus X region. Near-infrared K-band data are used to revisit the cluster/stellar group identified in previous studies. Radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz show the presence of a H II region possibly powered by a star of spectral type B0-B0.5. The cometary morphology of the ionized region is explained by invoking the bow-shock model, where the likely association with a nearby supernova remnant is also explored. A compact radio knot with a non-thermal spectral index is detected towards the centre of the cloud. Mid-infrared data from the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus X region show the presence of six Class I young stellar objects inside the cloud. Thermal dust emission in this complex is modelled using Herschel far-infrared data to generate dust temperature and column density maps. Herschel images also show the presence of two clumps in this region, the masses of which are estimated to be ∼175 and 30 M⊙. The mass-radius relation and the surface density of the clumps mean that they do not qualify as massive star-forming sites. An overall picture of a runaway star ionizing the cloud and a triggered population of intermediate-mass, Class I sources located towards the cloud centre emerges from this multiwavelength study. Variation in the dust emissivity spectral index is shown to exist in this region and is seen to have an inverse relation with the dust temperature.

  13. SPARC: MASS MODELS FOR 175 DISK GALAXIES WITH SPITZER PHOTOMETRY AND ACCURATE ROTATION CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Schombert, James M., E-mail: federico.lelli@case.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We introduce SPARC ( Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6  μ m and high-quality rotation curves from previous H i/H α studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (∼5 dex), and surface brightnesses (∼4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass–H i mass relation and the stellar radius–H i radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the H i   mass–radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic to observed velocity ( V {sub bar}/ V {sub obs}) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (ϒ{sub ⋆}) at [3.6]. Assuming ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.5 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} (as suggested by stellar population models), we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity; (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly corresponds to the transition from spiral galaxies to dwarf irregulars, in line with density wave theory; and (iii)  V {sub bar}/ V {sub obs} varies with luminosity and surface brightness: high-mass, high-surface-brightness galaxies are nearly maximal, while low-mass, low-surface-brightness galaxies are submaximal. These basic properties are lost for low values of ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.2 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} as suggested by the DiskMass survey. The mean maximum-disk limit in bright galaxies is ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.7 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} at [3.6]. The SPARC data are publicly available and represent an ideal test bed for models of galaxy formation.

  14. SHELA: The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large Area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey J.; Gebhardt, K.; Behroozi, P.; Bender, R.; Blanc, G. A.; Ciardullo, R.; DePoy, D.; de Jong, R.; Drory, N.; Evans, N.; Fabricius, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Gawiser, E.; Greene, J.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Lacy, M.; Landriau, M.; Marshall, J.; Tuttle, S.; Somerville, R.; Steinmetz, M.; Suntzeff, N.; Tran, K.; Wechsler, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our Spitzer Exploratory survey to obtain IRAC imaging in a 28 sq deg field with deep optical imaging lying within the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) Survey. Our goal is to explore the relationship between galaxy stellar mass, dark-matter halo mass, and environment during the important cosmic epoch (redshifts 2trained photometric dataset, we will obtain a detailed view of how galaxies grow their stellar mass within different dark matter halos and as a function of environment. Ultimately, this study will advance our understanding of the physical processes that drive the formation of stars in galaxies and the build up of stellar mass over cosmic time. In the spirit of Exploratory programs, SHELA will enable a broad range of scientific explorations beyond our immediate goals by delivering all science products (images, catalogs, spectra, and redshifts) to the public.

  15. First Results From The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Exoplanet phase curves provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions. We will present first results from a 660-hour Spitzer phase curve survey program that is targeting six short-period extrasolar planets. We will compare the measured heat redistribution efficiencies with planet temperature and rotation rate, examine trends in the phase curve peak offset, and discuss cloud coverage constraints. We will conclude with how to move forward with phase curve observations in the era of JWST.

  16. Determining Empirical Stellar Masses and Radii from Transits and Gaia Parallaxes as Illustrated by Spitzer Observations of KELT-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Collins, Karen A.; Colón, Knicole D.; James, David J.; Kreidberg, Laura; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Kielkopf, John F.

    2017-07-01

    Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed a transit at 3.6 μm of KELT-11b. We also observed three partial planetary transits from the ground. We simultaneously fit these observations, ground-based photometry from Pepper et al., radial velocity data from Pepper et al., and a spectral energy distribution (SED) model using catalog magnitudes and the Hipparcos parallax to the system. The only significant difference between our results and those of Pepper et al. is that we find the orbital period to be shorter by 37 s, 4.73610 ± 0.00003 versus 4.73653 ± 0.00006 days, and we measure a transit center time of {{BJD}}{TDB} 2457483.4310 ± 0.0007, which is 42 minutes earlier than predicted. Using our new photometry, we precisely measure the density of the star KELT-11 to 4%. By combining the parallax and catalog magnitudes of the system, we are able to measure the radius of KELT-11b essentially empirically. Coupled with the stellar density, this gives a parallactic mass and radius of 1.8 {M}⊙ and 2.9 {R}⊙ , which are each approximately 1σ higher than the adopted model-estimated mass and radius. If we conduct the same fit using the expected parallax uncertainty from the final Gaia data release, this difference increases to 4σ. The differences between the model and parallactic masses and radii for KELT-11 demonstrate the role that precise Gaia parallaxes, coupled with simultaneous photometric, radial velocity, and SED fitting, can play in determining stellar and planetary parameters. With high-precision photometry of transiting planets and high-precision Gaia parallaxes, the parallactic mass and radius uncertainties of stars become 1% and 3%, respectively. TESS is expected to discover 60-80 systems where these measurements will be possible. These parallactic mass and radius measurements have uncertainties small enough that they may provide observational input into the stellar models themselves.

  17. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  18. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  19. [Surgical exposures for distal radius fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, O; Coulomb, R; Lazerges, C; Bosch, C; Kouyoumdjian, P

    2016-12-01

    This is a review of the various approaches that can be used for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of distal radius fractures. The main dissection steps are exposed and the specific indications for each approach are described. The anterior approach is discussed extensively as it is now the gold standard for ORIF of distal radius fractures. The lateral and posterior approaches are also described as they are sometimes needed for complex fractures. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, Franck; Emery, J. P.; Iglesias, J.; Pollock, J.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.

    2008-01-01

    To date, 162 asteroids are known to be binary or multiple systems. Insights, such as the size and shape of their components, the nature of their surface, their bulk density are the key to understanding how these multiple asteroidal systems formed. We obtained 19.9h of observations using the

  1. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: the life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Point source classification - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O. C.; Woods, P. M.; Kemper, F.; Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Srinivasan, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Boyer, M. L.; Sargent, B. A.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Ruffle, P. M. E.; Lagadec, E.; Pauly, T.; Sewiło, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Volk, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope observed nearly 800 point sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), taking over 1000 spectra. 197 of these targets were observed as part of the SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program; the remainder are from a variety of different calibration, guaranteed time and open time projects. We classify these point sources into types according to their infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information, using a decision-tree classification method. We then refine the classification using supplementary information from the astrophysical literature. We find that our IRS sample is comprised substantially of YSO and H II regions, post-main-sequence low-mass stars: (post-)asymptotic giant branch stars and planetary nebulae and massive stars including several rare evolutionary types. Two supernova remnants, a nova and several background galaxies were also observed. We use these classifications to improve our understanding of the stellar populations in the LMC, study the composition and characteristics of dust species in a variety of LMC objects, and to verify the photometric classification methods used by mid-IR surveys. We discover that some widely used catalogues of objects contain considerable contamination and others are missing sources in our sample.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer photometric time series of HD 97658 (Van Grootel+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grootel, V.; Gillon, M.; Valencia, D.; Madhusudhan, N.; Dragomir, D.; Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S.; Demory, B.-O.; Deming, D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Scuflaire, R.; Seager, S.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2017-07-01

    We monitored HD 97658 with Spitzer's IRAC camera on 2013 August 10 from 13:01:00 to 18:27:00 UT, corresponding to a transit window as computed from the MOST transit ephemeris (Dragomir et al. 2013, J/ApJ/772/L2). These Spitzer data were acquired in the context of the Cycle 9 program 90072 (PI: M. Gillon) dedicated to the search for the transits of RV-detected low-mass planets. They consist of 2320 sets of 64 individual subarray images obtained at 4.5 μm with an integration time of 0.08 s. They are available on the Spitzer Heritage Archive database under the form of 2320 Basic Calibrated Data files calibrated by the standard Spitzer reduction pipeline (version S19.1.0). (1 data file).

  3. Planck, Herschel & Spitzer unveil overdense z>2 regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Herve; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chary, Ranga; Frye, Brenda; Martinache, Clement; Guery, David; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Altieri, Bruno; Flores-Cacho, Ines; Giard, Martin; Hurier, Guillaume; Lagache, Guilaine; Montier, Ludovic; Nesvadba, Nicole; Omont, Alain; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Pierini, Daniele; Puget, Jean-Loup; Scott, Douglas; Soucail, Genevieve

    2014-12-01

    At which cosmic epoch did massive galaxy clusters assemble their baryons? How does star formation occur in the most massive, most rapidly collapsing dark-matter-dense environments in the early Universe? To answer these questions, we take the completely novel approach to select the most extreme z>~2 star-forming overdensities seen over the entire sky. This selection nicely complements the other existing selections for high redshift clusters (i.e., by stellar mass, or by total mass like Sunyaev-Zeldovish (SZ) or X-ray selection). We make use of the Planck all-sky submillimetre survey to systematically identify the rarest, most luminous high-redshift sub-mm sources on the sky, either strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies, or the joint FIR/sub-mm emission from multiple intense starbursts. We observed 228 Planck sources with Herschel/SPIRE and discovered that most of them are overdensities of red galaxies with extremely high star formation rates (typically 7.e3 Msun/yr for a structure). Only Spitzer data can allow a better understanding of these promising Planck+Herschel selected sources, as is shown on a first set of IRAC data on 40 targets in GO9: (i) the good angular resolution and sensitivity of IRAC allows a proper determination of the clustered nature of each Herschel/SPIRE source; (ii) IRAC photometry (often associated with J, K) allows a good estimate of the colors and approximate photometric redshift. Note spectroscopic redshifts are available for two cluster candidates, at z=1.7 and z=2.3, confirming their high redshift nature. The successful GO9 observation of 40 fields showed that about half to be >7sigma overdensities of red IRAC sources. These observations were targeting the whole range of Herschel overdensities and significances. We need to go deeper into the Spitzer sample and acquire complete coverage of the most extreme Herschel overdensities (54 new fields). Such a unique sample has legacy value, and this is the last opportunity prior to JWST

  4. Concomitant hip and distal radius fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Pin Lin

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Concomitant hip and distal radius fractures were generally ipsilateral and involved the femoral neck after a backward fall. These patients were younger than and not more osteoporotic than the population with isolated hip fractures; however, the hospital stay was significantly increased. The functional outcome was not influenced by concomitant wrist fracture.

  5. Proton radius from electron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kabir, Al Amin [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lin, Vincent [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Western Branch High School, Chesapeake, VA (United States); Meekins, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Norum, Blaine [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sawatzky, Brad [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Background: The proton charge radius extracted from recent muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements is significantly smaller than that extracted from atomic hydrogen and electron scattering measurements. The discrepancy has become known as the proton radius puzzle. Purpose: In an attempt to understand the discrepancy, we review high-precision electron scattering results from Mainz, Jefferson Lab, Saskatoon and Stanford. Methods: We make use of stepwise regression techniques using the F-test as well as the Akaike information criterion to systematically determine the predictive variables to use for a given set and range of electron scattering data as well as to provide multivariate error estimates. Results: Starting with the precision, low four-momentum transfer (Q2) data from Mainz (1980) and Saskatoon (1974), we find that a stepwise regression of the Maclaurin series using the F-test as well as the Akaike information criterion justify using a linear extrapolation which yields a value for the proton radius that is consistent with the result obtained from muonic hydrogen measurements. Applying the same Maclaurin series and statistical criteria to the 2014 Rosenbluth results on GE from Mainz, we again find that the stepwise regression tends to favor a radius consistent with the muonic hydrogen radius but produces results that are extremely sensitive to the range of data included in the fit. Making use of the high-Q2 data on GE to select functions which extrapolate to high Q2, we find that a Pad´e (N = M = 1) statistical model works remarkably well, as does a dipole function with a 0.84 fm radius, GE(Q2) = (1 + Q2/0.66 GeV2)-2. Conclusions: Rigorous applications of stepwise regression techniques and multivariate error estimates result in the extraction of a proton charge radius that is consistent with the muonic hydrogen result of 0.84 fm; either from linear extrapolation

  6. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet WASP-14b

    OpenAIRE

    Krick, J. E.; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.; Ciardi, D.; Plavchan, P.; Wong, I.; Lowrance, P.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling the phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of approximately two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer obs...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ~60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°

  8. A Direct Imaging Survey of Spitzer-detected Debris Disks: Occurrence of Giant Planets in Dusty Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Mawet, Dimitri; Bryan, Marta L.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bowler, Brendan P.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Padgett, Deborah; Morales, Farisa Y.; Serabyn, Eugene; Christiaens, Valentin; Brandt, Timothy D.; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2017-12-01

    We describe a joint high-contrast imaging survey for planets at the Keck and Very Large Telescope of the last large sample of debris disks identified by the Spitzer Space Telescope. No new substellar companions were discovered in our survey of 30 Spitzer-selected targets. We combine our observations with data from four published surveys to place constraints on the frequency of planets around 130 debris disk single stars, the largest sample to date. For a control sample, we assembled contrast curves from several published surveys targeting 277 stars that do not show infrared excesses. We assumed a double power-law distribution in mass and semimajor axis (SMA) of the form f(m,a)={{Cm}}α {a}β , where we adopted power-law values and logarithmically flat values for the mass and SMA of planets. We find that the frequency of giant planets with masses 5-20 M Jup and separations 10-1000 au around stars with debris disks is 6.27% (68% confidence interval 3.68%-9.76%), compared to 0.73% (68% confidence interval 0.20%-1.80%) for the control sample of stars without disks. These distributions differ at the 88% confidence level, tentatively suggesting distinctness of these samples. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  9. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Herzberg Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Astrophysics Group, Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Spezzi, Loredana, E-mail: michael.dunham@yale.edu [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L{sub bol} for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L{sub Sun} to 69 L{sub Sun }, and has a mean and median of 4.3 L{sub Sun} and 1.3 L{sub Sun }, respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L{sub bol} {approx}< 0.5 L{sub Sun }) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 {mu}m <{lambda} < 850 {mu}m) and have L{sub bol} underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  10. Spitzer identification of potentially active Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Josh; Farnocchia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo

    2017-04-01

    The separation between asteroids and comets has become less clear with the discovery of a small group of asteroids that display comet-like activity. While the activity is attributed to different mechanisms, some objects seem to activate close to the Sun. Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) come close to the Earth and the Sun, constituting a natural laboratory for the study of thermally induced activity. Two NEA sub-populations are especially suspected of being potentially active: dormant comets and near-Sun asteroids. We propose 12.4 hrs of Spitzer IRAC observations of 3 near-Sun asteroids and one dormant comet (3552) Don Quixote, about which we have already published. Our goals are (1) to search for activity in Don Quixote, which showed CO/CO2 activity during its previous apparition and (2) to search for activity and measure the diameters and albedos of the near-Sun asteroids. In combination with a funded ground-based observing program, our results will provide significant legacy value to the investigation of activity in near-Earth asteroids.

  11. Dynamic Young Stars and their Disks: A Temporal View of NGC 2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability is a signature feature of young stars. Among the well known light curve phenomena are periodic variations attributed to surface spots and irregular changes associated with accretion or circumstellar disk material. While decades of photometric monitoring have provided a framework for classifying young star variability, we still know surprisingly little about its underlying mechanisms and connections to the surrounding disks. In the past few years, dedicated photometric monitoring campaigns from the ground and space have revolutionized our view of young stars in the time domain. We present a selection of optical and infrared time series from several recent campaigns, highlighting the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (“CSI 2264”– a joint30-day effort with the Spitzer, CoRoT, and MOST telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, high cadence, and long time baseline of these observations is now enabling correlation of variability properties at very different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner 0.1 AU of the disk. We present some results of the CSI 2264 program, including new classes of optical/infrared behavior. Further efforts to tie observed variability features to physical models will provide insights into the inner disk environment at a time when planet formation may be underway.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-31b:HST/Spitzer transmission spectral survey (Sing+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, D. K.; Wakeford, H. R.; Showman, A. P.; Nikolov, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Burrows, A. S.; Ballester, G. E.; Deming, D.; Aigrain, S.; Desert, J.-M.; Gibson, N. P.; Henry, G. W.; Knutson, H.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.; Pont, F.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Williamson, M. W.; Wilson, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    We observed two transits of WASP-31b with the HST STIS G430L grating during 2012 June 13 and 26, as well as one transit with the STIS G750L during 2012 July 10. In addition to the STIS data, observations of WASP-31b were also conducted in the infrared with WFC3 on the HST. Observations began on 2012 May 13 at 12:53 using the IR G141 grism in forward spatial scan mode over five HST orbits. We analyse two transit observations obtained using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument (Programme 90092 with P.I. Desert) on the Spitzer space telescope in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels in subarray mode (32x32 pixel, or 39 centred on the planets host). The 3.6 μm observation was performed on UT 2013 March 9 (between 06:59 and 11:37) and the 4.5 observation was performed on UT 2013 March 19 (between 12:19 and 16:58). (1 data file).

  13. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D. C.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Hamel, S.; Caspersen, K.; Schwegler, E.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California, CA 94550 (United States); Nettelmann, N. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Ackland, G. J. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    For planets other than Earth, particularly exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on comparing the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation which relies heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We lay out a method for deriving and testing equations of state, and deduce mass-radius and mass-pressure relations for key, relevant materials whose equation of state (EOS) is reasonably well established, and for differentiated Fe/rock. We find that variations in the EOS, such as may arise when extrapolating from low-pressure data, can have significant effects on predicted mass-radius relations and on planetary pressure profiles. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. Kepler-10b is apparently 'Earth-like', likely with a proportionately larger core than Earth's, nominally 2/3 of the mass of the planet. CoRoT-7b is consistent with a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core which is likely to be proportionately smaller than Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, suggesting an 'icy' composition with a relatively large core or a relatively large proportion of H{sub 2}O. CoRoT-2b is less dense than the hydrogen relation, which could be explained by an anomalously high degree of heating or by higher than assumed atmospheric opacity. HAT-P-2b is slightly denser than the mass-radius relation for hydrogen, suggesting the presence of a significant amount of matter of higher atomic number. CoRoT-3b lies close to the hydrogen relation. The pressure at the center of Kepler-10b is 1.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} TPa. The central pressure in CoRoT-7b is probably close to 0.8 TPa, though may be up to 2 TPa. These

  14. Reverberation measurements of the inner radius of the dust torus in 17 Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, Shintaro [Center of Astro Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Univercsidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4868 (Chile); Minezaki, Takeo; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Sakata, Yu; Sugawara, Shota [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Suganuma, Masahiro [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Enya, Keigo [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Tomita, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Peterson, Bruce A., E-mail: skoshida@ing.puc.cl, E-mail: minezaki@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Mount Stromlo Observatory, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek P.O., ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-06-20

    We present the results of a dust reverberation survey for 17 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies, which provides the largest homogeneous data collection for the radius of the innermost dust torus. A delayed response of the K-band light curve after the V-band light curve was found for all targets, and 49 measurements of lag times between the flux variation of the dust emission in the K band and that of the optical continuum emission in the V band were obtained by the cross-correlation function analysis and also by an alternative method for estimating the maximum likelihood lag. The lag times strongly correlated with the optical luminosity in the luminosity range of M{sub V} = –16 to –22 mag, and the regression analysis was performed to obtain the correlation log Δt (days) = –2.11 – 0.2 M{sub V} assuming Δt∝L {sup 0.5}, which was theoretically expected. We discuss the possible origins of the intrinsic scatter of the dust lag-luminosity correlation, which was estimated to be approximately 0.13 dex, and we find that the difference of internal extinction and delayed response of changes in lag times to the flux variations could have partly contributed to intrinsic scatter. However, we could not detect any systematic change of the correlation with the subclass of the Seyfert type or the Eddington ratio. Finally, we compare the dust reverberation radius with the near-infrared interferometric radius of the dust torus and the reverberation radius of broad Balmer emission lines. The interferometric radius in the K band was found to be systematically larger than the dust reverberation radius in the same band by the about a factor of two, which could be interpreted by the difference between the flux-weighted radius and response-weighted radius of the innermost dust torus. The reverberation radius of the broad Balmer emission lines was found to be systematically smaller than the dust reverberation radius by about a factor of four to five, which strongly supports the unified

  15. Kepler-93b: A terrestrial world measured to within 120 km, and a test case for a new Spitzer observing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Sarah [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Campante, Tiago L.; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Zeng, Li [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 (United States); Werner, Michael W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, Victor Silva; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Karoff, Christoffer [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney 2006 (Australia); Gilliland, Ronald L., E-mail: sarahba@uw.edu [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-07-20

    We present the characterization of the Kepler-93 exoplanetary system, based on three years of photometry gathered by the Kepler spacecraft. The duration and cadence of the Kepler observations, in tandem with the brightness of the star, enable unusually precise constraints on both the planet and its host. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry and conclude that the star has an average density of 1.652 ± 0.006 g cm{sup –3}. Its mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M{sub ☉} renders it one of the lowest-mass subjects of asteroseismic study. An analysis of the transit signature produced by the planet Kepler-93b, which appears with a period of 4.72673978 ± 9.7 × 10{sup –7} days, returns a consistent but less precise measurement of the stellar density, 1.72{sub −0.28}{sup +0.02} g cm{sup –3}. The agreement of these two values lends credence to the planetary interpretation of the transit signal. The achromatic transit depth, as compared between Kepler and the Spitzer Space Telescope, supports the same conclusion. We observed seven transits of Kepler-93b with Spitzer, three of which we conducted in a new observing mode. The pointing strategy we employed to gather this subset of observations halved our uncertainty on the transit radius ratio R{sub P} /R{sub *}. We find, after folding together the stellar radius measurement of 0.919 ± 0.011 R{sub ☉} with the transit depth, a best-fit value for the planetary radius of 1.481 ± 0.019 R{sub ⊕}. The uncertainty of 120 km on our measurement of the planet's size currently renders it one of the most precisely measured planetary radii outside of the solar system. Together with the radius, the planetary mass of 3.8 ± 1.5 M{sub ⊕} corresponds to a rocky density of 6.3 ± 2.6 g cm{sup –3}. After applying a prior on the plausible maximum densities of similarly sized worlds between 1 and 1.5 R{sub ⊕}, we find that Kepler-93b possesses an average density within this group.

  16. Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ENACEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.

  17. The Geometry of the Infrared and X-Ray Obscurer in a Dusty Hyperluminous Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrah, Duncan; Balokovic, Mislav; Stern, Daniel; Harris, Kathryn; Kunimoto, Michelle; Walton, Dominc J.; Alexander, David M.; Arevalo, Patricia; Ballantyne, David R.; Bauer, Franz E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscurer in IRAS 09104+4109, an IR-luminous, radio-intermediate FR-I source at z = 0.442, using infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, X-ray data from NuSTAR, Swift, Suzaku, and Chandra, and an optical spectrum from Palomar. The infrared data imply a total rest-frame 1-1000 micron luminosity of 5.5 × 10(exp 46) ergs/s and require both an AGN torus and a starburst model. The AGN torus has an anisotropy-corrected IR luminosity of 4.9 × 10(exp 46) ergs/s and a viewing angle and half-opening angle both of approximately 36deg from pole-on. The starburst has a star formation rate of (110 +/- 34) Stellar Mass/yr and an age of <50 Myr. These results are consistent with two epochs of luminous activity in IRAS 09104+4109: one approximately 150 Myr ago, and one ongoing. The X-ray data suggest a photon index of Gamma approx. =l 1.8 and a line-of-sight column density of N(sub H) approx. = 5 × 10(exp 23) sq cm. This argues against a reflection-dominated hard X-ray spectrum, which would have implied a much higher N(sub H) and luminosity. The X-ray and infrared data are consistent with a bolometric AGN luminosity of L(sub bol) approx.(0.5-2.5) ×10(exp 47) ergs/s. The X-ray and infrared data are further consistent with co-aligned AGN obscurers in which the line of sight "skims" the torus. This is also consistent with the optical spectra, which show both coronal iron lines and broad lines in polarized but not direct light. Combining constraints from the X-ray, optical, and infrared data suggest that the AGN obscurer is within a vertical height of 20 pc, and a radius of 125 pc, of the nucleus.

  18. Spitzer IMAGING AND SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, Box 19059, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Fesen, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 037355 (United States); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A29, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, McCardell Bicentennial Hall 526, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We present mid-infrared continuum and emission line images of the Galactic oxygen-rich supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8, acquired using the MIPS and IRS instruments on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIPS 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m images of G292.0+1.8 are dominated by continuum emission from a network of filaments encircling the SNR. The morphology of the SNR, as seen in the mid-infrared, resembles that seen in X-rays with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Most of the mid-infrared emission in the MIPS images is produced by circumstellar dust heated in the non-radiative shocks around G292.0+1.8, confirming the results of earlier mid-IR observations with AKARI. In addition to emission from hot dust, we have also mapped atomic line emission between 14 {mu}m and 36 {mu}m using IRS spectral maps. The line emission is primarily associated with the bright oxygen-rich optical knots, but is also detected from fast-moving knots of ejecta. We confirm our earlier detection of 15-25 {mu}m emission characteristic of magnesium silicate dust in spectra of the radiatively shocked ejecta. We do not detect silicon line emission from any of the radiatively shocked ejecta in the southeast of the SNR, possibly because the reverse shock has not yet penetrated most of the Si-rich ejecta in that region. This may indicate that G292.0+1.8 is less evolved in the southeast than the rest of the SNR, and may be further evidence in favor of an asymmetric SN explosion as proposed in recent X-ray studies of G292.0+1.8.

  19. THE COMPLEX PHYSICS OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS AS REVEALED BY HERSCHEL AND SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Faro, B.; Franceschini, A.; Vaccari, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Feltre, A.; Marchetti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silva, L. [INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgarella, D.; Buat, V. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Farrah, D.; Hurley, P. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Solares, E. A. Gonzalez [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Magdis, G., E-mail: barbara.lofaro@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-01-10

    We combine far-infrared photometry from Herschel (PEP/HerMES) with deep mid-infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer to investigate the nature and the mass assembly history of a sample of 31 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z {approx} 1 and 2 selected in GOODS-S with 24 {mu}m fluxes between 0.2 and 0.5 mJy. We model the data with a self-consistent physical model (GRASIL) which includes a state-of-the-art treatment of dust extinction and reprocessing. We find that all of our galaxies appear to require massive populations of old (>1 Gyr) stars and, at the same time, to host a moderate ongoing activity of star formation (SFR {<=} 100 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). The bulk of the stars appear to have been formed a few Gyr before the observation in essentially all cases. Only five galaxies of the sample require a recent starburst superimposed on a quiescent star formation history. We also find discrepancies between our results and those based on optical-only spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting for the same objects; by fitting their observed SEDs with our physical model we find higher extinctions (by {Delta}A {sub V} {approx} 0.81 and 1.14) and higher stellar masses (by {Delta}log(M {sub *}) {approx} 0.16 and 0.36 dex) for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively. The stellar mass difference is larger for the most dust-obscured objects. We also find lower SFRs than those computed from L {sub IR} using the Kennicutt relation due to the significant contribution to the dust heating by intermediate-age stellar populations through 'cirrus' emission ({approx}73% and {approx}66% of the total L {sub IR} for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively).

  20. Reverberation Mapping the Dusty Torus in Active Galactic Nuclei: the Influence of Torus Geometry and Structure on the Measured Reverberation Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda, Triana

    2018-01-01

    The obscuring circumnuclear dusty torus is a cornerstone of AGN unification, yet its shape, composition, and structure have not been well constrained. Infrared (IR) interferometry can partially resolve the dust structures in nearby AGN. However, the size and structure of the torus can also be investigated at all redshifts by reverberation mapping, that is, analyzing the temporal variability of the torus dust emission in response to changes in the AGN luminosity. In simple models, the lag between the AGN optical continuum variations and the torus IR response is directly related to the effective size of the emitting region. However, the IR response is sensitive to many poorly constrained variables including the geometry and illumination of the torus, which complicates the interpretation of measured reverberation lags. I will present results from the first comprehensive analysis of the multi-wavelength IR torus response, showing how various structural and geometrical torus parameters influence the measured lag. A library of torus response functions has been computed using a new code, TORMAC, which simulates the temporal response of the IR emission of a 3D ensemble of dust clouds given an input optical light curve. TORMAC accounts for anisotropic emission from the dust clouds, inter-cloud and AGN-cloud shadowing, and anisotropic illumination of the torus by the AGN continuum source. We can use the model grid to quantify the relationship between the lag and the effective size of the torus for various torus parameters at any selected wavelength. Although the shapes of the response functions vary widely over our grid parameter range, the reverberation lag provides an estimate of the effective torus radius that is always within a factor of 2.5. TORMAC can also be used to model observed IR light curves; we present preliminary simulations for the “changing-look” Seyfert galaxy, NGC 6418, which exhibited large IR variability during a recent Spitzer monitoring campaign

  1. Percutaneous distal radius-ulna pinning of distal radius fractures to prevent settling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Tae, Suk Kee

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of distal radius fractures treated by percutaneous fixation using distal radius-ulna pinning and to assess its effectiveness especially for preventing fracture settling. We retrospectively reviewed 18 distal radius fractures (15 AO type A2 and 3 AO type C1). Range of motion and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were evaluated. We measured radiographic parameters at the final follow-up and compared them with those on immediate postoperative x-rays. All fractures united and average time to initial healing was 6.9 weeks (range, 6-7 wk). Average follow-up was 29 months (range, 26-43 mo). Average wrist flexion and extension were 70° and 65°, respectively. Average forearm supination and pronation were 82° and 83°, respectively. Average pain score was 1.2 and average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 13. Mean difference of ulnar variance, volar tilt, and radial inclination between immediate and final follow-up x-rays was 0.7 mm, 1°, and less than 1°, respectively. Percutaneous fixation of distal radius fractures using distal radius-ulna pinning had favorable radiologic and functional outcomes and was effective in preventing fracture settling during initial healing in unstable extra-articular fractures and some simple sagittal split intra-articular fractures. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Small-radius jets to all orders

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory; Salam, Gavin; Dasgupta, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    With hadron colliders continuing to push the boundaries of precision, it is becoming increas­ ingly important to have a detailed understanding of the subtleties appearing at smaller values of the jet radius R. We present a method to resum all leading logarithmic terms, a'.; Inn R, using a generating functional approach, as was recently discussed in Ref. 1. We study a variety of observables, such as the inclusive jet spectrum and jet vetoes for Higgs physics, and show that small-R effects can be sizeable. Finally, we compare our calculations to existing ALICE data, and show good agreement.

  3. The water abundance behind interstellar shocks: results from Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/IRS observations of H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gusdorf, Antoine [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005, Paris (France); Güsten, Rolf [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Herczeg, Greg J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Kristensen, Lars; Melnick, Gary J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nisini, Brunella [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Ossenkopf, Volker [Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the water abundance in shock-heated molecular gas, making use of Herschel measurements of far-infrared (IR) CO and H{sub 2}O line emissions in combination with Spitzer measurements of mid-IR H{sub 2} rotational emissions. We present far-IR line spectra obtained with Herschel's Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument in range spectroscopy mode toward two positions in the protostellar outflow NGC 2071 and one position each in the supernova remnants W28 and 3C391. These spectra provide unequivocal detections, at one or more positions, of 12 rotational lines of water, 14 rotational lines of CO, 8 rotational lines of OH (4 lambda doublets), and 7 fine-structure transitions of atoms or atomic ions. We first used a simultaneous fit to the CO line fluxes, along with H{sub 2} rotational line fluxes measured previously by Spitzer, to constrain the temperature and density distribution within the emitting gas; we then investigated the water abundances implied by the observed H{sub 2}O line fluxes. The water line fluxes are in acceptable agreement with standard theoretical models for nondissociative shocks that predict the complete vaporization of grain mantles in shocks of velocity v ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}, behind which the characteristic gas temperature is ∼1300 K and the H{sub 2}O/CO ratio is 1.2.

  4. The Water Abundance behind Interstellar Shocks: Results from Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/IRS Observations of H2O, CO, and H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Gusdorf, Antoine; Güsten, Rolf; Herczeg, Greg J.; Kristensen, Lars; Melnick, Gary J.; Nisini, Brunella; Ossenkopf, Volker; Tafalla, Mario; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the water abundance in shock-heated molecular gas, making use of Herschel measurements of far-infrared (IR) CO and H2O line emissions in combination with Spitzer measurements of mid-IR H2 rotational emissions. We present far-IR line spectra obtained with Herschel's Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument in range spectroscopy mode toward two positions in the protostellar outflow NGC 2071 and one position each in the supernova remnants W28 and 3C391. These spectra provide unequivocal detections, at one or more positions, of 12 rotational lines of water, 14 rotational lines of CO, 8 rotational lines of OH (4 lambda doublets), and 7 fine-structure transitions of atoms or atomic ions. We first used a simultaneous fit to the CO line fluxes, along with H2 rotational line fluxes measured previously by Spitzer, to constrain the temperature and density distribution within the emitting gas; we then investigated the water abundances implied by the observed H2O line fluxes. The water line fluxes are in acceptable agreement with standard theoretical models for nondissociative shocks that predict the complete vaporization of grain mantles in shocks of velocity v ~ 25 km s-1, behind which the characteristic gas temperature is ~1300 K and the H2O/CO ratio is 1.2

  5. Genetics Home Reference: thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions TAR syndrome Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by the ...

  6. Internal distraction plating of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadonikolakis, Anastasios; Ruch, David S

    2005-03-01

    Internal distraction plating can be used for the treatment of highly comminuted distal radius fractures especially in elderly patients. The technique involves the use of 3.5, 2.7, or 2.5 dynamic compression plates. The instrumentation is applied in distraction dorsally from the radial diaphysis, bypassing the comminuted segment, and fixed distally to the long metacarpal. The advantages of this technique are: a) it can be used as an alternative for managing difficult fractures in the elderly population; b) it is indicated in patients with osteoporotic bone; c) complications associated with external pins are avoided; and d) the stability of the plate allows patients to use the extremity for transfer and activities of daily living. On the other hand, possible disadvantages to be considered are: a) the need of a second operation to remove the plate; and b) the prolonged duration of immobilization. Elderly patients with osteoporotic bone who undergo treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures may result in poor outcomes with high rates of complications if external fixation or standard internal fixation is used. The current approach represents an alternative that provides union of the fracture with excellent alignment, functional range of motion, and minimal functional disability.

  7. Are the infrared-faint radio sources pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. D.; Keith, M.; Hobbs, G.; Norris, R. P.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects which are strong at radio wavelengths but undetected in sensitive Spitzer observations at infrared wavelengths. Their nature is uncertain and most have not yet been associated with any known astrophysical object. One possibility is that they are radio pulsars. To test this hypothesis we undertook observations of 16 of these sources with the Parkes Radio Telescope. Our results limit the radio emission to a pulsed flux density of less than 0.21 mJy (assuming a 50 per cent duty cycle). This is well below the flux density of the IFRS. We therefore conclude that these IFRS are not radio pulsars.

  8. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Da Cunha, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Magdis, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  9. Muonic hydrogen spectroscopy: the proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, Aldo; Nez, François; Amaro, Fernando D.; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M. R.; Covita, Daniel S.; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Fernandes, Luis M. P.; Giesen, Adolf; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kao, Cheng-Yang; Knowles, Paul; Kottmann, Franz; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A. M.; Ludhova, Livia; Monteiro, Cristina M. B.; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Rabinowitz, Paul; Dos Santos, Joaquim M. F.; Schaller, Lukas A.; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F. C. A.; Pohl, Randolf

    2010-09-01

    By means of pulsed laser spectroscopy applied to muonic hydrogen (μ¯p) we havemeasured the 2S (F=1)/(1/2) - 2P(F=2)/(3/2) transition frequency to be 49881.88(76)GHz.1 By comparing this measurement with its theoretical prediction 2-7 based on bound-state QED we have determined a proton radius value of rP =0.84184(67) fm. This new value differs by 5.0 standard deviations from the CODATA value of 0.8768(69) fm,8 and 3 standard deviation from the e-p scattering results of 0.897(18) fm.9 The observed discrepancy may arise from a computational mistake of the energy levels in μp or H, or a fundamental problem in bound-state QED, an unknown effect related to the proton or the muon, or an experimental error.

  10. Risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenting; Ni, Cheng; Yu, Ren; Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Zheren; Zheng, Guoqing

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Compared with the control group, the 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures had a higher body mass index (BMI). Advanced age and higher BMI were more common in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P Osteoporosis in the two fracture groups (P obesity, falls, unknown osteoporosis status, and osteoporosis are associated with high risk of distal radius fracture. If comorbidities and advanced age are also present, this group of persons may be at higher risk for unstable distal radius fractures.

  11. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We employ archival Spitzer slit-scan observations of the HH211 outflow in order to investigate its warm gas content, assess the jet mass flux in the form of H2 and probe for the existence of an embedded atomic jet. Methods: Detected molecular and atomic lines are interpreted by means of emi...

  13. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L. F.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.; Burt, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy [1]. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum [2] led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data

  14. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N/sub 2/, and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10/sup 15//cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 ..mu..sec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 ..mu..F, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption.

  15. Precessing Asteroids ftrom Radius Vector Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.

    2014-11-01

    Examining a sample of asteroids (the first 99) for which radius vector models have been constructed from mostly lightcurves, located on a web site where such models are listed (http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/projects/damit ; see Durech et al. (2010), DAMIT: a database of asteroid models, A&A, 513, A46), we fit their surfaces as triaxial ellipsoids and provide their three dimensions. In the process we also derive an Euler angular offset θ between each model's spin axis and its axis of maximum moment of inertia assuming a uniform distribution of mass. Most θ's conform to a chi-squared distribution having a maximum at 3° and a mean at 5°, and with the square root of the variance being 3°. However, seven models produce θ>20°, which we interpret as indicating possibly strong precessors, tumblers, or due to incorrect models: asteroids (68), (89), (125), (162), (167), (222), and (230). Nine others produce an excess over the distribution at 12°probability of an impact sufficient to change the angular momentum of the asteroid implied by θ during the damping time to return to rotation about the small axis is vanishingly small (less than 1 in 10000) for the 8 out of 16 asteroids with absolute dimensions. The most likely resolution, then, is that the rotational pole for the 16 asteroid models with high θ needs to be adjusted by θ degrees.

  16. On Galaxy Mass-Radius Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoni, D.; Secco, L.; Contini, E.; Caimmi, R.

    In the Clausius' virial maximum theory (TCV) [Secco and Bindoni, NewA 14, 567 (2009)] to explain the galaxy Fundamental Plane (FP) a natural explanation follows about the observed relationship between stellar mass and effective radius, M ∗ - r e , for early type galaxies (ETGs). The key of this correlation lies in the deep link which has to exist between cosmology and the existence of the FP. The general strategy consists in using the two-component tensor virial theorem to describe the virial configuration of the baryonic component of mass M B ≃ M ∗ embedded in a dark matter (DM) halo of mass M D at the end of relaxation phase. In a ΛCDM flat cosmology, starting from variance at equivalence epoch, we derive some preliminary theoretical relationships, M ∗ - r e , which are functions of mass ratio m = M D / M B . They appear to be in agreement with the trends extracted from the data of galaxy sample used by [Tortora et al., MNRAS 396, 1132 (2009)].

  17. An iterative algorithm for calculating stylus radius unambiguously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorburger, T V; Zheng, A; Renegar, T B; Song, J-F; Ma, L, E-mail: tvtv@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-19

    The stylus radius is an important specification for stylus instruments and is commonly provided by instrument manufacturers. However, it is difficult to measure the stylus radius unambiguously. Accurate profiles of the stylus tip may be obtained by profiling over an object sharper than itself, such as a razor blade. However, the stylus profile thus obtained is a partial arc, and unless the shape of the stylus tip is a perfect sphere or circle, the effective value of the radius depends on the length of the tip profile over which the radius is determined. We have developed an iterative, least squares algorithm aimed to determine the effective least squares stylus radius unambiguously. So far, the algorithm converges to reasonable results for the least squares stylus radius. We suggest that the algorithm be considered for adoption in documentary standards describing the properties of stylus instruments.

  18. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  19. Isotopic effects on non-linearity, molecular radius and intermolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Non-linearity parameter; molecular radius; free length; intermolecular inter- ... parameter (B/A) [3,4], molecular radius (rm) [5] and intermolecular free length (Lf) ... X. 2βT. ) and K = 1. 2. (. 1 +. S∗(1 + αT). αT. ) , where S∗ =1+ 4. 3. αT. Computation of molecular radius has been carried out by employing the relation r = A.

  20. Reduction of the proton radius discrepancy by 3σ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that in previous analyses of electron–proton scattering, the uncertainties in the statistical procedure to extract the proton charge radius are underestimated. Using a fit function based on a conformal mapping, we can describe the scattering data with high precision and extract a radius value in agreement with the one obtained from muonic hydrogen.

  1. The minimal spectral radius of graphs with a given diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.R. van; Kooij, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The spectral radius of a graph (i.e., the largest eigenvalue of its corresponding adjacency matrix) plays an important role in modeling virus propagation in networks. In fact, the smaller the spectral radius, the larger the robustness of a network against the spread of viruses. Among all connected

  2. Distal radius fractures: what determines the outcome after surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, T.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses current issues in the outcome of operatively treated distal radius fractures. The general aim was to determine factors associated with adverse events, loss of motion, functional limitations, and opioid use after surgery. Injury In 3D complete articular distal radius fracture

  3. Climatic and seasonal variations of effective earth radius factor...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-12

    Apr 12, 2008 ... This gives rise to the concept of 'effective-Earth-radius'. Effective Earth Radius Factor, k. The decrease of N with height, which causes bending of a radio ray ... Ducting Threshold -157 0 oo. Ducting <- 157 <0 00. Variations in k-value can cause significant degradation of line-of-sight (LOS) paths. A temporary ...

  4. New Software for Ensemble Creation in the Spitzer-Space-Telescope Operations Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Russ; Rector, John

    2004-01-01

    Some of the computer pipelines used to process digital astronomical images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope require multiple input images, in order to generate high-level science and calibration products. The images are grouped into ensembles according to well documented ensemble-creation rules by making explicit associations in the operations Informix database at the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). The advantage of this approach is that a simple database query can retrieve the required ensemble of pipeline input images. New and improved software for ensemble creation has been developed. The new software is much faster than the existing software because it uses pre-compiled database stored-procedures written in Informix SPL (SQL programming language). The new software is also more flexible because the ensemble creation rules are now stored in and read from newly defined database tables. This table-driven approach was implemented so that ensemble rules can be inserted, updated, or deleted without modifying software.

  5. Beyond hot Jupiters: Characterizing exoplanets below 1000 K with Spitzer and JWST emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneke, Björn; Université de Montréal, Caltech, University of Arizona, Space Science Institute, UCSC, Harvard University

    2018-01-01

    Most thermal emission spectra of exoplanets to date have been obtained for the hot Jupiters with equilibrium temperatures above ~1500K due to their favorable eclipse depth in the NIR. Emission spectroscopy of colder planets, however, provides us with the important opportunity to understand cloud formation and atmospheric chemistry near the CH4/CO transition. In this talk, we will demonstrate JWST’s unique capabilities for these planets and discuss results from our ongoing Spitzer effort to study warm Neptunes and Jupiters.

  6. Spitzer ToO observations of a short gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin; Bloom, Joshua; Butler, Nathaniel; Falco, Emilio; Foley, Ryan; Granot, Jonathan; Kocevski, Daniel; Lee, William; Li, Weidong; Mahoney, William; Pahre, Michael; Panaitescu, Alin; Perley, Daniel; Prochaska, Jason; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Smith, Ian; Squires, Gordon

    2008-03-01

    An understanding of the origin of the short gamma-ray bursts remains an elusive and exciting pursuit. A great leap forward has been made over the past three years with the first rapid localizations and afterglow detections of such events, but follow-up has yet to reveal a detailed understanding of the progenitors and the nature of the afterglow light. We propose an ambitious multiwavelength approach to the problem, leveraging Spitzer with Chandra as well as numerous ground-based telescopes. By measuring the broad-band spectrum of the afterglow and any concurrent 'mini-supernova ' over a wide range of wavelengths at several epochs, we can distinguish between models proposed to explain this type of burst. We will constrain the energetics of the explosion and the short GRB bursting rate (an important number for gravitational wave observatories), and measure with unprecedented detail the stellar content of a short burst host galaxy. Given the high impact nature of these observations and the rarity of short bursts, we are requesting multiepoch Target of Opportunity observations on a single event in Cycle 5. The wavelengths observed by Spitzer, when used in coordination with these other instruments, can make a crucial contribution to understanding the nature of short duration GRBs, particularly by removing the degeneracies among the models due to dust extinction. This is a resubmission of our AO-4 ToO proposal, which has not been called yet. However, even if that observation is carried out, we are requesting an AO-5 observation, because so little is known about the short bursts that each new detection adds a very significant amount of information. Harvey Tananbaum has agreed to grant us Chandra ToO time through November 2008 (the end of Chandra AO-9) if Spitzer observations are carried out. Following that, we will submit a Chandra AO-10 proposal for ToO time; if warranted, we will request Chandra Director's Discretionary Time to support our Spitzer observations.

  7. The Formation of Massive Stars: from Herschel to Near-Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Persi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a number of selected high mass star forming regions, including high resolution near-infrared broad- and narrow-band imaging, Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm and Spitzer (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 m images. The preliminary results of one of this region, IRAS 19388+2357(MOL110 are discussed. In this region a dense core has been detected in the far-infrared, and a young stellar cluster has been found around this core. Combining near-IR data with Spitzer and Herschel photometry we have derived the spectral energy distribution of Mol110. Finally comparing our H2 and Kc narrow-band images, we have found an H2 jet in this region.

  8. Spitzer observations of the asteroid-comet transition object and potential spacecraft target 107P (4015) Wilson-Harrington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licandro, J.; Campins, H.; Kelley, M.; Fernández, Y.; Delbó, M.; Reach, W. T.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P. L.; Toth, I.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bauer, J. M.; Lowry, S. C.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Lisse, C. M.; Meech, K. J.; Pittichová, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Weaver, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Near-Earth asteroid-comet transition object 107P/ (4015) Wilson-Harrington is a possible target of the joint European Space Agency (ESA) and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Marco Polo sample return mission. Physical studies of this object are relevant to this mission, and also to understanding its asteroidal or cometary nature. Aims: Our aim is to obtain significant new constraints on the surface thermal properties of this object. Methods: We present mid-infrared photometry in two filters (16 and 22 μm) obtained with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope on February 12, 2007, and results from the application of the Near Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM). We obtained high S/N in two mid-IR bands allowing accurate measurements of its thermal emission. Results: We obtain a well constrained beaming parameter (η = 1.39±0.26) and obtain a diameter and geometric albedo of D = 3.46±0.32 km, and pV = 0.059±0.011. We also obtain similar results when we apply this best-fitting thermal model to single-band mid-IR photometry reported by Campins et al. (1995, P&SS, 43, 733), Kraemer et al. (2005, AJ, 130, 2363) and Reach et al. (2007, Icarus, 191, 298). Conclusions: The albedo of 4015 Wilson-Harrington is low, consistent with those of comet nuclei and primitive C-, P-, D-type asteorids. We establish a rough lower limit for the thermal inertia of W-H of 60 Jm-2s-0.5 K-1 when it is at r = 1 AU, which is slightly over the limit of 30 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1 derived by Groussin et al. (2009, Icarus, 199, 568) for the thermal inertia of the nucleus of comet 22P/Kopff.

  9. A CLASSICAL MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GALAXIES IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Knapen, Johan H. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna (Spain); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sébastien [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Debra [Vassar College, Deparment of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Courtois, Helene [Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Lyon (France); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Paz, Armando Gil de [Departmento de Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín [University of Rio de Janeiro, Observatorio de Valongo, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S{sup 4}G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S{sup 4}G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, pure disk galaxies) in the range Scd-Im. The most common family classification for mid-IR types S0/a to Sc is SA while that for types Scd to Sm is SB. The bars in these two type domains are very different in mid-IR structure and morphology. This paper examines the bar, ring, and type classification fractions in the sample, and also includes several montages of images highlighting the various kinds of “stellar structures” seen in mid-IR galaxy morphology.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Spitzer /IRS Maps. II. A Direct Link between Band Profiles and the Radiation Field Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: dstock84@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-03-10

    We decompose the observed 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission complexes in a large sample of over 7000 mid-infrared spectra of the interstellar medium using spectral cubes observed with the Spitzer /IRS-SL instrument. In order to fit the 7.7 μ m PAH emission complex we invoke four Gaussian components, which are found to be very stable in terms of their peak positions and widths across all of our spectra, and subsequently define a decomposition with fixed parameters, which gives an acceptable fit for all the spectra. We see a strong environmental dependence on the interrelationships between our band fluxes—in the H ii regions all four components are intercorrelated, while in the reflection nebulae (RNs) the inner and outer pairs of bands correlate in the same manner as previously seen for NGC 2023. We show that this effect arises because the maps of RNs are dominated by emission from strongly irradiated photodissociation regions, while the much larger maps of H ii regions are dominated by emission from regions much more distant from the exciting stars, leading to subtly different spectral behavior. Further investigation of this dichotomy reveals that the ratio of two of these components (centered at 7.6 and 7.8 μ m) is linearly related to the UV-field intensity (log G {sub 0}). We find that this relationship does not hold for sources consisting of circumstellar material, which are known to have variable 7.7 μ m spectral profiles.

  11. Effects of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate and sound quality of centrifugal blower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Pham Ngoc; Kim, Jae Won; Byun, S. M. [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, E. Y. [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate of centrifugal blower were numerically simulated using a commercial CFD program, FLUENT. In this research, a total of eight numerical models were prepared by combining different values of bell mouth radii and inlet radii (the cross section of bell mouth was chosen as a circular arc in this research). The frozen rotor method combined with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model and non-equilibrium wall function was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow inside the centrifugal blowers. The inlet radius was then revealed to have significant impact on flow rate with the maximum difference between analyzed models was about 4.5% while the bell mouth radius had about 3% impact on flow rate. Parallel experiments were carried out to confirm the results of CFD analysis. The CFD results were thereafter validated owning to the good agreement between CFD results and the parallel experiment results. In addition to performance analysis, noise experiments were carried out to analyze the dependence of sound quality on inlet radius and bell mouth radius with different flow rate. The noise experiment results showed that the loudness and sharpness value of different models were quite similar, which mean the inlet radius and the bell mouth radius didn't have a clear impact on sound quality of centrifugal blower.

  12. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  13. Emission from water vapor and absorption from other gases at 5-7.5 μm in Spitzer-IRS Spectra Of Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, B. A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Forrest, W.; Watson, Dan M.; Kim, K. H.; Richter, I.; Tayrien, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); D' Alessio, P.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Green, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pontoppidan, K., E-mail: baspci@rit.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph 5-7.5 μm spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 μm due to the ν{sub 2} = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures >500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seen in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other 6 of the 13 stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 μm, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission. Modeling of these stars' spectra suggests these gases are present in the inner few AU of their host disks, consistent with recent studies of infrared spectra showing gas in protoplanetary disks.

  14. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-10

    taken with the 2.3 m Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia, us- Our full Spitzer IRS sample consists of 36 infrared sources in ing...summing linear interpolations through the photometry from Siding Spring Observatory. The photometric points generally lie at wavelengths affected by...2006 CARBON STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD 1125 0.3 a Blue Galactic sample 0.4 B 0.2 + Red Galactic sample * Be Galactic sample•e • J + + S MVC

  15. Relationship between elastic moduli and pore radius in clay aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Available experimental data on elastic velocities of clay-air mixtures and clay-brine mixtures as a function of porosity are re-interpreted. Pore radius as calculated from porosity and specific surface measured by BET seems to be the factor controlling stiffness of these un-cemented sediments....... For each of the two pore fluids: air or brine smectitic clay and kaolinitic clay seem to have similar power law relationships between a given elastic modulus and pore radius. These results indicate that pore radius and thus permeability of shale in the depth interval of mechanical compaction may...

  16. Split radius-form blocks for tube benders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, D. R.; Seiple, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    Two-piece, radius-form block permits accurate forming and removing of parts with more than a 180 degree bend. Tube bender can shape flexible metal tubing in applications dealing with plumbing, heating, and pressure transmission lines.

  17. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  18. Infrared Continuum and Line Evolution of the Equatorial Ring Around SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Bouchet, Patrice; Danziger, I. John; Frank, Kari A.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Park, Sangwook; Woodward, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Spitzer observations of SN 1987A have now spanned more than a decade. Since day approximately 4000, mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission has been dominated by that from shock-heated dust in the equatorial ring (ER). From 6000 to 8000 days after the explosion, Spitzer observations included broadband photometry at 3.6-24 micrometer, and low and moderate resolution spectroscopy at 5-35 micrometer. Here we present later Spitzer observations, through day 10,377, which include only the broadband measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer. These data show that the 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer brightness has clearly begun to fade after day approximately 8500, and no longer tracks the X-ray emission as well as it did at earlier epochs. This can be explained by the destruction of the dust in the ER on timescales shorter than the cooling time for the shocked gas. We find that the evolution of the late time IR emission is also similar to the now fading optical emission. We provide the complete record of the IR emission lines, as seen by Spitzer prior to day 8000. The past evolution of the gas as seen by the IR emission lines seems largely consistent with the optical emission, although the IR [Fe(II)]and [Si(II)]lines show different, peculiar velocity structures.

  19. INFRARED CONTINUUM AND LINE EVOLUTION OF THE EQUATORIAL RING AROUND SN 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST/UMBC (United States); Dwek, Eli [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bouchet, Patrice [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA-IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Danziger, I. John [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Frank, Kari A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: richard.g.arendt@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Spitzer observations of SN 1987A have now spanned more than a decade. Since day ∼4000, mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission has been dominated by that from shock-heated dust in the equatorial ring (ER). From 6000 to 8000 days after the explosion, Spitzer observations included broadband photometry at 3.6–24 μm, and low and moderate resolution spectroscopy at 5–35 μm. Here we present later Spitzer observations, through day 10,377, which include only the broadband measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. These data show that the 3.6 and 4.5 μm brightness has clearly begun to fade after day ∼8500, and no longer tracks the X-ray emission as well as it did at earlier epochs. This can be explained by the destruction of the dust in the ER on timescales shorter than the cooling time for the shocked gas. We find that the evolution of the late time IR emission is also similar to the now fading optical emission. We provide the complete record of the IR emission lines, as seen by Spitzer prior to day 8000. The past evolution of the gas as seen by the IR emission lines seems largely consistent with the optical emission, although the IR [Fe ii] and [Si ii] lines show different, peculiar velocity structures.

  20. On the radius of neighborhood graphs | Mukwembi | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The k-step graph G′k of a graph G has the same vertex set as G and two vertices are adjacent in G ′ k if and only if there exists a path of length k connecting them in G. The graph G ′ 2 is called the neighborhood graph of G. We present results on the connectivity and the radius of k-step graphs, especially on the radius of ...

  1. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  2. A spitzer space telescope study of SN 2002hh: An infrared echo from a type llP supernova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meikle, W. P. S.; Mattila, S.; Gerardy, C. L.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: Supernovae: General, supernovae: individual (NGC 6946), Stars: Supernovae: Individual: Alphanumeric: SN 2002hh Udgivelsesdato: May 22......Stars: Supernovae: General, supernovae: individual (NGC 6946), Stars: Supernovae: Individual: Alphanumeric: SN 2002hh Udgivelsesdato: May 22...

  3. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for

  4. Exploring for Galaxies in the First Billion Years with Hubble and Spitzer - Pathfinding for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Hubble has revolutionized the field of distant galaxies through its deep imaging surveys, starting with the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. That first deep survey revealed galaxies at redshift z~1-3 that provided insights into the development of the Hubble sequence. Each new HST instrument has explored new regimes, through the peak of star formation at z~2-3, just 2-3 billion years after the Big Bang, to our first datasets at a billion years at z~6, and then earlier to z~11. HST's survey capabilities were enhanced by 40X with ACS, and then similarly with the WFC3/IR, which opened up the first billion years to an unforeseen degree. I will discuss what we have learned from the remarkable HST and Spitzer imaging surveys (HUDF, GOODS, HUDF09/12 and CANDELS), as well as surveys of clusters like the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). Lensing clusters provide extraordinary opportunities for characterizing the faintest earliest galaxies, but also present extraordinary challenges. Together these surveys have resulted in the measurement of the volume density of galaxies in the first billion years down to astonishingly faint levels. The role of faint galaxies in reionizing the universe is still much-discussed, but there is no doubt that such galaxies contribute greatly to the UV ionizing flux, as shown by deep luminosity function studies. Together Hubble and Spitzer have also established the stellar-mass buildup over 97% of cosmic history. Yet some of the greatest surprises have come from the discovery of very luminous galaxies at z~8-11, around 400-650 million years after the Big Bang. Spectroscopic followup by Keck of some of these very rare, bright galaxies has confirmed redshifts from z~7 to z~9, and revealed, surprisingly, strong Lyα emission near the peak of reionization when the HI fraction in the IGM is high. The recent confirmation of a z=11.1 galaxy, just 400 million years after the Big Bang, by a combination of Hubble and Spitzer data, moved Hubble into JWST territory

  5. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 REVEAL A NEW PATH TOWARD BREAKING STRONG MICROLENS DEGENERACIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...... space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations....

  6. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...... space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations....

  7. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  8. Understanding Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Herschel Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jason; Sanders, David B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Howell, Justin; Diaz Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Paladini, Roberta; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, David L.; Appleton, Philip N.; Armus, Lee; Billot, Nicolas; Pan Chan, Hiu; Evans, Aaron S.; Fadda, Dario; Frayer, David T.; Haan, Sebastian; Mie Ishida, Catherine; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dong-Chan; Lord, Steven D.; Murphy, Eric J.; Petric, Andreea; Privon, George C.; Surace, Jason A.; Treister, Ezequiel; Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey, Cosmic Evolution Survey

    2017-06-01

    Luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] are some of the most extreme objects in the universe with their elevated star formation rates and/or presence of a powerful AGN, playing a central role in the evolution of galaxies throughout cosmic history. The 201 local (U)LIRGs (zPACS and SPIRE far infrared image atlas of the entire GOALS sample (encompassing the 70-500 micron wavelength range), and demonstrate the excellent data quality. The Herschel GOALS images presented here are the highest resolution, most sensitive and comprehensive far-infrared imaging survey of the nearest (U)LIRGs to date. This allows us for the first time to directly probe the critical far infrared and submillimeter wavelength regime of these systems, enabling us to accurately determine the bolometric luminosities, infrared surface brightnesses, star formation rates, and dust masses and temperatures on spatial scales of 2-5 kpc. In addition, the superb resolution of Herschel means we can resolve many of the galaxy pairs and systems within the GOALS sample, allowing us to measure far infrared fluxes of component galaxies. Finally, using the Herschel photometry in conjunction with Spitzer, WISE, and IRAS data, I will show our first results on the global properties of (U)LIRGs such as their average 3-500 micron infrared SEDs and far infrared colors, and compare them to lower infrared luminosity objects. We will also compare and contrast their infrared SED shapes with previously published SED templates from the literature. If time permits, I will also show initial results from our rest-frame optical spectroscopy program on z~2.3 infrared selected galaxies in the COSMOS field.

  9. Hunt for infrared photons from the first binary neutron star merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; The Growth Collaboration [Global Relay Of Observatories Watching Transients

    2017-10-01

    Yesterday, within two seconds of 2017 August 17 12:41:04 GMT, both LIGO interferometers and the Fermi satellite detected gravitational waves from a neutron star merger and a short contemporaneous gamma ray burst! We now have a promising optical and infrared counterpart. This may very well be a historic moment in multi-messenger astronomy, and may even prove to be of the same league as neutrinos from SN,1987A. Here, we request the Spitzer Space Telescope to engage in the hunt for infrared photons.

  10. Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive infrared camera that observes the blazing plumes from the Space Shuttle or expendable rocket lift-offs is capable of scanning for fires, monitoring the environment and providing medical imaging. The hand-held camera uses highly sensitive arrays in infrared photodetectors known as quantum well infrared photo detectors (QWIPS). QWIPS were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Space Microelectronics Technology in partnership with Amber, a Raytheon company. In October 1996, QWIP detectors pointed out hot spots of the destructive fires speeding through Malibu, California. Night vision, early warning systems, navigation, flight control systems, weather monitoring, security and surveillance are among the duties for which the camera is suited. Medical applications are also expected.

  11. A Year in the Life of an Infrared Echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A One Year Apart These Spitzer Space Telescope images, taken one year apart, show the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (yellow ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (reddish orange). The pictures illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia. Infrared echoes are created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars. This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons. Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen. The top Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the bottom, on December 2, 2004.

  12. The impact of endorsing Spitzer's proposed criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V on male and female Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lyndsey N; Chard, Kathleen M; Schumm, Jeremiah A; O'Brien, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This study explored differences between Spitzer's proposed model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the current DSM-IV diagnostic classification scheme in 353 Veterans. The majority of Veterans (89%) diagnosed with PTSD as specified in the DSM-IV also met Spitzer's proposed criteria. Veterans who met both DSM-IV and Spitzer's proposed criteria had significantly higher Clinician Administered PTSD Scale severity scores than Veterans only meeting DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression indicated that being African American and having no comorbid diagnosis of major depressive disorder or history of a substance use disorder were found to predict those Veterans who met current, but not proposed criteria. These findings have important implications regarding proposed changes to the diagnostic classification criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity-SFR Relation at z<1.6 with Deep GALEX and Spitzer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane

    The gas-phase metallicity of galaxies is a fossil tracer of what has happened physically in and around galaxies: gas inflows, star formation, mergers, and ``feedback'' from star formation. Therefore, measuring the dependence of metallicity on stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and redshift is a key test of galaxy evolution models. While metallicity studies have attempted to extend to higher redshifts, most of these studies have failed to study low-mass galaxies. This population is of great interest as stellar feedback effects, which are responsible for distributing the metals in galaxies, are expected to play a significant role in their evolution. Moreover, low-mass galaxies are the dominant population in the early universe, and are thought to produce most of the ionizing photons to reionize the universe. Here we propose to study the physical properties and evolution of emission-line selected galaxies at zstar-forming galaxies, the mass-metallicity and mass-metallicity-SFR relation over the past 8 billions years or 60% of cosmic time. Our second science objective is to determine the evolution of the stellar mass-SFR relation over the same cosmic period with a much larger sample, 9,000 emission-line galaxies. We will then use our determination of these relations to compare and constrain predictions from galaxy formation models that consider the balance between star formation and gas flows. To accomplish these goals, we will merge a unique combination of deep archival imaging from GALEX (ultraviolet) and Spitzer (infrared), existing ground-based optical through near-infrared imaging, and existing optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The latter is a strength of our program, as we have more deep follow-up spectroscopy ( 1000) on low-mass and high specific SFR galaxies than any other metallicity study. These observations will allow us to acquire robust measures of stellar masses, dust attenuation, dust-corrected SFRs, and oxygen abundances. In particular, the

  14. Infrared photoretinoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffel, F; Farkas, L; Howland, H C

    1987-04-15

    A modification of the technique of photoretinoscopy is presented which allows measurement of the refractive state of the eye in noncooperative subjects and in very small eyes. Infrared light provided by high-output infrared LEDs permits measurement at large pupil sizes and thereby better resolution. Arrangement of the IR LEDs at different eccentricities from the optical axis of the video camera markedly increases the range of measurement. The current sensitivity for a measurement distance of 1.5 m in a human eye is +/- 0.3 diopter or better over a range of +/-5 diopters. Higher amounts of defocus can be better determined at shorter distances.

  15. The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey: Cross-Planetary Comparison of Heat-Redistribution Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Fortney, Jonathan; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole K.; Line, Michael; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam; Feng, Katherina

    2018-01-01

    Exoplanet phase curves provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions from 3D atmospheric simulations. We will present preliminary results from a 660-hour Spitzer phase curve survey program that targeted six short-period extrasolar planets. By comparing short periods exoplanets over a range of equilibrium temperatures, we can begin to disentangle the effects of planetary rotation and energy budget on a planet's thermal properties. We will discuss how the measured planet temperature and rotation rate affect the heat redistribution efficiencies, examine trends in the phase curve peak offset, and discuss cloud coverage constraints. Our Spitzer observations will provide valuable information for predicting and interpreting future, JWST-era observations.

  16. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  17. Dissecting the Spitzer colour-magnitude diagrams of extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Ventura, P.; García Hernández, D. A.; Schneider, R.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Brocato, E.; D'Antona, F.; Rossi, C.

    2014-07-01

    We trace the full evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars (1 ≤ M ≤ 8 M⊙) during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase in the Spitzer two-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams. We follow the formation and growth of dust particles in the circumstellar envelope with an isotropically expanding wind, in which gas molecules impinge upon pre-existing seed nuclei, favour their growth. These models are the first able to identify the main regions in the Spitzer data occupied by AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The main diagonal sequence traced by LMC extreme stars in the [3.6] - [4.5] versus [5.8] - [8.0] and [3.6] - [8.0] versus [8.0] planes is nicely fit by carbon stars models; it results to be an evolutionary sequence with the reddest objects being at the final stages of their AGB evolution. The most extreme stars, with [3.6] - [4.5] > 1.5 and [3.6] - [8.0] > 3, are 2.5-3 M⊙ stars surrounded by solid carbon grains. In higher mass (>3 M⊙) models dust formation is driven by the extent of hot bottom burning (HBB) - most of the dust formed is in the form of silicates and the maximum obscuration phase by dust particles occurs when the HBB experienced is strongest, before the mass of the envelope is considerably reduced.

  18. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet Wasp-14B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, J. E.; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.; Ciardi, D.; Plavchan, P.; Wong, I.; Lowrance, P.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling the phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of approximately two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring-mode phase curve. Both data sets, as well as snapshot-style observations of a calibration star, are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot data set, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as the amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot Jupiter. We place a limit on the potential phase to phase variation of these parameters since our data are taken over many phases over the course of a year. We see no evidence for eclipse depth variations compared to other published WASP-14b eclipse depths over a 3.5 year baseline.

  19. Hominid radius from the middle Pliocene of Lake Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, R E; Rose, M D; Leakey, R E; Walker, A C

    1993-10-01

    A nearly complete left radius, KNM-ER 20419, was recovered from middle Pliocene sediments east of Lake Turkana, Kenya in 1988. Ape-like characteristics of the fossil include an eccentrically positioned articular fovea, relatively long radial neck, wide distal metaphysis, and large brachioradialis crest. The robustness of the radial neck in proportion to the radial head, and the semilunar shape of the distal diaphysis, however, clearly distinguish KNM-ER 20419 as hominid. The distal articular surface possesses a larger area for radius-lunate articulation than for radius and scaphoid, a radiocarpal arrangement that is associated with increased wrist adduction among quadrumanous climbers. Since this morphology is also found in hylobatids, Pongo, and other early australopithecines, it is argued to be plesiomorphic for hominoids. This further supports the argument that vertical climbing was an important locomotor behavior among both early hominoids and our more immediate prebipedal ancestors.

  20. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  1. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2O and the 5-8 mu m bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Knez, C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; Augereau, J. -C.; Bisschop, S. E.; Bottinelli, S.; Brooke, T. Y.; Crapsi, A.; Evans, N. J.; Fraser, H. J.; Geers, V.; Huard, T. L.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Oberg, K. I.; Allen, L. E.; Harvey, P. M.; Koerner, D. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Padgett, D. L.; Sargent, A. I.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Brown, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the physical and chemical evolution of ices in solar-mass systems, a spectral survey is conducted of a sample of 41 low-luminosity YSOs (L similar to 0.1-10 L-circle dot) using 3-38 mu m Spitzer and ground-based spectra. The sample is complemented with previously published Spitzer spectra

  2. Infrared Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, John

    2006-01-01

    An infrared (IR) thermometer lab offers the opportunity to give science students a chance to measure surface temperatures, utilizing off-the-shelf technology. Potential areas of study include astronomy (exoplanets), electromagnetic spectrum, chemistry, evaporation rates, anatomy, crystal formation, and water or liquids. This article presents one…

  3. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul, E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K{sub S}-band luminosity (M{sub K}), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M{sub K} and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2.

  4. Infrared Reverberation Mapping of 17 Quasars from the SDSS Reverberation Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjian, Varoujan; Shen, Yue; Barth, Aaron J.; Brandt, W. Niel; Dawson, Kyle S.; Green, Paul J.; Ho, Luis; Horne, Keith D.; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Tao, Charling

    2017-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Cycle 11/12 proposals allowed observations over a 20 month long period which opened up a new window for long term reverberation monitoring of high luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). Previous Spitzer reverberation monitoring projects looking for UV/optical light absorbed and re-emitted in the IR by dust had been limited to AGN that could potentially show reverberation within a single cycle (~1 year). This had narrowed the sample of sources to low luminosity AGN which would have a small dust sublimation radius thus having their dust close enough so that the light travel time from the UV/optical emitting region of the accretion disk to the IR emitting region of the dust would be on the 1-2 month timescale. With this new opportunity we monitored 17 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. This sample has photometric monitoring for 849 quasars starting in 2010 combining data from the Pan-STARRS, CFHT, and Steward Observatory telescopes. By combining these ground based observations with Spitzer data we can, for the first time, detect dust reverberation in high luminosity AGN.

  5. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  6. The PRad experiment and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparian Ashot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New results from the recent muonic hydrogen experiments seriously questioned our knowledge of the proton charge radius, rp. The new value, with its unprecedented less than sub-percent precision, is currently up to eight standard deviation smaller than the average value from all previous experiments, triggering the well-known “proton charge radius puzzle” in nuclear and atomic physics. The PRad collaboration is currently preparing a novel, magnetic-spectrometer-free ep scattering experiment in Hall B at JLab for a new independent rp measurement to address this growing “puzzle” in physics.

  7. Methods of Determining Admissible Bending Radius for HDD Drill String

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaja Jan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and the successive demand for consumption goods stimulate development of new industrial techniques and technologies. One of such advancements is HDD technology, thanks to which underground pipelines can be disposed in the ground without troublesome digging of the future investment site. When designing the borehole trajectory, attention should be paid to its technical and technological constrains. One of them is the strength of the drill pipes. The HDD process was characterized and relevant formulae for calculating minimum bending radius of drill pipes were presented in the paper. The influence of drill pipes wearing on the increase of minimum bending radius value was shown.

  8. Correction method on fairs’ attraction radius

    OpenAIRE

    Karpati, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    At auditing a fair the measure and evaluation of the exhibitors’ distance is a important task and can be used for further promotion of the fair. In analyzing the attraction radius of different fairs one can discover some figures that may raise questions regarding a simple averaging of the attraction distances. According to the research of the author, the bias in the attraction radius can be caused by two factors: the size of the attraction region and the distance from the region’s busines...

  9. Morphology and astrometry of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Randall, Kate; Mao, Minnie; Hales, Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, are an unexpected class of object discovered in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, ATLAS. They are compact 1.4GHz radio sources with no visible counterparts in co-located (relatively shallow) Spitzer infrared and optical images. We have detected two of these objects with VLBI, indicating the presence of an AGN. These observations and our ATLAS data indicate that IFRS are extended on scales of arcseconds, and we wish to image their morphologies to obtain clues about their nature. These observations will also help us to select optical counterparts from very deep, and hence crowded, optical images which we have proposed. With these data in hand, we will be able to compare IFRS to known object types and to apply for spectroscopy to obtain their redshifts.

  10. PROXIMAL RADIUS RECONSTRUCTION BY METATARSAL OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTO GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  11. Laser confocal cylindrical radius measurement method and its system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian

    2017-08-10

    This paper proposes a laser confocal cylindrical radius of the curvature measurement (CCRM) method. The CCRM method precisely identifies the positions of the vertex and curvature center of the test cylindrical surface by using the property so that the maximum point of the laser confocal axial intensity curve precisely corresponds to the focus of the laser confocal measurement system, and the accurate distance of these two positions is obtained by the distance measuring instrument, thus achieving the precise measurement of the cylindrical radius. The quadratic fitting method is used to further improve the measurement accuracy. Compared with existing measurement methods, the CCRM method has high measurement precision, simple structure, and strong environmental interference capability, and it is more suitable for engineering applications. Based on the CCRM, the CCRM system is established, and theoretical analysis and preliminary experiments indicate that the relative uncertainty of cylindrical radius measurement is better than 0.045%. Therefore, the CCRM provides an effective approach for the high-precision measurement of cylindrical radius.

  12. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 37; Issue 3. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on Thermal Instability of Radiative Plasma for Star Formation in Interstellar Medium (ISM). Sachin Kaothekar. Research Article Volume 37 Issue 3 September 2016 Article ID 23 ...

  13. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) corrections,. Hall current and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effects of finite electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and permeability for star formation in interstellar medium have been ...

  14. Stress fractures of the distal radius in adolescent gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. T. F.

    1981-01-01

    Adolescent girl gymnasts sustained stress fractures of the distal end of the radius in the wrist on which a rotational vault was performed. The history and clinical progress were typical of stress fractures. Imagesp272-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:7317727

  15. Individualist-Collectivist Culture and Trust Radius : A Multilevel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    We apply a multilevel approach to examine empirically the nexus between individualist and collectivist culture on the one hand and people’s radius of trust on the other. People’s trust level (i.e., the intensity with which people trust other people) has been extensively studied. Increasingly,

  16. Pisiform dislocation and distal radius ulna fracture | Kalande | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Pisiform dislocation and distal radius ulna fracture. FM Kalande ...

  17. Finite Larmor radius flute mode theory with end loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikov, I.A. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-08-01

    The theory of flute mode stability is developed for a two-energy- component plasma partially terminated by a conducting limiter. The formalism is developed as a preliminary study of the effect of end-loss in open-ended mirror machines where large Larmor radius effects are important.

  18. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...

  19. Constraining the Mass & Radius of Neutron Stars in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method which can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  20. Surgical outcome of distal end radius fractures by ligamentotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vishwanath

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: External fixation and ligamentotaxis provide better functional and anatomical results in comminuted intra-articular and unstable extra-articular wrist injuries. The functional result of treatment of distal radius fractures not only depends on the anatomical restoration of the articular surface but also depends on the associated soft tissue injuries and articular damage.

  1. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South West ...

  2. [Distal radius fractures: Which classification is the right one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, L; Lepage, D; Saadnia, R; Mille, F; Rey, P-B; Loisel, F

    2016-12-01

    None of the classification systems for distal radius fractures is ideal. However a validated system to analyze these fractures is available that is based on the "metaphysis, epiphysis, ulna" (MEU) classification and the "patient, accident, fracture" (PAF) system. It makes it possible to understand the injury and select the best treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  4. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile‑Ife, South West Nigeria, free of ...

  5. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South West ...

  6. Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper theoretically investigates the behaviour of frictional coefficient considering variants as active friction radius, brake force variation (BPV) and brake torque variation (BTV) in automobile disc brake system. The variations in the frictional coefficient on the piston side of the rotor disc and on the non piston side ...

  7. BREAKS IN THIN AND THICK DISKS OF EDGE-ON GALAXIES IMAGED IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comeron, Sebastien; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Kim, Taehyun [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hinz, Joannah L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Menendez-Delmestre, Karin [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro-RJ-Brazil (Brazil); Seibert, Mark; Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Mizusawa, Trisha [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2012-11-10

    Breaks in the radial luminosity profiles of galaxies have until now been mostly studied averaged over disks. Here, we study separately breaks in thin and thick disks in 70 edge-on galaxies using imaging from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We built luminosity profiles of the thin and thick disks parallel to midplanes and we found that thin disks often truncate (77%). Thick disks truncate less often (31%), but when they do, their break radius is comparable with that in the thin disk. This suggests either two different truncation mechanisms-one of dynamical origin affecting both disks simultaneously and another one only affecting the thin disk-or a single mechanism that creates a truncation in one disk or in both depending on some galaxy property. Thin disks apparently antitruncate in around 40% of galaxies. However, in many cases, these antitruncations are an artifact caused by the superposition of a thin disk and a thick disk, with the latter having a longer scale length. We estimate the real thin disk antitruncation fraction to be less than 15%. We found that the ratio of the thick and thin stellar disk mass is roughly constant (0.2 < M{sub T} /M{sub t} < 0.7) for circular velocities v{sub c} > 120 km s{sup -1}, but becomes much larger at smaller velocities. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of a high efficiency of supernova feedback and a slower dynamical evolution in lower-mass galaxies causing stellar thin disks to be younger and less massive than in higher-mass galaxies.

  8. [Differential treatment of fractures of the distal radius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestern, H J; Hüls, E

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of distal fractures of the radius has undergone considerable change during recent years. The cause for this lies primarily in the poor results of conservative treatments. In addition to osseous instability, the fractures of the radius are frequently combined with ligamentary instability as well, thereby exceeding the ability of conservative treatment. Among the many classifications, the AO classification of these fractures has proven to be the best and most widely accepted. This classification allows the recommendation of suitable procedures of treatment. The problem with inadequately healed fractures of the radius lies in the inherent unphysiological loading of the joint in the characteristic dorsal tilted position. This leads to a pathological displacement of the radius of flexion and extension and thereby to an overloading of the dorsal joint cartilage. The shortening of the radius leads to a mechanical impingement of the triangular fibrocartilagenous complex. The Kirschner wire fixation is particularly indicated in type A and type C fractures when combined with an external fixator. Of great importance here is the crossing of the K-wires, best accomplished by inserting an additional wire in a proximal to distal direction to achieve maximal mechanical stability. Biodegradable fixation devices are not yet in widespread use, as high costs and possible foreign body reactions have prevented their acceptance. The plate osteosynthesis has its domain in the treatment of volar luxation fractures (B3) and the partially articular fractures of the radius (B2). The domain of the external fixator, on the other hand, lies in the C2 and C3 fractures in combination with the K-wire osteosynthesis. Changing the mode of treatment to a plate osteosynthesis after two to three weeks allows a functional postoperative treatment. By use of a differentiated treatment regimen, the complication rate can be significantly reduced whose cause frequently lies in repeatedly attempted

  9. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  10. Infrared retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Sanjay [Albuquerque, NM; Hayat, Majeed M [Albuquerque, NM; Tyo, J Scott [Tucson, AZ; Jang, Woo-Yong [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  11. The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS). II. VIMOS I, z wide field imaging of ELAIS-S1 and selection of distant massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Rubele, S.; Franceschini, A.; Held, E. V.; Rizzi, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Cimatti, A.; Dias, J. E.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Maiolino, R.; Matute, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sacchi, N.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS) is the optical follow up of the Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic survey (SWIRE) in the ELAIS-S1 region of the sky. Aims: In the era of observational cosmology, the main efforts are focused on the study of galaxy evolution and its environmental dependence. Wide area, multiwavelength, extragalactic surveys are needed in order to probe sufficiently large volumes, minimize cosmic variance and find significant numbers of rare objects. Methods: We present VIMOS I and z band imaging belonging to the ESIS survey. A total of ~4 deg2 was targeted in I and ~1 deg2 in z. Accurate data processing includes removal of fringing, and mosaicking of the complex observing pattern. Completeness levels and photometric uncertainties are estimated through simulations. The multi-wavelength data available in the area are exploited to identify high-redshift galaxies, using the IR-peak technique. Results: More than 300 000 galaxies have been detected in the I band and ~50 000 in the z band. Object coordinates are defined within an uncertainty of ~0.2 arcsec rms, with respect to GSC 2.2. We reach a 90% average completeness at 23.1 and 22.5 mag (Vega) in the I and z bands, respectively. On the basis of IRAC colors, we identify galaxies having the 1.6 μm stellar peak shifted to z = 1-3. The new I, z band data provide reliable constraints to help avoid low-redshift interlopers and reinforce this selection. Roughly 1000 galaxies between z = 2-3 are identified over the ESIS ~4 deg^2, at the SWIRE 5.8 μm depth (25.8 μJy at 3σ). These are the best galaxy candidates to dominate the massive tail (M > 1011 M_⊙) of the z > 2 mass function. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO No. 168.A-0322(A). ESIS web page:http://www.astro.unipd.it/esis Appendix A, Tables 4 and 5 are only available at http://www.aanda.org The full I and z band catalogs (see Table [see full textsee full textsee full

  12. Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF HD 209458b: THREE ECLIPSES, TWO AND A HALF TRANSITS, AND A PHASE CURVE CORRUPTED BY INSTRUMENTAL SENSITIVITY VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M. [Department of Physics, and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We report the results of an analysis of all Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of HD 209458b, one of the touchstone objects in the study of irradiated giant planet atmospheres. Altogether, we analyze two and a half transits, three eclipses, and a 58 hr near-continuous observation designed to detect the planet's thermal phase curve. The results of our analysis are: (1) a mean transit depth of 1.484% {+-} 0.033%, consistent with previous measurements and showing no evidence of variability in transit depth at the 3% level. (2) A mean eclipse depth of 0.338% {+-} 0.026%, somewhat higher than that previously reported for this system; this new value brings observations into better agreement with models. From this eclipse depth we estimate an average dayside brightness temperature of 1320 {+-} 80 K; the dayside flux shows no evidence of variability at the 12% level. (3) Eclipses in the system occur 32 {+-} 129 s earlier than would be expected from a circular orbit, which constrains the orbital quantity ecos {omega} to be 0.00004 {+-} 0.00033. This result is fully consistent with a circular orbit and sets an upper limit of 140 m s{sup -1} (3{sigma}) on any eccentricity-induced velocity offset during transit. The phase curve observations (including one of the transits) exhibit an anomalous trend similar to the detector ramp seen in previous Spitzer/IRAC observations; by modeling this ramp we recover the system parameters for this transit. The long-duration photometry which follows the ramp and transit exhibits a gradual {approx}0.2% decrease in flux over {approx}30 hr. This effect is similar to that seen in pre-launch calibration data taken with the 24 {mu}m array and is better fit by an instrumental model than a model invoking planetary emission. The large uncertainties associated with this poorly understood, likely instrumental effect prevent us from usefully constraining the planet's thermal phase curve. Our observations highlight the need for a thorough

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SpIES: the Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey (Timlin+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, J. D.; Ross, N. P.; Richards, G. T.; Lacy, M.; Ryan, E. L.; Stone, R. B.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, X.; Glikman, E.; Haggard, D.; Jiang, L.; Lamassa, S. M.; Lin, Y.-T.; Makler, M.; McGehee, P.; Myers, A. D.; Schneider, D. P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, E. J.; Zakamska, N. L.

    2016-09-01

    The observational goal of the SpIES project was to map SDSS Stripe 82 (S82) field located on the Celestial Equator spanning a range of -60°SpIES observations cover approximately one-third of this region centered on δ=0° and spanning the range from -30°SpIES) data were obtained as part of Cycle 9 (2012-2014) of the Spitzer "warm" post-cryogenic mission utilizing the first two channels (3.6 and 4.5um) of IRAC. In total, SpIES is comprised of 154 individual Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs) observed over two epochs separated by no less than five hours in time (77 AORs per epoch), which corresponds to ~70000 IRAC FOVs spanning the full survey area. See section 3 for further explanations. (4 data files).

  14. Spitzer observations of the field of the hyperluminous quasar HE0515-4414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; Surace, Jason; Nyland, Kristina; Mason, Brian; Rowe, Barnaby; Chatterjee, Sutechana; Rocha, Graca; Kimball, Amy

    2017-10-01

    We have used unique, ultradeep ALMA 140GHz data to obtain a tentative first direct detection of a thermal quasar wind via the SZ effect. We are requesting Spitzer time to image the environment of the quasar. In particular, we will map the galaxy distribution in the vicinity of our tentative detection of the quasar wind to rule out any contribution to the SZ decrement due to an intracluster or intragroup medium associated with a compact cluster or group of galaxies around the quasar or along the line of sight. In addition, the data will be used to quantify the environment of one of the most luminous quasars known, as well as study the serendipitous ALMA sources in the field, the deepest ever at this frequency.

  15. Spitzer Photometry of Approximately 1 Million Stars in M31 and 15 Other Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rubab

    2017-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC 3.6-8 micrometer and Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 micrometer point-source catalogs for M31 and 15 other mostly large, star-forming galaxies at distances approximately 3.5-14 Mpc, including M51, M83, M101, and NGC 6946. These catalogs contain approximately 1 million sources including approximately 859,000 in M31 and approximately 116,000 in the other galaxies. They were created following the procedures described in Khan et al. through a combination of pointspread function (PSF) fitting and aperture photometry. These data products constitute a resource to improve our understanding of the IR-bright (3.6-24 micrometer) point-source populations in crowded extragalactic stellar fields and to plan observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: pcubillos@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  17. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna; Watson, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample - providing the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years to come and setting the stage for intensive JWST follow-up of the most interesting sources from our sample.

  18. Ulnar Shortening Versus Distal Radius Corrective Osteotomy in the Management of Ulnar Impaction After Distal Radius Malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibinder, William R; Izadpanah, Ali; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2017-01-01

    Distal radius malunions lead to functional deficits. This study compares isolated ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) to distal radius osteotomy (DRO) for the treatment of ulnar impaction syndrome following distal radius malunion. We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients with extra-articular distal radius malunions treated for ulnar impaction with isolated USO. This group was compared to a 1:1 age- and sex-matched cohort treated with isolated DRO for the same indication. Pain visual analog scale (VAS), wrist motion, grip strength, radiographic parameters, and perioperative complications were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 14.8 months. VAS scores improved. Wrist range of motion improved in both cohorts with the exception of radial deviation, pronation, and supination in the USO cohort, which decreased from a mean of 17°-16°, 67°-57°, and 54°-52°, respectively. There was no significant difference between groups in regard to change in pain or range of motion, with the exception of pronation and ulnar deviation. The mean tourniquet time was shorter in the USO group. The final ulnar variance was 1.8 mm negative in the USO group and 1.1 mm positive in the DRO group. There was 1 reoperation following USO for painful nonunion, while there were 2 reoperations following DRO for persistent ulnar impaction. An improvement in range of motion, grip strength, and VAS with restoration of the radioulnar length relationship was observed in both cohorts. USO is a simpler procedure with a shorter tourniquet time that can be an attractive alternative to DRO for ulnar impaction syndrome after distal radius malunions.

  19. An Atlas of Galaxy Spectral Energy Distributions from the Ultraviolet to the Mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael J. I.; Moustakas, John; Smith, J.-D. T.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Jarrett, T. H.; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Armus, Lee; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Peek, J. E. G.

    2014-06-01

    We present an atlas of 129 spectral energy distributions for nearby galaxies, with wavelength coverage spanning from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. Our atlas spans a broad range of galaxy types, including ellipticals, spirals, merging galaxies, blue compact dwarfs, and luminous infrared galaxies. We have combined ground-based optical drift-scan spectrophotometry with infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer and Akari with gaps in spectral coverage being filled using Multi-wavelength Analysis of Galaxy Physical Properties spectral energy distribution models. The spectroscopy and models were normalized, constrained, and verified with matched-aperture photometry measured from Swift, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Space Explorer images. The availability of 26 photometric bands allowed us to identify and mitigate systematic errors present in the data. Comparison of our spectral energy distributions with other template libraries and the observed colors of galaxies indicates that we have smaller systematic errors than existing atlases, while spanning a broader range of galaxy types. Relative to the prior literature, our atlas will provide improved K-corrections, photometric redshifts, and star-formation rate calibrations.

  20. Applications of machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Morris, P. W.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Marston, A. P.; Mauerhan, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated and applied machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates. Objects taken from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) catalogue of the infrared objects in the Galactic plane can be classified into different stellar populations based on the colours inferred from their broad-band photometric magnitudes [J, H and Ks from 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the four Spitzer/IRAC bands]. The algorithms tested in this pilot study are variants of the k-nearest neighbours approach, which is ideal for exploratory studies of classification problems where interrelations between variables and classes are complicated. The aims of this study are (1) to provide an automated tool to select reliable WR candidates and potentially other classes of objects, (2) to measure the efficiency of infrared colour selection at performing these tasks and (3) to lay the groundwork for statistically inferring the total number of WR stars in our Galaxy. We report the performance results obtained over a set of known objects and selected candidates for which we have carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations, and confirm the discovery of four new WR stars.

  1. Nova-like cataclysmic variables in the infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoard, D. W. [Eureka Scientific, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Wachter, Stefanie [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brinkworth, Carolyn S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Knigge, Christian [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Drew, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kafka, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Washington, DC (United States); Belle, Kunegunda [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Froning, Cynthia S. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Van Belle, Gerard T. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Pretorius, M. L., E-mail: hoard@mpia.de [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at λ ≳ 3-5 μm over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  2. Mid-Infrared Variability of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Hines, Dean; Neugebauer, Gerry; Rigby, Jane; Shi, Yong; Smith, Paul

    2007-05-01

    Several issues dealing with the nature of flux variations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the thermal infrared remain unresolved after decades of investigation. Resolving the existing ambiguities will yield invaluable information concerning the physical processes important in these objects and the size of the region responsible for the IR continuum. Two sources of emission can dominate in the mid-infrared and provide a large fraction of the bolometric luminosity of AGN: (1) Synchrotron light is important for radio-loud AGN, and is generally observed to be highly variable at other wavelengths. (2) Thermal radiation from warm dust close to the central engine produces an enormous IR signature in many AGN and is likely to be dominant for radio-quiet AGN. We propose to re-observe a large sample of AGN of various types that have been measured at 24 microns by Spitzer during earlier observing cycles to identify variable objects. The stability of the well-characterized MIPS 24-micron channel, allow for the detection of <2-3% variations in the flux relative to the earlier MIPS measurements over a time scale 1-4 yr. Detection of flux variations at 24 microns identify nonthermal sources of IR emission given that changes in thermal emission sources occur over much longer time scales. Sizable radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples are selected for systematic comparison.

  3. A generalized spectral radius formula and Olsen's question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loring, Terry; Shulman, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Let A be a C⁎C⁎-algebra and I be a closed ideal in A. For x∈Ax∈A, its image in A/IA/I is denoted by x˙, and its spectral radius is denoted by r(x)r(x). We prove that max{r(x),‖x˙‖}=inf‖(1+i)−1x(1+i)‖ (where the infimum is taken over all i∈Ii∈I such that 1+i1+i is invertible), which generalizes...... the spectral radius formula of Murphy and West. Moreover if r(x)˙‖ then the infimum is attained. A similar result is proved for a commuting family of elements of a C⁎C⁎-algebra. Using this we give a partial answer to an open question of C. Olsen: if p is a polynomial then for “almost every” operator T...

  4. Factors Predicting Late Collapse of Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritan Myderrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although fractures of the distal radius are a common clinical presentation, many factors affect instability of these injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, distal radial ulnar joint injury (DRUJ, ulnar styloid fracture, and dorsal displacement in late collapse of distal radius fractures. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine patient fractures were measured for dorsal tilt, radial inclination and ulnar variance after reduction and 2 months later. Reduction loss was analysed statistically against variables like DRUJ involvement, ulnar styloid fractures, age, sex, and AO classification. RESULTS: After two months there was loss of reduction in 171(51.9% cases. Loss of reduction was related to age, AO classification, involvement of DRUJ, ulnar styloid fractures and initial displacement. CONCLUSION: Factors such as age, associated DRUJ injury, ulnar styloid fracture are predictive of loss of reduction. Knowing these predictor factors, can aid in decision regarding treatment methods.

  5. [Radiological analysis of acute distal radius fractures and clinical outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, G; Burnier, M

    2016-12-01

    Radiological analysis of acute distal radius fractures (DRF) begins with the initial AP and lateral X-ray views. A CT scan is very often indicated. In addition to the three standard planes, 3D reconstructions are mandatory. We recommend not only AP views of the distal facets of the radius but also a complete 3D view in the surgical position. The distal ulna and carpus should also be analyzed. We describe the radiological sequence and the criteria used. These criteria are recorded in the one-page PAF chart, since they all impact the treatment choice. Clinical outcomes of DRF treatment are rarely addressed in the literature. We review the most commonly used clinical scores and describe the one that we use currently. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Radius Constants for Functions with the Prescribed Coefficient Bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P. Ahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For an analytic univalent function f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn in the unit disk, it is well-known that an≤n for n≥2. But the inequality an≤n does not imply the univalence of f. This motivated several authors to determine various radii constants associated with the analytic functions having prescribed coefficient bounds. In this paper, a survey of the related work is presented for analytic and harmonic mappings. In addition, we establish a coefficient inequality for sense-preserving harmonic functions to compute the bounds for the radius of univalence, radius of full starlikeness/convexity of order α  (0≤α<1 for functions with prescribed coefficient bound on the analytic part.

  7. Radiographic scoring system to evaluate union of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun P; Anthony, Shawn G; Zurakowski, David; Didolkar, Manjiri M; Kim, Peter S; Wu, Jim S; Kung, Justin W; Dolan, Martin; Rozental, Tamara D

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of a scoring system for distal radius fracture union based on specific radiographic parameters obtainable from x-rays. Two sets of 35 anteroposterior and lateral x-rays were obtained by retrospective review of consecutive patients with distal radius fractures (AO types A and C) treated by a single surgeon in 2009. One set was assembled for those patients treated nonsurgically and 1 set for those treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar plating. Radius union scoring system (RUSS) scores were compiled from a 5-person review panel consisting of hand surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists. Union of each of the 4 cortices was graded on a 3-point scale (0, fracture line visible with no callus; 1, callus formation but fracture line present; 2, cortical bridging without clear fracture line). Reviewers also recorded their overall impression of fracture union (united or not united). Each set of radiographs was reviewed twice by the 5 reviewers, 2 weeks apart. Inter- and intraobserver reliability were determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. For nonsurgically treated fractures, substantial agreement in union scores was found with regard to both intra- and interobserver reliability. For fractures treated with ORIF, substantial agreement was found in union scores with regard to intraobserver reliability and moderate agreement with regard to interobserver reliability. In addition, when using the reviewers' overall assessment of union as a reference standard, RUSS had a statistically significant predictive value in being able to differentiate between united and not united fractures. This radiographic union tool demonstrated substantial intra- and interobserver reliability for the determination of fracture union in the distal radius. The RUSS is a simple method for a standardized assessment of radiographic union of DRF treated nonsurgically or with ORIF. Economic/decision analysis IV

  8. Radius of strongly starlikeness for certain analytic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sang Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For analytic functions f(z=zp+ap+1zp+1+⋯ in the open unit disk U and a polynomial Q(z of degree n>0, the function F(z=f(z[Q(z]β/n is introduced. The object of the present paper is to determine the radius of p-valently strongly starlikeness of order γ for F(z.

  9. Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măruşter Ştefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.

  10. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.

  11. Isotopic effects on non-linearity, molecular radius and intermolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computation of non-linearity parameter (/), molecular radius (rm) and intermolecular free length (f) for H2O, C6H6, C6H12, CH3OH, C2H5OH and their deuterium-substituted compounds have been carried out at four different temperatures, viz., 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K. The aim of the investigation is an ...

  12. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  13. Experimental investigation of streamer radius and length in SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujotzek, M.; Seeger, M.; Schmidt, F.; Koch, M.; Franck, C.

    2015-06-01

    SF6 has for decades been widely used in high voltage insulation and switching applications, e.g. in gas insulated switchgear. Despite its widespread use some important parameters, like the properties of streamers, are still not sufficiently understood. Since breakdown in SF6 always occurs via the streamer-leader transition the streamer properties are decisive for leader inception and, therefore, breakdown of the insulation. Important parameters are, for example, the streamer radius and the streamer propagation length of arrested streamers. Such properties enter in breakdown prediction models. In the present study the streamer radius and the propagation length were investigated experimentally at 50 and 100 kPa for both polarities using strongly and weakly non-uniform background fields. No experimental information was available so far for negative polarity. The resulting streamer radius scaling agrees with previous experimental results for positive polarity and with expectations from breakdown models for negative polarity. These results were similar for strongly non-uniform and weakly non-uniform background fields. A difference between the two setups was observed for the streamer lengths. It was found that for strongly non-uniform fields the streamer length scales as expected with the critical electric field but with a different field for weakly non-uniform background fields. This was similar for both polarities.

  14. Red but not dead: unveiling the star-forming far-infrared spectral energy distribution of SpARCS brightest cluster galaxies at 0 < z < 1.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, N. R.; Webb, T. M. A.; Muzzin, A.; Noble, A.; Lidman, C.; Wilson, G.; Yee, H. K. C.; Geach, J.; Hezaveh, Y.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of a Spitzer/Herschel infrared photometric analysis of the largest (716) and the highest-redshift (z = 1.8) sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), those from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey Given the tension that exists between model predictions and recent observations of BCGs at z series of gas-poor, minor mergers since z ˜ 4, but agrees with an improved semi-analytic model of hierarchical structure formation that predicts star-forming BCGs throughout the epoch considered. We attribute the star formation inferred from the stacked infrared SEDs to both major and minor 'wet' (gas-rich) mergers, based on a lack of key signatures (to date) of cooling-flow-induced star formation, as well as a number of observational and simulation-based studies that support this scenario.

  15. Observational constraints on star cluster formation theory. I. The mass-radius relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfalzner, S.; Kirk, H.; Sills, A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Kauffmann, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Bhandare, A.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Stars form predominantly in groups usually denoted as clusters or associations. The observed stellar groups display a broad spectrum of masses, sizes, and other properties, so it is often assumed that there is no underlying structure in this diversity. Aims: Here we show that the assumption of an unstructured multitude of cluster or association types might be misleading. Current data compilations of clusters in the solar neighbourhood show correlations among cluster mass, size, age, maximum stellar mass, etc. In this first paper we take a closer look at the correlation of cluster mass and radius. Methods: We use literature data to explore relations in cluster and molecular core properties in the solar neighbourhood. Results: We show that for embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood a clear correlation exists between cluster mass and half-mass radius of the form Mc = CRcγ with γ = 1.7 ± 0.2. This correlation holds for infrared K-band data, as well as for X-ray sources and clusters containing a hundred stars up to those consisting of a few tens of thousands of stars. The correlation is difficult to verify for clusters containing fewer than 30 stars owing to low-number statistics. Dense clumps of gas are the progenitors of the embedded clusters. We find almost the same slope for the mass-size relation of dense, massive clumps as for the embedded star clusters. This might point to a direct translation from gas to stellar mass: however, it is difficult to relate size measurements for clusters (stars) to those for gas profiles. Taking multiple paths for clump mass into cluster mass into account, we obtain an average star-formation efficiency of 18%+9.3-5.7 for the embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood. Conclusions: The derived mass-radius relation gives constraints for the theory of clustered star formation. Analytical models and simulations of clustered star formation have to reproduce this relation in order to be realistic.

  16. Predicting initial treatment failure of fiberglass casts in pediatric distal radius fractures: utility of the second metacarpal-radius angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric W; Capelo, Roderick M; Stearns, Philip; Bastrom, Tracey P; Wallace, C Douglas; Newton, Peter O

    2009-10-01

    Recent literature comparing the effectiveness of above-elbow and below-elbow plaster casts appears to suggest that either cast type offers adequate immobilization for distal radius and ulna fractures. The idea that an appropriate mold placed on the cast is the most significant determinant of successful immobilization and, thereby, patient outcome has also been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of above-elbow versus below-elbow fiberglass casts in maintaining distal radius/ulna fracture reduction and to identify factors associated with treatment failures. We reviewed the radiographs and clinical data of 253 children with distal third forearm fractures requiring reduction under conscious sedation or a hematoma block. Outcome measures included rates of re-manipulation, loss of reduction, and cast complications. One hundred and nineteen children were treated with below-elbow fiberglass casts and 134 were treated with above-elbow fiberglass casts based on a clinical pathway created before the study period. There were no differences between the two groups in age, weight, fracture pattern, percentage of both-bone fractures, and initial fracture angulation. Of the 253 fractures in the study, 38 (15%) were considered to have less than ideal outcomes. There were no differences between the 'ideal' and 'non-ideal' groups in age, fracture pattern, presence of ulna fracture, cast index, or cast type. All immediate post-reduction measures (anterior-posterior [AP] and lateral displacement/angulation) were significantly correlated with treatment outcome, except angulation on AP films. The magnitude of reduction as measured by a newly described variable, the angle between the second metacarpal and long axis of the radius in the AP projection, was significantly correlated with treatment failure (r = -0.139, P = 0.027). Binary logistic regression was performed and demonstrated that the success of the reduction, as determined by the AP radiograph

  17. Maximizing JWST GTO Observations of HAT-P-26b with Time-Critical Spitzer Eclipse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraine, Jonathan; Stevenson, Kevin; Wakeford, Hannah; Knutson, Heather; Wallack, Nicole; Goyal, Jayesh; Sing, David; Lewis, Nikole; Valenti, Jeff; Batalha, Natasha; Bruno, Giovanni; Kilpatrick, Brian; Greene, Tom

    2017-10-01

    We propose to observe the Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b with Spitzer-IRAC at 4.5 microns (CH2) over 4 eclipses to achieve a statistically-significant eclipse depth SNR of at least 4 sigma (P-26b's time of secondary eclipse. The approved JWST GTO programs, which will spectroscopically probe the dayside atmosphere of HAT-P-26b, have scheduled several 6.5 hour spectroscopic eclipse observations; with an eclipse duration of 2.5 hours and only 4 hours of baseline, precisely knowing the time of eclipse is pivotal to the success of these observations. The long-term legacy value of our Spitzer observations will be to perform a critical role in maximizing the observational efficiency of several JWST GTO exoplanet programs by definitively confirming the time of secondary eclipse.

  18. The distribution of infrared point sources in nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Shalima, P.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2018-02-01

    Infrared (IR) point sources as observed by Spitzer, in nearby early-type galaxies should either be bright sources in the galaxy such as globular clusters, or they may be background sources such as AGNs. These objects are often counterparts of sources in other wavebands such as optical and X-rays and the IR information provides crucial information regarding their nature. However, many of the IR sources may be background objects and it is important to identify them or at least quantify the level of background contamination. Moreover, the distribution of these IR point sources in flux, distance from the centre and colour would be useful in understanding their origin. Archival Spitzer IRAC images provide a unique opportunity for such a study and here we present the results of such an analysis for four nearby galaxies, NGC 1399, NGC 2768, NGC 4365 and NGC 4649. We estimate the background contamination using several blank fields. Our results suggest that IR colours can be effectively used to differentiate between sources in the galaxy and background ones. In particular we find that sources having AGN like colours are indeed consistent with being background AGNs. For sources with non AGN like colours we compute the distribution of flux and normalised distance from the centre which is found to be of a power-law form. Although our sample size is small, the power-law index for the galaxies are different indicating perhaps that the galaxy environment may be playing a part in their origin and nature.

  19. Factors associated with infection following open distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Dane A; Charoglu, Constantine P; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2009-09-01

    Open fractures are often classified according to a system described by Gustilo and Anderson. However, this system was applied to open long bone fractures, which may not predict the incidence of infection in open metaphyseal fractures of the upper extremity. Other studies have found that wound contamination and systemic illness were the best predictors of infections in open hand fractures. Our study assessed infection in open distal radius fractures and identifies factors that are associated with these infections. We hypothesize that contamination, rather than absolute wound size, is the best predictor of infection associated with open distal radius fractures. A review by CPT code yielded 42 patients with open distal radius fractures between 1997 and 2002 treated at a level one trauma center. Medical records and radiographic follow-up were reviewed to assess the time to irrigation and debridement, the number of debridements in initial treatment period, the method of operative stabilization, the Gustilo and Anderson type of fracture, the Swanson type of fracture, and description of wound contamination. Forty-two patients were followed up for an average of 15 months (range 4 to 68 months). Twenty-four fractures were classified as Gustilo and Anderson type I, ten were type II, and eight were type III, 30 were Swanson type I, and 12 were Swanson type II. Five of the 42 fractures were considered contaminated. Two were exposed to fecal contamination. The others were contaminated with tar, dirt/grass, and gravel, respectively. Three of 42 (7%) fractures developed infections. All three infected cases received a single irrigation and debridement. Two of five contaminated fractures (40%) developed a polymicrobial infection. Both were exposed to fecal contamination and, therefore, considered Swanson type II fractures. They were classified as Gustilo and Anderson type II and IIIB based solely upon the size of the wound. Both required multiple debridements and eventually wrist

  20. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

  1. [Radius fractures in children--causes and mechanisms of injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antabak, Anko; Stanić, Lana; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Radius fractures are the most common fractures in childhood. The main mechanism of injury is fall onto an outstretched hand. This retrospective study analyzed the data on 201 children admitted for radius fractures at KBC-Zagreb in the period 2011-2013. The study included 85 girls (42.3%) and 116 boys (57.7%) . The average age of the children was 9.6 years. Radius was injured in the distal segment in 79.1% of children. The sites of injuries were: park, campi and beach (24.9% of all children), playground, skate park and swimming pool (23.9%), kindergarten or school (20.9%), at home and around the house (17.9%), in the street (11.4%) and in the store or at a hotel (0.9%). The boys were mostly injured at playgrounds, during skating and at swimming pools (37.1% of all boys), while girls were mostly injured in parks, camps and at beach (42.4% girls). Fall was the major cause of the injury (49.3%), and children usually fell during ice skating and skating (32.3% of all falls). In 20.4% the injury was caused by pushing and hitting. The smallest percentage (9.5%) of children were injured in traffic accidents while riding a bike (only one child was hit by a car). Sport related activities caused injuries in 53.7% of the cases. Sport activities are the most important cause of the radial fractures in the pediatric population and falls during sports are the main mechanism of injury. The peak incidence is at 12 years for boys and at 10 years for girls, so intervention and/or prevention should be aimed at the age groups. Preventive actions should be focused on injuries that tend to occur in parks, schools and during sport activities.

  2. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    Athens, Greece 4 Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ”A. Avogadro”, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy 5...We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods. To this end, we observed seven 15 × 15 arcmin2 fields in the nuclear bulge and...fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space

  3. Brief repetition (Ahmad Ghazali’s personal style based on Spitzer’s approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam shirani

    2015-05-01

    This paper tries to reveal the value of personal style in researches on stylistics based on the stages of Spitzer’s theory. For this reason, Ahmad Ghazali’s treatise “Savaneh” was selected as a practical example of this project and it was investigated Ghazali’s personal style in writing the treatise “Savaneh”.

  4. Comments on “Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms”

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jafari Shalkouhi

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this letter is to comment on the article "Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms" by Mijić and Mašović (2010). Mijić and Mašović measured critical distance and reverberation time in four different size rooms from 125 Hz to 4 kHz octave bands. They proposed a method for measurement of critical distance. This paper confirms that the measurements of critical distance made by Mijić and Mašović were not accurate at some frequencies.

  5. Comments on “Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari Shalkouhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this letter is to comment on the article "Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms" by Mijić and Mašović (2010. Mijić and Mašović measured critical distance and reverberation time in four different size rooms from 125 Hz to 4 kHz octave bands. They proposed a method for measurement of critical distance. This paper confirms that the measurements of critical distance made by Mijić and Mašović were not accurate at some frequencies.

  6. [Patient-Accident-Fracture (PAF) classification of distal radius fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, M; Herzberg, G; Izem, Y

    2016-12-01

    Despite the huge amount of literature devoted to acute distal radius fractures, there is currently no consensus as to treatment recommendations. There is no universally accepted anatomical classification other than the three main categories of the AO classification. The authors believe that the only way to improve this field is to stratify the patients according to their general health and functional needs. They propose a new classification system that they have used since 2009 and demonstrate its therapeutic, epidemiological and teaching values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. LHC collimation with a reduced beam pipe radius in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2011-01-01

    To increase physics performance, an upgrade of the ATLAS detector has been requested. As a consequence, a new beam pipe with a smaller radius needs to be installed inside the experimental detector. Based on SixTrack simulations, we investigate the effect from collimation of a reduced beam pipe in the ATLAS experiment. Several running scenarios are studied with a range of different beam pipe radii and in each case we conclude on the minimum allowed aperture, which does not cause beam losses inside the detectors.

  8. Neutron star structure and the neutron radius of 208Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Piekarewicz, J

    2001-06-18

    We study relationships between the neutron-rich skin of a heavy nucleus and the properties of neutron-star crusts. Relativistic effective field theories with a thicker neutron skin in 208Pb have a larger electron fraction and a lower liquid-to-solid transition density for neutron-rich matter. These properties are determined by the density dependence of the symmetry energy which we vary by adding nonlinear couplings between isoscalar and isovector mesons. An accurate measurement of the neutron radius in 208Pb-via parity violating electron scattering-may have important implications for the structure of the crust of neutron stars.

  9. Radius of gyration and intrinsic viscosity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milas, M.; Borsali, R.; Rinaudo, M. [CNRS, Cedex (France)

    1993-12-31

    Relatively low molecular weights polyelectrolytes (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}) behave as worm-like chain when electrostatic repulsions are assumed to govern the excluded volume parameter. Under such conditions, predictions of chain expansion and effect of polyelectrolyte concentrations are made assuming that unperturbed dimensions could be obtained at infinite salt content. Experimental studies of an ionic polysaccharide, namely the Na-hyaluronate, were done and the values obtained for the radius of gyration as well as the intrinsic viscosity at different charge densities are in good agreement with the predictions.

  10. Coccidioides immitis osteomyelitis of the radius presenting as Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Joseph E; Switlick, Daniel N

    2008-06-01

    Coccidioides immitis osteomyelitis is a relatively rare manifestation of a disease that most commonly presents with pulmonary infection. Disseminated disease occurs in approximately 1% of infected individuals, with bony involvement in 10% to 50% of those patients with extrapulmonary infection. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with primarily osteoarticular complaints is frequently delayed, which may result in progression of disease and suboptimal results. This article discusses the successful treatment of a patient whose initial presentation was suggestive of Ewing's sarcoma of the proximal radius, but was found on biopsy to have coccidioidomycosis osteomyelitis. The patient was treated with surgical debridement and systemic as well as intralesional antifungal therapy.

  11. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  12. Toward a Galactic Distribution of Planets. I. Methodology and Planet Sensitivities of the 2015 High-cadence Spitzer Microlens Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Chung, S.-J.; Jung, Y. K.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Gould, A.; Lee, C.-U.; Albrow, M. D.; Yee, J. C.; Han, C.; Hwang, K.-H.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Kim, Y.-H.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; KMTNet Collaboration; Poleski, R.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Collaboration; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Wibking, B.; Spitzer Team

    2017-11-01

    We analyze an ensemble of microlensing events from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign, all of which were densely monitored by ground-based high-cadence survey teams. The simultaneous observations from Spitzer and the ground yield measurements of the microlensing parallax vector {{\\boldsymbol{π }}}{{E}}, from which compact constraints on the microlens properties are derived, including ≲25% uncertainties on the lens mass and distance. With the current sample, we demonstrate that the majority of microlenses are indeed in the mass range of M dwarfs. The planet sensitivities of all 41 events in the sample are calculated, from which we provide constraints on the planet distribution function. In particular, assuming a planet distribution function that is uniform in {log}q, where q is the planet-to-star mass ratio, we find a 95% upper limit on the fraction of stars that host typical microlensing planets of 49%, which is consistent with previous studies. Based on this planet-free sample, we develop the methodology to statistically study the Galactic distribution of planets using microlensing parallax measurements. Under the assumption that the planet distributions are the same in the bulge as in the disk, we predict that ∼1/3 of all planet detections from the microlensing campaigns with Spitzer should be in the bulge. This prediction will be tested with a much larger sample, and deviations from it can be used to constrain the abundance of planets in the bulge relative to the disk.

  13. SPITZER MID-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF POWERFUL 2 JY AND 3CRR RADIO GALAXIES. I. EVIDENCE AGAINST A STRONG STARBURST-AGN CONNECTION IN RADIO-LOUD AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicken, D.; Axon, D.; Robinson, A.; Kharb, P. [Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Tadhunter, C.; Ramos Almeida, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morganti, R. [ASTRON, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Spoon, H. [224 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Inskip, K. J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Holt, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Nesvadba, N. P. H., E-mail: daniel.dicken@ias.u-psud.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2012-02-01

    We present deep Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra for complete samples of 46 2 Jy radio galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.7) and 19 3CRR FRII radio galaxies (z < 0.1), and use the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features to examine the incidence of contemporaneous star formation and radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Our analysis reveals PAH features in only a minority (30%) of the objects with good IRS spectra. Using the wealth of complementary data available for the 2 Jy and 3CRR samples we make detailed comparisons between a range of star formation diagnostics: optical continuum spectroscopy, mid- to far-IR (MFIR) color, far-IR excess and PAH detection. There is good agreement between the various diagnostic techniques: most candidates identified to have star formation activity on the basis of PAH detection are also identified using at least two of the other techniques. We find that only 35% of the combined 2 Jy and 3CRR sample show evidence for recent star formation activity (RSFA) at optical and/or MFIR wavelengths. This result argues strongly against the idea of a close link between starburst and powerful radio-loud AGN activity, reinforcing the view that, although a large fraction of powerful radio galaxies may be triggered in galaxy interactions, only a minority are triggered at the peaks of star formation activity in major, gas-rich mergers. However, we find that compact radio sources (D < 15 kpc) show a significantly higher incidence of RSFA (>75%) than their more extended counterparts ( Almost-Equal-To 15%-25%). We discuss this result in the context of a possible bias toward the selection of compact radio sources triggered in gas-rich environments.

  14. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2 , Herschel , and Spitzer Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Szakáts, R.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mommert, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Müller, T., E-mail: farkas.aniko@csfk.mta.hu [Max-Plank-Institut für extraterrestrsiche Pyhsik, Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel /PACS and Spitzer /MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  15. The High-redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey: The Spitzer Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno-Mahler, R.; Blanton, E. L.; Brodwin, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Golden-Marx, E.; Decker, B.; Wing, J. D.; Anand, G.

    2017-07-01

    We present 190 galaxy cluster candidates (most at high redshift) based on galaxy overdensity measurements in the Spitzer/IRAC imaging of the fields surrounding 646 bent, double-lobed radio sources drawn from the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey. The COBRA sources were chosen as objects in the Very Large Array FIRST survey that lack optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to a limit of m r = 22, making them likely to lie at high redshift. This is confirmed by our observations: the redshift distribution of COBRA sources with estimated redshifts peaks near z = 1 and extends out to z≈ 3. Cluster candidates were identified by comparing our target fields to a background field and searching for statistically significant (≥slant 2σ ) excesses in the galaxy number counts surrounding the radio sources; 190 fields satisfy the ≥slant 2σ limit. We find that 530 fields (82.0%) have a net positive excess of galaxies surrounding the radio source. Many of the fields with positive excesses but below the 2σ cutoff are likely to be galaxy groups. Forty-one COBRA sources are quasars with known spectroscopic redshifts, which may be tracers of some of the most distant clusters known.

  16. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Mommert, M.; Szakáts, R.; Müller, T.; Kiss, L. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  17. Unveiling the structure of barred galaxies at 3.6 μm with the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S{sup 4}G). I. Disk breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Madore, Barry F.; Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Knapen, Johan H.; Cisternas, Mauricio; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zaritsky, Dennis [University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FIN-90014 (Finland); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMTO, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Buta, Ron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); and others

    2014-02-20

    We have performed two-dimensional multicomponent decomposition of 144 local barred spiral galaxies using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Our model fit includes up to four components (bulge, disk, bar, and a point source) and, most importantly, takes into account disk breaks. We find that ignoring the disk break and using a single disk scale length in the model fit for Type II (down-bending) disk galaxies can lead to differences of 40% in the disk scale length, 10% in bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), and 25% in bar-to-total luminosity ratios. We find that for galaxies with B/T ≥ 0.1, the break radius to bar radius, r {sub br}/R {sub bar}, varies between 1 and 3, but as a function of B/T the ratio remains roughly constant. This suggests that in bulge-dominated galaxies the disk break is likely related to the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar and thus moves outward as the bar grows. For galaxies with small bulges, B/T < 0.1, r {sub br}/R {sub bar} spans a wide range from 1 to 6. This suggests that the mechanism that produces the break in these galaxies may be different from that in galaxies with more massive bulges. Consistent with previous studies, we conclude that disk breaks in galaxies with small bulges may originate from bar resonances that may be also coupled with the spiral arms, or be related to star formation thresholds.

  18. The optical and infrared photometric evolution of the recent stellar merger, V1309 Sco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollum, Bruce [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laine, Seppo [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Ramphul, Rajin [South African Astronomical Observatory/South African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Wahlgren, Glenn M. [IACS/Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Rottler, Lee [Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 28772 (United States); Ryder, Stuart [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Nagayama, Takahiro, E-mail: mccollub@cua.edu, E-mail: seppo@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: bruhweiler@cua.edu, E-mail: wahlgren@cua.edu [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    Nova Sco 2008 was recently shown to have resulted from the merger of the two stars in the contact binary V1309 Sco. This is the first stellar merger ever observed between two convective stars. We present archival data, new infrared photometry, and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 imaging of V1309 Sco. Spitzer observations show that it had a large infrared excess in the 3.6 μm to 8 μm range more than a year before the merger. Standard color diagnostics of the pre-merger infrared colors place V1309 Sco in the same region where evolved stars with chemically complex mass loss are located. Since the nova outburst subsided in optical bandpasses in 2008, the merger remnant's brightness in optical bandpasses, near-IR bandpasses, and the Spitzer 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels has varied by several magnitudes and in complex ways. A temporary, strong increase in the reddening during 2010 suggests the occurrence of a dust formation event. We point out several peculiarities in the relative fluxes and time behavior of the optical and near-IR magnitudes, which could be explained if some of the photometric bandpasses in the 1-5 μm range are strongly affected by emission lines.

  19. Mapping the Pressure-radius Relationship of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Fossati, Luca; Kubyshkina, Darya

    2017-10-01

    The radius of a planet is one of the most physically meaningful and readily accessible parameters of extra-solar planets. This parameter is extensively used in the literature to compare planets or study trends in the know population of exoplanets. However, in an atmosphere, the concept of a planet radius is inherently fuzzy. The atmospheric pressures probed by trasmission (transit) or emission (eclipse) spectra are not directly constrained by the observations, they vary as a function of the atmospheric properties and observing wavelengths, and further correlate with the atmospheric properties producing degenerate solutions.Here, we characterize the properties of exoplanet radii using a radiative-transfer model to compute clear- atmosphere transmission and emission spectra of gas-dominated planets. We explore a wide range of planetary temperatures, masses, and radii, sampling from 300 to 3000 K and Jupiter- to Earth-like values. We will discuss how transit and photospheric radii vary over the parameter space, and map the global trends in the atmospheric pressures associated with these radii. We will also highlight the biases introduced by the choice of an observing band, or the assumption of a clear/cloudy atmosphere, and the relevance that these biases take as better instrumentation improves the precision of photometric observations.

  20. Electromagnetic Charge Radius of the Pion at High Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Das, Diganta

    2017-09-01

    We present a determination of the pion charge radius from high precision data on the pion vector form factor from both timelike and spacelike regions, using a novel formalism based on analyticity and unitarity. At low energies, instead of the poorly known modulus of the form factor, we use its phase, known with high accuracy from Roy equations for π π elastic scattering via the Fermi-Watson theorem. We use also the values of the modulus at several higher timelike energies, where the data from e+e- annihilation and τ decay are mutually consistent, as well as the most recent measurements at spacelike momenta. The experimental uncertainties are implemented by Monte Carlo simulations. The results, which do not rely on a specific parametrization, are optimal for the given input information and do not depend on the unknown phase of the form factor above the first inelastic threshold. Our prediction for the charge radius of the pion is rπ=(0.657 ±0.003 ) fm , which amounts to an increase in precision by a factor of about 2.7 compared to the Particle Data Group average.

  1. Pattern of distal radius fracture in malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, A M; Noor Fadzilah, R; Rukmanikanthan, S; Saw, A

    2012-10-01

    The distal radius is the most common fracture site in children, but local information on the fracture pattern, mechanism of injury and socio-demographic characteristics of the fracture is lacking. We interviewed 126 children and their family members who were under follow up for this fracture in a single institution over a period of 2 years. Radiological images were reviewed to ensure that only those with fracture in the distal one third of the forearm were included. The overall incidence of this fracture increased with age, and male dominance was noted starting from schooling age. Most fractures occurred at home (38.8%), and 52.3% of all fractures were due to low energy falls. Sports injuries were mainly due to playing football, and road accidents due to riding bicycles. There were 49 (38.8%) children with incomplete fractures, and 19 (15.0%) with physeal plate fractures. Male dominance for distal radius fracture occurred at a comparatively younger age in our population. Preventive measures should focus on home environment since this is the most common place for fracture to occur. Special attention should be paid to boys after the school going age.

  2. The energy-weighted sum rule and the nuclear radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Hans Peter [Aleph-Consulting GmbH Verlag, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The energy-weighted integrated cross-section for photon absorption -known as sum rule σ{sub -1} - is under certain conditions proportional to the mean square nuclear radius (Levinger, Bethe (Phys. Rev. 78, 115 (1950))). Due to the energy weight factor the low-energy absorption components are emphasized and the dipole transitions in the region of giant resonances contribute enhanced at σ{sub -1}. Thus, the cross-section of the full interaction can be replaced in good approximation by the dipole cross-section. Under these aspects, we have calculated σ{sub -1} and the radii of various gg-nuclei. For our purpose, we have chosen a simple shell model where the integrals can be solved analytically, and the contributions of uncorrelated functions and correlation corrections can be shown explicitly. The mean square radius as a function of σ{sub -1} differs by a factor of 1.5/0.87 from the previous result of Levinger and Kent (Phys. Rev. 95, 418 (1954)) without correlation corrections. Plotting the function of the correlation corrections g(A) and the uncorrelated function f(A) as a ratio it shows that g(A)/f(A) tends towards a limit. Finally, our results for the radii of gg-nuclei are in good agreement with recent experiments (I. Angeli, K.P. Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)). (orig.)

  3. Maximum wind radius estimated by the 50 kt radius: improvement of storm surge forecasting over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    Even though the maximum wind radius (Rmax) is an important parameter in determining the intensity and size of tropical cyclones, it has been overlooked in previous storm surge studies. This study reviews the existing estimation methods for Rmax based on central pressure or maximum wind speed. These over- or underestimate Rmax because of substantial variations in the data, although an average radius can be estimated with moderate accuracy. As an alternative, we propose an Rmax estimation method based on the radius of the 50 kt wind (R50). Data obtained by a meteorological station network in the Japanese archipelago during the passage of strong typhoons, together with the JMA typhoon best track data for 1990-2013, enabled us to derive the following simple equation, Rmax = 0.23 R50. Application to a recent strong typhoon, the 2015 Typhoon Goni, confirms that the equation provides a good estimation of Rmax, particularly when the central pressure became considerably low. Although this new method substantially improves the estimation of Rmax compared to the existing models, estimation errors are unavoidable because of fundamental uncertainties regarding the typhoon's structure or insufficient number of available typhoon data. In fact, a numerical simulation for the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan as well as 2015 Typhoon Goni demonstrates a substantial difference in the storm surge height for different Rmax. Therefore, the variability of Rmax should be taken into account in storm surge simulations (e.g., Rmax = 0.15 R50-0.35 R50), independently of the model used, to minimize the risk of over- or underestimating storm surges. The proposed method is expected to increase the predictability of major storm surges and to contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in the western North Pacific, including countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Outcomes of a Single-Radius Versus Multi-Radius Femoral Design in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiluan; Long, Hua; Zhang, Yinglong; Ma, Baoan; Li, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Although the single-radius (SR) femoral design is known to have theoretical advantages in many aspects, studies of clinical outcomes that compare the SR with the multiple-radius (MR) femoral design are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to address the hypothesis that a SR femoral design in primary total knee arthroplasty improves patient outcomes. The meta-analysis identified 15 articles reporting the clinical outcomes of 2212 knee replacements using the SR (n = 948) compared with the multiradius (MR; n = 1361) femoral design. Comparing SR with MR, we examined the Knee Society Score for the knee (KSS-knee), KSS-function, knee flexion, range of motion, complications, isometric peak torque of knee, and survival rate. The range of motion of SR knees was lower than that of MR knees. No differences were found in the analyses of KSS-knee, KSS-function, knee flexion, complications, isometric peak torque of the knee, and survival rate. Our meta-analysis does not provide clinical support for the previously reported theoretical advantages of the SR implant design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fracture lines and comminution zones in OTA/AO type 23C3 distal radius fractures: The distal radius map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misir, Abdulhamit; Ozturk, Kahraman; Kizkapan, Turan Bilge; Yildiz, Kadir Ilker; Gur, Volkan; Sevencan, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to define fracture lines and comminution zones in OTA/AO 23C3 distal radius fractures from axial computed tomography (CT) images that would influence surgical planning, development of new classifications, and possible implant designs. Thirty-four consecutive OTA/AO 23C3 fractures treated by a single surgeon between January 2014 and December 2014 were analyzed. For each fracture, maps of the fracture lines and zones of comminution were drawn. Each map was digitized and graphically superimposed to create a compilation of fracture lines and zones of comminution. Based on this compilation, major and minor fracture lines were identified and fracture patterns were defined. All major fracture lines were distributed in the central region of the radius distal articular surface. There is a recurrent fracture pattern with a comminution zone including the scaphoid and lunate fossa; Lister's tubercle; and ulnar, volar, and radial zones. It is important for the practicing surgeon to understand these four main fragments. Knowledge of this constant pattern should influence the development of new classifications and possible implant designs.

  6. DISCOVERY OF BROAD MOLECULAR LINES AND OF SHOCKED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G357.7+0.3: HHSMT, APEX, SPITZER , AND SOFIA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST/University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bieging, J. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Reach, W. T. [Universities Space Research Association, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94034 (United States); Andersen, M. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Güsten, R., E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@unf.edu, E-mail: jbieging@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: wreach@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: manderse@gemini.edu, E-mail: guesten@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    We report a discovery of shocked gas from the supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3. Our millimeter and submillimeter observations reveal broad molecular lines of CO(2-1), CO(3-2), CO(4-3), {sup 13}CO (2-1), and {sup 13}CO (3-2), HCO{sup +}, and HCN using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, the Arizona 12 m Telescope, APEX, and the MOPRA Telescope. The widths of the broad lines are 15–30 km s{sup −1}, and the detection of such broad lines is unambiguous, dynamic evidence showing that the SNR G357.7+0.3 is interacting with molecular clouds. The broad lines appear in extended regions (>4.′5 × 5′). We also present the detection of shocked H{sub 2} emission in the mid-infrared but lacking ionic lines using Spitzer /IRS observations to map a few-arcminute area. The H{sub 2} excitation diagram shows a best fit with a two-temperature local thermal equilibrium model with the temperatures of ∼200 and 660 K. We observed [C ii] at 158 μ m and high- J CO(11-10) with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (GREAT) on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The GREAT spectrum of [C ii], a 3 σ detection, shows a broad line profile with a width of 15.7 km{sup −1} that is similar to those of broad CO molecular lines. The line width of [C ii] implies that ionic lines can come from a low-velocity C-shock. Comparison of H{sub 2} emission with shock models shows that a combination of two C-shock models is favored over a combination of C- and J-shocks or a single shock. We estimate the CO density, column density, and temperature using a RADEX model. The best-fit model with n (H{sub 2}) = 1.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, N(CO) = 5.6 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, and T  = 75 K can reproduce the observed millimeter CO brightnesses.

  7. Small-radius jets to all orders in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    As hadron collider physics continues to push the boundaries of precision, it becomes increasingly important to have methods for predicting properties of jets across a broad range of jet radius values R, and in particular for small R. In this paper we resum all leading logarithmic terms, $\\alpha_s^n \\ln^n R$, in the limit of small R, for a wide variety of observables. These include the inclusive jet spectrum, jet vetoes for Higgs physics and jet substructure tools. Some of the quantities that we consider are relevant also for heavy-ion collisions. Furthermore, we examine and comment on the underlying order-by-order convergence of the perturbative series for different R values. Our results indicate that small-R effects can be substantial. Phenomenological studies will appear in a forthcoming companion paper.

  8. Inclusive jet spectrum for small-radius jets

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Following on our earlier work on leading-logarithmic (LLR) resummations for the properties of jets with a small radius, R, we here examine the phenomenological considerations for the inclusive jet spectrum. We discuss how to match the NLO predictions with small-R resummation. As part of the study we propose a new, physically-inspired prescription for fixed-order predictions and their uncertainties. We investigate the R-dependent part of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections, which is found to be substantial, and comment on the implications for scale choices in inclusive jet calculations. We also examine hadronisation corrections, identifying potential limitations of earlier analytical work with regards to their $p_t$-dependence. Finally we assemble these different elements in order to compare matched (N)NLO+LLR predictions to data from ALICE and ATLAS, finding improved consistency for the R-dependence of the results relative to NLO predictions.

  9. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  10. Noncontact Measurement for Radius of Curvature of Unpolished Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A noncontact mathematical model to measure radius of curvature (ROC of an unpolished spherical lens was proposed and also proved by experiments. This model gives ROC as a function of arcs radii and their separation distance, where the radii of the corresponding arcs could be acquired by taking coordinates of points on the arcs when two parallel lines of light project onto a lens surface. Our experiments demonstrated that the measured maximum relative error was 0.027% for a concave surface with a 38.19 mm ROC and 0.021% for a convex surface with a 97.75 mm ROC, which were all in agreement with those of theory prediction error. The suggested method presented a fast noncontact method for testing ROC of lens during coarse grinding and fine grinding.

  11. Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.

  12. Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a “signature pattern injury” caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.

  13. Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Rajan, Sunil; Srivastava, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones) along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a "signature pattern injury" caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.

  14. Treatment strategy for distal radius fractures with ipsilateral arteriovenous shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoichi; Naito, Kiyohito; Igeta, Yuka; Obata, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    To describe our management of 3 patients with chronic renal failure who sustained distal radius fractures in limbs containing dialysis shunts. The 3 patients were 48-61 years old, and 2 of them were men. Because the injured limbs contained arteriovenous shunts, tourniquets were not used. Volar locking plate fixation was applied via the Henry approach. The patients' grip strength; visual analog scale scores; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) scores; modified Mayo scores; and their range of wrist joint motion were assessed during the final follow-up examination. In addition, complications and the presence/absence of dysfunction of the forearm shunt were also investigated. The mean duration of the postoperative follow-up period was 9 months (range, 7-10 mo), and the subjects' mean wrist motion values were 75°, 79°, 78°, and 87° during flexion, extension, pronation, and supination, respectively. Grip strength on the affected side as a percentage of that seen on the healthy side ranged from 71% to 90%. The patients' visual analog scale; QuickDASH; and modified Mayo scores were all excellent, and bone union was achieved in all 3 cases. No shunt dysfunction or skin soft tissue complications were noted. Volar locking plate fixation via the Henry approach might be useful for treating distal radius fractures in cases in which an arteriovenous shunt is present in the same limb. Shunt dysfunction and hemorrhaging are of concern during open surgery, but these were not issues in our patients. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Manifestation of Dupuytren nodules following fracture of the distal radius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Alice; Wendt, M; Mielsch, N; Gradl, G; Mittlmeier, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of post-traumatic development of Dupuytren nodules in distal radius fractures treated operatively. In 2 prospective randomised studies for operative treatment of distal radius fractures, the formation of Dupuytren nodules was registered. One of the exclusion criteria was a pre-existing Dupuytren's disease at the date of trauma. In addition to the notification of the development of Dupuytren nodules, signs of a complex regional pain syndrome were registered as well as the wrist function, level of pain and grip strength. The Castaing and the Gartland and Werley scores were assessed. The clinical outcomes of patients with and without Dupuytren nodules were compared. 239 of 275 (87%) of the patients could be examined 1 year after the operation, consisting of 32 men and 207 women with a median age of 64.2 years. The patients with Dupuytren nodules were re-evaluated after 16-60 months (median 41.8) for progression of the disease. 21 patients (8.7%) developed changes of the palmar aponeurosis. In 20 patients nodules were stated, one patient showed a cord at the fourth ray of the injured hand. 19 out of 21 patients were female (90.5%). At re-evaluation after 41.8 months (16-60) progression could not be noted nor could similar changes be seen on the contralateral side. Patients with Dupuytren nodules were not handicapped in their hand function. 3 patients (14.3%) revealed a positive family history for Dupuytren's disease. Abuse of alcohol or diabetes was not present in any of the patients with Dupuytren nodules, 7 (33%) were smokers. The occurrence of Dupyutren nodules can be triggered by a trauma or operation. It may be speculated that these nodules are an entity of their own as no progression of the contracture could be seen during the follow-up period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Distal Radius Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Özyemiflçi Taflk›ran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the quantitative ultrasound measurements and determine the related demographic, clinical and life style parameters. Material and Methods: A questionnaire including demographic features, systemic diseases, physical activity levels and other risk factors for osteoporosis was completed. Measurements of quantitative ultrasound (QUS were performed. Speed of sound (SOS (m/sec measurements were taken at the distal 1/3 radius of the nondominant extremity. Results: Among 2347 persons whom QUS measurements and questionnaires were completed, those aged 35 years and older and that were not taking antiosteoporotic treatment (N= 1867; 1654 women, 213 men were included for the analysis. Mean age of the participants were 52.1±10.7 years and mean SOS scores were 4142.8±185.8 m/sec. The variables that were statistically significant in either independent samples t test or analysis of variance were put in the linear regression analysis. In women, age, years since menopause and duration of lactation were independent predictors for SOS scores (constant= 4367.9 m/sec, age B: -3.8, ß: -0.197, p: 0.01; years since menopause: B: -3.9, ß: -0.211, p: 0.006; duration of lactation B: -0.4, ß: -0.086, p: 0.037. In men, age and level of education affected SOS scores independently (constant= 4271.3 m/sec, age B: -3.8, ß: -0.277, p: 0.001; level of education: B: 18.8, ß: 0.144, p: 0.036. Conclusion: Increasing age is associated with decrements in speed of sound measured by quantitative ultrasound at distal radius. It is important to give education about preventive measures on bone metabolism, especially during the lactation period. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:1-5

  17. Spitzer view of massive star formation in the tidally stripped Magellanic Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Seale, Jonathan P.; Shiao, Bernie [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitney, Barbara A.; Meade, Marilyn R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oliveira, Joana M.; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: rchen@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-20

    The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., in situ, current massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using Spitzer mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are ∼10 M {sub ☉}, <<45 M {sub ☉} found in the LMC. The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears to be decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and line-of-sight extinction. Circumstellar envelopes are evidently more porous or clumpy in the Bridge's low-metallicity environment. Second, we have used whole samples of YSOs in the LMC and the Bridge to estimate the probability of finding YSOs at a given H I column density, N(H I). We found that the LMC has ∼3 × higher probability than the Bridge for N(H I) >12 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, but the trend reverses at lower N(H I). Investigating whether this lower efficiency relative to H I is due to less efficient molecular cloud formation or to less efficient cloud collapse, or to both, will require sensitive molecular gas observations.

  18. A new look at Spitzer primary transit observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom); Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, via Archirafi I-90123, Italy. (Italy); Micela, G., E-mail: giuseppe.morello.11@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica (previously Dipartimento di Fisica), Specola Universitaria, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1 I-90123 (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyze two exoplanetary transit light curves of the exoplanet HD 189733b recorded with the IR camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 μm during the 'cold' era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterize the atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b. Previous analyses of the same data sets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. Such 'admission of ignorance' may result in larger error bars than reported in the literature, up to a factor 1.6. This is a worthwhile tradeoff for much higher objectivity, necessary for trustworthy claims. Our main results are (1) improved and robust values of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) new measurements of the transit depths at 3.6 μm, (3) consistency between the parameters estimated from the two observations, (4) repeatability of the measurement within the photometric level of ∼2 × 10{sup –4} in the IR, and (5) no evidence of stellar variability at the same photometric level within one year.

  19. REVISITING SPITZER TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS WITH INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS: NEW RESULTS FOR THE GJ 436 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom); Micela, G. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Allard, F., E-mail: giuseppe.morello.11@ucl.ac.uk [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon—École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed four Spitzer/IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 μm of the primary transit of the exoplanet GJ 436b, by using blind source separation techniques. These observations are important for investigating the atmospheric composition of the planet GJ 436b. Previous analyses claimed strong inter-epoch variations of the transit parameters due to stellar variability, casting doubts on the possibility of conclusively extracting an atmospheric signal. Those analyses also reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of this reanalysis. The method we used has been proposed in Morello et al. to analyze 3.6 μm transit light curves of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. It performes an Independent Component Analysis on a set of pixel light curves, i.e., time series read by individual pixels, from the same photometric observation. Our method only assumes the independence of instrumental and astrophysical signals, and therefore guarantees a higher degree of objectivity compared to parametric detrending techniques published in the literature. The data sets we analyzed in this paper represent a more challenging test than the previous ones. Contrary to previous results reported in the literature, our results (1) do not support any detectable inter-epoch variations of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) are photometrically stable at the level ∼10{sup −4} in the IR, and (3) the transit depth measurements at the two wavelengths are consistent within 1σ. We also (4) detect a possible transit duration variation of ∼80 s (2σ significance level) that has not been pointed out in the literature, and (5) confirm no transit timing variations ≳30 s.

  20. Spitzer Observations of the Massive Star-forming Complex S254-S258: Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Luis A.; Allen, Lori E.; Hora, Joseph L.; Brunt, Christopher M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2008-07-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC, NOAO 2.1 m Flamingos, Keck NIRC, and FCRAO SEQUOIA observations of the massive star-forming complex S254-S258, covering an area of 25' × 20'. Using a combination of the IRAC and NIR data, we identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the complex. We detect 510 sources with near- or mid-IR excess, and we classify 87 Class I and 165 Class II sources. The YSOs are found in clusters surrounded by isolated YSOs in a low-density distributed population. The ratio of clustered to total YSOs is 0.8. We identify six new clusters in the complex. One of them, G192.63-00, is located around the ionizing star of the H II region S255. We hypothesize that the ionizing star of S255 was formed in this cluster. We also detect a southern component of the cluster in H II region S256. The cluster G192.54-0.15, located inside H II region S254 has a VLSR of 17 km s-1 with respect to the main cloud, and we conclude that it is located in the background of the complex. The structure of the molecular cloud is examined using 12CO and 13CO , as well as a near-IR extinction map. The main body of the molecular cloud has VLSR between 5 and 9 km s-1. The arc-shaped structure of the molecular cloud following the border of the H II regions and the high column density in the border of the H II regions support the idea that the material has been swept up by the expansion of the H II regions.

  1. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  2. The near-to-mid infrared spectrum of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Mateos, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    We analyse a sample of 85 luminous (log (νLν(3 μm)/erg s-1) > 45.5) quasars with rest frame ˜2-11 μm spectroscopy from AKARI and Spitzer. Their high luminosity allows a direct determination of the near-infrared quasar spectrum free from host galaxy emission. A semi-empirical model consisting of a single template for the accretion disc and two blackbodies for the dust emission successfully reproduces the 0.1-10 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Excess emission at 1-2 μm over the best-fitting model suggests that hotter dust is necessary in addition to the ˜1200 K blackbody and the disc to reproduce the entire near-infrared spectrum. Variation in the extinction affecting the disc and in the relative strength of the disc and dust components accounts for the diversity of individual SEDs. Quasars with higher dust-to-disc luminosity ratios show slightly redder infrared continua and less prominent silicate emission. We find no luminosity dependence in the shape of the average infrared quasar spectrum. We generate a new quasar template that covers the rest-frame range 0.1-11 μm, and separate templates for the disc and dust components. Comparison with other infrared quasar composites suggests that previous ones are less reliable in the 2-4 μm range. Our template is the first one to provide a detailed view of the infrared emission on both sides of the 4 μm bump.

  3. Measurement of ulnar variance and radial inclination on X-rays of healed distal radius fractures. With the axis of the distal radius or ulna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuysbaert, Gilles; Ringburg, Akkie; Petronilia, Steven; Vanden Berghe, Alex; Hollevoet, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Ulnar variance and radial inclination are radiological parameters frequently used to evaluate displacement of distal radius fractures. In most studies measurements are based on the long central axis of the distal radius, although the axis of the distal ulna can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine which axis is more reliable. Four observers performed measurements on standard anteroposterior digital wrist X-rays of 20 patients taken 1 and 2 months after sustaining an extra-articular distal radius fracture. Intraobserver reliability was similar with both methods. No difference was found in interobserver reliability between both methods for ulnar variance, but for radial inclination it was better with the axis through the radius. Measurements on two X-rays of the same wrist taken at a different moment were similar with both methods. It can be concluded that the central axis of the distal radius can remain the basis to determine ulnar variance and radial inclination.

  4. Violent Adolescent Planet Caught Infrared Handed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, D.; Gaidos, E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view of planet formation depicts accumulation of progressively larger objects, culminating in accretionary impacts between Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets. Cosmochemists have found evidence in chondritic meteorites for such violent events, and the Moon is thought to have involved a huge impact between a Mars-sized object and the still-growing proto-Earth. Now we may have evidence for a large impact during planet formation around another star. Carey Lisse (Applied Physics Lab of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore) and colleagues from the Space Telescope Science Institute (Baltimore), the University of Cambridge (UK), the Open University (Milton Keyes, UK), the University of Georgia (Athens, GA), Jet Propulsion Lab (Pasadena, CA), and the University of Rochester (New York) analyzed infrared spectra obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. They found a prominent peak in the spectrum at 9.3 micrometers, and two smaller ones at slightly lower and higher wavelengths. These peaks are consistent with the presence of SiO gas, a product expected to be produced by a highly energetic impact. The spectral measurements also allowed Lisse and his colleagues to estimate the size of the dust and they found that there is an abundance of micrometer-sized dust grains. This argues for a fresh source of fine material during the past 0.1 million years. That source may have been an impact between two protoplanets surrounding this young star.

  5. Mid-infrared spectra of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Reach, William T.; Harker, David E.

    2017-03-01

    Comet nuclei and D-type asteroids have several similarities at optical and near-IR wavelengths, including near-featureless red reflectance spectra, and low albedos. Mineral identifications based on these characteristics are fraught with degeneracies, although some general trends can be identified. In contrast, spectral emissivity features in the mid-infrared provide important compositional information that might not otherwise be achievable. Jovian Trojan D-type asteroids have emissivity features strikingly similar to comet comae, suggesting that they have the same compositions and that the surfaces of the Trojans are highly porous. However, a direct comparison between a comet and asteroid surface has not been possible due to the paucity of spectra of comet nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. We present 5-35 μm thermal emission spectra of comets 10P/Tempel 2, and 49P/Arend-Rigaux observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis reveals no evidence for a coma or tail at the time of observation, suggesting the spectra are dominated by the comet nucleus. We fit each spectrum with the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and find sizes in agreement with previous values. However, the NEATM beaming parameters of the nuclei, 0.74-0.83, are systematically lower than the Jupiter-family comet population mean of 1.03 ± 0.11, derived from 16- and 22-μm photometry. We suggest this may be either an artifact of the spectral reduction, or the consequence of an emissivity low near 16 μm. When the spectra are normalized by the NEATM model, a weak 10-μm silicate plateau is evident, with a shape similar to those seen in mid-infrared spectra of D-type asteroids. A silicate plateau is also evident in previously published Spitzer spectra of the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1. We compare, in detail, these comet nucleus emission features to those seen in spectra of the Jovian Trojan D-types (624) Hektor, (911) Agamemnon, and (1172) Aneas, as well

  6. A Systematic Mid-Infrared Survey of A Sample of Tidal Disruption Events Discovered by ZTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Van, Sjoert; Kulkarni, Shri; Kasliwal, Mansi; Gezari, Suvi; Cenko, Brad; Blagorodnova, Nadia; Hung, Tiara

    2017-12-01

    Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) saw its first light (press release on Nov 14, 2017) and is currently in the commissioning phase. The science operation is scheduled to start on Feb 1, 2018. Based on the data from Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), ZTF is expected to discover 30 new tidal disruption events (TDE) in the centers of galaxies containing supermassive blackholes. TDEs are rare transient events, and have only been discovered in recent years by large area transient surveys. Observations of optically discovered TDEs appear to show common characteristics, including blackbody temperatures of a few 10,000K, derived bolometric peak luminosities of several 10^43 - 10^44 erg/s, and photospheric radius of 10^15 - 10^16 cm. These properties are in conflict with the classic TDE model predictions, which suggest an order of magnitude higher temperature and peak luminosity. One proposed explanation is the possible existence of a reprocessing gas layer which absorbs X-ray, UV/optical photons and produces a cooler spectral energy distribution (SED). So far, there are only two published mid-IR light curves of TDEs, each with two epochal data. To solve this mystery, we require higher cadence Spitzer observations of a sample of uniformly selected TDEs. Next year is the only opportunity to obtain the critical observations because Spitzer is expected to operate only to March 2019. We request 24.1 hours of Spitzer time to observe 7 ZTF TDEs. This will produce a unique legacy dataset for many future studies of physics of TDEs.

  7. How to restore the fiduciary relationship. An interview with Eliot Spitzer. Interview by Louise O'Brien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Eliot

    2004-05-01

    Eliot Spitzer's investigations into the mutual fund and investment-banking industries have made the New York State attorney general the de facto flag bearer of corporate reform. His exposure of conflicts of interest between investment bankers and research analyst in Wall Street firms led to the $1.4 billion global settlement between regulators and banking houses in 2003. In this interview, Spitzer describes the challenge of protecting public markets from conflicts of interest, paying particular attention to how such conflicts get institutionalized in an industry. "The cases that have gotten me and my fellow regulators most upset are the ones where we've seen senior management being tolerant of rank abuses," he says. "Because then you know that the entire structure is rotten." He also points the finger squarely at boards, maintaining that board members are drawn from pools of company and industry insiders. He cites "a void in values in a lot of boardrooms," holding up executive compensation as a powerful example. "Board compensation committees ... are self-selected and interwoven--it's a rigged marketplace." He continues, "It would be interesting to see what the world would look like if CEO pay packages had to be submitted to shareholder votes." Spitzer suggests that what's really needed is for all business leaders to reinstill throughout their organizations the critical notion of a fiduciary duty--whether it is to the shareholder or to the customer. Using the mutual fund industry as an example, he also contrasts the value of enforcement with that of regulation and articulates an important--and surprisingly limited--role for government in protecting free markets.

  8. OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb: The First Spitzer Bulge Planet Lies Near the Planet/Brown-dwarf Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.-H.; Yee, J. C.; Udalski, A.; Bond, I. A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Zang, W.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Zhu, W.; Huang, C. X.; Jung, Y. K.; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Hwang, K.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; KMTNet Collaboration; Calchi Novati, S.; Carey, S.; Henderson, C. B.; Beichman, C.; Gaudi, B. S.; Spitzer team; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Collaboration; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Bryden, G.; Howell, S. B.; Jacklin, S.; UKIRT Microlensing Team; Penny, M. T.; Mao, S.; Fouqué, Pascal; Wang, T.; CFHT-K2C9 Microlensing Survey group; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Hundertmark, M.; Bachelet, E.; Dominik, M.; Li, Z.; Cross, S.; Cassan, A.; Horne, K.; Schmidt, R.; Wambsganss, J.; Ment, S. K.; Maoz, D.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; RoboNet Team; Bozza, V.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D’Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Hinse, T. C.; Kerins, E.; Kokotanekova, R.; Longa, P.; MacKenzie, J.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Sajadian, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; von Essen, C.; MiNDSTEp Team

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb, which is likely to be the first Spitzer microlensing planet in the Galactic bulge/bar, an assignation that can be confirmed by two epochs of high-resolution imaging of the combined source–lens baseline object. The planet’s mass, M p = 13.4 ± 0.9 M J , places it right at the deuterium-burning limit, i.e., the conventional boundary between “planets” and “brown dwarfs.” Its existence raises the question of whether such objects are really “planets” (formed within the disks of their hosts) or “failed stars” (low-mass objects formed by gas fragmentation). This question may ultimately be addressed by comparing disk and bulge/bar planets, which is a goal of the Spitzer microlens program. The host is a G dwarf, M host = 0.89 ± 0.07 M ⊙, and the planet has a semimajor axis a ∼ 2.0 au. We use Kepler K2 Campaign 9 microlensing data to break the lens-mass degeneracy that generically impacts parallax solutions from Earth–Spitzer observations alone, which is the first successful application of this approach. The microlensing data, derived primarily from near-continuous, ultradense survey observations from OGLE, MOA, and three KMTNet telescopes, contain more orbital information than for any previous microlensing planet, but not quite enough to accurately specify the full orbit. However, these data do permit the first rigorous test of microlensing orbital-motion measurements, which are typically derived from data taken over <1% of an orbital period.

  9. The Spitzer search for the transits of HARPS low-mass planets. II. Null results for 19 planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, M.; Demory, B.-O.; Lovis, C.; Deming, D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lo Curto, G.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Seager, S.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2017-05-01

    Short-period super-Earths and Neptunes are now known to be very frequent around solar-type stars. Improving our understanding of these mysterious planets requires the detection of a significant sample of objects suitable for detailed characterization. Searching for the transits of the low-mass planets detected by Doppler surveys is a straightforward way to achieve this goal. Indeed, Doppler surveys target the most nearby main-sequence stars, they regularly detect close-in low-mass planets with significant transit probability, and their radial velocity data constrain strongly the ephemeris of possible transits. In this context, we initiated in 2010 an ambitious Spitzer multi-Cycle transit search project that targeted 25 low-mass planets detected by radial velocity, focusing mainly on the shortest-period planets detected by the HARPS spectrograph. We report here null results for 19 targets of the project. For 16 planets out of 19, a transiting configuration is strongly disfavored or firmly rejected by our data for most planetary compositions. We derive a posterior probability of 83% that none of the probed 19 planets transits (for a prior probability of 22%), which still leaves a significant probability of 17% that at least one of them does transit. Globally, our Spitzer project revealed or confirmed transits for three of its 25 targeted planets, and discarded or disfavored the transiting nature of 20 of them. Our light curves demonstrate for Warm Spitzer excellent photometric precisions: for 14 targets out of 19, we were able to reach standard deviations that were better than 50 ppm per 30 min intervals. Combined with its Earth-trailing orbit, which makes it capable of pointing any star in the sky and to monitor it continuously for days, this work confirms Spitzer as an optimal instrument to detect sub-mmag-deep transits on the bright nearby stars targeted by Doppler surveys. The photometric and radial velocity time series used in this work are only available at the

  10. Recombination radius of a Frenkel pair and capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by vacancy clusters in bcc Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-08-26

    The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in irradiated materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1.0a0 to 3.3a0 have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomic level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a0 by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster.

  11. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths - a powerful tool for scientific discovery. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers and for suborbital programs optimized for studying extrasolar planets.

  12. Distal radius volar rim plate: Technical and radiographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Michelle; Roberts, Darren; Ng, Wayne; Matthews, Jamie; Power, Dominic

    2017-07-18

    To determine technical considerations and radiographic outcomes of the Synthes volar rim distal radius plate to treat complex intra-articular fractures. This review highlights technical considerations learnt using this implant since it was introduced in a major trauma unit in November 2011, including anatomical reduction and whether this was maintained radiographically. Twenty-six of the 382 internally fixed distal radial fractures at our unit (6.8%) were deemed to require this plate in order to achieve optimal fracture fixation between November 2011 and May 2014. A further dorsal and/or radial plate was necessary in 35% and variable angle screws were used in 54% of cases. Post-operatively, mean radial height, inclination, volar tilt and ulnar variance restored were 11.7 mm, 21º, 4.3º and -1.2 mm respectively. There were no cases of non-union or flexor/extensor tendon rupture; one case of loss of fracture reduction. Overall incidence of plate removal was 15% with one plate removed for flexor and one for extensor tendon irritation. The use of a rim plate enables control of challenging far distal fracture patterns. However, additional plates were required to improve and maintain reduction. Variable angle screws were necessary in half the cases to avoid intra-articular screw penetration. If used judiciously, this implant can achieve stable fixation despite the complexity of the fracture pattern.

  13. The mass-radius relationship of massive compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Partha Roy, E-mail: royc.partha@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Degree College Kamalpur, Tripura University, Tripura-799285 (India)

    2015-02-24

    The properties of pure hadronic and hybrid compact stars are reviewed using nuclear equation of state (EoS) for β-equilibrated neutron star (NS) matter obtained using a density-dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. Depending on the model, the energy density of quark matter can be lower than that of this nuclear EoS at higher densities, implying the possibility of transition to quark matter inside the core and the transition density depends on the particular quark matter model used. The recent observations of the binary millisecond pulsar J1614–2230 by P.B. Demorest et al. [1] and PSR J0348+0432 by J. Antoniadis et al. [2] suggest that the masses lie within 1.97 ± 0.04 M{sub ⊙} and 2.01 ± 0.04 M{sub ⊙}, respectively, where M{sub ⊙} is the solar mass. In conformity with recent observations, a pure nucleonic EoS determines that the maximum mass of NS rotating with frequency ν∼ 667 Hz below r-mode instability is ∼ 1.95 M{sub ⊙} with radius ∼ 10 km. Compact stars with quark cores rotating with same frequency have the maximum mass of ∼ 1.72 M{sub ⊙} turns out to be lower than the observed masses.

  14. Minimum Variance Signal Selection for Aorta Radius Estimation Using Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamran Svein-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the optimum signal choice for the estimation of the aortic blood pressure via aorta radius, using a monostatic radar configuration. The method involves developing the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB for a simplified model. The CRLB for model parameters are compared with simulation results using a grid-based approach for estimation. The CRLBs are within the 99% confidence intervals for all chosen parameter values. The CRLBs show an optimal region within an ellipsoid centered at 1 GHz center frequency and 1.25 GHz bandwidth with axes of 0.5 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively. Calculations show that emitted signal energy to received noise spectral density should exceed for a precision of approximately 0.1 mm for a large range of model parameters. This implies a minimum average power of 0.4  . These values are based on optimistic assumptions. Reflections, improved propagation model, true receiver noise, and parameter ranges should be considered in a practical implementation.

  15. Inclusive jet spectrum for small-radius jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dreyer, Frédéric A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Salam, Gavin P. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Soyez, Gregory [IPhT, CEA Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-06-09

    Following on our earlier work on leading-logarithmic (LL{sub R}) resummations for the properties of jets with a small radius, R, we here examine the phenomenological considerations for the inclusive jet spectrum. We discuss how to match the NLO predictions with small-R resummation. As part of the study we propose a new, physically-inspired prescription for fixed-order predictions and their uncertainties. We investigate the R-dependent part of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections, which is found to be substantial, and comment on the implications for scale choices in inclusive jet calculations. We also examine hadronisation corrections, identifying potential limitations of earlier analytical work with regards to their p{sub t}-dependence. Finally we assemble these different elements in order to compare matched (N)NLO+LL{sub R} predictions to data from ALICE and ATLAS, finding improved consistency for the R-dependence of the results relative to NLO predictions.

  16. Placing molecules with Bohr radius resolution using DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jonas J; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly with nucleic acids can be used to fabricate discrete objects with defined sizes and arbitrary shapes. It relies on building blocks that are commensurate to those of biological macromolecular machines and should therefore be capable of delivering the atomic-scale placement accuracy known today only from natural and designed proteins. However, research in the field has predominantly focused on producing increasingly large and complex, but more coarsely defined, objects and placing them in an orderly manner on solid substrates. So far, few objects afford a design accuracy better than 5 nm, and the subnanometre scale has been reached only within the unit cells of designed DNA crystals. Here, we report a molecular positioning device made from a hinged DNA origami object in which the angle between the two structural units can be controlled with adjuster helices. To test the positioning capabilities of the device, we used photophysical and crosslinking assays that report the coordinate of interest directly with atomic resolution. Using this combination of placement and analysis, we rationally adjusted the average distance between fluorescent molecules and reactive groups from 1.5 to 9 nm in 123 discrete displacement steps. The smallest displacement step possible was 0.04 nm, which is slightly less than the Bohr radius. The fluctuation amplitudes in the distance coordinate were also small (±0.5 nm), and within a factor of two to three of the amplitudes found in protein structures.

  17. Minimum Variance Signal Selection for Aorta Radius Estimation Using Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, LarsErik; Hamran, Svein-Erik; Berger, Tor; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the optimum signal choice for the estimation of the aortic blood pressure via aorta radius, using a monostatic radar configuration. The method involves developing the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for a simplified model. The CRLB for model parameters are compared with simulation results using a grid-based approach for estimation. The CRLBs are within the 99% confidence intervals for all chosen parameter values. The CRLBs show an optimal region within an ellipsoid centered at 1 GHz center frequency and 1.25 GHz bandwidth with axes of 0.5 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively. Calculations show that emitted signal energy to received noise spectral density should exceed [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] for a precision of approximately 0.1 mm for a large range of model parameters. This implies a minimum average power of 0.4 [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. These values are based on optimistic assumptions. Reflections, improved propagation model, true receiver noise, and parameter ranges should be considered in a practical implementation.

  18. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-09-08

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.

  19. The Optical/Infrared Dust Properties of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Peng, Eric; Simona, Mei; West, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We propose to obtain IRAC and MIPS images for 15 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. Combining the data with existing Spitzer GTO/Legacy observations for seven additional galaxies will give a magnitude-limited sample of 21 early-type galaxies in Virgo. All 21 galaxies are part of our deep, high-resolution (0.1 arcsec), multi-band HST/ACS imaging survey of early-type galaxies; high S/N ground-based optical spectra are also in hand for each galaxy. The combination of ground-based spectroscopy, optical imaging from HST and infrared imaging from Spitzer will provide the most complete dataset ever assembled for the study of dust in a large and unbiased sample of early-type galaxies. In particular: (1) the Spitzer/MIPS images will provide the definitive study of the incidence of dust in these galaxies, and the measurement of dust masses down to 250 solar masses, a hundred-fold improvement compared to IRAS; (2) The multi-band IRAC and MIPS data will allow us to determine the contribution of stars and dust to the observed flux, leading to an unambiguous determination of the dust temperature compared to previous studies; (3) The dust mass determined from MIPS observations will be compared to the mass required to account for the extinction seen in our optical HST/ACS images. The high resolution of Spitzer/MIPS will allow us to spatially resolve the dust emission if this follows the stellar density, with obvious implications regarding the origin of dust in early-type galaxies; (4) the total gravitational mass derived from our optical ground-based spectra will be used to determine the empirical ratio of dust to gravitating mass. The unprecedented depth, sensitivity, and spatial resolution of the Spitzer data, the unrivaled clarity of the HST images, and the complete kinematical coverage of the ground-based spectra will enable the most detailed view yet of dust in early-type environments.

  20. Infrared Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  1. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  2. Infrared Photometric Properties of 709 Candidate Stellar Bowshock Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Schurhammer, Danielle P.; Baldwin, Daniel J.; Chick, William T.; Dixon, Don M.; Lee, Daniel; Povich, Matthew S.

    2017-11-01

    Arcuate infrared nebulae are ubiquitous throughout the Galactic Plane and are candidates for partial shells, bubbles, or bowshocks produced by massive runaway stars. We tabulate infrared photometry for 709 such objects using images from the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Wide-field Infrared Explorer, and the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO). Of the 709 objects identified at 24 or 22 μm, 422 are detected at the HSO 70 μm bandpass. Of these, only 39 are detected at HSO 160 μm. The 70 μm peak surface brightnesses are 0.5–2.5 Jy arcmin‑2. Color temperatures calculated from the 24 to 70 μm ratios range from 80 to 400 K. Color temperatures from 70 to 160 μm ratios are systematically lower, 40–200 K. Both of these temperature are, on average, 75% higher than the nominal temperatures derived by assuming that dust is in steady-state radiative equilibrium. This may be evidence of stellar wind bowshocks sweeping up and heating—possibly fragmenting but not destroying—interstellar dust. Infrared luminosity correlates with standoff distance, R 0, as predicted by published hydrodynamical models. Infrared spectral energy distributions are consistent with interstellar dust exposed to either single radiant energy density, U={10}3{--}{10}5 (in more than half of the objects) or a range of radiant energy densities U min = 25 to U max = 103–105 times the mean interstellar value for the remainder. Hence, the central OB stars dominate the energetics, making these enticing laboratories for testing dust models in constrained radiation environments. The spectral energy densities are consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions {q}{PAH}≲ 1 % in most objects.

  3. Posterolateral Elbow Dislocation with Ipsilateral Fractures of Head and Distal End Radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dislocation associated with ipsilateral fracture head and distal end radius is a rare pattern of Injury, although it is common for elbow dislocation and radius fractures to occur separately. We report a case of 35 year-old male who had a posterolateral elbow dislocation with ipsilateral fractures of head and distal end radius that underwent closed reduction and POP application and outcome is excellent with 9 months of follow-up.

  4. Bilateral Distal Radius Fracture in Third Trimester of Pregnancy with Accelerated Union: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    TV, Ravikumar; P, Rahul; Grover, Amit; Samorekar, Bheemsingh

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral distal radius fracture is a rare entity. There is no literature reporting a bilateral distal radius fracture in pregnancy. Fracture healing is influenced by hormones. Hormonal changes of pregnancy will affect the healing of a fracture. A 28-year-old female at 34 wk of pregnancy sustained a bilateral distal radius fracture after a self fall. One side was managed conservatively and open reduction was done for the other side. Both fractures united at four weeks. This case is unique in ...

  5. [Analysis of acute distal radius fractures with the articular sagittal index (ASI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, G; Atzori, M; Al Saati, M; Izem, Y

    2009-10-01

    Displacements of articular fragments are not always visible on initial radiographs of acute distal radius fractures. Despite the wide use of CT scan, it may be useful to know a simple index that could suggest an articular displaced fracture from the initial standard radiographs. The authors describe an articular sagittal index (ASI) of the distal radius and provide reference values from a study of 100 healthy volunteers. An increase of the ASI index suggests a displaced articular distal radius fracture with possible impaction.

  6. Extending the binary collision algorithm to non-Spitzer systems and application to laser heating and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Schumacher, Douglass

    2017-08-01

    We have generalized the binary collision algorithm to accommodate arbitrary collision rates, enabling the accurate kinetic modeling of short range particle interactions in non-Spitzer systems. With this extension, we explore the effect of different collision models on simulating how ultra-intense lasers first begin to heat a target. The effect of collisions on plasma evolution is crucial for treating particle slowing, energy transport, and thermalization. The widely used binary collision algorithm provides a fast and computationally efficient method to include the effects of collisions between charged particles in kinetic simulations without requiring the particles to be in local thermal equilibrium already. However, it is "hardwired" to use Spitzer collision rates that are appropriate for hot, relatively dilute plasmas. This restriction prevents the Nanbu collision algorithm from accurately describing the initial heating of a cold target, a key problem for the study of laser damage or the generation of the warm dense matter state. We describe our approach for modifying the Nanbu collision algorithm and demonstrate the improved accuracy for copper targets.

  7. Dependence of critical radius of the cubic perovskite ABO{sub 3} oxides on the radius of A- and B-site cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nansheng; Zhou, Xiong; Wei, Wenjing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Hailei; Li, Fushen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Lab of New Energy Material and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lu, Xionggang; Ding, Weizhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Critical radius (r{sub C}) for cubic perovskite structure is an important factor affecting the migration energy of oxygen ions. The monotonic dependence of the critical radius on the ionic radii of A- and B-site cations in cubic perovskite ABO{sub 3} structure was systematically investigated by strict mathematical derivation. When the tolerance factor (t)<1, the critical radius is a decreasing function but an increasing function with respect to the radius of A-site cation (r{sub A}) and B-site cation (r{sub B}), respectively. For the case of t>1, there is a reverse dependence of r{sub C} on r{sub A} and r{sub B}. With respect to the case of t=1, r{sub C} displays a decreasing function with respect to both r{sub A} and r{sub B}. (author)

  8. Improved automatic optic nerve radius estimation from high resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    The optic nerve (ON) is a vital structure in the human visual system and transports all visual information from the retina to the cortex for higher order processing. Due to the lack of redundancy in the visual pathway, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. These measures are typically taken at an arbitrary anatomically defined point along the nerve and do not characterize changes along the length of the ON. We propose a fully automated, three-dimensionally consistent technique building upon a previous independent slice-wise technique to estimate the radius of the ON and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on high-resolution heavily T2-weighted isotropic MRI. We show that by constraining results to be three-dimensionally consistent this technique produces more anatomically viable results. We compare this technique with the previously published slice-wise technique using a short-term reproducibility data set, 10 subjects, follow-up <1 month, and show that the new method is more reproducible in the center of the ON. The center of the ON contains the most accurate imaging because it lacks confounders such as motion and frontal lobe interference. Long-term reproducibility, 5 subjects, follow-up of approximately 11 months, is also investigated with this new technique and shown to be similar to short-term reproducibility, indicating that the ON does not change substantially within 11 months. The increased accuracy of this new technique provides increased power when searching for anatomical changes in ON size amongst patient populations.

  9. A Large Radius Human Centrifuge: The Human Hypergravity Havitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2008-06-01

    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, but how would plants and animals have evolved on a larger planet, i.e. larger than Earth? We are able to address this question simply by studies using centrifuges. In the past decades numerous experiments have been performed on cells, plants and animals grown for longer durations, even multi generations, under hypergravity conditions. Based on these studies we have gained interesting insights in the physiological process of these systems when exposed to artificial gravity. Animals and plants adapt themselves to this new high-g environment. Information of adaptation to hyper-g in mammals is interesting, or maybe even proof vital, for future human space flight programs especially in light of long duration missions to Moon and Mars. We know from long duration animal studies that numerous physiological processes and structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardiovascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Human studies are mostly in the order of hours at most. Current work on human centrifuges is all focused on short arm systems to apply artificial gravity in long duration space missions. In this paper we want to address the possible usefulness of a large radius human centrifuge on Earth, or even on Moon or Mars, for both basic research and possible applications. In such a centrifuge a group of humans may be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time.

  10. Transverse ultrasound assessment of the flexor pollicis longus tendon movement on the distal radius during wrist and finger motion in distal radius fracture with volar plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Kodera, Norie; Tomori, Yuji; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the movement of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon on the distal radius during wrist and finger motions using transverse ultrasound in patients with distal radius fractures who underwent volar locking plating. Both wrists of 39 distal radius fracture patients with volar locking plate fixation were evaluated by transverse ultrasound to examine the location of the FPL tendon on the distal radius at varied wrist positions in full finger extension and flexion. At all wrist positions during finger motion, the FPL tendon shifted significantly more dorsally on the affected side than on the unaffected side. Additionally, at the wrist dorsal flexion position with finger flexion, the FPL tendon moved significantly the most dorsally, and the distance between the FPL tendon and the plate or the radius was the smallest among all wrist positions during finger motion. This study showed that the wrist dorsal flexion position with finger flexion could be the appropriate position to examine FPL tendon irritation after plating. Moreover, it would be effective for preventing FPL rupture to cover the FPL transverse gliding area approximately 10 mm radial to the vertex of the palmar bony prominence of the distal radius with the pronator quadratus and the intermediate fibrous zone.

  11. GALAXY CLUSTERS AROUND RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT 1.3 < z < 3.2 AS SEEN BY SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Galametz, Audrey [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Vernet, Joeel; De Breuck, Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstr. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Seymour, Nick [CASS, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hatch, Nina [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Matt [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Rettura, Alessandro [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanford, Spencer A. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Stevens, Jason A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, STRI, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-20

    We report the first results from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN program, a Cycle 7 and 8 Spitzer Space Telescope snapshot program to investigate the environments of a large sample of obscured and unobscured luminous radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1.2 < z < 3.2. These data, obtained for 387 fields, reach 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m depths of [3.6]{sub AB} = 22.6 and [4.5]{sub AB} = 22.9 at the 95% completeness level, which is two to three times fainter than L* in this redshift range. By using the color cut [3.6] - [4.5] > -0.1 (AB), which efficiently selects high-redshift (z > 1.3) galaxies of all types, we identify galaxy cluster member candidates in the fields of the radio-loud AGN. The local density of these Infrared Array Camera (IRAC)-selected sources is compared to the density of similarly selected sources in blank fields. We find that 92% of the radio-loud AGN reside in environments richer than average. The majority (55%) of the radio-loud AGN fields are found to be overdense at a {>=}2{sigma} level; 10% are overdense at a {>=}5{sigma} level. A clear rise in surface density of IRAC-selected sources toward the position of the radio-loud AGN strongly supports an association of the majority of the IRAC-selected sources with the radio-loud AGN. Our results provide solid statistical evidence that radio-loud AGN are likely beacons for finding high-redshift galaxy (proto-)clusters. We investigate how environment depends on AGN type (unobscured radio-loud quasars versus obscured radio galaxies), radio luminosity and redshift, finding no correlation with either AGN type or radio luminosity. We find a decrease in density with redshift, consistent with galaxy evolution for this uniform, flux-limited survey. These results are consistent with expectations from the orientation-driven AGN unification model, at least for the high radio luminosity regimes considered in this sample.

  12. PROBING STELLAR ACCRETION WITH MID-INFRARED HYDROGEN LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Pascucci, I.; Mulders, G. D. [Department of Planetary Science, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Edwards, S. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Ardila, D. R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grady, C. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Mendigutía, I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Montesinos, B. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carpenter, J. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Furlan, E. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gorti, U. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Meyer, M. R., E-mail: rigliaco@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: elisabetta.rigliaco@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the origin of the mid-infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines for a sample of 114 disks in different evolutionary stages (full, transitional, and debris disks) collected from the Spitzer archive. We focus on the two brighter H I lines observed in the Spitzer spectra, the H I (7-6) at 12.37 μm and the H I (9-7) at 11.32 μm. We detect the H I (7-6) line in 46 objects, and the H I (9-7) in 11. We compare these lines with the other most common gas line detected in Spitzer spectra, the [Ne II] at 12.81 μm. We argue that it is unlikely that the H I emission originates from the photoevaporating upper surface layers of the disk, as has been found for the [Ne II] lines toward low-accreting stars. Using the H I (9-7)/H I (7-6) line ratios we find these gas lines are likely probing gas with hydrogen column densities of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}. The subsample of objects surrounded by full and transitional disks show a positive correlation between the accretion luminosity and the H I line luminosity. These two results suggest that the observed mid-IR H I lines trace gas accreting onto the star in the same way as other hydrogen recombination lines at shorter wavelengths. A pure chromospheric origin of these lines can be excluded for the vast majority of full and transitional disks. We report for the first time the detection of the H I (7-6) line in eight young (<20 Myr) debris disks. A pure chromospheric origin cannot be ruled out in these objects. If the H I (7-6) line traces accretion in these older systems, as in the case of full and transitional disks, the strength of the emission implies accretion rates lower than 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We discuss some advantages of extending accretion indicators to longer wavelengths, and the next steps required pinning down the origin of mid-IR hydrogen lines.

  13. Evaluation of sarcopenia in patients with distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Koh, Young Do; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Sarcopenia is more prevalent in patients with distal radius fracture (DRF) than in age- and sex-matched controls. Lower appendicular mass index in men and weaker grip strength in both men and women increase the likelihood of DRF. Sarcopenia is a core component of physical frailty that predisposes older people to falls and negatively impacts the activities of daily living. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with DRF with that in age- and sex-matched controls without DRF; and evaluate the association between sarcopenia and the occurrence of DRF. We prospectively recruited 132 patients over 50 years of age who sustained DRF due to fall and 132 age- and sex-matched controls without DRF. A definition of sarcopenia was based on the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenic components including appendicular lean body mass, grip strength, and gait speed were compared between the two groups. Other factors assessed for the occurrence of DRF were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), lumbar, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) values. A conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between sarcopenia and the occurrence of DRF. A total of 39 (30%) of 132 DRF patients were sarcopenic, whereas 23 (17%) of the 132 controls were within the sarcopenic criteria (p = 0.048). The patient group had significantly lower lean body mass and weaker grip strength than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference in gait speed between the two groups. According to regression analysis, lower appendicular mass index in men was associated with an increased incidence of DRF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.95) while weaker grip strength and lower total hip BMD values were associated with the occurrence of DRF in both men (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63, 0.92; and OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.94, respectively) and women (OR

  14. Incidence of complex regional pain syndrome type I after fractures of the distal radius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Geertzen, JHB

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study was to analyse the incidence CRPS-I after a fracture of the distal radius and to analyse risk factors. Patients who visited the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital, with a fracture of distal radius were asked to participate. As risk factors for CRPS-I, number of repositions

  15. Crown radius and diameter at breast height relationships for six bottomland hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Robert C. Weih; Keith M. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between a tree's crown radius and diameter at breast height (DBH) has a variety of uses including forest competition studies, tree crown densities, spacing and stocking relationships, wildlife habitat suitability models, and tree volume estimations. Estimating DBH from mean crown radius (MCR) is of interest to natural resource managers because MCR...

  16. Routine follow-up radiographs for distal radius fractures are seldom clinically substantiated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weil, N. L.; El Moumni, M.; Rubinstein, S. M.; Krijnen, P.; Termaat, M. F.; Schipper, I. B.

    Introduction: The value of routine radiographs during follow-up after distal radius fractures is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether routine radiographs performed during the follow-up period in patients with a distal radius fracture influenced clinical decision making. Methods:

  17. A new technique in the treatment of distal radius fractures: the Micronail(R)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, R.W.; Toonen, H.G.; Unen, J.M. van; Vugt, R. van; Werre, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2006, an intramedullar titanium osteosynthesis for the stabilization of distal radius fractures was introduced in The Netherlands: the Micronail(R). The Micronail(R) can be used in approximately 30% of distal radius fracture treatments. This article presents the introduction of this

  18. Non union of the neck of radius: a case report and review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractures of the neck of radius are frequent in trauma. They happen without being noticed at the moment of injury of the elbow or in the context of polytrauma. A case of non union of the radius neck occurring in a young person due to ignorance, during first consultation has been reported by the authors. They insist on the ...

  19. Invariant form of the flow curve PEVG relative to hydraulic radius of the channel

    OpenAIRE

    Сівецький, Володимир Іванович; Рябінін, Дмитро Дмитрович; Сокольський, Олександр Леонідович; Волинець, Віталій Миколайович

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic radius is used in hydraulics for estimation of resistance and calculation of nonround-form channels. The estimation of acceptability of use of hydraulic radius for calculation of non-Newtonian liquids flow in nonround-form channels and determination of their rheological characteristics was realized

  20. Radiographic diagnosis of scapholunate dissociation among intra-articular fractures of the distal radius: interobserver reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradl, Gertraud; Neuhaus, Valentin; Fuchsberger, Thomas; Guitton, Thierry G.; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Ring, David; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L.; Shafritz, Adam B.; Garcia, Aida E.; Caputo, Andrew E.; Terrono, Andrew L.; Spoor, Andy B.; Eschler, Anica; Vochteloo, Anne J. H.; Beumer, Annechien; Barquet, Antonio; Kristan, Anze; van der Zwan, Arnard L.; Berner, Arne; Ilyas, Asif; Jubel, Axel; Sutker, Ben; Nolan, Betsy M.; Petrisor, Brad; Cross, Brian J.; Wills, Brian P. D.; Barreto, Camilo J. R.; Fernandes, Carlos H.; Swigart, Carrie; Zalavras, Charalampos; Goldfarb, Charles A.; Cassidy, Charles; Eaton, Charles; Wilson, Chris; Cheng, Christine J.; Wall, Christopher J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Jones, Christopher M.; Garnavos, Christos; Klostermann, Cyrus; Kirkpatrick, D. Kay; Osei, Daniel A.; Rikli, Daniel A.; Wascher, Daniel C.; Polatsch, Daniel; Silva, Dario Mejia; Nelson, David L.; Kalainov, David M.; Ruchelsman, David; Hoffmann, David Victoria; Weiss, David; Eygendaal, Denise; van Deurzen, Derek F. P.; McKee, Desirae M.; Verbeek, Diederik O. F.; Hanel, Doug; Hutchinson, Douglas T.; Brilej, Drago; Harvey, Edward; Stojkovska Pemovska, Emilija; Calvo, Emilio; Hammerberg, Eric Mark; Hofmeister, Eric P.; Kaplan, F. Thomas D.; Suarez, Fabio; Beeres, Frank J. P.; Walter, Frank L.; Frykman, Gary K.; Pess, Gary M.; Kuzma, Gary R.; Dyer, George S. M.; Thomas, George; Kohut, Georges; Kraan, Gerald A.; DeSilva, Gregory; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Lob, Guenter; Gadbled, Guillaume; Bamberger, H. Brent; Mc Cutchan, Hal; Goost, Hans; Kreder, Hans J.; Grünwald, Heinz; Broekhuyse, Henry; Kimball, Hervey L.; Durchholz, Holger; van der Heide, Huub; McGraw, Iain; Choueka, Jack; Forigua, Jaime E.; Nappi, James F.; Reid, James G.; Kellam, James; Boler, James M.; Biert, Jan; Fanuele, Jason C.; Tavakolian, Jason D.; Jones, Jedediah; Johnson, Jeff W.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Murachovsky, Joel; Scheer, Johan H.; Rueger, Johannes M.; Erickson, John M.; McAuliffe, John; Boretto, Jorge G.; Rubio, Jorge; Ortiz, Jose A.; Ribeiro Filho, Jose Eduardo Grandi; Di Giovanni, José Fernando; Izzi, Joseph A.; Conflitti, Joseph M.; Abzug, Joshua M.; Cagnone, Juan Carlos; Adams, Julie; Chivers, Karel; Lee, Kendrick; Eng, Kevin; Malone, Kevin J.; Erol, Konul; Ponsen, Kornelis J.; Kabir, Koroush; Jeray, Kyle; Mica, Ladislav; Brunton, Lance M.; Adolfsson, Lars E.; Weiss, Lawrence; Katolik, Leonid; Paz, Lior; Poelhekke, Lodewijk M. S. J.; Escobar, Luis Felipe Naquira; Campinhos, Luiz Augusto B.; Abdel-Ghany, Mahmoud I.; Richard, Marc J. Richard; Swiontkowski, Marc; Rizzo, Marco; Pirpiris, Marinis; Boyer, Martin; Richardson, Martin; Kastelec, Matej; Turina, Matthias; Soong, Maximillian; Wood, Megan M.; Baskies, Michael; Behrman, Michael; Nancollas, Michael; Prayson, Michael; Quell, Michael; Verhofstad, Michael; Grafe, Michael W.; Kessler, Michael W.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van de Sande, Michiel A. J.; Mckee, Mike; Patel, Milan M.; Merchant, Milind; Tyllianakis, Minos; Wiegand, Mischa Ralph; Waseem, Mohammad; Parnes, Nata; Wilson, Neil; Elias, Nelson; Shortt, Nicholas L.; Schep, Niels; Semenkin, Oleg M.; Henry, Patrick D. G.; Martineau, Paul A.; Jebson, Peter; Kloen, Peter; Brink, Peter R. G.; Schandelmaier, Peter; Blazar, Philip; Streubel, Philipp N.; Vial, Philippe; Choudhari, Pradeep; Inna, Prashanth; Costanzo, Ralph M.; de Bedout, Ramon; Hauck, Randy; Smith, Raymond Malcolm; Fricker, Renato M.; Omid, Reza; Buckley, Richard; Jenkinson, Richard; Hutchison, Richard L.; GIlbert, Richard S.; Page, Richard S.; Nelissen, Rob; Haverlag, Robert; Wagenmakers, Robert; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Klinefelter, Ryan; Calfee, Ryan P.; Moghtaderi, Sam; Spruijt, Sander; Kakar, Sanjeev; Kaplan, Saul; Duncan, Scott F.; Mitchell, Scott; Rowinski, Sergio; Dodds, Seth; Kennedy, Stephen A.; Westly, Stephen K.; Kronlage, Steve; Beldner, Steven; McCabe, Steven J.; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Gosens, Taco; Baxamusa, Taizoon; Apard, Thomas; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Varecka, Thomas F.; Hughes, Thomas; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Pillukat, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Havenhill, Timothy G.; Omara, Timothy; Siff, Todd; Giordano, Vincenzo; Hammert, Warren C.; Satora, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of diagnosis of scapholunate dissociation (SLD) among AO type C (compression articular) fractures of the distal radius. A total of 217 surgeons evaluated 21 sets of radiographs with type C fractures of the distal radius for which the status of the

  1. Sistem Autentikasi Hotspot Menggunakan LDAP dan Radius pada Jaringan Internet Wireless Prodi Teknik Sistem Komputer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad Herdinal Muttaqin; Adian Fatchur Rochim; Eko Didik Widianto

    2016-01-01

    ... it’s need creating a security system with LDAP and RADIUS.The results of this study is a network authentication server using OpenLDAP and FreeRadius Hotspot that will be integrated with an account of Academic Information System, which is implemented on Prodi Computer Systems Engineering Department of the University of Diponegoro.

  2. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies : colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in

  3. Spitzer/IRAC view of Sh 2-284. Searching for evidence of triggered star formation in an isolated region in the outer Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puga, E.; Hony, S.; Neiner, C.; Lenorzer, A.; Hubert, A.M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Cusano, F.; Ripepi, V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Using Spitzer/IRAC observations of a region to be observed by the CoRoT satellite, we have unraveled a new complex star-forming region at low metallicity in the outer Galaxy. We perform a study of S284 in order to outline the chain of events in this star-forming region. Methods. We used

  4. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Müller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs / trans-Neptunian population. Methods: Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for

  5. "TNOs are Cool" : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Mueller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    Aims. The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs/trans-Neptunian population. Methods. Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for the

  6. Search for rings and satellites around the exoplanet CoRoT-9b using Spitzer photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Hébrard, G.; Blandin, S.; Cassier, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Désert, J.-M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Moutou, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2017-07-01

    Using Spitzer photometry at 4.5 microns, we search for rings and satellites around the long period transiting planet CoRoT-9b. We observed two transits in 2010 and 2011. From their non-detection, we derive upper limits on the plausible physical characteristics of these objects in the planet environment. We show that a satellite larger than about 2.5 Earth radii is excluded at 3σ for a wide range of elongations at the two epochs of observations. Combining the two observations, we conclude that rings are excluded for a wide variety of sizes and inclination. We find that for a ring extending up to the Roche limit, its inclination angle from the edge-on configuration as seen from the Earth must be lower than 13° in the case of silicate composition and lower than 3° in the case of material with water ice density.

  7. Vertical profiles of droplet effective radius in shallow convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional satellite retrievals can only provide information on cloud-top droplet effective radius (re. Given the fact that cloud ensembles in a satellite snapshot have different cloud-top heights, Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 used the cloud-top height and the corresponding cloud-top re from the cloud ensembles in the snapshot to construct a profile of re representative of that in the individual clouds. This study investigates the robustness of this approach in shallow convective clouds based on results from large-eddy simulations (LES for clean (aerosol mixing ratio Na = 25 mg−1, intermediate (Na = 100 mg−1, and polluted (Na = 2000 mg−1 conditions. The cloud-top height and the cloud-top re from the modeled cloud ensembles are used to form a constructed re profile, which is then compared to the in-cloud re profiles. For the polluted and intermediate cases where precipitation is negligible, the constructed re profiles represent the in-cloud re profiles fairly well with a low bias (about 10 %. The method used in Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 is therefore validated for nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds. For the clean, drizzling case, the in-cloud re can be very large and highly variable, and quantitative profiling based on cloud-top re is less useful. The differences in re profiles between clean and polluted conditions derived in this manner are however, distinct. This study also investigates the subadiabatic characteristics of the simulated cumulus clouds to reveal the effect of mixing on re and its evolution. Results indicate that as polluted and moderately polluted clouds develop into their decaying stage, the subadiabatic fraction

  8. [Wrist X ray for analysis of the articular surface of distal radius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Amador, E; Penagos, R; Pinilla, E

    2016-01-01

    In the distal radius fracture requires radiographic views that allow you to see the articular surface without interposition. The objective was to determine whether lateral radiographic projections 7 and 22° improve the analysis of this surface. Case series study with radiographs of healthy and operated patients, in order to identify the lunate and scaphoid facets in lateral and anteroposterior projections. Qualitative analysis was made on the radiographs of the distal radius with wedges of 7 and 22° in the lateral views and 11° in the anteroposterior view. There were evaluated 14 radiographs of the distal radius of healthy volunteers and 10 patients with distal radius fractures who recieved surgery with internal fixation, and also two anatomical models. In 14 healthy and 10 patients, it was found that the views at 7 and 22° can be better appreciated radio lunate and radio scaphoid surface respectively, observing images with less overlapping in the radiograph of 22° in both groups. Radiographic views are important to determine the immediate results of fixation on a distal radius fracture. We observe that the lateral view at 7° is better to show the screws on the lunate facet of the radius. The lateral view at 22° is better to show the facet of the radius with the scaphoid. Finally, the anteroposterior projection at 11° allows us to see the radio carpal joint with lower image overlay.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.

  10. The effect of distal radius locking plates on articular contact pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew H; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; O'Toole, Robert V; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common injuries treated in hand surgery practice, and distal radius locking plates have become an increasingly popular method of fixation. Despite widespread use of this technology, it is unknown whether the subchondral placement of locking screws affects the loading profile of the distal radius. Our study was designed to determine whether subchondral locking screws change the articular contact pressures in the distal radius. Twelve cadaveric forearms underwent a previously described axial loading protocol in a materials testing machine. We used an intra-articular, real-time computerized force sensor to measure peak contact pressure, total pressure, and contact area in the distal radius. Internal validation of sensor placement and reproducibility was conducted. Each specimen was tested before fixation (control), after application of a palmar distal radius locking plate, and after simulation of a metaphyseal fracture. We identified no statistically significant differences in maximum pressure, total pressure, and contact area among control, plated, and plated and fractured specimens. However, the contact footprint-represented by squared differences in force across the sensor-were significantly different between the control group and both plated groups. The technique for measuring contact pressures produces highly repeatable values. Distal radius locking plates with subchondral hardware placement do not seem to significantly change articular contact pressures. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Finite Larmor radius effects on test particle transport in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, J. M.; Hnat, B.; Dendy, R. O.

    2010-02-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius on the transport of passive charged test particles moving in turbulent electrostatic fields is investigated. The turbulent field is governed by a flexible model which is able to produce turbulence where zonal flows are damped or free to self-generate. A subtle interplay between trapping in small scale vortices and entrainment in larger scale zonal flows determines the rate, character and Larmor radius dependence of the test particle transport. When zonal flows are damped, the transport is classically diffusive, with Gaussian statistics, and the rate of transport decreases with increasing Larmor radius. Once the Larmor radius is larger than the typical radius of the turbulent vortices, the rate of transport remains roughly constant. When zonal flows are allowed non-Gaussian statistics are observed. Radial transport (across the zones) is subdiffusive and decreases with the Larmor radius at a slower rate. Poloidal transport (along the zones), however, is superdiffusive and increases with small values of the Larmor radius.

  12. Finite Larmor radius effects on test particle transport in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewhurst, J M; Hnat, B; Dendy, R O, E-mail: j.m.dewhurst@warwick.ac.u [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of finite Larmor radius on the transport of passive charged test particles moving in turbulent electrostatic fields is investigated. The turbulent field is governed by a flexible model which is able to produce turbulence where zonal flows are damped or free to self-generate. A subtle interplay between trapping in small scale vortices and entrainment in larger scale zonal flows determines the rate, character and Larmor radius dependence of the test particle transport. When zonal flows are damped, the transport is classically diffusive, with Gaussian statistics, and the rate of transport decreases with increasing Larmor radius. Once the Larmor radius is larger than the typical radius of the turbulent vortices, the rate of transport remains roughly constant. When zonal flows are allowed non-Gaussian statistics are observed. Radial transport (across the zones) is subdiffusive and decreases with the Larmor radius at a slower rate. Poloidal transport (along the zones), however, is superdiffusive and increases with small values of the Larmor radius.

  13. RESOLVING THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND HOST EMISSION IN THE MID-INFRARED USING A MODEL-INDEPENDENT SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005, Santander (Spain); Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Spoon, Henrik W. W. [Cornell University, CRSR, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Santos, Tanio Díaz [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO18 1BJ (United Kingdom); González-Martín, Omaira [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (CRyA-UNAM), 3-72 (Xangari), 8701, Morelia (Mexico); Esquej, Pilar, E-mail: ahernan@ifca.unican.es [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at http://denebola.org/ahc/deblendIRS.

  14. CORS Baade-Wesselink method in the Walraven photometric system: the period-radius and the period-luminosity relation of classical Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, R.; Ripepi, V.; Marconi, M.; Bono, G.; Lub, J.; Pedicelli, S.; Pel, J. W.

    2011-05-01

    We present a new derivation of the CORS Baade-Wesselink method in the Walraven photometric system. We solved the complete Baade-Wesselink equation by calibrating the surface brightness function with a recent grid of atmosphere models. The new approach was adopted to estimate the mean radii of a sample of Galactic Cepheids for which are available precise light curves in the Walraven bands. Current radii agree, within the errors, quite well with Cepheid radii based on recent optical and near-infrared interferometric measurements. We also tested the impact of the projection factor on the period-radius relation using two different values (p= 1.36, 1.27) that bracket the estimates available in the literature. We found that the agreement of our period-radius relation with similar empirical and theoretical period-radius relations in the recent literature improves by changing the projection factor from p= 1.36 to 1.27. Our period-radius relation is log R= (0.75 ± 0.03)log P+ (1.10 ± 0.03), with an rms = 0.03 dex. Thanks to accurate estimates of the effective temperature of the selected Cepheids, we also derived the period-luminosity relation in the V band and we found MV= (-2.78 ± 0.11)log P+ (-1.42 ± 0.11) with rms = 0.13 mag, for p= 1.27. It agrees quite well with recent results in the literature, while the relation for p= 1.36 deviates by more than 2σ. We conclude that, even taking into account the intrinsic dispersion of the obtained period-luminosity relations that is roughly of the same order of magnitude as the effect of the projection factor, the results of this paper seem to favour the value p= 1.27.

  15. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  16. Use of High-Speed X ray and Video to Analyze Distal Radius Fracture Pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Christina; Darvish, Kurosh; Liss, Frederic E; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the failure sequence of the distal radius during a simulated fall onto an outstretched hand using cadaver forearms and high-speed X ray and video systems. This apparatus records the beginning and propagation of bony failure, ultimately resulting in distal radius or forearm fracture. The effects of 3 different wrist guard designs are investigated using this system. Serving as a proof-of-concept analysis, this study supports this imaging technique to be used in larger studies of orthopedic trauma and protective devices and specifically for distal radius fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandra, Varun Sharma; Kotha, Krishna Mohan Reddy; Satyanarayana, Moorthy Gadisetti Venkata; Vadlamani, Kali Varaprasad; Yerravalli, Vyjayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge.

  18. The Effect of Osteoporosis on Healing of Distal Radius Fragility Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Jacob; Jones, Christopher M; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-10-01

    Although the decision for operative versus nonoperative treatment of distal radius fractures remains subjective and is performed on a case-by-case basis, evaluation and treatment of patients with concomitant osteoporosis requires understanding of the behavior of this injury as a distinct subset of distal radius fractures. Age, infirmity, and osteoporosis affect every aspect of the fracture. Understanding what makes these fractures unique assists surgeons in more effective and efficient treatment. The authors present the current understanding of osteoporotic fragility fractures of the distal radius, focusing on epidemiology, biomechanics of bone healing, and its implication on strategies for management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumour (GCT is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge.

  20. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.

  1. [Descriptive, radiographic, topographic and functional anatomy applied to distal radius fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, C; Bry, R; Laronde, P; Guerre, E; Aumar, A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive anatomical knowledge is needed in order to correctly treat distal radius fractures: normal and pathological osteology of the distal radius, distal radio-ulnar joint and radiocarpal joint-both on the descriptive and functional level-the neurovascular and muscular environments of the distal radius-which are essential to the surgical approaches-and the angles that need to be restored during the reduction. All of these concepts are broached in this article. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization research of sextant fan baffle curvature radius in shell and tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M.; Liu, H. J.; Wang, X. Y.

    2017-09-01

    For a high shell side pressure drop of the conventional segmental baffles in shell and tube heat exchanger, a novel sextant fan baffle was put forward. To research the influence of baffle curvature radius of the sextant fan baffled shell and tube heat exchanger (SFTHX) on the shell side pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient and the comprehensive heat transfer performance, six different curvature radius baffles were numerically simulated and experimental studied in this paper. Based on the numerically simulation results, under the same inlet flow conditions, a better comprehensive heat transfer performance can be found in SFTHX with the baffle curvature radius of 1 D, which is higher by 0.84-6.85% more than that of the others. Moreover, the experimental investigation data of SFTHX with baffle curvature radius of 1 D indicates that the numerically simulation can well predict the flow and heat transfer characteristics with the experiment.

  3. Use of a Distal Radius Endoprosthesis Following Resection of a Bone Tumour: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan Gokaraju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited literature is available on the reconstruction of the distal radius using prosthetic replacement following resection of a bone tumour. We present the first reported case, in the English literature, of the use of an entirely metal endoprosthesis for the reconstruction of the distal radius. This case involves a 66-year-old male who was treated for giant cell tumour of the distal radius with surgical excision of the lesion and replacement of the defect using a predominantly titanium endoprosthesis. He was followed-up for 56 months following surgery and had a good functional outcome with no associated pain or complications. We propose that the use of a primarily titanium endoprosthesis for the reconstruction of a bone defect of the distal radius is a suitable alternative, providing good function of the forearm with satisfactory range of movement at the wrist and adequate pain relief.

  4. Measurement to radius of Newton’s ring fringes using polar coordinate transform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Ping; Bai, Fu-zhong; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Xiao-juan; Wang, Xiao-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Newton’s ring method is often used to measure many physical parameters. And some measured physical quantity can be extracted by calculating the radius parameter of circular fringes from Newton's ring...

  5. MODIS/Terra Granule Level 2 Cloud Effective Particle Radius Jpeg image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Jpeg image product generated from MODIS Level 2 Cloud product (MOD06_L2) using EFFECTIVE_PARTICLE_RADIUS parameter. For more information about the product...

  6. Nonlinear dynamics for estimating the tip radius in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull Trinidad, E.; Gribnau, T. W.; Belardinelli, P.; Staufer, U.; Alijani, F.

    2017-09-01

    The accuracy of measurements in Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is directly related to the geometry of the tip. The AFM tip is characterized by its radius of curvature, which could suffer from alterations due to repetitive mechanical contact with the surface. An estimation of the tip change would allow the user to assess the quality during imaging. In this work, we introduce a method for tip radius evaluation based on the nonlinear dynamic response of the AFM cantilever. A nonlinear fitting procedure is used to match several curves with softening nonlinearity in the noncontact regime. By performing measurements in this regime, we are able to maximize the influence of the tip radius on the AFM probe response, and this can be exploited to estimate with good accuracy the AFM tip radius.

  7. 33% radius evaluation to assess bone mineral density in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Planas, Jacques; Mir, Maria Carmen; Raventós, Carles X; Encabo, Gloria; Doll, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the standard method to assess bone mineral density (BMD). The International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends the measurement of BMD at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but in certain circumstances the 33% radius may be the recommended area to measure BMD. The aim of this study has been to analyze whether 33% radius should be considered the recommended area to assess BMD in prostate cancer patients. This is a retrospective study where BMD was assessed by DXA at 33% radius, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck (cDXA) in 141 prostate cancer patients. Twenty-eight patients were hormone naïve while 113 were subjected to androgen suppression (AS) during the mean period of 29 months. Osteoporosis was diagnosed when T-score was lower than -2.5 and osteopenia when it ranged between -1 and -2.5. The osteoporosis rate was 29.8% at 33% radius, 23.4% at femoral neck, 19.9% at lumbar spine, and 12.8% at total hip. The overall osteoporosis rate at cDXA was 29.1%. Osteoporosis was detected in 52.2% at 33% radius and 36.2% at cDXA. Normal BMD was found in 17.7% at 33% radius and 34.8% at cDXA. The 33% radius was the only site where a significant increase in the osteoporosis rate was detected in patients subjected to AS compared to those hormone naïve (33 and 13.8%). The 33% radius seems more sensible than the central skeleton areas to detect bone mass loss in patients with prostate cancer.

  8. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Tandra, Varun Sharma; Kotha, Krishna Mohan Reddy; Satyanarayana, Moorthy Gadisetti Venkata; Vadlamani, Kali Varaprasad; Yerravalli, Vyjayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multic...

  9. "Osteoporosis and orthopods" incidences of osteoporosis in distal radius fracture from low energy trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bahari, Syah

    2007-07-01

    Fracture of the distal radius from low energy trauma is a common presentation to orthopaedic trauma services. This fragility type fracture is associated with underlying osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a \\'silent disease\\' where fragility fracture is a common presentation. Orthopaedic surgeons may be the only physician that these patients encounter. We found a high percentage of female patients who sustained a fragility fracture of the distal radius have an underlying osteoporosis. Further management of osteoporosis is important to prevent future fragility fractures.

  10. Effect of Cell-seeded Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds on Rabbit Radius Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-22

    Effect of cell-seeded hydroxyapatite scaffolds on rabbit radius bone regeneration C. R. Rathbone,1 T. Guda,1,2 B. M. Singleton,2 D. S. Oh,2,3 M. R...Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34834 Abstract: Highly porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were developed as bone graft substitutes...Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 1458– 1466, 2014. Key Words: hydroxyapatite , rabbit radius, mesenchymal stem cells, bone, callus

  11. Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the rest mass and the effective radius are deduced for the Z boson and the experimentally discovered Higgs-like boson, in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic (RQED theory. The latter forms an alternative to the Standard Model of elementary particles. This results in an effective radius of the order of 10 E-18 m for a rest mass of 125 GeV.

  12. Critical loss radius in a Penning trap subject to multipole fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fajans, J; Robicheaux, F

    2008-01-01

    When particles in a Penning trap are subject to a magnetic multipole field, those beyond a critical radius will be lost. The critical radius depends on the history by which the field is applied, and can be much smaller if the particles are injected into a preexisting multipole than if the particles are subject to a ramped multipole. Both cases are relevant to ongoing experiments designed to trap antihydrogen.

  13. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A rare manifestation of distal radius osteoid osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basran, Sukhvinder Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Jameel, Javed; Sajid, Imran

    2015-09-01

    Osteoid Osteoma is a benign bone tumor that normally affects long bones and rarely affects distal radius. Because of its nonspecific presentation in the wrist, it remains a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of Osteoid Osteoma at distal radius having symptoms resembling that of carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively with X-rays; bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI, later histological examination confirmed the diagnoses. Surgical excision lead to a dramatic improvement in the condition of the patient.

  14. [Continuous skeletal traction in multifragmentary fractures of radius and ulna combined with cast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Serna, Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    Fractures of the distal third of the radius are frequently encountered in emergency services. Until recently considered as benign, however, they represent a group of numerous therapeutic problems, as debated in anatomical, radiological and clinical studies. To emphasize the importance of recovering the radial distance and the articular congruence in fractures of radius treated with a cast. To demonstrate that ligamentotaxis obtained with the application of the Cole-Obletz technique is a good method for treatment of distal radius fractures that have a component of impaction, extra or intra-articular lesion, a combination of both. A retrospective study was realized on 10 patients with fractures of the distal radius, between February 2005 and February 2006, including adult patients of both genders. All patients received the Cole-Obletz method and were evaluated by antero-posterior and lateral wrist simple X-rays. According to Frykman classification, we compaired results in the immediate post-reduction X-rays with the results obtained at one month of treatment. Three different radiographic measures were evaluated: radius distance, inclination and volar tilt of the radius. We evaluated a group of 10 patients (80% female), with mean age of 52 years-old (24-79). Thirty percent of the patients (30%) presented a type VIII fracture, fourty percent a type VII fracture, and one patient for types V, IV, and II fractures, respectively. Articular congruence was achieved in the 80% of patients until full consolidation, in 10% of the patients only a 50% of radius distance was completed. In a patient anatomic reduction was lost on day eight. Treatment of complex distal radius fractures with plates and screws for maintaining anatomic reduction are not applicable in our socioeconomic context. This study was aimed to prove that the Cole-Obletz method permits to maintain adequate reduction, it is reproducible, and is achievable at low costs.

  15. A DiPS+ case study: a self-healing RADIUS server

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Desmet, Lieven; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This report shows performance results of a RADIUS implementation using the DiPS+ software architecture. In addition it compares this implementation with a commercially available RADIUS implementation, and shows that the DiPS+ architecture differentiates between user types and request types. In fact, the DiPS+ prototype prioritizes incoming traffic based on application-specifc preferences, and allocates the available processing resources to the highest priority requests.

  16. Comparison of long-term trend of solar radius with sunspot activity and flare index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, H.; Golbasi, O.

    2011-07-01

    Results are presented from a study of solar radius measurements taken with the solar astrolabe at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) over seven years, 2001-2007. The data series with standard deviation of 0.35 arcsec shows the long-term variational trend with 0.04 arcsec/year. On the other hand, the data series of solar radius are compared with the data of sunspot activity and H- α flare index for the same period. Over the seven year trend, we have found significant linear anti-correlations between the solar radius and other indicators such as sunspot numbers, sunspot areas, and H- α flare index. While the solar radius displays the strongest anti-correlation (-0.7676) with sunspot numbers, it shows a significant anti-correlation of -0.6365 with sunspot areas. But, the anti-correlation between the solar radius and H- α flare index is found to be -0.4975, slightly lower than others. In addition, we computed Hurst exponent of the data sets ranging between 0.7214 and 0.7996, exhibiting the persistent behavior for the long term trend. In the light of the strong correlations with high significance, we may suggest that there are a causal relationship between the solar radius and solar time series such as sunspot activity and H- α flare index.

  17. The Effect of Pulse Length and Ejector Radius on Unsteady Ejector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The thrust augmentation of a set of ejectors driven by a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube has been measured at four different frequencies. Each frequency corresponded to a different length to diameter ratio of the pulse of air leaving the driver shroud. Two of the frequencies had length to diameter ratios below the formation number, and two above. The formation number is the value of length to diameter ratio below which the pulse converts to a vortex ring only, and above which the pulse becomes a vortex ring plus a trailing jet. A three level, three parameter Box-Behnken statistical design of experiment scheme was performed at each frequency, measuring the thrust augmentation generated by the appropriate ejectors from the set. The three parameters were ejector length, radius, and inlet radius. The results showed that there is an optimum ejector radius and length at each frequency. Using a polynomial fit to the data, the results were interpolated to different ejector radii and pulse length to diameter ratios. This showed that a peak in thrust augmentation occurs when the pulse length to diameter ratio equals the formation number, and that the optimum ejector radius is 0.87 times the sum of the vortex ring radius and the core radius.

  18. Psychometric evaluation of a brazilian portuguese version of the spitzer quality of life index in patients with low back pain Evaluación de las calidades psicométricas de una versión brasileña del spitzer quality of life index en pacientes con dolor lumbar Avaliação das qualidades psicométricas de uma versão brasileira do spitzer quality of life index em pacientes com dor lombar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt the Spitzer Quality of Life Index and evaluate its reliability in patients with low back pain. The following steps were followed: translation, back-translation, evaluation by a committee, and pretest. The reliability was estimated through stability and homogeneity assessment. The validity was tested comparing scores of the Spitzer (QLI with the SF-36 and the Roland-Morris. The psychometric properties were evaluated by the self-application on 120 patients. Results showed that the Cronbach's Alpha was 0.77. Intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.960 (pEste estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la adaptación cultural del Spitzer Quality of Life Index y evaluar su confiabilidad en pacientes portadores de dolor lumbar crónico. Se siguieron las siguientes etapas: traducción, retrotraducción, evaluación por un comité y pre-prueba. La validez fue obtenida por medio de la correlación entre los puntajes del Spitzer (QLI, del SF-36 y del Roland-Morris. Las propiedades psicométricas fueron evaluadas en 120 pacientes. Los resultados demostraron un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach=0,77. En una nueva pre-prueba, se encontró un coeficiente de correlación intraclases ICC=0,960 (pEste estudo teve como objetivo realizar a adaptação cultural do Spitzer Quality of Life Index, e avaliar sua confiabilidade em pacientes portadores de dor lombar crônica. Foram seguidas as seguintes etapas: tradução, retro-tradução, avaliação por um comitê e pré-teste. A confiabilidade foi avaliada por meio da consistência interna e da estabilidade. A validade foi obtida por meio da correlação entre os escores do Spitzer (QLI, do SF-36 e do Roland-Morris. As propriedades psicométricas foram avaliadas em 120 pacientes. Os resultados demonstraram coeficiente alfa de Cronbach=0,77. No teste-reteste, encontrou-se coeficiente de correlação intraclasse ICC=0,960 (p<0,001; IC 95%: 0,943; 0,972. Coeficiente

  19. The Geometry of the Infrared and X-Ray Obscurer in a Dusty Hyperluminous Quasar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrah, Duncan; Baloković, Mislav; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscurer in IRAS 09104+4109, an IR-luminous, radio-intermediate FR-I source at z = 0.442, using infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, X-ray data from NuSTAR, Swift, Suzaku, and Chandra, and an optical spectrum from Palomar. The infrared...... has a star formation rate of (110 ± 34) M ⊙ yr−1 and an age of X-ray data suggest a photon index of Γ sime 1.8 and a line-of-sight column density of N H...... sime 5 × 1023 cm−2. This argues against a reflection-dominated hard X-ray spectrum, which would have implied a much higher N H and luminosity. The X-ray and infrared data are consistent with a bolometric AGN luminosity of L bol ~ (0.5–2.5) × 1047 erg s−1. The X-ray and infrared data are further...

  20. AKARI OBSERVATION OF THE SUB-DEGREE SCALE FLUCTUATION OF THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, H. J.; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Matsumoto, T. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Jeong, W.-S.; Pyo, J., E-mail: hjseo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-10

    We report spatial fluctuation analysis of the sky brightness in the near-infrared from observations toward the north ecliptic pole (NEP) by the AKARI at 2.4 and 3.2 μm. As a follow-up study of our previous work on the Monitor field of AKARI, we used NEP deep survey data, which covered a circular area of about 0.4 square degrees, in order to extend fluctuation analysis at angular scales up to 1000″. We found residual fluctuation over the estimated shot noise at larger angles than the angular scale of the Monitor field. The excess fluctuation of the NEP deep field smoothly connects with that of the Monitor field at angular scales of a few hundred arcseconds and extends without any significant variation to larger angular scales up to 1000″. By comparing excess fluctuations at two wavelengths, we confirm a blue spectral feature similar to the result of the Monitor field. We find that the result of this study is consistent with Spitzer Space Telescope observations at 3.6 μm. The origin of the excess fluctuation in the near-infrared background remains to be determined, but we could exclude zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light, and unresolved faint galaxies at low redshift based on the comparison with mid- and far-infrared brightness, ground-based near-infrared images.

  1. NGC 6334 V revisited: The complex nature of the infrared nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, M.; Persi, P.; Roth, M.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of the most recent infrared observations of the small, very young and enigmatic infrared nebula associated with NGC 6334-V. We re-analized images from the Spitzer/IRAC (3.6 a 8 μm), Herschel/SPIRE/PACS (70 a 500 μm), VISTA (1.2 a 2.2 μm), VLT/VISIR (11.3 a 18.7 μm) and HST/NICMOS (2.0 μm) archives. The very high spatial resolution from the latter two sets, combined with very recent sub-millimetre maps, allow us to suggest several possible star-formation scenarios that explain the observed infrared and radio properties of the region. Evidence is provided of the presence of a small population of low and medium-mass young stars embedded in the infrared reflection nebulosity NGC 6334 V that coexist with the nearby much younger Class 0 protostars.

  2. Searching For Infrared Excesses Around White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb Wilson, Elin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Debes, John H.; Stark, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Many WDs have been found to be “polluted,” meaning they contain heavier elements in their atmospheres. Either an active process that counters gravitational settling is taking place, or an external mechanism is the cause. One proposed external mechanism for atmospheric pollution of WDs is the disintegration and accretion of rocky bodies, which would result in a circumstellar (CS) disk. As CS disks are heated, they emit excess infrared (IR) emission. WDs with IR excesses indicative of a CS disk are known as dusty WDs. Statistical studies are still needed to determine how numerous dusty, polluted WDs are, along with trends and correlations regarding rate of planetary accretion, the lifetimes of CS disks, and the structure and evolution of CS disks. These findings will allow for a better understanding of the fates of planets along with potential habitability of surviving planets.In this work, we are trying to confirm IR excesses around a sample of 69 WD stars selected as part of the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey (Debes et al. 2011). We have archival data from WISE, Spitzer, 2MASS, DENIS, and SDSS. The targets were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and identified as containing IR excesses based on WISE data. We also have data from the Four Star Infrared Camera array, which is part of Carnegie Institution’s Magellan 6.5 meter Baade Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. These Four Star data are much higher spatial resolution than the WISE data that were used to determine if each WD has an IR excess. There are often not many bands delineating the IR excess portion of the SED; therefore, we are using the Four Star data to check if there is another source in the WISE beam affecting the IR excess.

  3. Infrared Solar Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Penn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The infrared solar spectrum contains a wealth of physical data about our Sun, and is explored using modern detectors and technology with new ground-based solar telescopes. The scientific motivation behind exploring these wavelengths is presented, along with a brief look at the rich history of observations here. Several avenues of solar physics research exploiting and benefiting from observations at infrared wavelengths from roughly 1000 nm to 12 400 nm are discussed, and the instrument and detector technology driving this research is briefly summarized. Finally, goals for future work at infrared wavelengths are presented in conjunction with ground and space-based observations.

  4. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Showman, Adam P.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y. Katherina

    2017-02-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet’s highly irradiated dayside to its eternally dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a positive correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b (P = 0.813 days) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The first 3.6 μm visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our cloud-free atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day-night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within the planet’s cool, nearly retrograde mid-latitude flows before dispersing across its nightside at high altitudes. Since mid-latitude flows only materialize in fast-rotating (≲ 1 day) planets, this may explain an observed trend connecting measured day-night contrast with planet rotation rate that matches all current Spitzer phase curve results. Combining independent planetary emission measurements from multiple phases, we obtain a precise dayside hemisphere H2O abundance (2.5× {10}-5{--}1.1× {10}-4 at 1σ confidence) and, assuming chemical equilibrium and a scaled solar abundance pattern, we derive a corresponding metallicity estimate that is consistent with being solar (0.4-1.7). Using the retrieved global CO+CO2 abundance under the same assumptions, we estimate a comparable metallicity of 0.3-1.7× solar. This is the first time that precise abundance and metallicity constraints have been determined from multiple molecular

  5. Spherical warm shield design for infrared imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-09-01

    The F-number matching is the primary means to suppress stray radiation for infrared imaging systems. However, it is difficult to achieve exact F-number matching, owing to the restriction from detectors, or multiple F-number design. Hence, an additional shield is required to block the certain thermal radiation. Typical shield is called flat warm shield, which is flat and operates at room temperature. For flat warm shield, it cannot suppress stray radiation while achieving F-number matching. To overcome the restriction, a spherical reflective warm shield is required. First of all, the detailed theory of spherical warm shield design is developed on basis of the principle that stray radiation cannot directly reach the infrared focal plane array. According to the theory developed above, a polished spherical warm shield, whose radius is 18 mm, is designed to match an F/2 infrared detector with an F/4 infrared imaging system. Then, the performance and alignment errors of the designed spherical warm shield are analyzed by simulation. Finally, a contrast experiment between the designed spherical warm shield and two differently processed flat warm shields is performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the designed spherical warm shield cannot only achieve F-number matching but suppress stray radiation sufficiently. Besides, it is demonstrated that the theory of spherical warm shield design developed in this paper is valid and can be employed by arbitrary infrared imaging systems.

  6. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  7. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of the Dense, Modestly-irradiated, Giant Exoplanet HAT-P-20b Using Pixel-level Decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather; Kammer, Joshua; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Ingalls, James; Carey, Sean; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Todorov, Kamen; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fraine, Jonathan; Langton, Jonathan; Morley, Caroline; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-06-01

    HAT-P-20b is a giant metal-rich exoplanet orbiting a metal-rich star. We analyze two secondary eclipses of the planet in each of the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands of Warm Spitzer. We have developed a simple, powerful, and radically different method to correct the intra-pixel effect for Warm Spitzer data, which we call pixel-level decorrelation (PLD). PLD corrects the intra-pixel effect very effectively, but without explicitly using—or even measuring—the fluctuations in the apparent position of the stellar image. We illustrate and validate PLD using synthetic and real data and comparing the results to previous analyses. PLD can significantly reduce or eliminate red noise in Spitzer secondary eclipse photometry, even for eclipses that have proven to be intractable using other methods. Our successful PLD analysis of four HAT-P-20b eclipses shows a best-fit blackbody temperature of 1134 ± 29 K, indicating inefficient longitudinal transfer of heat, but lacking evidence for strong molecular absorption. We find sufficient evidence for variability in the 4.5 μm band that the eclipses should be monitored at that wavelength by Spitzer, and this planet should be a high priority for James Webb Space Telescope spectroscopy. All four eclipses occur about 35 minutes after orbital phase 0.5, indicating a slightly eccentric orbit. A joint fit of the eclipse and transit times with extant RV data yields ecos ω =0.01352-0.00057+0.00054 and establishes the small eccentricity of the orbit to high statistical confidence. HAT-P-20b is another excellent candidate for orbital evolution via Kozai migration or other three-body mechanisms.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  9. Abnormal microarchitecture and reduced stiffness at the radius and tibia in postmenopausal women with fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Liu, X Sherry; Nickolas, Thomas L; Cohen, Adi; Thomas, Valerie; McMahon, Donald J; Zhang, Chiyuan; Yin, Perry T; Cosman, Felicia; Nieves, Jeri; Guo, X Edward; Shane, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to predict fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) yields additional information about volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and strength that may increase understanding of fracture susceptibility. Women with (n = 68) and without (n = 101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA and trabecular and cortical vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia measured by HR-pQCT. Finite-element analysis (FEA) of HR-pQCT scans was performed to estimate bone stiffness. DXA T-scores were similar in women with and without fracture at the spine, hip, and one-third radius but lower in patients with fracture at the ultradistal radius (p radius fracture, patients had lower total density, cortical thickness, trabecular density, number, thickness, higher trabecular separation and network heterogeneity (p radius than at the tibia for inner trabecular density, number, trabecular separation, and network heterogeneity (p radius (41% to 44%) than at the tibia (15% to 20%). Women with fractures had reduced vBMD, microarchitectural deterioration, and decreased strength. These differences were more prominent at the radius than at the tibia. HR-pQCT and FEA measurements of peripheral sites are associated with fracture prevalence and may increase understanding of the role of microarchitectural deterioration in fracture susceptibility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Economic Analysis of Bisphosphonate Use after Distal Radius Fracture for Prevention of Hip Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel B. Bhat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a common condition among the elderly population, and is associated with an increased risk of fracture. One of the most common fragility fractures involve the distal radius, and are associated with risk of subsequent fragility fracture. Early treatment with bisphosphonates has been suggested to decrease the population hip fracture burden. However, there have been no prior economic evaluations of the routine treatment of distal radius fracture patients with bisphosphonates, or the implications on hip fracture rate reduction. Methods: Age specific distal radius fracture incidence, age specific hip fracture rates after distal radius fracture with and without risendronate treatment, cost of risendronate treatment, risk of atypical femur fracture with bisphosphonate treatment, and cost of hip fracture treatment were obtained from the literature. A unique stochastic Markov chain decision tree model was constructed from derived estimates. The results were evaluated with comparative statistics, and a one-way threshold analysis performed to identify the break-even cost of bisphosphonate treatment. Results: Routine treatment of the current population of all women over the age of 65 suffering a distal radius fracture with bisphosphonates would avoid 94,888 lifetime hip fractures at the cost of 19,464 atypical femur fractures and $19,502,834,240, or on average $2,186,617,527 annually, which translates to costs of $205,534 per hip fracture avoided. The breakeven price point of annual bisphosphonate therapy after distal radius fracture for prevention of hip fractures would be approximately $70 for therapy annually. Conclusion: Routine treatment of all women over 65 suffering distal radius fracture with bisphosphonates would result in a significant reduction in the overall hip fracture burden, however at a substantial cost of over a $2 billion dollars annually. To optimize efficiency of treatment either patients may be selectively

  11. Tolerance on sphere radius for the calibration of the transfer function of coherence scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rong; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Wang, Yuhang; Leach, Richard K.

    2017-06-01

    Although coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) commonly achieves a sub-nanometre noise level in surface topography measurement, the absolute accuracy is difficult to determine when measuring a surface that contains varying local slope angles and curvatures. Recent research has shown that it is possible to use a single sphere with a radius much greater than the source wavelength to calibrate the three-dimensional transfer function of a CSI system. A major requirement is the accurate knowledge of the sphere radius, but the three-dimensional measurement of a sphere with nanometre level uncertainty is a highly challenging metrology problem, and is not currently feasible. Perfect spheres do not exist and every measurement has uncertainty. Without having a quantitative understanding of the tolerance of the sphere radius, the calibration method cannot be used confidently for calibration of the transfer function of a CSI system that may be used in research laboratories or industry. In this paper, the effects of the tolerance of the radius of the calibration sphere on surface topography measurements are quantitatively analysed through a computational approach. CSI measurements of spherical, sinusoidal and rough surfaces are investigated in the presence of various degrees of radius error. A lookup table that relates the surface height error as a function of the radius error and surface slope angle is provided. The users may estimate the required tolerances of the sphere radius for their specific surface measurements if this calibration approach is used. The output of this paper provides a feasibility analysis for this calibration method for further development and applications.

  12. Biomechanical properties of fixed-angle volar distal radius plates under dynamic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, William J; Nassab, Paul F; Burgess, Kraig M; Postak, Paul D; Evans, Peter J; Seitz, William H; Greenwald, A Seth; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the biomechanical properties of 8 different locked fixed-angle volar distal radius plates under conditions designed to reflect forces seen in early fracture healing and postoperative rehabilitation. We evaluated the Acumed Acu-Loc (Acumed, Hillsboro, OR), Hand Innovations DVR (Hand Innovations, Miami, FL), SBi SCS volar distal radial plate (Small Bone Innovations, Morrisville, PA), Synthes volar distal radius plate and EA extra-articular volar distal radius plate (Synthes, Paoli, PA), Stryker Matrix-SmartLock (Stryker Leibinger, Kalamazoo, MI), Wright Medical Technology Locon VLS (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN), and Zimmer periarticular distal radius locking plate (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN). After affixing each plate to a synthetic corticocancellous radius, we created a standardized dorsal wedge osteotomy. Each construct had cyclic loading of 100 N, 200 N, and 300 N for a total of 6000 cycles. Outcomes, including load deformation curves, displacement, and ultimate yield strengths, were collected for each construct. The Wright plate was significantly stiffer at the 100 N load than the Zimmer plate and was stiffer at the 300 N load than 4 other plates. The Zimmer and Hand Innovations plates had the highest yield strengths and significantly higher yield strengths than the Wright, SBi, Stryker, and Synthes EA plates. Given the biomechanical properties of the plates tested, in light of the loads transmitted across the native wrist, all plate constructs met the anticipated demands. It seems clear that fracture configuration, screw placement, cost, and surgeon familiarity with instrumentation should take priority in selecting a plating system for distal radius fracture treatment. This study provides further information to surgeons regarding the relative strengths of different plate options for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  14. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  15. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Seale, J.; Sewiło, M. [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Meixner, M., E-mail: empolsdofer@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  16. The inner disc radius in the propeller phase and accretion-propeller transition of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Ünal

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the critical conditions required for a steady propeller effect for magnetized neutron stars with optically thick, geometrically thin accretion discs. We have shown through simple analytical calculations that a steady-state propeller mechanism cannot be sustained at an inner disc radius where the viscous and magnetic stresses are balanced. The radius calculated by equating these stresses is usually found to be close to the conventional Alfvén radius for spherical accretion, rA. Our results show that: (1) a steady propeller phase can be established with a maximum inner disc radius that is at least ∼15 times smaller than rA depending on the mass-flow rate of the disc, rotational period and strength of the magnetic dipole field of the star, (2) the critical accretion rate corresponding to the accretion-propeller transition is orders of magnitude lower than the rate estimated by equating rA to the co-rotation radius. Our results are consistent with the properties of the transitional millisecond pulsars that show transitions between the accretion powered X-ray pulsar and the rotational powered radio-pulsar states.

  17. Reproducibility of three dimensional digital preoperative planning for the osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Kusakabe, Takuya; Akita, Kenichi; Tung, Wen Lin; Ishii, Tomoo

    2017-04-13

    A three-dimensional (3D) digital preoperative planning system for the osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures was developed for clinical practice. To assess the usefulness of the 3D planning for osteosynthesis, we evaluated the reproducibility of the reduction shapes and selected implants in the patients with distal radius fractures. Twenty wrists of 20 distal radius fracture patients who underwent osteosynthesis using volar locking plates were evaluated. The 3D preoperative planning was performed prior to each surgery. Four surgeons conducted the surgeries. The surgeons performed the reduction and the placement of the plate while comparing images between the preoperative plan and fluoroscopy. Preoperative planning and postoperative reductions were compared by measuring volar tilt and radial inclination of the 3D images. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the volar tilt and radial inclination were evaluated. For the implant choices, the ICCs for the screw lengths between the preoperative plan and the actual choices were evaluated. The ICCs were 0.644 (p planned size of plate was used in all of the patients. The ICC for the screw length between preoperative planning and actual choice was 0.860 (p planning for distal radius fracture. Three-dimensional digital planning was useful to visualize the reduction process and choose a proper implant for distal radius fractures. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bounds of the Spectral Radius and the Nordhaus-Gaddum Type of the Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Laplacian spectra are the eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix L(G=D(G-A(G, where D(G and A(G are the diagonal matrix of vertex degrees and the adjacency matrix of a graph G, respectively, and the spectral radius of a graph G is the largest eigenvalue of A(G. The spectra of the graph and corresponding eigenvalues are closely linked to the molecular stability and related chemical properties. In quantum chemistry, spectral radius of a graph is the maximum energy level of molecules. Therefore, good upper bounds for the spectral radius are conducive to evaluate the energy of molecules. In this paper, we first give several sharp upper bounds on the adjacency spectral radius in terms of some invariants of graphs, such as the vertex degree, the average 2-degree, and the number of the triangles. Then, we give some numerical examples which indicate that the results are better than the mentioned upper bounds in some sense. Finally, an upper bound of the Nordhaus-Gaddum type is obtained for the sum of Laplacian spectral radius of a connected graph and its complement. Moreover, some examples are applied to illustrate that our result is valuable.

  19. Evidence of enhanced three α radius in α + 12C inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Nakao, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    The microscopic coupled-channels calculations (MCC), which is based on precise internal wave functions and a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction, is performed for the α + 12C inelastic scattering in the energy range of Eα = 80 to 400 MeV. The MCC calculations nicely reproduce the observed differential cross sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering, which goes to the , , states. The partial wave analysis for the differential cross sections has also performed. From the partial wave analysis, the nuclear radius of three α rotational state in 12C with a life time of 10-21 second, which has been expected to have much more extended radius than the ground 12C nucleus, is speculated. Present analysis predicts about 1.0 fm enhancement in the matter radius of the three α rotational state in comparison to the normal radius of the ground state, which is known to be proportional to the mass number to the one third. The spatial extension of the three α rotational state is comparable to the extended radius observed in the neutron halo phenomena. Constraint on the recent ab-initio calculation for the 3α states in 12C is also discussed.

  20. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, E.C. Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Cotton, W. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Chandler, C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Array Operations Center, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Churchwell, E. B. [The University of Wisconsin, Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dougherty, S. M. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, British Columbia V2A 6J9 (Canada); Fender, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gledhill, T. M. [Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hindson, L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jackson, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kurtz, S. E. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, C.P. 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Marti, J., E-mail: C.R.Purcell@leeds.ac.uk [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, Edif. A3, E-23071 Jaen (Spain); and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  1. Near-infrared Detection of WD 0806-661 B with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Morley, C. V.; Burgasser, A. J.; Esplin, T. L.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    WD 0806-661 B is one of the coldest known brown dwarfs (T eff = 300-345 K) based on previous mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition, it is a benchmark for testing theoretical models of brown dwarfs because its age and distance are well constrained via its primary star (2 ± 0.5 Gyr, 19.2 ± 0.6 pc). We present the first near-infrared detection of this object, which has been achieved through F110W imaging (~Y + J) with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure a Vega magnitude of m 110 = 25.70 ± 0.08, which implies J ~ 25.0. When combined with the Spitzer photometry, our estimate of J helps to better define the empirical sequence of the coldest brown dwarfs in M 4.5 versus J - [4.5]. The positions of WD 0806-661 B and other Y dwarfs in that diagram are best matched by the cloudy models of Burrows et al. and the cloudless models of Saumon et al., both of which employ chemical equilibrium. The calculations by Morley et al. for 50% cloud coverage differ only modestly from the data. Spectroscopy would enable a more stringent test of the models, but based on our F110W measurement, such observations are currently possible only with Hubble, and would require at least ~10 orbits to reach a signal-to-noise ratio of ~5. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope through program 12815, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and observations with the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory under programs ID 089.C-0428 and ID 089.C-0597.

  2. The First Reported Infrared Emission from the SN1006 Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the SN 1006 remnant, carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 24 m image from MIPS clearly shows faint filamentary emission along the northwest rim of the remnant shell, nearly coincident with the Balmer filaments that delineate the present position of the expanding shock. The 24 m emission traces the Balmer filaments almost perfectly, but lies a few arcsec within, indicating an origin in interstellar dust heated by the shock. Subsequent decline in the IR behind the shock is presumably due largely to grain destruction through sputtering. The emission drops far more rapidly than current models predict, however, even for a higher proportion of small grains than would be found closer to the Galactic plane. The rapid drop may result in part from a grain density that has always been lowera relic effect from an earlier epoch when the shock was encountering a lower densitybut higher grain destruction rates still seem to be required. Spectra from three positions along the NW filament from the IRS instrument all show only a featureless continuum, consistent with thermal emission from warm dust. The dust-to-gas mass ratio in the pre-shock interstellar medium is lower than that expected for the Galactic ISM-as has also been observed in the analysis of IR emission from other SNRs but whose cause remains unclear. As with other SNIa remnants, SN1006 shows no evidence for dust grain formation in the supernova ejecta.

  3. Experimental demonstration of spin geometric phase: radius dependence of time-reversal Aharonov-Casher oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Takagi, Jun; Kunihashi, Yoji; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku

    2012-02-24

    A geometric phase of electron spin is studied in arrays of InAlAs/InGaAs two-dimensional electron gas rings. By increasing the radius of the rings, the time-reversal symmetric Aharonov-Casher oscillations of the electrical resistance are shifted towards weaker spin-orbit interaction regions with their shortened period. We conclude that the shift is due to a modulation of the spin geometric phase, the maximum modulation of which is approximately 1.5 rad. We further show that the Aharonov-Casher oscillations in various radius arrays collapse onto a universal curve if the radius and the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction are taken into account. The result is interpreted as the observation of the effective spin-dependent flux through a ring.

  4. Positioner and Clothing Artifact Can Affect One-third Radius BMD Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, D.; Vallarta-Ast, N.; Libber, J.; Checovich, M.; Gangnon, R.; Binkley, N.

    2012-01-01

    This report identifies a radius DXA confounder and technical approach to avoid this inaccuracy. Initially, a precision study revealed substantial differences (p clothing covering the forearm. Twenty-four individuals had a paired scan appropriately point-typed, thus allowing evaluation of the effect on BMD measurement. In those with incorrect point-typing associated with positioner slots, the mean one-third radius BMD was ~7% higher. In conclusion, positioner slots at the edges of the distal scan field can lead to automated soft tissue identification inaccuracies, and consequent erroneous one-third radius BMD measurement. DXA technologists should avoid slot inclusion in forearm scans and evaluate point-typing as part of routine analysis. PMID:22658666

  5. Near-field measurement of modal interference in optical nanofibers for sub-Angstrom radius sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Fatemi, Fredrik K; Solano, Pablo; Fenton, Eliot F; Beadie, Guy; Rolston, Steven L; Orozco, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Optical nanofibers (ONF) of subwavelength dimensions confine light in modes with a strong evanescent field that can trap, probe, and manipulate nearby quantum systems. To measure the evanescent field and propagating modes, and to optimize ONF performance, a surface probe is desirable during fabrication. We demonstrate a nondestructive measurement of light propagation in ONFs by sampling the local evanescent field with a microfiber. This approach reveals the behavior of all propagating modes, and because the modal beat lengths in cylindrical waveguides depend strongly on radius, simultaneously provides exquisite sensitivity to the ONF radius. We show that our measured spatial frequencies provide a map of the average ONF radius (over a 600 micrometer window) along the 10 mm ONF waist with 40 picometer resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements agree with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to within SEM instrument resolution. This fast method is immune to polarization, intrinsic birefringence, m...

  6. Hyperextension trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    Loads applied to the forearm result in hyperextension of the elbow. The pathomechanics of hyperextension trauma with load applied to the distal radius and ulna were studied in 10 macroscopically normal cadaver elbow joint specimens to reveal patterns of injury with radial traction (n = 5) compared...... trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius produced the same pattern of injury as reported in hyperextension of the elbow with traction to the forearm when free rotation of the radius relative to the ulna was allowed....... to ulnar traction (n = 5). The mean age of the donors was 60.8 years (range 33-74). Kinematic testing was performed in an experimental 3D-kinematic loading apparatus. The extension range of motion increased by 20.9 degrees +/- 2.9 degrees after joint loading. Hyperextension loads induced joint laxity...

  7. Bidirectional Dislocation of the Distal Radioulnar Joint After Distal Radius Fracture: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Sayuri; Moritomo, Hisao

    2016-02-01

    We report a patient with bidirectional dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint after malunited distal radius fracture, in which the ulnar head dislocated dorsally during forearm pronation and palmarly during supination without manual compression of the ulnar head. The patient had chronic ulnar wrist pain and experienced a painful clunk during forearm rotation. The distal radioulnar joint ballottement test was positive in both the dorsal and palmar directions. Her distal radius was malunited with a 20° dorsal angulation and 18° pronation deformity. A corrective osteotomy of the radius with open repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal avulsion yielded success. At the 7-year follow-up, there was almost a normal range of wrist and forearm motion, 83% grip strength, no arthritis, and a stable distal radioulnar joint. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Splashback Radius of Halos from Particle Dynamics. I. The SPARTA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the recent proposal of the splashback radius as a physical boundary of dark-matter halos, we present a parallel computer code for Subhalo and PARticle Trajectory Analysis (Sparta). The code analyzes the orbits of all simulation particles in all host halos, billions of orbits in the case of typical cosmological N-body simulations. Within this general framework, we develop an algorithm that accurately extracts the location of the first apocenter of particles after infall into a halo, or splashback. We define the splashback radius of a halo as the smoothed average of the apocenter radii of individual particles. This definition allows us to reliably measure the splashback radii of 95% of host halos above a resolution limit of 1000 particles. We show that, on average, the splashback radius and mass are converged to better than 5% accuracy with respect to mass resolution, snapshot spacing, and all free parameters of the method.

  9. Chemically etched modulation in wire radius for wire array Z-pinch perturbation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Deeney, C.; McKenney, J. L.; Garrity, J. E.; Lobley, D. K.; Martin, K. L.; Griego, A. E.; Ramacciotti, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bott, S. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Rapley, J.; Hall, G.

    2004-11-01

    A technique for manufacturing wires with imposed modulation in radius with axial wavelengths as short as 1 mm is presented. Extruded aluminum 5056 with 15 μm diameter was masked and chemically etched to reduce the radius by ˜20% in selected regions. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the modulation in radius is a step function with a ˜10 μm wide conical transition between thick and thin segments, with some pitting in etched regions. Techniques for mounting and aligning these wires in arrays for fast z-pinch experiments will be discussed. Axially mass-modulated wire arrays of this type will allow the study of seeded Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in z pinches, corona formation, wire initiation with varying current density in the wire core, and correlation of perturbations between adjacent wires. This tool will support magnetohydrodynamics code validation in complex three-dimensional geometries, and perhaps x-ray pulse shaping.

  10. Skyrmion core size dependence as a function of the perpendicular anisotropy and radius in magnetic nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, M.A.; Allende, S., E-mail: sebastian.allende@usach.cl

    2016-11-01

    A detailed analytical and numerical analysis of the skyrmion core size dependence as a function of the uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy and radius in magnetic nanodots has been carried out. Results from micromagnetic calculations show a non-monotonic behavior between the skyrmion core size and the uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy. The increment of the radius reduces the skyrmion core size at constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy. Thus, these results can be used for the control of the core sizes in magnetic artificial skyrmion crystals or spintronic devices that need to use a skyrmion configuration at room temperature. - Highlights: • We observed a non-monotonic behavior between the core size and the perpendicular anisotropy. • The increment of the radius reduces the skyrmion core size at constant uniaxial perpendicular. • The end-width size has a monotonic behavior with the perpendicular anisotropy. • We study the transition between the vortex and the skyrmion states.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT VS. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF COMMINUTED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Kare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the distal radius (‘broken wrist’ is a common clinical problem. It can be treated conservatively usually involving wrist immobilisation in a plaster cast or surgically. A key method of surgical fixation is external fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on 66 patients admitted between June 2014 to May 2016 for evaluation of conservative and surgical management of distal radius fractures. RESULTS Excellent, fair or good result was noticed in around 85% of cases managed conservatively and in above 90% of cases managed by external fixator. CONCLUSION There is some evidence to support the use of external fixation for dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius in adults. Though, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a better functional outcome, external fixation reduces redisplacement gives improved anatomical results and most of the excess surgically-related complications are minor.

  12. Sistem Autentikasi Hotspot Menggunakan LDAP dan Radius pada Jaringan Internet Wireless Prodi Teknik Sistem Komputer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Herdinal Muttaqin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network is a network utilizing radio waves that propagate openly. This network requires security to simplify the process by using user Authentication. One of technology that could be used in order to make it safer is a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP and Remote Authentication Dila In User Service (RADIUS. Computer Systems Engineering Department is one of the study program in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Diponegoro that reserve the internet service everyday for students need. However, internet wireless network in this department is not yet safe enough,for the necessary to secure it’s need creating a security system with LDAP and RADIUS.The results of this study is a network authentication server using OpenLDAP and FreeRadius Hotspot that will be integrated with an account of Academic Information System, which is implemented on Prodi Computer Systems Engineering Department of the University of Diponegoro.

  13. Large radius generation and phase transitions in cosmology with extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, K.R.; Gherghetta, T.; Riotto, A.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the role of extra dimensions in cosmology, focusing on cosmological phase transitions in field theory and the Hagedorn transition and generation of a large compactification radius in string theory. We find that for temperatures larger than the compactification radii, cosmological phase transitions in field theory are delayed compared with the usual four-dimensional case. Furthermore, we argue that phase transitions in extra dimensions cannot be of the first-order type. In string theories with large internal dimensions, the Hagedorn temperature is a limiting temperature and gives rise to significant entropy production as the universe approaches this temperature. We also point out that string thermal effects give rise to an effective potential for the radius of the compactified dimension. This leads to a thermal mechanism for generating a large radius of compactification.

  14. The Dust Sublimation Radius as an Outer Envelope to the Bulk of the Narrow Fe Kalpha Line Emission in Type 1 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian F.; Kishimoto, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    The Fe Kα emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kα core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGNs. The observed Fe Kα emission radii (RFe) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (Rdust) are measured either from optical/near-infrared (NIR) reverberation time lags or from resolved NIR interferometric data. This direct comparison shows, on an object-by-object basis, that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kα emission. RFe matches Rdust well in the AGNs, with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, RFe is similar to, or smaller than, the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the torus geometries for our sample. Extended tori in which the solid angle of fluorescing gas peaks at well beyond the dust sublimation radius can be ruled out. We also test for luminosity scalings of RFe, finding that the Eddington ratio is not a prime driver in determining the line location in our sample. We also discuss in detail potential caveats of data analysis and instrumental limitations, simplistic line modeling, uncertain black hole masses, and sample selection, showing that none of these is likely to bias our core result. The calorimeter on board Astro-H will soon vastly increase the parameter space over which line measurements can be made, overcoming many of these limitations.

  15. THE DUST SUBLIMATION RADIUS AS AN OUTER ENVELOPE TO THE BULK OF THE NARROW Fe Kα LINE EMISSION IN TYPE 1 AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kishimoto, Makoto [Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-20

    The Fe Kα emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kα core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGNs. The observed Fe Kα emission radii (R{sub Fe}) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (R{sub dust}) are measured either from optical/near-infrared (NIR) reverberation time lags or from resolved NIR interferometric data. This direct comparison shows, on an object-by-object basis, that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kα emission. R{sub Fe} matches R{sub dust} well in the AGNs, with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, R{sub Fe} is similar to, or smaller than, the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the torus geometries for our sample. Extended tori in which the solid angle of fluorescing gas peaks at well beyond the dust sublimation radius can be ruled out. We also test for luminosity scalings of R{sub Fe}, finding that the Eddington ratio is not a prime driver in determining the line location in our sample. We also discuss in detail potential caveats of data analysis and instrumental limitations, simplistic line modeling, uncertain black hole masses, and sample selection, showing that none of these is likely to bias our core result. The calorimeter on board Astro-H will soon vastly increase the parameter space over which line measurements can be made, overcoming many of these limitations.

  16. Reconstruction of lower end of radius using vascularized upper end of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor is a fairly common locally invasive tumor in young adults. The lower end of the radius is the second commonest site for this tumor. The most common treatment for this tumor is curettage with or without bone grafting but it carries a significant rate of recurrence. Excision is the treatment of choice, especially for cases in which the cortex has been breached. After excision of the distal end of the radius, different procedures have been described to reconstruct the defect of distal radius. These include partial arthrodesis and hemiarthroplasty using the upper end of the fibula. The upper end of the fibula has a morphological resemblance to the lower end of the radius and has been used to replace the latter. Traditionally it was used as a ′free′ (non-vascularized graft. More recently the upper end of the fibula has been transferred as a vascularized transfer for the same purpose. Though vascularized transfer should be expected to be more physiological, its superiority over the technically simpler non-vascularized transfer has not been conclusively proven. Materials and Methods: Two patients are presented who had giant cell tumor of distal radius. They underwent wide local excision and reconstruction with free vascularized upper end of the fibula. Result: Follow-up period was two and a half years and 12 months respectively. Both patients have returned to routine work. One patient has excellent functional result and the other has a good result. Conclusion: Vascularized upper end of fibula transfer is a reliable method of reconstruction for loss of the distal end of the radius that restores local anatomy and physiology.

  17. Sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir; Yang, Yi-Bo; Liang, Jian; Draper, Terrence; Liu, Keh-Fei; χ QCD Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report a comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment, charge radius, and the electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We adopt a model-independent extrapolation of the nucleon magnetic moment and the charge radius. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is μM(DI )=-0.022 (11 )(09 ) μN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is ⟨r2⟩E(DI ) =-0.019 (05 )(05 ) fm2 which is about 1 /3 of the difference between the ⟨rp2⟩E of electron-proton scattering and that of a muonic atom and so cannot be ignored in obtaining the proton charge radius in the lattice QCD calculation. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton mean square charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron mean square charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤Q2≤0.5 GeV2 .

  18. Salvage of distal radius nonunion with a dorsal spanning distraction plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Suhail K; Srinivasan, Ramesh C; Kamal, Robin; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2014-05-01

    Treatment of nonunion after previous instrumentation of distal radius fractures represents a reconstructive challenge. Resultant osteopenia provides a poor substrate for fixation, often necessitating wrist fusion for salvage. A spanning dorsal distraction plate (bridge plate) can be a useful adjunct to neutralize forces across the wrist, alone or in combination with nonspanning plates to achieve union, salvage wrist function, and avoid wrist arthrodesis in distal radius nonunion. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Florid Reactive Periostitis of the Ulna and Radius: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, You Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Florid reactive periostitis is a benign periosteal reaction that rarely occurs in the long bones of the forearm. A 43-year-old woman presented with a case of florid reactive periostitis, which affects the distal ulna and radius. Computed tomography and plain radiography showed smooth, uniformed periosteal reaction along the interosseous margins of the distal ulna and radius, without underlying bony cortical erosion or destruction. Magnetic resonance imaging also revealed diffuse edema and enhancement in the subperiosteal area and the adjacent soft tissues.

  20. Proton radius of 14Be from measurement of charge-changing cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, S.; Tanihata, I.; Kanungo, R.; Estradé, A.; Horiuchi, W.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Neff, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Vargas, J.; Winfield, J. S.; Weick, H.

    2014-10-01

    The charge-changing cross sections of {}^{7,9-12,14}Be have been measured at 900AMeV on a carbon target. These cross sections are discussed both in terms of a geometrical and a Glauber model. From several different analyses of the cross sections, the proton distribution radius (proton radius) of {}^{14}Be is determined for the first time to be 2.41 ± 0.04 fm. A large difference in the proton and neutron radii is found. The proton radii are compared to the results of fermionic molecular dynamics (FMD) and antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) calculations.

  1. Ionic conductivity of rare earth doped phase stabilized Bi2O3: Effect of ionic radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Anirban, Sk.; Sinha, A.; Dutta, A.

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured Bi2O3 was prepared through citrate auto ignition method and stabilized down to room temperature into rhombohedral phase by 30% doping of rare earth cations (Eu3+, Sm3+, Nd3+, La3+), which was experimentally confirmed by the XRD patterns of the doped compositions. The average crystallite size increases with increase of ionic radius. The ionic conductivity of the La-doped compound was found to be highest among other doped compounds. The change in structural and electrical properties were discussed and correlated with the ionic radius of the dopants.

  2. Theoretical Investigation Of Plate Fixation And Intramedullary Nailing Methods On Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Kovacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While forearm fractures are often treated with plate-screw osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing gained importance recently. For this aim, radius bone model was obtained using CT images, a fracture was introduced to the model and the callus, which is a structure forms during healing, was added to the model. Plate and intramedullary nail models were implemented to radius model. Structural behaviors of obtained models and callus on treatments with various implants were investigated under axial loading. In the light of these analyses, stresses on bone-implant structure and callus movement were investigated from the angle of application and treatment, depending on implant selection.

  3. On Possible Reduction of Equilibrium Radius of a Neutron Star Influenced by Superstrong Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Skobelev

    2012-01-01

    -decay suppression of a neutron in degenerate magnetized electron gas is formulated. Based on this, it is shown that, in superstrong magnetic field, equilibrium radius of a neutron star is approximately several times smaller than without the field influence. Therefore, we can make a prediction that in short-period pulsars, such fields can be observed. In fact, possible existence of new class of stellar objects is noted, the objects with superstrong magnetic field and supersmall radius about 1 km which we named minimagnetars. They can be detected by gravitational red shift of their radiation.

  4. A Non-Interfering Beam Radius Diagnostic Suitable For Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexsen, W E

    2005-06-07

    High current electron induction linacs operate in a parameter regime that allows the use of a diamagnetic loop (DML) to measure the beam magnetic moment. Under certain easily met conditions the beam radius can be derived from the moment measurement. The DML has the advantage over the present methods of measuring beam radius in that it is an electrical measurement with good time resolution that does not interfere with the beam transport. I describe experiments on the LLNL accelerators, ETA-II and FXR that give confidence in the use of a DML as a beam diagnostic.

  5. Optimization of the bubble radius in a moving single bubble sonoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirheydari, Mona; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Rezaee, Nastaran; Ebrahimi, Homa, E-mail: sadighi@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, 11365-91, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-01

    A complete study of the hydrodynamic force on a moving single bubble sonoluminescence in N-methylformamide is presented in this work. All forces exerted, trajectory, interior temperature and gas pressure are discussed. The maximum values of the calculated components of the hydrodynamic force for three different radii at the same driving pressure were compared, while the optimum bubble radius was determined. The maximum value of the buoyancy force appears at the start of bubble collapse, earlier than the other forces whose maximum values appear at the moment of bubble collapse. We verified that for radii larger than the optimum radius, the temperature peak value decreases.

  6. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  7. Collision free path generation in 3D with turning and pitch radius constraints for aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, F.; La Cour-Harbo, A.; Bisgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of trajectory generation in 3D for uninhabited aerial systems (UAS). The proposed algorithm for trajectory generation allows us to find a feasible collision-free 3D trajectory through a number of waypoints in an environment containing obstacles. Our approach...... assumes that most of the aircraft structural and dynamic limitations can be formulated as a turn radius constraint, and that any two consecutive waypoints have line-of-sight. The generated trajectories are collision free and also satisfy a constraint on the minimum admissible turning radius, while...

  8. A Precise Asteroseismic Age and Radius for the Evolved Sun-like Star KIC 11026764

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.; Monteiro, Mario J.P.F.G.; Thompson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The primary science goal of the Kepler Mission is to provide a census of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood, including the identification and characterization of habitable Earth-like planets. The asteroseismic capabilities of the mission are being used to determine precise radii and ages...... that attempt to match the asteroseismic and spectroscopic constraints simultaneously. We determine both the radius and the age of KIC 11026764 with a precision near 1%, and an accuracy near 2% for the radius and 15% for the age. Continued observations of this star promise to reveal additional oscillation...

  9. Infrared source test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  10. Variable waveband infrared imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  11. Infrared drying of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nafiye; Heybeli, Nursel; Ertekin, Can

    2017-03-15

    The effects of different drying conditions, such as infrared power, drying air temperature and velocity, on quality of strawberry were evaluated. Drying time decreased with increased infrared power, air temperature and velocity. An increase in power from 100W to 300W, temperature from 60 to 80°C and velocity from 1.0m.s(-1) to 2.0m.s(-1) decreased fruit color quality index. For total phenol and anthocyanin content, 300W, 60°C, and 1.0m.s(-1) were superior to the other experimental conditions. The drying processes increased N, P and K and decreased Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents. The optimal conditions to preserve nutrients in infrared drying of strawberry were 200W, 100°C and 1.5m.s(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing the infrared counterparts of diffuse far-ultraviolet sources in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Gautam; Shalima, P.; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Pathak, Amit

    2017-12-01

    Recent availability of high quality infrared (IR) data for diffuse regions in the Galaxy and external galaxies have added to our understanding of interstellar dust. A comparison of ultraviolet (UV) and IR observations may be used to estimate absorption, scattering and thermal emission from interstellar dust. In this paper, we report IR and UV observations for selective diffuse sources in the Galaxy. Using archival mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) observations from Spitzer Space Telescope, we look for counterparts of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) sources observed by the Voyager, Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) telescopes in the Galaxy. IR emission features at 8 μm are generally attributed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, while emission at 24 μm are attributed to Very Small Grains (VSGs). The data presented here is unique and our study tries to establish a relation between various dust populations. By studying the FUV-IR correlations separately at low and high latitude locations, we have identified the grain component responsible for the diffuse FUV emission.

  13. Spitzer observations of the type IA supernova remnant N103B: Kepler's older cousin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Long, Knox S. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA AMES Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Hendrick, Sean P., E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [Physics Department, Millersville University, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm{sup –3}, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements toward regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Optical images show Hα emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the '18 μm' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 μm. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic asymptotic giant branch progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  14. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M. [Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J.; Forbrich, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M.; Bouy, H. [Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Terebey, S., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ∼35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ∼10′ × ∼20′ area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded spectral energy distributions (SEDs) (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10–90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5] > 0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1–0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be “dippers,” where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be “bursters,” where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]–[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (∼half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6–7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (∼60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ∼30% of the variables overall)

  15. Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; King, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the optical thickness and effective particle radius of stratiform cloud layers from reflected solar radiation measurements. A detailed study is presented which shows that the cloud optical thickness (tau c) and effective particle radius (r/e/) of water clouds can be determined solely from reflection function measurements at 0.75 micron and 2.16 microns, provided tau c is not less than 4 and r(e) is not less than 6 microns. For optically thin clouds, the retrieval becomes ambiguous, resulting in two possible solutions for the effective radius and optical thickness. Adding a third channel near 1.65 micron does not improve the situation noticeably, whereas the addition of a channel near 3.70 microns reduces the ambiguity in deriving the effective radius. The effective radius determined by the above procedure corresponds to the droplet radius at some optical depth within the cloud layer.

  16. Testing the white dwarf mass-radius relationship with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. G.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Ashley, R. P.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Green, M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Sahman, D. I.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    We present high-precision, model-independent, mass and radius measurements for 16 white dwarfs in detached eclipsing binaries and combine these with previously published data to test the theoretical white dwarf mass-radius relationship. We reach a mean precision of 2.4 per cent in mass and 2.7 per cent in radius, with our best measurements reaching a precision of 0.3 per cent in mass and 0.5 per cent in radius. We find excellent agreement between the measured and predicted radii across a wide range of masses and temperatures. We also find the radii of all white dwarfs with masses less than 0.48 M⊙ to be fully consistent with helium core models, but they are on average 9 per cent larger than those of carbon-oxygen core models. In contrast, white dwarfs with masses larger than 0.52 M⊙ all have radii consistent with carbon-oxygen core models. Moreover, we find that all but one of the white dwarfs in our sample have radii consistent with possessing thick surface hydrogen envelopes (10-5 ≥ MH/MWD ≥ 10-4), implying that the surface hydrogen layers of these white dwarfs are not obviously affected by common envelope evolution.

  17. Custom-made wrist prosthesis in a patient with giant cell tumor of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damert, Hans-Georg; Altmann, Silke; Kraus, Armin

    2013-05-01

    Treatment for giant cell tumors of the distal radius is challenging when motion is to be preserved. As standard wrist prostheses typically do not achieve favorable results, we treated a 36-year-old man with giant cell tumor of the distal radius with a new, custom-made implant. A custom-made wrist prosthesis with a long shaft was designed according to the patient's X-ray findings. After complete tumor resection, the prosthesis was subsequently implanted into the distal radius without complications. Two months after surgery, range of motion was 30°-0-25° for extension/flexion, 10°-0-5° for ulnar/radial abduction, 80°-0-0 for pronation/supination, complete range of motion for the fingers, and a grip strength of 6 kg. Two years after surgery, implant position was still correct and range of motion was 45°-0-10° for extension/flexion, 10°-0-20° for ulnar/radial abduction, and 80°-0-10° for pronation/supination. Grip strength was 16 kg, and DASH score was 25 compared to 39 before surgery. The patient returned to work as a craftsman. Custom-made wrist prostheses could become a practical option in patients with large defects of the distal radius who desire to preserve wrist motion.

  18. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Radius and Ulna for Planning Corrective Surgeries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, J. C.; Dobbe, J. G. G.; Jonges, R.; Strackee, S. D.; Streekstra, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The contralateral unaffected side is often used as a reference in planning a corrective osteotomy of a malunited distal radius. Two-dimensional radiographs have proven unreliable in assessing bilateral symmetry, so we assessed 3-dimensional configurations to assess bilateral symmetry.

  19. Pole-strength of the earth from Magsat and magnetic determination of the core radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, G. V.; Benton, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A model based on two days of Magsat data is used to numerically evaluate the unsigned magnetic flux linking the earth's surface, and a comparison of the 16.054 GWb value calculated with values from earlier geomagnetic field models reveals a smooth, monotonic, and recently-accelerating decrease in the earth's pole strength at a 50-year average rate of 8.3 MWb, or 0.052%/year. Hide's (1978) magnetic technique for determining the radius of the earth's electrically-conducting core is tested by (1) extrapolating main field models for 1960 and 1965 downward through the nearly-insulating mantle, and then separately comparing them to equivalent, extrapolated models of Magsat data. The two unsigned fluxes are found to equal the Magsat values at a radius which is within 2% of the core radius; and (2) the 1960 main field and secular variation and acceleration coefficients are used to derive models of 1930, 1940 and 1950. The same core magnetic radius value, within 2% of the seismic value, is obtained. It is concluded that the mantle is a nearly-perfect insulator, while the core is a perfect conductor, on the decade time scale.

  20. Intermediate-term variations in solar radius during solar cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, H.; Golbasi, O.; Chollet, F.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we look for the mid-term variations in the daily average data of solar radius measurements made at the Solar Astrolabe Station of TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) during solar cycle 23 for a time interval from 2000 February 26 to 2006 November 15. Due to the weather conditions and seasonal effect dependent on the latitude, the data series has the temporal gaps. For spectral analysis of the data series, thus, we use the Date Compensated Discrete Fourier Transform (DCDFT) and the CLEANest algorithm, which are powerful methods for irregularly spaced data. The CLEANest spectra of the solar radius data exhibit several significant mid-term periodicities at 393.2, 338.9, 206.5, 195.2, 172.3 and 125.4 days which are consistent with periods detected in several solar time series by several authors during different solar cycles. The knowledge relating to the origin of solar radius variations is not yet present. To see whether these variations will repeat in next cycles and to understand how the amplitudes of such variations change with different phases of the solar cycles, we need more systematic efforts and the long-term homogeneous data. Since most of the periodicities detected in the present study are frequently seen in solar activity indicators, it is thought that the physical mechanisms driving the periodicities of solar activity may also be effective in solar radius variations.

  1. Service Radius Model and Service Scope Optimization of City Public Parking Garage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The service radius of public parking garage is related to the supply of parking spots and parking behavior characteristics of drivers. However, the empirical and statistical methods in the optimization of public parking garage have limitations. Based on the theory of value engineering and satisfaction, an optimization model for public parking garage service radius is established, which satisfies the requirements of both drivers and owners. Then, an amended model is proposed by using accessibility theory and the principle of moment balance. This model, in consideration of city resistance and walking impedance, is modified from the circular service scope to an irregular polygon, which is more suitable for the actual situation. Finally, the method is verified by a practical example. The results suggest that the optimization model of the service radius and the optimization method of service scope can not only balance the needs of drivers and public parking garages’ owners, but also improve the operation efficiency of parking garages, so that they are more fit for the actual situation of parking service areas. This paper provides new ideas and methods to determine public parking garage service radius and service scope.

  2. Surgical approach for elastic stable intramedullary nail in pediatric radius shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sandra L.; Schødt Riber, Sara; Danielsson, Frederik B.

    2018-01-01

    When using elastic stable intramedullary nailing in children’s distal radius shaft fractures, the surgical approach can either be lateral or dorsal. The aim of this article was to carry out a systematic review of the literature comparing the two types of approaches in terms of complications...

  3. Polycarbonate and co-continuous polycarbonate/ABS blends: influence of notch radius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inberg, J.P.F.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of notch tip radius in the range of 1–0.002 mm was studied on polycarbonate (PC) and co-continuous PC/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS). Co-continuous PC/ABS blend was obtained by mixing PC and ABS containing 15% polybutadiene (PB) in a twin screw extruder. PC and PC/ABS specimens

  4. Measuring the Radius of the Earth from a Mountain Top Overlooking the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2009-01-01

    A clear view of the ocean may be used to measure the radius of the Earth. To an observer looking out at the ocean, the horizon will always form some angle [theta] with the local horizontal plane. As the observer's elevation "h" increases, so does the angle [theta]. From measurements of the elevation "h" and the angle [theta],…

  5. Scale factor correction for Gaussian beam truncation in second moment beam radius measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Lucas R.; Dragone, Rocco V.; MacGregor, Andrew D.

    2017-04-01

    Charged-couple devices (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, in conjunction with the second moment radius analysis method, are effective tools for determining the radius of a laser beam. However, the second moment method heavily weights sensor noise, which must be dealt with using a thresholding algorithm and a software aperture. While these noise reduction methods lower the random error due to noise, they simultaneously generate systematic error by truncating the Gaussian beam's edges. A scale factor that is invariant to beam ellipticity and corrects for the truncation of the Gaussian beam due to thresholding and the software aperture has been derived. In particular, simulations showed an order of magnitude reduction in measured beam radius error when using the scale factor-irrespective of beam ellipticity-and further testing with real beam data demonstrated that radii corrected by the scale factor are independent of the noise reduction parameters. Thus, through use of the scale factor, the accuracy of beam radius measurements made with a CCD or CMOS sensor and the second moment are significantly improved.

  6. Large-radius Holstein polaron and the problem of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, V. D.

    2014-07-01

    A translation-invariant solution is found for a large-radius Holstein polaron whose energy in the strong coupling limit is lower than that obtained by Holstein [T. Holstein, Annals Phys., 8, 325 (1959)]. The wave function corresponding to this solution is delocalized. A conclusion is drawn about the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the quantum system discussed.

  7. Prophylactic corticosteroid injection in ulnar wrist pain in distal radius fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Saied

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study it seems that prophylactic corticosteroid injection will be associated with a decrease in the severity of wrist pain in patients with acute distal radius fractures. With regard to the decrease in the number of painless individuals, it seems that the decrease is not persistent. Overall the need for a study with longer followup is obvious.

  8. Stacked Flexible Nailing for Radius Ulna Fractures: Revival of a lost Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Qaed; Inamdar, Parvez; Arora, Pankush; Shyam, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous radius and ulna fractures are common in adults and generally osteosynthesis with plating is the treatment of choice. Nailing of such fractures is infrequently advocated. We present our unique technique of radius ulna nailing in adults to achieve closed reduction and early predictable union with minimal or no complications. Case 1: 22 year old male with midshaft both bones forearm fracture was treated with stacked nailing. Two 2.5 mm steel elastic nails were used in each radius and ulna. No post-operative splintage was needed and patient was mobilized immediately. Patient was able to go back to work in 2 weeks and at one year follow up he showed excellent functional outcome. Case 2: Fifteen year old boy presented with midshaft both bone fractures secondary to fall from height. He was also treated with stacked flexible nailing. Good stability was achieved and patient was mobilized immediately without any splints. He was able to write his exams which started on 11th day post-surgery and could complete his theory papers. At final follow up both bones united with good callus and no functional limitations. Stacked nailing technique is a good option in midshaft transverse or short oblique fractures of radius and ulna. It allows for early mobilization without brace or splint. With proper patient selection, good results can be obtained by this simple and minimally invasive technique.

  9. Nonunion of Fractures of the Ulna and Radius Diaphyses: Clinical and Radiological Results of Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussakri H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic nonunion of the radius and ulna is a major complication of forearm fractures, accounting for 2% to 10% of all forearm fractures. The aim of our study is to evaluate the functional and radiological results of surgical treatment of diaphyseal aseptic nonunion of the radius and ulna, with autologous bone grafting, decortication and internal plate fixation. A series of 21 patients (26 nonunions was retrospectively reviewed, the average age was 35 years with a mean of 31,58 years (range 12-44 years . The fractures included isolated radius (n=6 and ulna (n=10, and both radius and ulna (n=5. The Grace and Eversmann score was used to evaluate our results. Fifteen had very good results, five good and one average. Consolidation of the two bones was attained in 6.2 months. Therefore, the functional prognosis of the upper limb imposes the need for an adequate treatment. This management strategy has enabled us to have satisfactory results. However, the best treatment of nonunion remains the preventive treatment with an optimal management and care of the forearm fractures.

  10. Estimate for the size of the compactification radius of a one extra dimension universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pascoal, F [DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA; Oliveira, L F [CIDADE UNIV; Farina, C [INSTITUTO DE FISICA

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we use the Casimir effect to probe the existence of one extra dimension. We begin by evaluating the Casimir pressure between two plates in a M{sup 4} x S{sup 1} manifold, and then use an appropriate statistical analysis in order to compare the theoretical expression with a recent experimental data and set bounds for the compactification radius.

  11. Addressing the missing matter problem in galaxies through a new fundamental gravitational radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, S.; Jovanović, P.; Borka Jovanović, V.; Borka, D.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the existence of a Noether symmetry in f(R) theories of gravity gives rise to a further gravitational radius, besides the standard Schwarzschild one, determining the dynamics at galactic scales. By this feature, it is possible to explain the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and the rotation curve of gas-rich galaxies without the dark matter hypothesis.

  12. A numerical study on effect of corner radius and Reynolds number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of the parameters such as Reynolds number and corner radius on the drag and laminar boundary layer have been studied for the first time. The results are shown in the form of drag coefficient, boundary layer and pressure coefficient on the cylinder surface. It is found that the boundary layer thickness and the ...

  13. Energetically optimal nonstationary mode of flow along tube with constant and time-varying radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived is a new modification of hydrodynamic equations of viscous incompressible fluid flowing along the tube with radius changing in time. Obtained are exact non-stationary solutions of these equations generalizing a well-known classic stationary solution for Hagen–Poiseuille flow in the tube with radius constant in time. It is demonstrated that the law of changing the tube radius in time may be determined basing on the condition of minimality of the work expended for flowing the set fluid volume along such a tube during the period of radius change cycle. Obtained is the solution of the corresponding variational (isoperimetric problem on conditional extremum determining the limits to dimensionless quantity of the cycle duration set by the specified dimensionless value of the flowed fluid volume. Identified is the generalization of well-known model of optimal branching pipeline (F.L. Chernous’ko, 1977 in which the Poiseuille law modification is used for a new exact non-stationary solution of hydrodynamic equation instead of the law itself. It is demonstrated that the energetically favorable non-stationary modes with negative hydraulic resistance are permissible in certain conditions. The obtained conclusions may be used for development of the hydrodynamic basis of modelling the energy-optimal blood flow realized in the cardiovascular system in norm.

  14. The low-luminosity end of the radius-luminosity relationship for active galactic nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, M.C.; Denney, K.D.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hß broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged wi...

  15. Fibromyalgia as a Predictor of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome After Distal Radius Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Marc D; Hess, Daniel E; Werner, Brian C; Deal, D Nicole

    2017-10-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be a devastating complication following extremity injury, but risk factors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the development of CRPS after distal radius fracture. The PearlDiver Medicare database was queried using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for diagnoses and treatments of distal radius fractures. Patients were separated into fibromyalgia and control cohorts, and the prevalence of CRPS was measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from the date of injury or procedure. Demographic factors, treatment modality, and comorbid conditions were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression to reduce confounding and identify additional risk factors. Database queries yielded 853 186 patients diagnosed or treated for distal radius fracture, with 6% having previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The prevalence of CRPS following distal radius fracture was increased at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months in the fibromyalgia cohort compared with the control c, with a 1-year incidence of 0.51% compared with 0.20% (odds ratio [OR], 2.54, P 65, diabetes, and heart failure were negatively associated. While the basis of the association between fibromyalgia and CRPS is unknown, our data suggest that it could serve as a useful predictor of CRPS risk, promoting increased vigilance for CRPS symptoms and earlier recognition and treatment, thereby improving patient outcomes.

  16. An Efficient Method for Estimating the Hydrodynamic Radius of Disordered Protein Conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Mads; Kragelund, Birthe B; Papaleo, Elena; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2017-08-08

    Intrinsically disordered proteins play important roles throughout biology, yet our understanding of the relationship between their sequences, structural properties, and functions remains incomplete. The dynamic nature of these proteins, however, makes them difficult to characterize structurally. Many disordered proteins can attain both compact and expanded conformations, and the level of expansion may be regulated and important for function. Experimentally, the level of compaction and shape is often determined either by small-angle x-ray scattering experiments or pulsed-field-gradient NMR diffusion measurements, which provide ensemble-averaged estimates of the radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius, respectively. Often, these experiments are interpreted using molecular simulations or are used to validate them. We here provide, to our knowledge, a new and efficient method to calculate the hydrodynamic radius of a disordered protein chain from a model of its structural ensemble. In particular, starting from basic concepts in polymer physics, we derive a relationship between the radius of gyration of a structure and its hydrodynamic ratio, which in turn can be used, for example, to compare a simulated ensemble of conformations to NMR diffusion measurements. The relationship may also be valuable when using NMR diffusion measurements to restrain molecular simulations. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A numerical study on effect of corner radius and Reynolds number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Dey

    Corner radius; boundary layer; displacement thickness; velocity profile; CFD. 1. Introduction. Over the last many years, the flow around slender cylin- drical bluff bodies has been the subject of intense research, mainly owing to the engineering significance of structural design, flow-induced vibration and heat exchanger tube.

  18. Is Bone Grafting Necessary in the Treatment of Malunited Distal Radius Fractures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, D.J.; Poeze, M.; Hannemann, P.F.; Brink, P.R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Open wedge osteotomy with bone grafting and plate fixation is the standard procedure for the correction of malunited distal radius fractures. Bone grafts are used to increase structural stability and to enhance new bone formation. However, bone grafts are also associated with donor site

  19. Compression of Infrared images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the compression of infrared images with three codecs: JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and HEVC. Results are evaluated in terms of SNR, Mean Relative Squared Error (MRSE) and the HDR-VDP2 quality metric. JPEG2000 and HEVC perform fairy similar and better than JPEG-XT. JPEG2000 performs...

  20. Infrared Celestial Backgrounds Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Russell G.; Cohen, Martin

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend and improve the present capability to predict celestial phenomenology pertinent to the design and successful operation of space based surveillance systems using the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared spectral regions. We pursued this goal through analysis and application of existing datasets and, in particular, by analysis of new satellite measurements that became available during the course of the project. Our work was concentrated in four major areas: (1) extension of an existing analytical model of the infrared point source sky (SKY), (2) development of a set of absolutely calibrated spectral stellar irradiance standards for the infrared, (3) analysis of new celestial data obtained by satellite, and (4) support of the infrared celestial measurements taken by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite. Volume 1 summarizes the work performed under the contract, and includes reprints of the major papers published during the contractual period. Volume 2 presents the final release of an all sky network of 422 stars with absolutely calibrated stellar spectra in the 1.2 to 35 um region. Volume 2 also contains reprints of the complete series of published papers documenting the spectral calibration process and assumptions.

  1. Decoherence and infrared divergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The dynamics of a particle which is linearly coupled to a boson field is investigated. The boson field induces superselection rules for the momentum of the particle, if the field is infrared divergent. Thereby the Hamiltonian of the total system remains bounded from below.

  2. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2015-01-01

    conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...

  3. Isolated ulnar shortening osteotomy for the treatment of extra-articular distal radius malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ramesh C; Jain, Deeptee; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Mithani, Suhail K; Ruch, David S

    2013-06-01

    To report the clinical outcomes and complications for a cohort of patients who had extra-articular distal radius malunions treated with isolated ulnar-shortening osteotomy (USO). A second purpose was to define the dorsal angulation limit that would still result in clinical and functional improvement after isolated USO for distal radius malunion. We postulated that patients with up to 20° dorsal or volar tilt could be successfully treated with isolated USO. We conducted a retrospective chart review for all patients who had an isolated USO for the treatment of ulnar impaction syndrome after distal radius malunion between January 1990 and December 2011. A total of 18 patients underwent isolated USO after distal radius malunion. The mean age of the patients was 53 years and the mean duration of follow-up was 34 months. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare preoperative and postoperative range of motion; pain; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores; and radiographic measurements. Average intraoperative ulna shortening was 5.6 mm. Average flexion-extension arc improved from 79° preoperatively to 105° postoperatively. Average pronation-supination arc improved from 121° preoperatively to 162° postoperatively. Average visual analog scale pain score improved from 4.1 to 1.9. Average Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score improved from 43 to 11. This case series demonstrated a significant improvement in pain score and range of motion after isolated USO for distal radius malunion. Patients with up to 20° dorsal tilt and radial inclination as low as 2° demonstrated improved clinical and functional outcomes after isolated USO. Given the comparable functional outcomes with shorter operative times and lower complication rate requiring fewer secondary surgeries, isolated USO is an attractive alternative to distal radius osteotomy for the management of distal radius malunion in patients with up to 20° dorsal tilt. Therapeutic IV

  4. Reconstruction of a bony bankart lesion: best fit based on radius of curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaan, Alexander; Munch, Jacqueline; Durkan, Michael; Yoo, Jung; Crawford, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    The inferior coracoid process has traditionally been considered to be the gold standard for glenoid augmentation after anteroinferior bone loss. Other autograft sites, and more recently, osteochondral allograft sites, have been described as potential donor sources. Potential autograft and osteochondral allograft sites were compared to identify the graft source that would provide the best fit for glenoid augmentation. Controlled laboratory study. Mose circles, a geometric tool found on a standard goniometer, were used to make radius of curvature measurements of 10 anatomic locations in 17 cadaveric specimens. The bony surface of the glenoid, measured from superior to inferior (G-SI) and from anterior to posterior (G-AP), was used as the standard for comparison. Autograft sites were the inferior coracoid, lateral coracoid, and inner table of the iliac crest. Potential osteochondral allograft sites were the radial head, scaphoid fossa of the distal radius (S-DR), lunate fossa of the distal radius (L-DR), medial tibial plateau, and lateral distal tibia. An acceptable match for autograft sites was based on a paired analysis and defined as a radius of curvature within 5 mm of the G-SI or the G-AP of the same cadaveric specimen. Allograft sites were evaluated using an unpaired analysis in which an ideal fit was defined as a radius of curvature of 25 to 30 mm, based on the interquartile range of the G-SI and G-AP. The median (interquartile range) radii of curvature for the G-SI and G-AP were 30 mm (range, 25-30 mm) and 25 mm (range, 25-25 mm), respectively. The inferior coracoid was within 5 mm of the G-SI 59% of the time and the G-AP 94% of the time; no measurements from the lateral coracoid or iliac crest were within the range of the glenoid radius of curvature. Analysis of the allograft sites demonstrated an acceptable fit for 94% of the distal tibia, 68% of the medial tibial plateau, 12% of the S-DR, and 0% of the L-DR and the radial head specimens. An autograft of the

  5. The Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey: Ultra-deep J and KS Imaging in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Yan, Haojing; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-12-01

    We present ultra-deep J and KS imaging observations covering a 30' × 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5σ limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and KS , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin2 region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5σ. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and KS data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+KS -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and KS images and the J+KS -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  6. Cortical consolidation of the radius and tibia in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer S; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Eastell, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Bone size, geometry, density, and microarchitecture are important determinants of bone strength. By understanding how these properties change during skeletal development, we can better understand bone fragility. The aim of the study was to compare the geometry, microarchitecture, and strength of the radius and tibia in men and women at the end of adolescence and in young adulthood and to relate these properties to biochemical bone turnover markers and bone regulatory hormones. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 116 healthy men and women ages 16-18 (n = 56) and 30-32 (n = 60) yr. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure bone size, geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia and micro-finite element modeling to estimate bone strength. We measured bone turnover markers (β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen) and hormones known to affect bone metabolism (estradiol, testosterone, IGF-I, and PTH). Bone strength was greater in men than in women, and at the radius it was greater in men ages 30-32 yr than ages 16-18 yr. The gender difference was due to greater cortical perimeter, trabecular area, and trabecular density in men. The age difference was due to greater cortical thickness and cortical tissue mineral density and lower cortical porosity. IGF-I was related to two of these five key properties at the radius (cortical perimeter and cortical thickness). None of the hormones were predictors of density or structure at the tibia. Cortical modeling of long bones continues beyond the end of adolescence. IGF-I may be a determinant of this process at the radius.

  7. A method for determining the radius of an open cluster from stellar proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Néstor; Alfaro, Emilio J.; López-Martínez, Fátima

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method for calculating the radius of an open cluster in an objective way from an astrometric catalogue containing, at least, positions and proper motions. It uses the minimum spanning tree (hereinafter MST) in the proper motion space to discriminate cluster stars from field stars and it quantifies the strength of the cluster-field separation by means of a statistical parameter defined for the first time in this paper. This is done for a range of different sampling radii from where the cluster radius is obtained as the size at which the best cluster-field separation is achieved. The novelty of this strategy is that the cluster radius is obtained independently of how its stars are spatially distributed. We test the reliability and robustness of the method with both simulated and real data from a well-studied open cluster (NGC 188), and apply it to UCAC4 data for five other open clusters with different catalogued radius values. NGC 188, NGC 1647, NGC 6603 and Ruprecht 155 yielded unambiguous radius values of 15.2 ± 1.8, 29.4 ± 3.4, 4.2 ± 1.7 and 7.0 ± 0.3 arcmin, respectively. ASCC 19 and Collinder 471 showed more than one possible solution but it is not possible to know whether this is due to the involved uncertainties or to the presence of complex patterns in their proper motion distributions, something that could be inherent to the physical object or due to the way in which the catalogue was sampled.

  8. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  9. MEASURING THE SOLAR RADIUS FROM SPACE DURING THE 2012 VENUS TRANSIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emilio, M. [Observatório Astronômico Departamento de Geociências, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Paraná (Brazil); Couvidat, S.; Bush, R. I. [HEPL Solar Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kuhn, J. R.; Scholl, I. F., E-mail: memilio@uepg.br, E-mail: kuhn@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: ifscholl@hawaii.edu, E-mail: couvidat@stanford.edu, E-mail: ribush@solar.stanford.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We report in this work the determination of the solar radius from observations by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory during the 2012 June Venus transit of the Sun. Two different methods were utilized to determine the solar radius using images of Sun taken by the HMI instrument. The first technique fit the measured trajectory of Venus in front of the Sun for seven wavelengths across the Fe I absorption line at 6173 Å. The solar radius determined from this method varies with the measurement wavelength, reflecting the variation in the height of line formation. The second method measured the area of the Sun obscured by Venus to determine the transit duration from which the solar radius was derived. This analysis focused on measurements taken in the continuum wing of the line, and applied a correction for the instrumental point spread function (PSF) of the HMI images. Measurements taken in the continuum wing of the 6173 Å line, resulted in a derived solar radius at 1 AU of 959.''57 ± 0.''02 (695, 946 ± 15 km). The AIA instrument observed the Venus transit at ultraviolet wavelengths. Using the solar disk obscuration technique, similar to that applied to the HMI images, analysis of the AIA data resulted in values of R {sub ☉} = 963.''04 ± 0.''03 at 1600 Å and R {sub ☉} = 961.''76 ± 0.''03 at 1700 Å.

  10. Fracture heuristics: surgical decision for approaches to distal radius fractures. A surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichlas, Florian; Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Kopf, Sebastian; Krapohl, Björn Dirk; Manegold, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study is to develop a heuristic that could replace the surgeon's analysis for the decision on the operative approach of distal radius fractures based on simple fracture characteristics. Patients and methods: Five hundred distal radius fractures operated between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed for the surgeon's decision on the approach used. The 500 distal radius fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation through palmar, dorsal, and dorsopalmar approaches with 2.4 mm locking plates or underwent percutaneous fixation. The parameters that should replace the surgeon's analysis were the fractured palmar cortex, and the frontal and the sagittal split of the articular surface of the distal radius. Results: The palmar approach was used for 422 (84.4%) fractures, the dorsal approach for 39 (7.8%), and the combined dorsopalmar approach for 30 (6.0%). Nine (1.8%) fractures were treated percutaneously. The correlation between the fractured palmar cortex and the used palmar approach was moderate (r=0.464; p<0.0001). The correlation between the frontal split and the dorsal approach, including the dorsopalmar approach, was strong (r=0.715; p<0.0001). The sagittal split had only a weak correlation for the dorsal and dorsopalmar approach (r=0.300; p<0.0001). Discussion: The study shows that the surgical decision on the preferred approach is dictated through two simple factors, even in the case of complex fractures. Conclusion: When the palmar cortex is displaced in distal radius fractures, a palmar approach should be used. When there is a displaced frontal split of the articular surface, a dorsal approach should be used. When both are present, a dorsopalmar approach should be used. These two simple parameters could replace the surgeon's analysis for the surgical approach.

  11. Neutron-star Radius Constraints from GW170817 and Future Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauswein, Andreas; Just, Oliver; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a new, powerful method to constrain properties of neutron stars (NSs). We show that the total mass of GW170817 provides a reliable constraint on the stellar radius if the merger did not result in a prompt collapse as suggested by the interpretation of associated electromagnetic emission. The radius {R}1.6 of nonrotating NSs with a mass of 1.6 {M}⊙ can be constrained to be larger than {10.68}-0.04+0.15 km, and the radius R max of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration must be larger than {9.60}-0.03+0.14 km. We point out that detections of future events will further improve these constraints. Moreover, we show that a future event with a signature of a prompt collapse of the merger remnant will establish even stronger constraints on the NS radius from above and the maximum mass M max of NSs from above. These constraints are particularly robust because they only require a measurement of the chirp mass and a distinction between prompt and delayed collapse of the merger remnant, which may be inferred from the electromagnetic signal or even from the presence/absence of a ringdown gravitational-wave (GW) signal. This prospect strengthens the case of our novel method of constraining NS properties, which is directly applicable to future GW events with accompanying electromagnetic counterpart observations. We emphasize that this procedure is a new way of constraining NS radii from GW detections independent of existing efforts to infer radius information from the late inspiral phase or post-merger oscillations, and it does not require particularly loud GW events.

  12. The Optical Green Valley Versus Mid-infrared Canyon in Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lisa May; Butterfield, Natalie; Johnson, Kelsey; Zucker, Catherine; Gallagher, Sarah; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Zabludoff, Ann; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.

    2013-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide conditions similar to those experienced by galaxies in the earlier universe. Recent work on compact groups has led to the discovery of a dearth of mid-infrared transition galaxies (MIRTGs) in Infrared Array Camera (3.6-8.0 micrometers) color space as well as at intermediate specific star formation rates. However, we find that in compact groups these MIRTGs have already transitioned to the optical ([g-r]) red sequence. We investigate the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of 99 compact groups containing 348 galaxies and compare the optical CMD with mid-infrared (mid-IR) color space for compact group galaxies. Utilizing redshifts available from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we identified new galaxy members for four groups. By combining optical and mid-IR data, we obtain information on both the dust and the stellar populations in compact group galaxies. We also compare with more isolated galaxies and galaxies in the Coma Cluster, which reveals that, similar to clusters, compact groups are dominated by optically red galaxies. While we find that compact group transition galaxies lie on the optical red sequence, LVL (Local Volume Legacy) + (plus) SINGS (Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) mid-IR (infrared) transition galaxies span the range of optical colors. The dearth of mid-IR transition galaxies in compact groups may be due to a lack of moderately star-forming low mass galaxies; the relative lack of these galaxies could be due to their relatively small gravitational potential wells. This makes them more susceptible to this dynamic environment, thus causing them to more easily lose gas or be accreted by larger members.

  13. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  14. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  15. Bringing the infrared to light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    Infrared imaging is usually done by use of infrared cameras. We present an effective alternative approach where inf