WorldWideScience

Sample records for spitzer exploration science

  1. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  2. Spitzer Science Center within an Enterprise Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, T.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center's (SSC) evolutionary development approach, coupled with a flexible, scaleable hardware and software architecture has been key in Spitzer's ability to handle an explosion of data products, evolving data definitions, and changing data quality requirements. Spitzer is generating (depending on the campaign and instrument) about 10 TB of pre-archive data every 14 to 20 days. This generally reduces to between 3 TB and 6 TB of standard products, again depending on the campaign and instrument. This paper will discuss (1) the Spitzer Science Center's responses to evolving data, quality, and processing requirements and (2) how robust or not was the original architecture to allow Spitzer to accommodate on-going change.

  3. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lyman Spitzer was one of the major figures of twentieth centurytheoretical astrophysics. Over more than fifty years,he kept up sustained research of his own, on problems concerningthe interstellar medium, star formation, and galaxies.In addition he was a major influence on observationalprogrammes, and created a thriving ...

  4. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College, Cambridge, in the academic year 1935–36. It was com- mon in those days for promising students from the United States to spend some time in England or Europe – the precise opposite of the situation today! Cambridge exposed Spitzer to the most distinguished astrophysi- cist of that time – Arthur Eddington.

  5. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 4. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  6. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Thomas, C. A.; Harris, A. W.; Hagen, A. R.; Mommert, M.; Benner, L.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed some 600 near Earth objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope. We derive the albedo and diameter for each NEO to characterize global properties of the NEO population, among other goals.

  7. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  8. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  9. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  10. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  11. Spitzer - Hot & Colorful Student Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D.; Rebull, L. M.; DeWolf, C.; Guastella, P.; Johnson, C. H.; Schaefers, J.; Spuck, T.; McDonald, J. G., III; DeWolf, T.; Brock, S.; Boerma, J.; Bemis, G.; Paulsen, K.; Yueh, N.; Peter, A.; Wassmer, W.; Haber, R.; Scaramucci, A.; Butchart, J.; Holcomb, A.; Karns, B.; Kennedy, S.; Siegel, R.; Weiser, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this poster, we present the results of several activities developed for the general science student to explore infrared light. The first activity involved measuring infrared radiation using an updated version of Newton's experiment of splitting white light and finding IR radiation. The second used Leslie's cube to allow students to observe different radiators, while the third used a modern infrared thermometer to measure and identify IR sources in an enclosed box. The last activity involved students making false-color images from narrow-band filter images from data sets from Spitzer Space Telescope, STScI Digitized Sky Survey and other sources. Using computer programs like Adobe Photoshop and free software such as ds9, Spot and Leopard, poster-like images were created by the students. This research is funded by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Please see our companion poster, Johnson et al., on the science aspect of this program, and another poster on the educational aspects, Guastella et al.

  12. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 1. January 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  13. Spitzer Spies Spectacular Sombrero

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    camera. The survey is one of the six Spitzer Legacy Science projects, designed to reveal how stars are formed in different types of galaxies, and to provide an atlas of galaxy images and spectra for future archival investigations. The Sombrero is one of 75 galaxies being observed by the survey team. In this image, blue-cyan corresponds to the Hubble visible-light view, while the Spitzer 3.6-4.5 micron light is green and 8.0 micron light is red. Starlight in this Spitzer image (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 8-micron image to enhance the visibility of the dust features. In figure 3, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has trained its sharp eye on one of the universe's most stately and photogenic galaxies, Messier 104. The galaxy's hallmark is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. This brilliant galaxy was named the Sombrero because in visible light it resembles a broad rimmed and high-topped Mexican hat. M104 is just beyond the limit of the naked eye, but is easily seen through small telescopes. It lies at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. It is one of the most massive objects in that group, equivalent to 800 billion suns. The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth. Hubble easily resolves M104's rich system of 2,000 globular clusters-believed to be 10 times as many as orbit our Milky Way galaxy. The ages of the clusters are similar to those of the clusters in the Milky Way, ranging from 10-13 billion years. A smaller disk is embedded in the bright core of M104, and is tilted relative to the large disk. X-ray emission hints that there is material falling into the compact core, where a black hole as massive as 1 billion suns resides. The Hubble Heritage Team took these observations in May

  14. Planetary Sciences and Exploration Programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has taken a number of initiatives to plan for a National. Research Programme in the area of planetary science and exploration. This announcement solicits proposals in the field of planetary science. Universities, research and educational institutions may submit proposals ...

  15. Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events

  16. The Science of Exploring Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to the science of speleology is presented. Discussed is why people explore caves--for the physical challenge, the thrill of discovery, and the joy of viewing their beauty. Cave conservation, cave biology, caving safety, and caving equipment are topics of discussion. A reading list on caves is included. (KR)

  17. The Chicago science explorers program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, E.P.; Bowen, S.P.; Myron, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    A new program has been introduced into the Chicago Public Schools to stimulate science education and career awareness. It utilizes a series of video tapes produced by Bill Kurtis (news anchor of CBS-WBBM-TV) called The New Explorers, which present profiles of scientists as people doing some very interesting things. The tapes are viewed in the classroom, the scientific principles and content discussed, and follow-up activities carried out. Among the latter, are visits to a group of partner organizations that include the museums and zoos in the Chicago area, as well as Fermilab and Argonne. Special programs have been developed at these sites to provide post-tape enhancement of the scientific experience and hands-on activities for the students. At Argonne, the students analyze various samples they bring with them by XRF and PIXE. This augments the topic of microscopic analysis depicted in the video

  18. COMETS Science. Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter S.; And Others

    COMETS Science (Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science) was developed to demonstrate to early adolescents that learning mathematics and science concepts can have payoff in a wide variety of careers and to encourage early adolescent students (grades 5-9), especially girls, to consider science-related careers. The program provides 24…

  19. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    attempts about 50 different analyses per observation, permuting different photometry aperture sizes, centering methods, and systematic models to find the best according to the standard deviation of normalized residuals and the Akaike and Bayesian Information Criteria. As a demonstration of its ease of use, two undergraduates have recently led papers based on the pipeline. The team now seeks funds for graduate student Patricio Cubillos, who is already trained and working (e.g., Cubillos et al. 2011). He will lead 1-2 secondary eclipse papers per year, based on our recent output. Three undergraduates will handle routine tasks and produce between them about one paper per year. The PI and a programmer are also supported. Our long-term goal is to produce a statistical sample of exoplanet secondary eclipses at wavelengths inaccessible to facilities other than Spitzer. These measure properties of exoplanetary atmospheres and orbits. Each planet is of significant intrinsic interest. In addition, an aggregate plot of planetary brightness vs. equilibrium temperature shows a significant jump in brightness near 2000 K. We will explore this and other results of aggregation, such as why some hot planets do or do not have thermal inversions, and under what circumstances photochemistry is important. There will be three main products from this grant: 1. Secondary eclipse analyses for 11 planets, including assessment of inversions, abundances, and thermal profiles. 2. Aggregate data analyses related to the brightness jump, which planets have thermal inversions and disequilibrium chemistry, and whether stellar metallicity, surface gravity, etc., affect the emitted fluxes. 3. Statistical enhancements to our open-source code for retrieving atmospheric composition and thermal profiles from eclipse data, using the method of Madhusudhan and Seager.

  20. Social Sciences and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

  1. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  2. Science Drivers for Polarimetric Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2017-04-01

    The versatility of polarimetric exploration is exploited to address: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. Polarized light occurs in three states: unpolarized, linear and circularized. Each mode of polarized light provides information about the scattering medium, from atmospheres to search for signatures of habitability. Spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. Linear polarization of reflected light by solar system objects provides insight into the scattering characteristics of aerosols and hazes in atmospheres and surficial properties of atmosphereless objects, circular polarization and related chirality (or handedness, a property of molecules that exhibit mirror-image symmetry, similar to right and left hands) can serve as diagnostic of biological activity. Atmospheric phenomena such as rainbows, clouds and haloes exhibit polarimetric signatures that can be used as diagnostics to probe the atmosphere and may be possible to extend this approach to other planets and exoplanets. Biological molecules exhibit an inherent handedness or circular polarization or chirality, assisting in search for the identification of astrobiological material in the solar system. Polarimetry is also utilized in the exploration of comets, asteroids, dust/regoliths. Renewed efforts for ground-based polarimetry are emerging, from probing planetary atmospheres to the study of magnetic field lines and taxonomy of asteroids. While imaging and spectroscopy are routinely performed by amateurs, there is growing interest and progress in developing polarimetric exploration amongst the amateur community, with encouraging results.I will present a review of these efforts and the goal to create a global " PACA* Polarimetry Network" of observers, modelers and instrument experts to fully

  3. Career Exploration in the Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint junior high school students with occupations in the life sciences. By identifying life science and exploring the areas of biology (ecology and zoology) and medicine, students may become aware of the functions of the people involved in these areas and the value of their work. The material in the…

  4. Science of stars exploring matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kenney, Karen Latchana

    2016-01-01

    In this engaging title, young readers learn about the different states of matter! Atoms and molecules are explained, as are elements and the periodic table. The three main states of matter solid, liquid, gas are covered, as are the properties of each and the role of energy in their changing from one form to another. These properties are illustrated by the birth and collapse of stars. The rare states of matter plasma and Bose-Einstein condensate are introduced. Colorful infographics make measuring matter, the parts of an atom, the movement of atoms and the layers of Earth's atmosphere easily accessible, and prominent contributors such as Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein are featured. A fun experiment with gas brings the science of matter to life! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Checkerboard Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  5. Exploring Social Dynamics in School Science Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Ayar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the socio-cultural practices and interactions of learning science in a science classroom within the concept of communities of practice. Our qualitative data were collected through observing, taking field notes, and conducting interviews in a public science classroom during an entire school year. The study occurred in a seventh-grade classroom with a veteran physical science teacher, with more than 10 years teaching experience, and 22 students. For this article, we presented two classroom vignettes that reflect a sample of the participation, practice, and community that was observed in the science classroom on a daily basis. The first vignette illustrated a typical formula of Initiation–Response–Feedback (I-R-F that transfers knowledge to students through a teacher-led discussion with the entire class. The second vignette described a laboratory activity designed to allow students to apply or discover knowledge through practical experience, while taking responsibility for their learning through small-group work. The normative practices and routine behaviors of the science classroom are highlighted through the description of material resources, and different modes of participation accompanied by assigned roles and responsibilities. What we observed was that laboratory activities reproduced the epistemic authority of the I-R-F rather than creating collective cognitive responsibility where students have the independence to explore and create authentic science experiences.

  6. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  7. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  8. The Science Buffet: Exploring students' images of high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Justin Jacob

    Science curriculum reform documents, as well as research in science education, call for changes in how high school science is taught and learned. In spite of these calls for change, classroom practices are still dominated by traditional science instruction. In this thesis, I report the results of a study in which I disrupted the traditional discourses of teaching and learning high school science in order to explore students' images of science and the discursive practices that shape these images. By listening to students' accounts of their school science experiences, I sought to uncover some of the implicit images of science held by students and, in doing so, to bring a fresh perspective to teaching and learning and science education. Two classes of grade twelve students were asked to keep journals to tell the story of their experiences in the many activities and assignments of a physics course. Using the journal entries, eight students were identified and asked to participate in group interviews. The interviews expanded on the details of the students' experiences, providing deep insights into the student's images of science and how these images came to be. The students' comments and journal entries were used to create a narrative entitled, "The Science Buffet" which conveys a story of the data collected through this study. Through the metaphorical thread of a buffet table, this research text presents and interprets students' experiences in the physics course using such themes as Where's The Beef?, Who Wants Dessert?, and Can I Have A Doggie Bag Please? Findings of the study suggest that high school students often have clearly defined images of school science and what it means to learn. Unfortunately, however, these images of science and learning may not coincide with what we would expect (and desire) as teachers, thus providing some insight into resistance to change in school science classrooms.

  9. Making Space Science and Exploration Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Guimond, K. A.; Hurd, D.; Heinrich, G.

    There are currently 28 million hard of hearing and deaf Americans, approximately 10 to 11 million blind and visually impaired people in North America, and more than 50 million Americans with disabilities, approximately half of whom are students. The majority of students with disabilities in the US are required to achieve the same academic levels as their non-impaired peers. Unfortunately, there are few specialized materials to help these exceptional students in the formal and informal settings. To assist educators in meeting their goals and engage the students, we are working with NASA product developers, scientists and education and outreach personnel in concert with teachers from exceptional classrooms to identify the types of materials they need and which mediums work best for the different student capabilities. Our goal is to make the wonders of space science and exploration accessible to all. As such, over the last four years we have been hosting interactive workshops, observing classroom settings, talking and working with professional educators, product developers, museum and science center personnel and parents to synthesize the most effective media and method for presenting earth and space science materials to audiences with exceptional needs. We will present a list of suggested best practices and example activities that can help engage and encourage a person with special needs to study the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  10. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  11. Space science--a fountain of exploration and discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yidong

    2014-01-01

    Space science is a major part of space activities, as well as one of the most active areas in scientific exploration today. This paper gives a brief introduction regarding the main achievements in space science involving solar physics and space physics, space astronomy, moon and planetary science, space geo- science, space life science, and micro- gravity science. At the very frontier of basic research, space science should be developed to spearhead breakthroughs in China's fundamental sciences. (author)

  12. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  13. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  14. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds. W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours. Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars. This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities. This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

  15. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-01-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in…

  16. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen

    return of Spitzer and Herschel, while addressing the purpose of the NASA ADAP call for proposals that "explore the universe beyond". This work will also guide future studies that will extend the science of MOSDEF to even higher redshifts (z>3.8) with the next generation of NASA facilities like the James Webb Space Telescope.

  17. Ocean FEST: Families Exploring Science Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Barbara C.; Wiener, Carlie; Kimura, Arthur; Kimura, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This project engages elementary school students, parents, teachers, and administrators in ocean-themed family science nights based on a proven model. Our key goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians,…

  18. Exploring the science-policy interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Justine

    2010-04-30

    The sacking of David Nutt from his position as Chair of a UK government science advisory council has thrown the interface between science and policy into sharp relief. Justine Davies takes a look behind the scenes. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring alternative assessment strategies in science classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Stears

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge children bring to the classroom or construct in the classroom may find expression in a variety of activities and is often not measurable with the traditional assessment instruments used in science classrooms. Different approaches to assessment are required to accommodate the various ways in which learners construct knowledge in social settings. In our research we attempted to determine the types of outcomes achieved in a Grade 6 classroom where alternative strategies such as interactive assessments were implemented. Analyses of these outcomes show that the learners learned much more than the tests indicate, although what they learnt was not necessarily science. The implications for assessment are clear: strategies that assess knowledge of science concepts, as well as assessment of outcomes other than science outcomes, are required if we wish to gain a holistic understanding of the learning that occurs in science classrooms.

  20. Enacting Informal Science Learning: Exploring the Battle for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…

  1. Science Data Understanding for Autonomous Rover Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous rover traversal speed and capabilities are rapidly increasing, but communications bandwidth for planetary exploration remains limited. In order to...

  2. Science and Exploration Deep Space Gateway Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a workshop whose outcome is a publically disseminated product that articulates SMD investigations and HEOMD Life Science research, including international collaborations, that are made possible by the new opportunities in space that result from the Deep Space Gateway.

  3. Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M.; Zevin, D.; Thrall, L.; Croft, S.; Raftery, C.; Shackelford, R.

    2015-11-01

    Led by U.C. Berkeley's Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory in partnership with U.C. Berkeley Astronomy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the YMCA of the Central Bay Area, Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE) is a NASA EPOESS-funded program mainly for high school students that explores NASA science through art and highlights the need for and uses of art and visualizations in science. ASPIRE's aim is to motivate more diverse young people (especially African Americans) to learn about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics and careers, via 1) Intensive summer workshops; 2) Drop-in after school workshops; 3) Astronomy visualization-focused outreach programming at public venues including a series of free star parties where the students help run the events; and 5) A website and a number of social networking strategies that highlight our youth's artwork.

  4. Exploring the Dialogic Space of Public Participation in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    in public misconceptions of science. This paper uses the dialogic space proposed by Callon et al. to explore relationships between public and science. The dialogic space spans collective versus scientific dimensions. The collective (or public) is constituted by aggregation (opinion polls) or by composition......The participatory turn in science communication embraces a range of activities and concepts, from citizen science to multistakeholder dialogue and public access to information and even juridical redress, when necessary. Public participation in science breaks with the underlying assumptions...... of public understanding of science and scientific literacy approaches: that scientific knowledge in some sense is privileged, that understanding the science will lead to appreciative attitudes toward science and technology in general, and that controversial issues involving science and the public are rooted...

  5. Exploring science educators' cosmological worldviews through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandate of the new South African curriculum for educators to enact a scienceindigenous knowledge curriculum in their classrooms is not only challenging to their cosmological beliefs, it is equally challenging to their instructional practices. This is because science educators (teachers) in South Africa have been ...

  6. Sound and music for science explorations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Vicinanza, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Resonances, periodicity, patterns and spectra: well-known notions that play crucial roles both in science and music. This short talk will focus on analysing data and their relations by translating measurements into audible signals and using the natural capability of the ear to distinguish, characterise and analyse waveform shapes, amplitudes and relations. This process is called data sonification.

  7. Exploring alternative assessment strategies in science classrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge children bring to the classroom or construct in the classroom may find expression in a variety of activities and is often not measurable with the traditional assessment instruments used in science classrooms. Different approaches to assessment are required to accommodate the various ways in which learners ...

  8. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way. Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky. The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight. Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila. Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered. This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled

  9. Explore a Career in Health Sciences Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a high school student looking toward your future education, a college student exploring the possibilities of a health-related ... from the Wanna Be Librarian blog on the importance of networking and finding a ... Program including online learning and specializations! Connect with ...

  10. High-Rate Laser Communications for Human Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B. S.; Shih, T.; Khatri, F. I.; King, T.; Seas, A.

    2018-02-01

    Laser communication links has been successfully demonstrated on recent near-Earth and lunar missions. We present a status of this development work and its relevance to a future Deep Space Gateway supporting human exploration and science activities.

  11. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies & Training for Science Exploration EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The 21st mission of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during Extravehicular Activity (EVA).The 16-day mission was conducted from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo, FL. The unique facility, authentic science objectives, and diverse skill-sets of the crew/team facilitate the planning and design for future space exploration.

  12. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  13. NASA's Desert RATS Science Backroom: Remotely Supporting Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Eppler, Dean; Gruener, John; Horz, Fred; Ming, Doug; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable. In recent years, a D-RATS science backroom has conducted science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Approaches from the Apollo, Mars Exploration Rovers and Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for these tests. In 2010, six days of lunar-analog traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. In 2011, a variety of exploration science scenarios that tested operations for a near-earth asteroid using several small exploration vehicles and a single habitat. Communications between the ground and the crew in the field used a 50-second one-way delay, while communications between crewmembers in the exploration vehicles and the habitat were instantaneous. Within these frameworks, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results. Exploration scenarios for Mars may include architectural similarities such as crew in a habitat communicating with crew in a vehicle, but significantly more autonomy will have to be given to the crew rather than step-by-step interaction with a science backroom on Earth.

  14. Exploring a Century of Advancements in the Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P. Karen; Knight, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    The past century has yielded a plethora of advancements in the science of learning, from expansions in the theoretical frames that undergird education research to cultural and contextual considerations in educational practice. The overarching purpose of this chapter is to explore and document the growth and development of the science of learning…

  15. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  16. Science Driven Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2004-01-01

    Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Fossils are not enough. We will want to determine if life on Mars was a separate genesis from life on Earth. For this determination we need to access intact martian life; possibly frozen in the deep old permafrost. Human exploration of Mars will probably begin with a small base manned by a temporary crew, a necessary first start. But exploration of the entire planet will require a continued presence on the Martian surface and the development of a self sustaining community in which humans can live and work for very long periods of time. A permanent Mars research base can be compared to the permanent research bases which several nations maintain in Antarctica at the South Pole, the geomagnetic pole, and elsewhere. In the long run, a continued human presence on Mars will be the most economical way to study that planet in detail. It is possible that at some time in the future we might recreate a habitable climate on Mars, returning it to the life-bearing state it may have enjoyed early in its history. Our studies of Mars are still in a preliminary state but everything we have learned suggests that it may be possible to restore Mars to a habitable climate. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Exploring Learning Progressions of New Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krise, Kelsy Marie

    First-, second- and third-year teachers can be considered novice teachers with a solid foundation. The beginning years of teaching are intense times for learning, in which teachers can build upon their foundational knowledge. However, traditional mentoring programs often focus on technical advice and emotional support to help teachers survive the first years. This study set out to understand new science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in order to identify how their learning progresses. Understanding teachers' ideas will allow one to think about the development of educative mentoring practices that promote the advancement of teachers' knowledge. To investigate teachers' learning progressions, the following research questions guided this study: What is the nature of pedagogical content knowledge of first-, second- and third-year science teachers at various points across the school year? To which aspects of pedagogical content knowledge do first-, second- and third-year teachers pay attention at various points across the school year? Which aspects of pedagogical content knowledge are challenging for first-, second- and third-year teachers at various points across the school year? First-, second- and third-year teachers were interviewed, observed, and their teaching artifacts were collected across the school year. Data were examined to uncover learning progressions, when ideas became more sophisticated across first-, second-, and third-year teachers. The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of how teachers' learning progresses and allows for a trajectory of learning to be described. The trajectory can be used to inform the design of university-based mentoring programs for new teachers. The descriptions of the nature of teachers' PCK and the aspects of PCK to which teachers pay attention and find challenging shed light on the support necessary to promote continued teacher learning.

  18. NEOs in the mid-infrared: from Spitzer to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2016-10-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) account for a surprisingly large fraction of the Spitzer observing time devoted to Solar System science. As a community, we should think of ways to repeat that success with JWST. JWST is planning an open Early Release Science Program, with the expected deadline for letters of intent in early 2017. We can't wait for next year's DPS to develop ideas. The time is now!In order to stir up the discussion, we will present ideas for NEO observing programs that are well adapted to JWST's capabilities and limitations, based on our recent PASP paper (Thomas et al., 2016). Obvious measurement objectives would include* size and albedo from thermal continuum (MIRI photometry)* thermal inertia for objects with well-known shape and spin state (MIRI)* taxonomy through reflection spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy in the NIR and MIR; NIR colors for faint objects.In all cases, JWST's sensitivity will allow us to go deeper than currently possible by at least an order of magnitude. Meter-sized NEOs similar to 2009 BD or 2011 MD are easy targets for MIRI spectrophotometry!The following limitations must be kept in mind, however: JWST's large size makes it slow to move. Most problematic for NEOs is probably the resulting 'speed limit': non-sidereal tracking is supported up to a rate of 30 mas/s, NEOs can easily move faster than that (ways to relax this constraint are under discussion). The average slew to a new target is budgeted to take 30 min, effectively ruling out programs many-target programs like ExploreNEOs or NEOSurvey (see D. Trilling's paper). Additionally, JWST will only observe close to quadrature, translating to large solar phase angles for NEO observations; this is familiar from other space-based IR facilities.

  19. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  20. NASA Ames and Future of Space Exploration, Science, and Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Pushing the frontiers of aeronautics and space exploration presents multiple challenges. NASA Ames Research Center is at the forefront of tackling these issues, conducting cutting edge research in the fields of air traffic management, entry systems, advanced information technology, intelligent human and robotic systems, astrobiology, aeronautics, space, earth and life sciences and small satellites. Knowledge gained from this research helps ensure the success of NASA's missions, leading us closer to a world that was only imagined as science fiction just decades ago.

  1. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    , sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

  2. Exploration Station 2010 Brings Science to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawro, Martha; Asher, Pranoti

    2011-04-01

    Exploration Station is a public outreach event held prior to the AGU Fall Meeting each year and is a joint venture between AGU and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The event features hands-on science activities for the public. This year's event was held in conjunction with the AGU public lecture given by SDO lead project scientist, Dean Pesnell. Many members of the general public attended, including families with children. They were joined by many AGU members, who also enjoyed the exhibits and explored the possible education and outreach activities available within the AGU community. Educators from across AGU were involved, but space physics and planetary sciences were especially well represented.

  3. Planetary exploration and science recent results and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2014-01-01

    This contributed monograph is the first work to present the latest results and findings on the new topic and hot field of planetary exploration and sciences, e.g., lunar surface iron content and mare orientale basalts, Earth's gravity field, Martian radar exploration, crater recognition, ionosphere and astrobiology, Comet ionosphere, exoplanetary atmospheres and planet formation in binaries. By providing detailed theory and examples, this book helps readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the field. In addition, it offers a special section on next-generation planetary exploration, which opens a new landscape for future exploration plans and missions. Prof. Shuanggen Jin works at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Dr. Nader Haghighipour works at the University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA. Prof. Wing-Huen Ip works at the National Central University, Taiwan.

  4. The science and art of simulation I exploring, understanding, knowing

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Andreas; Gehring, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The new book series “The Science and Art of Simulation” (SAS) addresses computer simulations as a scientific activity and engineering artistry (in the sense of a technē). The first volume is devoted to three topics: 1. The Art of Exploring Computer Simulations Philosophy began devoting attention to computer simulations at a relatively early stage. Since then, the unquestioned point of view has been that computer simulation is a new scientific method; the philosophy of simulation is therefore part of the philosophy of science. The first section of this volume discusses this implicit, unchallenged assumption by addressing, from different perspectives, the question of how to explore (and how not to explore) research on computer simulations. Scientists discuss what is still lacking or considered problematic, while philosophers draft new directions for research, and both examine the art of exploring computer simulations. 2. The Art of Understanding Computer Simulations The results of computer simulations are ...

  5. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Garry, W. B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K. V.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  6. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  7. Generating Youth Interest in Science Careers Through 4-H Health Science Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hutson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health Science Explorations is a Maryland 4-H Program for youth ages ten and older. Hospital-based multi-day summer sessions and clubs that meet regularly, enable youth to interact with health care professionals in authentic medical settings. The program introduces youth to local health career opportunities, fosters science literacy and interest in science careers, and teaches healthy lifestyle practices. The authors share strategies to guide other educators through the process of developing their own science career exploration programs.

  8. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies and Training for Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T.; Young, K.; Coan, D.; Merselis, D.; Bellantuono, A.; Dougan, K.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Nedimyer, K.; Chappell, S.; Beaton, K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The 21st mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational field test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during extravehicular activity (EVA). The mission was conducted in July 2016 from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. An international crew of eight (comprised of NASA and ESA astronauts, engineers, medical personnel, and habitat technicians) lived and worked in and around Aquarius and its surrounding reef environment for 16 days. The integrated testing (both interior and exterior objectives) conducted from this unique facility continues to support current and future human space exploration endeavors. Expanding on the scientific and operational evaluations conducted during NEEMO 20, the 21st NEEMO mission further incorporated a diverse Science Team comprised of planetary geoscientists from the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES/XI) Division from the Johnson Space Center, marine scientists from the Department of Biological Sciences at Florida International University (FIU) Integrative Marine Genomics and Symbiosis (IMaGeS) Lab, and conservationists from the Coral Restoration Foundation. The Science Team worked in close coordination with the long-standing EVA operations, planning, engineering, and research components of NEEMO in all aspects of mission planning, development, and execution.

  9. Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

    2010-01-01

    Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

  10. Through the Back Door: Exploring the Science of Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Urges music educators to use activity-based instruction as opposed to more traditional methods. Provides two lesson plans for middle school students where they learn about musical instruments in an integrated science and music environment that promotes concept formation and the exploration of the role of culture in music-making. (CMK)

  11. SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MID-IR LIGHT CURVES OF NEPTUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences and Astrobiology Division, MS245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division (690.0), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H. [University of California, Department of Astronomy, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 μ m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 μ m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 μ m) and W2 (4.6 μ m) from the Wide-feld Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )/ NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010–2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler / K 2 in the visible (amplitude ∼0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude ∼0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune’s atmosphere than for K 2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune’s atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 μ m filters.

  12. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quotes are because this is not a steady downward journey but a slight bias in the collisions which ultimately results in a shrinking of the orbit. At some stage ... Another important work with Schwarzschild was motivated by the observation that older stars seemed to have higher random ve- locities. This was attributed to ...

  13. Exploring inductive risk case studies of values in science

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Science is the most reliable means available for understanding the world around us and our place in it. But, since science draws conclusions based on limited empirical evidence, there is always a chance that a scientific inference will be incorrect. That chance, known as inductive risk, is endemic to science. Though inductive risk has always been present in scientific practice, the role of values in responding to it has only recently gained extensive attention from philosophers, scientists, and policy-makers. Exploring Inductive Risk brings together a set of eleven concrete case studies with the goals of illustrating the pervasiveness of inductive risk, assisting scientists and policymakers in responding to it, and moving theoretical discussions of this phenomenon forward. The case studies range over a wide variety of scientific contexts, including the drug approval process, high energy particle physics, dual-use research, climate science, research on gender disparities in employment, clinical trials, and to...

  14. Exploring the epididymis: a personal perspective on careers in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry T Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Science is a profession of inquiry. We ask ourselves what is it we see and why our observations happen the way they do. Answering those two question puts us in the company of those early explorers, who from Europe found the New World, and from Asia reached west to encounter Europe. Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Spain was such an explorer. He was the first European to see or "discover" the Pacific Ocean. One can imagine his amazement, his excitement when he first saw from a mountain top that vast ocean previously unknown to his culture. A career in science sends each of us seeking our own "Balboa Moments," those observations or results that surprise or even amaze us, those discoveries that open our eyes to new views of nature and medicine. Scientists aim to do what those early explorers did: discover what has previously been unknown, see what has previously been unseen, and reveal what has previously been hidden. Science requires the scientist to discover the facts from among many fictions and to separate the important facts from the trivial so that knowledge can be properly developed. It is only with knowledge that old dogmas can be challenged and corrected. Careers in science produce specific sets of knowledge. When pooled with other knowledge sets they eventually contribute to wisdom and it is wisdom, we hope, that will improve the human condition.

  15. Agile Science Operations: A New Approach for Primitive Exploration Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.; Thompson, David R.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Mclaren, David

    2012-01-01

    Primitive body exploration missions such as potential Comet Surface Sample Return or Trojan Tour and Rendezvous would challenge traditional operations practices. Earth-based observations would provide only basic understanding before arrival and many science goals would be defined during the initial rendezvous. It could be necessary to revise trajectories and observation plans to quickly characterize the target for safe, effective observations. Detection of outgassing activity and monitoring of comet surface activity are even more time constrained, with events occurring faster than round-trip light time. "Agile science operations" address these challenges with contingency plans that recognize the intrinsic uncertainty in the operating environment and science objectives. Planning for multiple alternatives can significantly improve the time required to repair and validate spacecraft command sequences. When appropriate, time-critical decisions can be automated and shifted to the spacecraft for immediate access to instrument data. Mirrored planning systems on both sides of the light-time gap permit transfer of authority back and forth as needed. We survey relevant science objectives, identifying time bottlenecks and the techniques that could be used to speed missions' reaction to new science data. Finally, we discuss the results of a trade study simulating agile observations during flyby and comet rendezvous scenarios. These experiments quantify instrument coverage of key surface features as a function of planning turnaround time. Careful application of agile operations techniques can play a significant role in realizing the Decadal Survey plan for primitive body exploration

  16. Exploring social networks of municipal science education stakeholders in Danish Science Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane

    involved in science education development. These municipal science education networks (MSE networks) were identified as important for development of science education in the SM project. Therefore, it was a key interest to explore these networks in order to investigate how the central stakeholders affected...... development in the science and technology industry. Therefore, much effort has been invested to improve science education. The importance of school external stakeholders in development of education has been an increasingly emphasised, also in the field of science education. This has led to a growing focus...... on how conditions and structures in municipalities affect the development. Projects aiming at the municipal arena have thus been initiated and the Danish Science Municipality Project (SM project) was such a project. Part of the SM project was to create networks connecting different municipal stakeholder...

  17. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  18. Exploring Connections Between Earth Science and Biology - Interdisciplinary Science Activities for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.

    2009-05-01

    To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers

  19. Exploration Science Opportunities for Students within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brad; Minafra, Joseph; Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on exploration science related to near-term human exploration targets, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and education and public outreach. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the public through education and outreach efforts in addition to forming new interdisciplinary, scientific collaborations.SSERVI provides opportunities for students to bridge the scientific and generational gap currently existing in the planetary exploration field. This bridge is essential to the continued international success of scientific, as well as human and robotic, exploration.The decline in funding opportunities after the termination of the Apollo missions to the Moon in the early 1970's produced a large gap in both the scientific knowledge and experience of the original lunar Apollo researchers and the resurgent group of young lunar/NEA researchers that have emerged within the last 15 years. One of SSERVI's many goals is to bridge this gap through the many networking and scientific connections made between young researchers and established planetary principle investigators. To this end, SSERVI has supported the establishment of NextGen Lunar Scientists and Engineers group (NGLSE), a group of students and early-career professionals designed to build experience and provide networking opportunities to its members. SSERVI has also created the LunarGradCon, a scientific conference dedicated solely to graduate and undergraduate students working in the lunar field. Additionally, SSERVI produces monthly seminars and bi-yearly virtual workshops that introduce students to the wide variety of exploration science being performed in today's research labs. SSERVI also brokers opportunities for domestic and international student exchange between collaborating laboratories as well as internships at our member institutions. SSERVI provides a

  20. Qualitative exploration of centralities in municipal science education networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    are diverse and in order to understand how municipal stakeholders may support such development, we explored four different municipal science education networks (MSE networks) using three different measures of centrality. The centrality measures differed in terms of what kind of stakeholder functions...... they expressed as well and thereby how they contributed to social capital in the MSE networks. We found that the central stakeholders comprised a small core of key people that always included MSE coordinators. These results imply that few central people in MSE networks play pivotal roles in development...... of science education, especially if they are aware of their own centrality and are able to use their position intentionally for the benefit of science education....

  1. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  2. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Schmidt, G. K.; Bailey, B. E.; Minafra, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration, and was created to enable a deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies. SSERVI is supported jointly by NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The institute currently focuses on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, but the institute goals may expand, depending on NASA's needs, in the future. The 9 initial teams, selected in late 2013 and funded from 2014-2019, have expertise across the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences. Their research includes various aspects of the surface, interior, exosphere, near-space environments, and dynamics of these bodies. NASA anticipates a small number of additional teams to be selected within the next two years, with a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) likely to be released in 2016. Calls for proposals are issued every 2-3 years to allow overlap between generations of institute teams, but the intent for each team is to provide a stable base of funding for a five year period. SSERVI's mission includes acting as a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships. The SSERVI central office is located at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. The administrative staff at the central office forms the organizational hub for the domestic and international teams and enables the virtual collaborative environment. Interactions with geographically dispersed teams across the U.S., and global partners, occur easily and frequently in a collaborative virtual environment. This poster will provide an overview of the 9 current US teams and

  3. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  4. Looking in a science classroom: exploring possibilities of creative cultural divergence in science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alex; Chen, Hsiao-Lan Sharon

    2012-03-01

    Worldwide proliferation of pedagogical innovations creates expanding potential in the field of science education. While some teachers effectively improve students' scientific learning, others struggle to achieve desirable student outcomes. This study explores a Taiwanese science teacher's ability to effectively enhance her students' science learning. The authors visited a Taipei city primary school class taught by an experienced science teacher during a 4-week unit on astronomy, with a total of eight, 90-minute periods. Research methods employed in this study included video capture of each class as well as reflective interviews with the instructor, eliciting the teacher's reflection upon both her pedagogical choices and the perceived results of these choices. We report that the teacher successfully teaches science by creatively diverging from culturally generated educational expectations. Although the pedagogical techniques and ideas enumerated in the study are relevant specifically to Taiwan, creative cultural divergence might be replicated to improve science teaching worldwide.

  5. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  6. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James M., E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  7. FINESSE Spaceward Bound - Teacher Engagement in NASA Science and Exploration Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. J. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Sheely, T.; Karlin, J.; Johnson, S.; Rosemore, A.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars. The FINESSE science program is infused with leading edge exploration concepts since "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." The FINESSE education and public outreach program leverages the team's field investigations and educational partnerships to share the excitement of lunar, Near Earth Asteroid, and martian moon science and exploration locally, nationally, and internationally. The FINESSE education plan is in line with all of NASA's Science Mission Directorate science education objectives, particularly to enable STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and leverage efforts through partnerships.

  8. Parallel MOPEX: Computing Mosaics of Large-Area Spitzer Surveys on a Cluster Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spitzer Science Center's MOPEX software is a part of the Spitzer Space Telescope's operational pipeline that enables detection of cosmic ray collisions with the detector array, masking of the corrupted pixels due to these collisions, subsequent mosaicking of image fields, and extraction of point sources to create catalogs of celestial objects. This paper reports on our experiences in parallelizing the parts of MOPEX related to cosmic ray rejection and mosaicking on a 1,024-processor cluster computer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The architecture and performance of the new Parallel MOPEX software are described. This work was done in order to rapidly mosaic the IRAC shallow survey data, covering a region of the sky observed with one of Spitzer's infrared instruments for the study of galaxy clusters, large-scale structure, and brown dwarfs.

  9. Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge obtained by space life sciences will play a pivotal role as humankind reaches out to explore the solar system. Information is needed concerning the existence of life beyond the Earth, the potential interactions between planets and living organisms, and the possibilities for humans to inhabit space safely and productively. Programs in the involved disciplines are an integral part of NASA's current and future missions. To realize their objectives, the development and operation of diverse ground and flight facilities and clost coordination with numerous scientific and governmental organizations in the U.S. and abroad are required. The status and goals of the life sciences programs are examined. Ways and means for attaining these goals are suggested.

  10. Exploring the Art and Science of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    There has been much discussion of late in the NASA systems engineering community about the fact that systems engineering cannot be just about process and technical disciplines. The belief is that there is both an art and science to systems engineering, and that both aspects are necessary for designing and implementing a successful system or mission. How does one go about differentiating between and characterizing these two aspects? Some say that the art of systems engineering is about designing systems that not only function well, but that are also elegant, beautiful and engaging. What does that mean? How can you tell when a system has been designed with that holistic "art" component? This paper attempts to answer these questions by exploring various ways of looking at the Art and Science of Systems Engineering.

  11. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2016-10-01

    Established in 2013, through joint funding from the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on science at the intersection of these two enterprises. Addressing questions of value to the human exploration program that also represent important research relevant to planetary science, SSERVI creates a bridge between HEOMD and SMD. The virtual institute model reduces travel costs, but its primary virtue is the ability to join together colleagues who bring the right expertise, techniques and tools, regardless of their physical location, to address multi-faceted problems, at a deeper level than could be achieved through the typical period of smaller research grants. In addition, collaboration across team lines and international borders fosters the creation of new knowledge, especially at the intersections of disciplines that might not otherwise overlap.SSERVI teams investigate the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars, addressing questions fundamental to these target bodies and their near space environments. The institute is currently composed of nine U.S. teams of 30-50 members each, distributed geographically across the United States, ten international partners, and a Central Office located at NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, CA. U.S. teams are competitively selected through peer-reviewed proposals submitted to NASA every 2-3 years, in response to a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN). The current teams were selected under CAN-1, with funding for five years (2014-2019). A smaller, overlapping set of teams are expected to be added in 2017 in response to CAN-2, thereby providing continuity and a firm foundation for any directional changes NASA requires as the CAN-1 teams end their term. This poster describes the research areas and composition of the institute to introduce SSERVI to the broader planetary

  12. Space Manifold Dynamics Novel Spaceways for Science and Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Perozzi, Ettore

    2010-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the outcomes resulting from applying the dynamical systems approach to space mission design, a topic referred to as "Space Manifold Dynamics" (SMD). It is a natural follow-on to the international workshop "Novel Spaceways for Scientific and Exploration Missions," which was held in October 2007 at the Telespazio Fucino Space Centre (Italy) under the auspices of the Space OPS Academy. The benefits and drawbacks of using the Lagrangian points and the associated trajectories for present and future space missions are discussed. The related methods and algorithms are also described in detail. Each topic is presented in articles that were written as far as possible to be self consistent; the use of introductory sections and of extended explanations is included in order to address the different communities potentially interested in SMD: space science, the aerospace industry, manned and unmanned exploration, celestial mechanics, and flight dynamics.

  13. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real...

  14. The Accuracy of the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo', M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with IRAC as part of our on-going (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ("ExploreNEOs"), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall

  15. Bulk Densities of Binary Asteroids from the Warm Spitzer NEO Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, John; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazo, G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Warm Spitzer NEO survey, ExploreNEOs, will observe approximately 700 Near Earth Asteroids. Several of these objects are known to be binary asteroid systems. Binary systems are interesting due to the unique opportunity they present for determining the masses and densities of their constituent

  16. Sailing the Planets: Science from Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, K.; Pankine, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the past 50 years planetary exploration has evolved from being a subject of science fiction to a multi-billion dollar activity that embraces numerous branches of science, engineering and government on several continents, affects national policies and excites the public. The development of new observational platforms - orbiters, landers and rovers - has been central to successful exploration of the planets. The maturing of planetary exploration suggests that a unifying approach to planetary exploration - one that would reduce costs and facilitate discovery - is needed. Global Aerospace Corporation under funding from the NASA institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is developing a concept for planetary exploration architecture that would provide such an approach. At the core of the architecture are the Directed Aerial Robot Explorer (DARE) platforms, which are autonomous balloons with path guidance capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature robotic probes over multiple target areas. These platforms will observe planets in concert with orbiter(s) and surface platforms (landers and rovers) on global scales continuously for several years. Due to their relatively low cost and low power consumption balloons represent a very attractive platform for planetary exploration. Indeed, the successful Venera-Vega Project demonstrated technical feasibility of deploying a balloon on another planet and the wealth of opportunities presented by a balloon platform for planetary atmospheric and surface studies. Concepts for planetary balloon exploration of Mars, Venus, Titan and the Outer Planets have been studied. The DARE architecture revolutionizes these early concepts by providing the balloon, for the first time, a means of flight path control and autonomous navigation, and by integrating the balloon platform with innovative lightweight microprobes. In addition, DARE platforms can make concurrent observations with other observational platforms leading to a revolutionary

  17. A Case Study Exploring Science Competence and Science Confidence of Middle School Girls from Marginalized Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is…

  18. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; Jong, R. S. de; Gawiser, E.; Hopp, U.

    2016-01-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc 3 at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  19. An exploration of middle school science teachers' understandings and teaching practice of science as inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Margaret Ann

    understanding of science increases (Akkus, Gunel & Hand, 2007; Gibson, 2002; Liu, Lee & Linn, 2010). As a result, it is important to explore middle school science teachers' definition of science as inquiry because of its importance in how their understandings are reflected in their practice. Researchers must witness, first- hand, what is taking place in middle school science classrooms with respect to the teaching of scientific inquiry before recommendations for improvements can be made. We must also allow opportunities for middle school science teachers to broach, examine, explore, interpret and report implementation strategies when practicing the elements of scientific inquiry as a science content area. It then stands to reason that more research needs to be done to: (1) assess teachers' knowledge related to reform-based teaching, (2) investigate teachers' views about the goals and purposes of inquiry, and (3) investigate the processes by which teachers carry out SI and motivation for undertaking such a complex and difficult to manage form of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine middle school science teachers' understandings and skills related to scientific inquiry; how those understandings and skills were translated into classroom practice, and the role the school district played in the development of such understandings and skills.

  20. Exploring the classroom: Teaching science in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.N. DEJONCKHEERE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tested and integrated the effects of an inquiry-based didactic method for preschool science in a real practical classroom setting. Four preschool classrooms participated in the experiment (N= 57 and the children were 4–6 years old. In order to assess children’s attention for causal events and their understanding at the level of scientific reasoning skills, we designed a simple task in which a need for information gain was created. Compared to controls, children in the post-test showed significant learning gains in the development of the so-called control of variables strategy. Indeed, they executed more informative and less uninformative explorations during their spontaneous play. Furthermore, the importance of such programmes was discussed in the field of STEM education.

  1. Explaining superfoods: exploring metaphor scenarios in media science reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Breeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metaphorical language plays an important role in spreading and popularising scientific information. However, little is known about the process through which sober scientific research is transformed into colourful or even sensational news. This paper examines the main metaphor scenarios used to explain nutritional discoveries, generally related to the overarching metaphors of “combat” and “maintenance”, and explores how they are developed and distributed across institutional press releases, online news reports, and magazines/blogs. Most of the metaphor scenarios seem to arise first in the press release, but these are considerably extended and embellished by the other media. Only occasionally are new metaphor scenarios engaged, which reflect societal discourses concerning science and nutrition.

  2. An exploration of factors that influence student engagement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Valerie J.

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that influence student engagement in science. Increases in student engagement positively correlate to improved student achievement. This study targeted the lack of clarity regarding the relationships between the complexity of instructional objectives, teacher self-efficacy, past achievement, student grade level, and student engagement. This correlational design method uses a quantitative approach that includes observations of student engagement levels and a student self-report survey of engagement, as indicators of student engagement levels. A multiple regression analysis of each measure of student engagement instruments determine the influence of each variable to student engagement. Influencing student engagement would be a valuable tool for educators in designing student intervention and improving student achievement.

  3. Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR conference

  4. Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas

    Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years [1-3]. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR

  5. Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

  6. Spitzer secondary eclipses of Qatar-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Previous secondary eclipse observations of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b in the Ks band suggest that it may have an unusually high day side temperature, indicative of minimal heat redistribution. There have also been indications that the orbit may be slightly eccentric, possibly forced by another planet in the system. We investigate the day side temperature and orbital eccentricity using secondary eclipse observations with Spitzer. Methods: We observed the secondary eclipse with Spitzer/IRAC in subarray mode, in both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelengths. We used pixel-level decorrelation to correct for Spitzer's intra-pixel sensitivity variations and thereby obtain accurate eclipse depths and central phases. Results: Our 3.6 μm eclipse depth is 0.149 ± 0.051% and the 4.5 μm depth is 0.273 ± 0.049%. Fitting a blackbody planet to our data and two recent Ks band eclipse depths indicates a brightness temperature of 1506 ± 71 K. Comparison to model atmospheres for the planet indicates that its degree of longitudinal heat redistribution is intermediate between fully uniform and day-side only. The day side temperature of the planet is unlikely to be as high (1885 K) as indicated by the ground-based eclipses in the Ks band, unless the planet's emergent spectrum deviates strongly from model atmosphere predictions. The average central phase for our Spitzer eclipses is 0.4984 ± 0.0017, yielding e cos ω = -0.0028 ± 0.0027. Our results are consistent with a circular orbit, and we constrain e cos ω much more strongly than has been possible with previous observations. Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A55

  7. Internship training in computer science: Exploring student satisfaction levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ghaith M

    2017-08-01

    The requirement of employability in the job market prompted universities to conduct internship training as part of their study plans. There is a need to train students on important academic and professional skills related to the workplace with an IT component. This article describes a statistical study that measures satisfaction levels among students in the faculty of Information Technology and Computer Science in Jordan. The objective of this study is to explore factors that influence student satisfaction with regards to enrolling in an internship training program. The study was conducted to gather student perceptions, opinions, preferences and satisfaction levels related to the program. Data were collected via a mixed method survey (surveys and interviews) from student-respondents. The survey collects demographic and background information from students, including their perception of faculty performance in the training poised to prepare them for the job market. Findings from this study show that students expect internship training to improve their professional and personal skills as well as to increase their workplace-related satisfaction. It is concluded that improving the internship training is crucial among the students as it is expected to enrich their experiences, knowledge and skills in the personal and professional life. It is also expected to increase their level of confidence when it comes to exploring their future job opportunities in the Jordanian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  9. Preliminary exploration and thought of promoting library science Indigenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenping; Du Jingling

    2014-01-01

    The article explains the significance of Library Science Indigenization, Answer some misunderstanding of Library Science Indigenization,reveals express form of Library Science Indigenization, Discusses criteria of Library Science Indigenization, finally give some suggestions and methods of Library Science Indigenization. (authors)

  10. New Age of Exploration: A View from a Science Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Z.

    2012-09-01

    We present an auxiliary frame for planetary science outreach, based especially on historical parallels and analogues. The general aim is to create and further cultivate a broader public support for integrated planetary exploration (i.e., one which uses both interplanetary probes/orbital observatories and ground instruments). The main approach consist of a series of a quite limited units of information, consisting of a unifying background narration and short stories illustrating specific points. These units could come in two versions, one emphasizing the visual side (static photos, static drawings, animations, videos), something as movie-like trailers for a wide use, including their upload to YouTube, the other emphasizing the narration itself in voice or textual form. These presentations should be scientifically rigorous, both factually and contextually, but will make use of "showbusiness" and "marketing" features, in a better sense of these terms. Both versions will support interactiveness. The main point stressed is an extensive set of similarities between The Age of Exploration here on Earth (15th-19th century) on the one side and the present era of direct and indirect solar system exploration and a new dimension introduced by exoplanet discoveries on the other. The parallel/analogue approach is developed step by step, from early Portuguese explorers of the coast of West Africa (with mentions of ancient cases, represented, for example, by Phoenician and Greek colonisations of the Mediterranean. The consequences of the Age of Exploration benefited Europe enormously. The same could be expected form its modern space counterpart, as it has been demonstrated by a number of industrial outcomes from the Apollo Project. The relevant storytelling will highlight also mysteries and riddles (preserving sciece approach), like martian methane and probable ocean on Europa. The information units will be oriented towards the members of public, but keeping in mind psychology and

  11. A case study exploring science competence and science confidence of middle school girls from marginalized backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yeni Violeta

    The inclusion of learners from underrepresented background in biology field research experiences has not been widely explored in the literature. Increased access and equity to experiences for groups historically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been identified as a priority for many, yet little is known about the components these experiences should have and what types of transformations participants undergo as a result of these experiences. This dissertation explored the systemic creation of an intervention purposely designed to serve middle school girls from underrepresented backgrounds, the implementation of such intervention, and effect on the girls' science competence and science confidence. El Espejo, Spanish for "The Mirror," was an ongoing field ecology research program for middle schools girls founded in 2009 at a local interdisciplinary learning center. Girls from all walks of life had the opportunity to be apprentice researchers and to work with scientists and science educators from the local community. All activities were strategically designed to promote student-led inquiry, career awareness, cultural awareness, and opportunities for research and mentorship for girls from underrepresented backgrounds. An increased understanding of if, how, and why this experience was perceived by the girls to be life changing was of importance to add to the conversations that seek ways to inspire and prepare this generation of students to be the next generation of scientists. The study built on systems theory, and on theories that were embedded in the participants' system: critical race theory, identity theory, and experiential learning theory, grounded in the context of the lived experiences of girls from underrepresented backgrounds. The girls' experiences were captured through journals, observer participant notes, photo-documentation, artifacts (posters, videos) created by the girls, and by using science perception

  12. New Results from Spitzer's Journey Through The Earth's Resonant Ring: 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sumita; Grogan, K.; Bhattacharya, B.; Reach, W. T.

    2006-09-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, in its solar orbit, has been drifting away from the Earth - enabling it to trace a path through the Earth's Resonant Ring, specifically, traverse through the resonant dust cloud that follows the Earth. The dust cloud causes the mid-infrared flux in the sky to be higher in the trailing direction when viewed from the Earth. After launch, Spitzer has slowly entered into the dust cloud and has crossed over the peak dust density of the trailing dust cloud. This causes a change in the trailing/leading asymmetry in the background flux. Eventually the leading flux will be higher as Spitzer views the cloud from the opposite side at the end of the mission. We have designed a zodiacal background monitoring program for the ecliptic and north and south ecliptic poles to obtain absolutely calibrated data in the MIPS total power mode. This program includes observations from 2004 to 2006 and will continue into the next observation cycle. We present new results measuring the change in the zodiacal background radiation at 24 microns in combination with science calibration observation observations from IRAC during this period. Further comparison of the multi-wavelength measurements to models shows the detailed ring structure and the provide estimates of the ring dust density in the Resonant Ring. We would like to thank NASA/JPL for funding this program through the Spitzer GO Cycle. We would also like to thank the Spitzer Science Center for helping us to schedule the individual solar system observations after the MIPS campaign dates are fixed and contributing the IRAC calibration observations.

  13. Radio Aurora Explorer: Mission science and radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcivan, H.; Cutler, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellite is the first of several satellites funded under the NSF CubeSat-based Space Weather and Atmospheric Research Program. RAX is a ground-to-space bi-static radar remote sensing experiment designed to measure and understand the causes of meter-scale ionospheric irregularities. Also known as field-aligned irregularities (FAI), such non-thermal, coherent fluctuations of electron density occur in response to strong ionospheric flows or plasma density gradients during geomagnetic disturbances and are considered a space weather concern due to disruption to communication and navigation signals. The RAX CubeSat was launched in November 2010 and conducted a single experiment in coordination with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar. Due to geophysical inactivity, e.g., lack of strong ionospheric electric fields and low ionospheric densities, no FAI were expected or observed. However, the radar receiver payload operation was successfully demonstrated, including the capability to sense signals as low as -110 dBm, the capability of transmitter-receiver synchronization and accurate ranging, processing of 1.2 GB of raw radar data on board in less than 1 hour, and the downlink of the science results within three-four passes. Analysis of the payload data shows that the noise level is sufficiently low. Although the interference level is a concern, it does not appear to significantly limit the measurements. Toward the end of December 2010, the solar power system gradually degraded and the mission terminated in early February 2011 after prolonged loss of contact with the satellite. Meanwhile, RAX II was launched in October 2011 to a polar orbit. This paper describes the RAX science and radar system and presents the results from the first experiment conducted.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Infrared Astrophysics with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role that carbon-rich plays in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the possible existence of an abundant population of large, carbon-rich molecules in the ISM was unthinkable. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - shockingly large molecules by the standards of traditional interstellar chemistry -are recognized throughout the Universe. In this presentation, we will examine the current state of the interstellar PAH model and explore how this data, in conjunction with the unparalleled observational data provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope, can be used to draw ever-deeper insights into the physical and chemical natures of a wide range of astrophysical environments.

  15. Science Enabling Exploration: Using LRO to Prepare for Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Stopar, J. D.; Speyerer, E. J.; Petro, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries from LRO have transformed our understanding of the Moon, but LRO's instruments were originally designed to collect the measurements required to enable future lunar surface exploration. A high lunar exploration priority is the collection of new samples and their return to Earth for comprehensive analysis. The importance of sample return from South Pole-Aitken is well-established [Jolliff et al., this conference], but there are numerous other locations where sample return will yield important advances in planetary science. Using new LRO data, we have defined an achievability envelope based on the physical characteristics of successful lunar landing sites. Those results were then used to define 1km x 1km regions of interest where sample return could be executed, including: the basalt flows in Oceanus Procellarum (22.1N, 53.9W), the Gruithuisen Domes (36.1N, 39.7W), the Dewar cryptomare (2.2S, 166.8E), the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit (24.8N, 48.5W), the Sulpicius Gallus formation (19.9N, 10.3E), the Sinus Aestuum pyroclastic deposit (5.2N, 9.2W), the Compton-Belkovich volcanic complex (61.5N, 99.9E), the Ina Irregular Mare Patch (18.7N, 5.3E), and the Marius Hills volcanic complex (13.4N, 55.9W). All of these locations represent safe landing sites where sample returns are needed to advance our understanding of the evolution of the lunar interior and the timescales of lunar volcanism. If LRO is still active when any future mission reaches the surface, LRO's capability to rapidly place surface activities into broader geologic context will provide operational advantages. LRO remains a unique strategic asset that continues to address the needs of future missions.

  16. Of Responsible Research--Exploring the Science-Society Dialogue in Undergraduate Training within the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in…

  17. Data and Science: GES DISC Users' Data Usage and Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, C. L.; Greene, M.; Acker, J. G.; Lei, G. D.; Al-Jazrawi, A. F.; Meyer, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Motivation: Recall the arguably most renowned anecdote in the history of science: the young Isaac Newton was hit on his head by a falling apple (the data!) when he sat in his garden, which inspired Newton's brilliant insight and his eventually understanding and demonstrating of gravitational force (the science!). This well-known "coupling" of "data" and "science" can be considered as the trigger for this study (as well as its title). The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided massive amounts of Earth science data, information, and services to diverse research communities and the general public for decades. How much those data products from different missions or projects have been used by diverse user communities, as well as how they have been used by our various user categories (such as research scientists, applications scientists, general public, and students) for different science research or/and applications are the primary focus of this study. We have performed an integrated analysis on "data usage" vs. "science research/application" by investigating three different, yet related, groups of records, i.e., user Help Tickets (the questions and feedback from the users), user publications (info acquired especially via users' acknowledgments of using Giovanni, our powerful in-house visualization tool, in their papers), and user metrics (the collected information of data and service usage by the users) in recent years (2013-2017). For example, precipitation, hydrology, and atmospheric chemistry have been found as frequently applied science variables or/and science areas that have been exploited or/and explored by the users based on the user tickets we have analyzed so far. With regard to Giovanni, a significant minority of the users are applications users (air quality, water quality, agriculture, natural disasters, etc.) in contrast to the majority of basic research users. More users employ Giovanni as an adjunct data

  18. Wonder-LAND : A Tangible Mixed-Reality Book System For Explorative Learning in Science

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yedan

    2017-01-01

    Every child is born a scientist, with curiosity to explore the environment through experimentation. However, in practice, science education still very focuses on transmitting facts instead of encouraging personal exploration. Conducting science exploration in a classroom can be complicated for kids and limited by safety, money and laboratory infrastructure. But what if we could create a middle ground between science and fiction, a world where kids discover and experiment in ways that could be...

  19. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  20. New Software for Ensemble Creation in the Spitzer-Space-Telescope Operations Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Russ; Rector, John

    2004-01-01

    Some of the computer pipelines used to process digital astronomical images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope require multiple input images, in order to generate high-level science and calibration products. The images are grouped into ensembles according to well documented ensemble-creation rules by making explicit associations in the operations Informix database at the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). The advantage of this approach is that a simple database query can retrieve the required ensemble of pipeline input images. New and improved software for ensemble creation has been developed. The new software is much faster than the existing software because it uses pre-compiled database stored-procedures written in Informix SPL (SQL programming language). The new software is also more flexible because the ensemble creation rules are now stored in and read from newly defined database tables. This table-driven approach was implemented so that ensemble rules can be inserted, updated, or deleted without modifying software.

  1. Exploring ``Science As Culture'' Through The European Science Museums Astronomy And Museum Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelingou, Dimitra; Varga, Benedek; Czár, Katalin; Sircar, Seema; Paterson, Allan; Lindsay, Lilian; Watson, Andy; Croly, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Hellenic Physical Society is a scientific association with an intensive action in the field of education, which is governed by the philosophy that the relationship between science and society must be interactive. For this reason the Hellenic Physical Society is a partner of the European Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Project/Learning Partnerships, tilted: Exploring ``Science as Culture'' through the European Science Museums. The program numbered 07-GRCO1-GR04-00025-1 constitutes an educational collaboration between the Semmelweis Museum Library and archives of the History of Medicine of Hungary, which is the co-ordinator of the project, the Hellenic Physical Society (Greece) and the Aberdeen City Council Strategic Leadership of United Kingdom. During the first year that the european project was conducted, the Physics Museum of the greek aegean island of Chios, in collaboration with the Second Chance School of Chios, also took part. During the academic year 2008-2009, the Second Chance School of the Koridallos Prison of Athens is also taking part. The basic ideas, the design axes and the first results of the Grundtvig project will be developed in this presentation. This european partnership creates an educational programme consisting of science-related activities (such as seminars, lectures, presentations and in situ experimental activities), and prepares appropriate educational material for lifelong science learning, using innovative teaching methodologies and the European science museums' exhibits participating in this project, by making them centres of significant cultural contribution to science and society. Using the integrated approach of astronomy teaching as the central design axe in this programme, we highlight the cultural aspects of science education. From our educational intervention we develop educational tools for astronomy suitable for distance learning and making use of new technologies. The partnership is addressed to different age groups: museum

  2. Stimulating Public Interest in Lunar Exploration and Enhancing Science Literacy Through Library Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S.; Nelson, B.; Stockman, S.; Weir, H.; Carter, B.; Bleacher, L.

    2008-07-01

    Libraries are vibrant learning places, seeking partners in science programming. LPI's Explore! program offers a model for public engagement in lunar exploration in libraries, as shown by materials created collaboratively with the LRO E/PO team.

  3. Lightweight rovers for Mars science exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Sword, Lee F.; Ganino, A. J.; Bickler, Donald B.; Hickey, G. S.; Brown, D. K.; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Matthies, Larry H.; Wilcox, Brian H.; Balch, T.; Aghazarian, H.; Garrett, M. S.

    1997-09-01

    We report on the development of new mobile robots for Mars exploration missions. These 'lightweight survivable rover (LSR)' systems are of potential interest to both space and terrestrial applications, and are distinguished from more conventional designs by their use of new composite materials, collapsible running gear, integrated thermal-structural chassis, and other mechanical features enabling improved mobility and environmental robustness at reduced mass, volume, and power. Our first demonstrated such rover architecture, LSR-1, introduces running gear based on 2D composite struts and 3D machined composite joints, a novel collapsible hybrid composite-aluminum wheel design, a unit-body structural- thermal chassis with improved internal temperature isolation and stabilization, and a spot-pushbroom laser/CCD sensor enabling accurate, fast hazard detection and terrain mapping. LSR-1 is an approximately .7 $MIL 1.0 meter(Lambda) 2(W X L) footprint six-wheel (20 cm dia.) rocker-bogie geometry vehicle of approximately 30 cm ground clearance, weighing only 7 kilograms with an onboard .3 kilogram multi-spectral imager and spectroscopic photometer. By comparison, NASA/JPL's recently flown Mars Pathfinder rover Sojourner is an 11+ kilogram flight experiment (carrying a 1 kg APXS instrument) having approximately .45 X .6 meter(Lambda) 2(WXL) footprint and 15 cm ground clearance, and about half the warm electronics enclosure (WEE) volume with twice the diurnal temperature swing (-40 to +40 degrees Celsius) of LSR- 1 in nominal Mars environments. We are also developing a new, smaller 5 kilogram class LSR-type vehicle for Mars sample return -- the travel to, localization of, pick-up, and transport back to an Earth return ascent vehicle of a sample cache collected by earlier science missions. This sample retrieval rover R&D prototype has a completely collapsible mobility system enabling rover stowage to approximately 25% operational volume, as well an actively articulated axle

  4. Mars Science Laboratory: An Integrated Platform for Exploration and Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Mars Science Laboratory Science Team

    2011-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission delivers the Curiosity rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012 to assess whether its Gale Crater field site ever was capable of supporting microbial life and preserving a record of life and past environmental conditions. The 150-km crater is one of many near Mars' dichotomy boundary in various states of exhumation as a result of massive regional deposition and erosion. The primary target for Curiosity is the 5-km high mound of stratified materials in the crater's center. Systematic variations in mineralogy and morphology through the section indicate that the sediments have witnessed major changes in regional, if not planetary processes, as far back as the Noachian. The Curiosity rover was conceived as both a robotic field geologist, as previous rovers, and a mobile geochemical laboratory. It is an integrated platform for exploration (via landing site accessibility and mobility), for monitoring (via meteorological and high-energy radiation sensors), for survey (via panoramic cameras and remote elemental analysis), for close inspection (via a hand-lens imager and contact spectrometer), and for geochemical sample analysis. The latter capability drives the size and complexity of the rover by requiring a sample acquisition, processing, and analysis system consisting of a 2-m robot arm, rotary percussion drill, sieves and portioning tools, and the analytical instruments themselves. Upon acquisition and processing, samples of powdered rock are delivered to instruments located inside the rover body for mineralogical identification using X-ray diffraction, and analysis of elemental, molecular, and isotopic composition (including organic compounds) using a combined mass spectrometer, gas chromatograph, and tunable-laser spectrometer suite. To ensure the quality and accuracy of measurements from these instruments, and their interpretation, the mission has met many challenges in areas such as organic cleanliness, control blanks, tool and

  5. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-luminous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen; Yan, Lin

    2012-11-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 μm ~ 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (>20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of ~7.33 × 105 objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  6. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  7. A Mars Communication Constellation For Human Exploration and Network Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Lavagna, Michèle; Simonetto, Andrea

    Mars is perhaps the primary target of all space exploration programs, and a massive robotic and human exploration will ask for a suitable communication link between Earth and the Red planet. The paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to offer a complete and continuous coverage of possible elements on the planet, taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. Since the first human expedition will most likely not be launched in the next 15-20 years, the study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented after 2020, and in light of the future presence of explorers on the surface a high data rate requirement is imposed, in order to allow video transmissions. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of the feasibility study for the primary communications mission, and secondary scientific opportunities are suggested. The proposed communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet's surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow high data rates with lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology (1) (2), while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to- Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The worst-case optical link data rate varies from 10.2 Mbps in downlink to 13.7 Mbps in uplink. Inter-satellites data rate stays the 4.3-7.8 Mbps range on Ka-band, while spacecraft-Mars surface communications occur on the X band offering a 4.3 Mbps data rate. A complete trade-off analysis has been performed in terms of on board subsystems design

  8. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  9. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  10. Teaching and Learning Science through Song: Exploring the Experiences of Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and…

  11. The impact of endorsing Spitzer's proposed criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V on male and female Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lyndsey N; Chard, Kathleen M; Schumm, Jeremiah A; O'Brien, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This study explored differences between Spitzer's proposed model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the current DSM-IV diagnostic classification scheme in 353 Veterans. The majority of Veterans (89%) diagnosed with PTSD as specified in the DSM-IV also met Spitzer's proposed criteria. Veterans who met both DSM-IV and Spitzer's proposed criteria had significantly higher Clinician Administered PTSD Scale severity scores than Veterans only meeting DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression indicated that being African American and having no comorbid diagnosis of major depressive disorder or history of a substance use disorder were found to predict those Veterans who met current, but not proposed criteria. These findings have important implications regarding proposed changes to the diagnostic classification criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technology under Astrbiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future astrobiological research associated with Human and robotic solar system exploration requires the development of astrobiologically relevant, miniaturized...

  13. Exploring Social Learning through Upstream Engagement in Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose

    This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology.  The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...

  14. Exploring persistence in science in CEGEP: Toward a motivational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rebecca A.

    There is currently a shortage of science teachers in North America and continually decreasing rates of enrollment in science programs. Science continues to be the academic domain that sees the highest attrition rates, particularly for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine male and female students' experiences in mathematics and science courses during a crucial time in their academic development in an attempt to explain the high attrition rates in science between the last year of high school and the first year of CEGEP (junior college). In line with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), as well as achievement-goal theory (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) and research on academic emotions, the study examined the relation between a set of motivational variables (i.e., perceptions of autonomy-support, self-efficacy, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation), affect, achievement, and persistence. A secondary objective was to test a motivational model of student persistence in science using structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 603 male and 706 female students from four English-language CEGEPs in the greater Montreal area. Just prior to beginning CEGEP, participants completed a questionnaire that asked about the learning environment in high school mathematics and science classes as well as student characteristics including sources of motivation, personal achievement goals, and feelings of competence. All students expressed an initial interest in pursuing a career in science by enrolling in optional advanced mathematics and science courses during high school. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences among male and female students across the variables measured. Structural equation modeling was used to test the validity of a questionnaire designed specifically to gather information about CEGEP students' experiences with mathematics and science, and to evaluate the fit of a model designed to reflect the

  15. Exploring Art and Science Integration in an Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotta, Alanna

    Science, technology, engineering, arts and math (STEAM) education integrates science with art, presenting a unique and interesting opportunity to increase accessibility in science for learners. This case study examines an afterschool program grounded in art and science integration. Specifically, I studied the goals of the program, it's implementation and the student experience (thinking, feeling and doing) as they participated in the program. My findings suggest that these programs can be powerful methods to nurture scientific literacy, creativity and emotional development in learners. To do so, this program made connections between disciplines and beyond, integrated holistic teaching and learning practices, and continually adapted programming while also responding to challenges. The program is therefore specially suited to engage the heads, hands and hearts of learners, and can make an important contribution to their learning and development. To conclude, I provide some recommendations for STEAM implementation in both formal and informal learning settings.

  16. ESSC-ESF Position Paper: Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December......'s exploration programme, dubbed "Emergence and co-evolution of life with its planetary environments," focusing on those targets that can ultimately be reached by humans, i.e., Mars, the Moon, and Near Earth Objects. Mars was further recognized as the focus of that programme, with Mars sample return...

  17. Midwest Science Festival: Exploring Students' and Parents' Participation in and Attitudes Toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Mechels, Keegan B; Griese, Emily R; Laufmann, Rachel N; Weimer, Jill M

    2016-08-01

    Compared to national numbers, South Dakota has a higher proportion of students interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Interest in science can be influenced by exposure to science through formal and informal learning. Informal science activities (including exposures and participation) have been found to elicit higher levels of interest in science, likely impacting one's attitude towards science overall. The current study goal is to better understand the levels and relationships of attitude, exposure, and participation in science that were present among students and parents attending a free science festival. The project collected survey data from 65 students and 79 parents attending a science festival ranging from age 6 to 65. Informal science participation is significantly related to science attitudes in students and informal science exposure is not. No relationship was found for parents between science attitudes and participation. Students who indicated high levels of informal science participation (i.e., reading science-themed books) were positively related to their attitudes regarding science. However, informal science exposures, such as attending the zoo or independently visiting a science lab, was not significantly associated with positive attitudes towards science.

  18. Exploring emotional climate in preservice science teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant

    2013-09-01

    Classroom emotional climates (ECs) are interrelated with students' engagement with university courses. Despite growing interest in emotions and EC research, little is known about the ways in which social interactions and different subject matter mediate ECs in preservice science teacher education classes. In this study we investigated the EC and associated classroom interactions in a preservice science teacher education class. We were interested in the ways in which salient classroom interactions were related to the EC during lessons centered on debates about science-based issues (e.g., nuclear energy alternatives). Participants used audience response technology to indicate their perceptions of the EC. Analysis of conversation for salient video clips and analysis of non-verbal conduct (acoustic parameters, body movements, and facial expressions) supplemented EC data. One key contribution that this study makes to preservice science teacher education is to identify the micro-processes of successful and unsuccessful class interactions that were associated with positive and neutral EC. The structure of these interactions can inform the practice of other science educators who wish to produce positive ECs in their classes. The study also extends and explicates the construct of intensity of EC.

  19. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer NEO survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Fazio, G.; Harris, A. W.; Hora, J.; Mainzer, A.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped

  20. Science Fiction in Social Education: Exploring Consequences of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2013-01-01

    An NCSS Technology Position Statement and Guidelines, published in 2006 (an updated version is published in this issue of "Social Education"), affirms that social studies students should critically examine relations between technology and society. This article describes how teachers can use science fiction to introduce critical questions…

  1. Science Granting Councils: An Exploration of Policies and Practices ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Representatives from science granting councils will have the chance to exchange information on thematic programming, discuss operational and strategic challenges, ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  2. Exploring the Intersections of Science and History Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Catherine; Cosbey, Allison

    2016-01-01

    How can history museums incorporate Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) activities while preserving their missions and identities? How do interdisciplinary experiences lead to learning? A cross-institutional exhibit development and evaluation team wrestled with these ideas as they developed "Create.Connect," an National…

  3. Exploring Pulses through Math, Science, and Nutrition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane K.; Mandal, Bidisha; Wallace, Michael L.; Riddle, Lee Anne; Kerr, Susan; Atterberry, Kelly Ann; Miles, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 includes pulses as a required component of the school lunch menu standard. Pulses are nutritionally important staple food crops, and include dry beans, dry peas, garbanzo beans, and lentils. This current study examined the short-term effectiveness of a Science, Technology, Engineering,…

  4. College of Science Magazine explores genetic medicine, cancer therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The newest issue of the College of Science Magazine features a host of scientific research projects underway at Virginia Tech. New avenues in genetic medicine, environmental links to breast cancer, and resistance training for diabetics are just a few of the topics.

  5. Exploring student teachers' views of science process skills in their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-18

    Aug 18, 2016 ... South African Journal of Education, Volume 36, Number 3, August 2016. 1 ... Keywords: initial teacher education programmes; practical activities; science process skills; student teachers ... The teaching and learning of SPS has been subjected to substantive criticism from various sources (Ault & Dodick,.

  6. Exploring Theoretical Computer Science Using Paper Toys (for kids)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose the structure of an exploratory course in theoretical computer science intended for a broad range of students (and especially kids). The course is built on computational cards, a simple paper toy, in which playing cards are computational elements; computing machines can...

  7. Measuring the Value of AI in Space Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.; Parr, J.; Diamond, B.; Pittman, B.; Rasky, D.

    2017-10-01

    FDL is tackling knowledge gaps useful to the space program by forming small teams of industrial partners, cutting-edge AI researchers and space science domain experts, and tasking them to solve problems that are important to NASA as well as humanity's future.

  8. Information Foraging and Change Detection for Automated Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, P. Michael; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for autonomous on-line exploration in unknown environments. The objective is to free remote scientists from possibly-infeasible extensive preliminary site investigation prior to sending robotic agents. We simulate a common exploration task for an autonomous robot sampling the environment at various locations and compare performance against simpler control strategies. An extension is proposed and evaluated that further permits operation in the presence of environmental variability in which the robot encounters a change in the distribution underlying sampling targets. Experimental results indicate a strong improvement in performance across varied parameter choices for the scenario.

  9. Role of Suzanne Mubarak Science Exploration Center in Motivating Physics Learning (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mona

    2009-04-01

    The role of Science Exploration centers to promote learning ``beyond school walls'' is demonstrated. The Suzane Mubarak Science Exploration Center (www.smsec.com) at Hadaek El Kobba, Cairo, was inaugurated in 1998 with the assistance of Zusane Mubarak, the first lady of Egypt and the minister of education. It was the first interactive science and technology center in Egypt. After 10 years, the number of centers has increased to 33 nationwide. Since its inauguration the center has received over 3 million visitors. Through different facilities, such as the internet, science cities, multimedia, and virtual reality programs, basic principles of science are simplified and their technological applications in our daily lives are explored. These facilities are fully equipped with new media such as video conferencing, videotapes, overhead projectors, data shows, and libraries, as well as demonstration tools for basic science. The main objectives of the science exploration centers are discussed such as: (1) curricula development for on-line learning; (2) integration of e-learning programs into basic science (physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology) and (3) workshops and organizations for students, teachers, and communities dealing with basic science programs.

  10. Exploring Emotions, Aesthetics and Wellbeing in Science Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book addresses new research directions focusing on the emotional and aesthetic nature of teaching and learning science informing more general insights about wellbeing. It considers methodological traditions including those informed by philosophy, sociology, psychology and education and how...... they contribute to our understanding of science education. In this collection, the authors provide accounts of the underlying ontological, epistemological, methodological perspectives and theoretical assumptions that inform their work and that of others. Each chapter provides a perspective on the study of emotion......, aesthetics or wellbeing, using empirical examples or a discussion of existing literature to unpack the theoretical and philosophical traditions inherent in those works. This volume offers a diverse range of approaches for anyone interested in researching emotions, aesthetics, or wellbeing. It is ideal...

  11. Exploring student teachers' views of science process skills in their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the views of student teachers with regard to the importance they attach to these skills. A 14-item questionnaire was administered to 75 third- and fourth-year student teachers registered for a Bachelor of Education degree. A small qualitative component was included with a view to ...

  12. Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoito, Isha

    Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an

  13. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  14. Exploring the positional identities of high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Edith Lavonne

    The identity of the teacher has been determined to influence classroom practices. Positional identity is defined as one's perception of self relative to others. This qualitative research study investigates the positional identity of five high school science teachers of different ethnicities and how their positional identities influence their classroom practices. Positional identity is thought to be determined by one's perception of how one's race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion and socioeconomic status position one relative to others. The methods of data collection included classroom observations, structured and semi-structured interviews, book club meetings, teacher journals, and researcher journals, demographic and online questionnaires. The teachers that overcame stereotypes based on race/ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status felt empowered in their positional identities and were able to empower their students. The data also identified those teachers that struggle the most with finding their power within their positional identities were the immigrants that were not able to merge their personal identities within the pre-determined social positions they encountered in this society. The empowerment or powerlessness of the science teachers' positional identities impacted instruction and practices within the science classroom.

  15. MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2 RADIO SCIENCE SUBSYSTEM EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Exploration Rover 2 MER2) Radio Science (RS) data archive contains raw radio tracking data collected during the surface lifetime of the MER2 Rover. The data...

  16. WindBots: persistent in-situ science explorers for gas giants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We envision persistent exploration of the gas giants with robots powered by locally harvested energy, performing in-situ observational atmospheric science. Riding...

  17. MEASURING ORGANIC MOLECULAR EMISSION IN DISKS WITH LOW-RESOLUTION SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, Johanna K.; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel; Henning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We explore the extent to which Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra taken at low spectral resolution can be used in quantitative studies of organic molecular emission from disks surrounding low-mass young stars. We use Spitzer IRS spectra taken in both the high- and low-resolution modules for the same sources to investigate whether it is possible to define line indices that can measure trends in the strength of the molecular features in low-resolution data. We find that trends in the HCN emission strength seen in the high-resolution data can be recovered in low-resolution data. In examining the factors that influence the HCN emission strength, we find that the low-resolution HCN flux is modestly correlated with stellar accretion rate and X-ray luminosity. Correlations of this kind are perhaps expected based on recent observational and theoretical studies of inner disk atmospheres. Our results demonstrate the potential of using the large number of low-resolution disk spectra that reside in the Spitzer archive to study the factors that influence the strength of molecular emission from disks. Such studies would complement results for the much smaller number of circumstellar disks that have been observed at high resolution with IRS.

  18. The Athena Science Payload for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Haskin, L.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Athena Mars rover payload is a suite of scientific instruments and tools for geologic exploration of the martian surface. It is designed to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials, including soils, rock surfaces, and rock interiors. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. Two identical copies of the Athena payload will be flown in 2003 on the two Mars Exploration Rovers. The payload is at a high state of maturity, and first copies of several of the instruments have already been built and tested for flight.

  19. Implementing a Science-driven Mars Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.

    2001-12-01

    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) was developed on the basis of the goals, objectives, investigations, and prioritizations established by the Mars Exploration Payload Analysis Group (as summarized previously by Greeley et al., 2001). The underlying scientific strategy is linked to common threads which include the many roles water has played on and within Mars as a "system". The implementation strategy that has been adopted relies heavily on an ever-sharpening program of reconnaissance, beginning with the legacy of the Mars Global Surveyor, continuing with the multispectral and compositional observations of the Mars Odyssey orbiter, and extending to a first step in surface-based reconnaissance with the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers. The results of MGS and Odyssey will serve to focus the trade space of localities where the record, for example, of persistent surface water may have been preserved in a mineralogical sense. The 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will further downselect the subset of sites on Mars where evidence of depositional patterns and aqueous mineralogies (i.e., diagenetic minerals) are most striking at scales as fine as tens to hundreds of meters. Reconnaissance will move to the surface and shallow subsurface in 2007 with the Mars "Smart Lander" (MSL), at which time an extensive array of mobile scientific exploration tools will be used to examine a locality at 10km traverse scales, ultimately asking scientific questions which can be classed as paleobiological (i.e., life inference). Further orbital reconnaissance may be undertaken in 2009, perhaps involving targeted multi-wavelength SAR imaging, in anticipation of a precisely targeted Mars Sample Return mission as early as 2011. This sequence of core program MEP missions will be amplified by the selection of PI-led SCOUT missions, starting in 2007, and continuing every other Mars launch opportunity.

  20. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects

  1. Explorations In Theoretical Computer Science For Kids (using paper toys)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The computational card (c-cards for short) project is a study and realization of an educational tool based on playing cards. C-cards are an educational tool to introduce children 8 to 10 (or older) to the concept of computation, seen as manipulation of symbols. The game provides teachers...... detection. Our idea is implemented both with paper cards and by an editor/simulator software (a prototype realized in javascript). We also designed the structure of a course in (theoretical) computer science, based on c-cards, and we will test it this summer....

  2. Giving Children Space: A Phenomenological Exploration of Student Experiences in Space Science Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived…

  3. The Historical Development of Vaccine Technology: Exploring the Relationship between Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using historical case studies to contextualise the learning of the nature of science and technology in a biology lesson. Through exploring the historical development of vaccine technology, students were expected to understand the complexity of the relationships between technology and science beyond the…

  4. Uncovering Students' Environmental Identity: An Exploration of Activities in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States explores how students' environmental identities are affected by various activities in an Environmental Science course. Data was collected as part of an ethnographic study involving an Environmental Science teacher and her tenth-twelfth grade students. The results focus on…

  5. Exploring How School Counselors Position Low-Income African American Girls as Mathematics and Science Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Lewis, Dadria; Cholewa, Blaire

    2010-01-01

    The underrepresentation of low-income African American girls in science-related careers is of concern. Applying the concept of positionality, the authors explored how three school counselors at low-resourced schools view this population of learners to either support or discourage mathematics and science careers. The results of this study suggest…

  6. Exploring Seventh-Grade Students' and Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Astronomical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts and their misconceptions in these concepts is crucial to study since they will teach these subjects in middle schools after becoming teachers. This study aimed to explore both seventh-grade students' and the science teachers' understanding of astronomical concepts and…

  7. Stem Cells and Society: An Undergraduate Course Exploring the Intersections among Science, Religion, and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Chris; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The intersection of science and our society has led to legal and ethical issues in which we all play a part. To support development of scientific literacy, college science courses need to engage students in difficult dialogues around ethical issues. We describe a new course, Stem Cells and Society, in which students explore the basic biology of…

  8. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  9. Exploring Elementary Teachers' Perceptions about the Developmental Appropriateness and Importance of Nature of Science Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how four elementary teachers assessed the developmental appropriateness and importance of nine nature of science (NOS) aspects after participating in a yearlong professional development program. A multiple-embedded case study design was employed. The primary data sources included (a) Views of Nature of Science Elementary School…

  10. Spitzer IRS Observations of FU Orionis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. D.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Watson, D. M.; Ibrahimov, M.; Furlan, E.; Sargent, B.; Forrest, W. J.

    2006-09-01

    We present 5-35 μm spectra, taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, of five FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, BBW 76, and V346 Nor. All but V346 Nor reveal amorphous silicate grains in emission at 10 and 20 μm, and show water-vapor absorption bands at 5.8 and 6.8 μm and SiO or possibly methane absorption at 8 μm. These absorption features closely match these bands in model stellar photospheres-signs of the gaseous photospheres of the inner regions of these objects' accretion disks. The continuum emission at 5-8 μm is also consistent with such disks, and, for FU Orionis and BBW 76, longer wavelength emission may be fit by a model that includes moderate disk flaring. V1057 Cyg and V1515 Cyg have much more emission at longer wavelengths than the others, perhaps evidence of a substantial remnant of their natal, infalling envelopes.

  11. Exploring the universe through Discovery Science on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    New regimes of science are being experimentally studied at high energy density facilities around the world, spanning drive energies from microjoules to megajoules, and time scales from femtoseconds to microseconds. The ability to shock and ramp compress samples to very high pressures and densities allows new states of matter relevant to planetary and stellar interiors to be studied. Shock driven hydrodynamic instabilities evolving into turbulent flows relevant to the dynamics of exploding stars (such as supernovae), accreting compact objects (such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes), and planetary formation dynamics (relevant to the exoplanets) are being probed. The dynamics of magnetized plasmas relevant to astrophysics, both in collisional and collisionless systems, are starting to be studied. High temperature, high velocity interacting flows are being probed for evidence of astrophysical collisionless shock formation, the turbulent magnetic dynamo effect, magnetic reconnection, and particle acceleration. And new results from thermonuclear reactions in hot dense plasmas relevant to stellar and big bang nucleosynthesis are starting to emerge. A selection of examples of frontier research through NIF Discovery Science in the coming decade will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Exploring Marine Science through the University of Delaware's TIDE camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Newton, F. A.; Veron, F.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    For the past five years, the University of Delaware has offered a two-week, residential, summer camp to rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors who are interested in marine science. The camp, named TIDE (Taking an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) camp, is designed to introduce students to the breadth of marine science while providing them with a college experience. Campers participate in a variety of academic activities which include classroom, laboratory, and field experiences, as well as numerous social activities. Two unique features of this small, focused camp is the large number of university faculty that are involved, and the ability of students to participate in ongoing research projects. At various times students have participated in fish and dolphin counts, AUV deployment, wind-wave tank experiments, coastal water and beach studies, and ROV activities. In addition, each year campers have participated in a local service project. Through communication with former TIDE participants, it is clear that this two-week, formative experience plays a large role in students choice of major when entering college.2012 Tide Camp - Salt marsh in southern Delaware 2012 Tide Camp - Field trip on a small boat

  13. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Marino C.

    1998-01-01

    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  14. Science That Matters: Exploring Science Learning and Teaching in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Angela; Smith, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To help support primary school students to better understand why science matters, teachers must first be supported to teach science in ways that matter. In moving to this point, this paper identifies the dilemmas and tensions primary school teachers face in the teaching of science. The balance is then readdressed through a research-based…

  15. Exploration and exploitation of Victorian science in Darwin's reading notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Jaimie; Allen, Colin; DeDeo, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his local (text-to-text) and global (text-to-past) reading decisions using Kullback-Liebler Divergence, a cognitively-validated, information-theoretic measure of relative surprise. Rather than a pattern of surprise-minimization, corresponding to a pure exploitation strategy, Darwin's behavior shifts from early exploitation to later exploration, seeking unusually high levels of cognitive surprise relative to previous eras. These shifts, detected by an unsupervised Bayesian model, correlate with major intellectual epochs of his career as identified both by qualitative scholarship and Darwin's own self-commentary. Our methods allow us to compare his consumption of texts with their publication order. We find Darwin's consumption more exploratory than the culture's production, suggesting that underneath gradual societal changes are the explorations of individual synthesis and discovery. Our quantitative methods advance the study of cognitive search through a framework for testing interactions between individual and collective behavior and between short- and long-term consumption choices. This novel application of topic modeling to characterize individual reading complements widespread studies of collective scientific behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Representing the nature of science in a science textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiuseppe, Maurizio

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise

  17. Explorations in computing an introduction to computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Conery, John S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Computation The Limits of Computation Algorithms A Laboratory for Computational ExperimentsThe Ruby WorkbenchIntroducing Ruby and the RubyLabs environment for computational experimentsInteractive Ruby Numbers Variables Methods RubyLabs The Sieve of EratosthenesAn algorithm for finding prime numbersThe Sieve Algorithm The mod Operator Containers Iterators Boolean Values and the delete if Method Exploring the Algorithm The sieve Method A Better Sieve Experiments with the Sieve A Journey of a Thousand MilesIteration as a strategy for solving computational problemsSearching and Sortin

  18. JESTR: Jupiter Exploration Science in the Time Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Keith S.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Choi, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Solar system objects are inherently time-varying with changes that occur on timescales ranging from seconds to years. For all planets other than the Earth, temporal coverage of atmospheric phenomena is limited and sparse. Many important atmospheric phenomena, especially those related to atmospheric dynamics, can be studied in only very limited ways with current data. JESTR is a mission concept that would remedy this gap in our exploration of the solar system by ncar-continuous imaging and spectral monitoring of Jupiter over a multi-year mission lifetime.

  19. Is Science Me? Exploring Middle School Students' STE-M Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Ing, Marsha; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-12-01

    This study explores middle school students' aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and medical (STE-M) careers by analyzing survey data during their eighth and ninth grade years from an ethnically and economically diverse sample of Southern California urban and suburban public school students ( n = 493). Students were classified based on their responses to questions about their science ability beliefs and subjective task values using latent class analysis (LCA). Four distinct groups of students were identified: Science is Me; I Value Science But Don't Do It Well; I Can Do Science but I Don't Value It Highly; and Science is Not Me. Few students (22 %) were classified as having strong science ability beliefs, and only a third as strongly valuing learning/doing science; a majority (57 %) were in the Science is Not Me category, underscoring the scope of the challenge to invite more young people to want to learn science. As predicted, students who believed they could do science and valued science were more likely than others to indicate interest in STE-M careers. This relationship between perceptions and aspirations was true regardless of gender, ethnicity, and type of STE-M field, but varied depending on socioeconomic status. Using LCA to organize information about students' science self-perceptions may help target specific interventions to student interests and aspirations and better support and encourage their persistence in STE-M careers.

  20. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Educational Cases in Computer Science: an Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of pedagogical content knowledge has been explored in the context of several disciplines, such as mathematics, medicine and chemistry. In this paper the concept is explored and applied to the subject matter of computer science, in particular to the sub domain of building UML class

  1. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  2. The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Crisp, David; Fisher, David A.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Thomas, Peter C.; Wynn-Williams, David D.; Zurek, Richard W.; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Bills, Bruce G.

    2000-01-01

    As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual areas of approx. 10(exp 6)sq km and total as much as 3-4 km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface, these layered deposits are thought to he comparatively young-preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of atmospheric CO2, H2O, and dust over the past approx. 10(exp 5)-10(exp 8) years. For this reason, the martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding the geologic and climatic history of the planet-documenting variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance, atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the polar regions may soon prove important for another reason-providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding.

  3. The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S.M.; Crisp, D.; Fisher, D.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Smrekar, S.E.; Thomas, P.C.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Zurek, R.W.; Barnes, J.R.; Bills, B.G.; Blake, E.W.; Calvin, W.M.; Cameron, J.M.; Carr, M.H.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Clow, G.D.; Cutts, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Durham, W.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Farmer, J.D.; Forget, F.; Gotto-Azuma, K.; Grard, R.; Haberle, R.M.; Harrison, W.; Harvey, R.; Howard, A.D.; Ingersoll, A.P.; James, P.B.; Kargel, J.S.; Kieffer, H.H.; Larsen, J.; Lepper, K.; Malin, M.C.; McCleese, D.J.; Murray, B.; Nye, J.F.; Paige, D.A.; Platt, S.R.; Plaut, J.J.; Reeh, N.; Rice, J.W.; Smith, D.E.; Stoker, C.R.; Tanaka, K.L.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Wood, S.E.; Zent, A.; Zuber, M.T.; Zwally, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual areas of ???106 km2 and total as much as 3-4 km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface, these layered deposits are thought to be comparatively young - preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of atmospheric CO2, H2O, and dust over the past ???105-108 years. For this reason, the martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding the geologic and climatic history of the planet - documenting variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance, atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the polar regions may soon prove important for another reason - providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Layers: Places in Peril, An Art and Earth Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Waller, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    As an Earth scientist (former U.W. Geography/Geology Professor-now Director of the Education Program at The American Meteorological Society) and a painter (Professor of Art, University of Wisconsin - Fox Valley), we have together twenty years of collaborative teaching and scholarly work. We have produced an exhibition of paintings and accompanying explanatory essays focusing on layers, a nexus of our two disciplines. Our traveling exhibition, entitled Layers: Places in Peril, highlights natural and human caused threats to selected beloved and treasured cities and areas. The Earth and its atmosphere are composed of layers, paintings are often layered and the built environment is often constructed in layers. We feel that this notion of overlapping and interleaving strata gives texture to reality. This realization and acknowledgement is something we wish to share with those who design or study the built environment. This reality also provides an important opportunity to convey the reality of hazards to a new and important audience. In this session, we will first describe our professional history of collaboration and then feature Layers as a culmination of our collaborative teaching and professional work. Through the success of our first two showings of our Layers exhibition of large paintings and Earth science text panels (at the Aylward Gallery at the University of Wisconsin, Fox Valley in 2012, followed in 2013 at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania Museum) and, most recently, through our participation at the National Academy of Sciences 'DASER on Disasters' event at the Keck Center in Washington D.C., we witnessed the essential educational power of this type of collaborative activity. To conclude our presentation, we will lead a brief conversation about strategy and practice that illustrates how engaged colleagues can flourish across disciplines and institutions. The result will hopefully inspire those who study, teach, shape, build and care about future

  5. Exploring elementary science teaching and learning through an eco-feminist perspective: Narratives of embodiment of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mary Elizabeth

    This study explored the tensions associated with elementary teachers' embodiment of science, specifically environment, and science teaching and learning. This investigation emerged from conversations with teachers about notions of embodying science through environmental education and deconstruction of practices of domination in the elementary teaching profession. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) teachers' separation from nature, (2) patriarchal structures in elementary education, and (3) "bodies" of knowledge. Participants did not appear to view themselves as a part of nature, more over not as an equal part of nature. Patriarchal structures, which at times prevented teachers and children from going outside to learn, became evident. Science often appeared to be viewed by the participants as a body of knowledge, consisting of unconnected disciplines, to be imparted to learners. This study suggested that ultimately teachers' embodiment of environment and science teaching and learning is often interrupted by false ideas of separation from nature, patriarchal structures that prohibit or interfere with embodiment, and finally notions of science in personal lives being perceived as different from school science. These findings lend support for the redesign of science content courses for elementary science teachers where former disciplinary based content is reconnected through environmental education. Experiences in these courses as well as elementary science methods courses and graduate courses related to elementary science education should focus on inquiry related to environment designed by the participants. Professional development for practicing elementary science teachers must be ongoing and situated in local socio-cultural contexts. Dialogue and action must be taken to expose and deconstruct patriarchal structures that often inhibit learners from experiencing science in the truest sense of the word and prevent humans being part of the natural environment of

  6. Exploring the story, science, and adventure of small worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, J. L.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Anbar, A. D.; Klug Boonstra, S.; Tamer, A. J.; Mead, C.; Hunsley, D.

    2017-12-01

    Small worlds are a strategic focus at NASA, reflected by missions such as Osiris Rex and Psyche among others. The Infiniscope project, with funding from NASA SMD, is building on this scientific and public interest to teach formal and informal learners about asteroids and other small worlds. The digital learning experience, "Where are the small worlds?", and future Infiniscope experiences, incorporate a design theory that we describe as "education through exploration" (ETX) which is provided through an adaptive e-learning platform. This design ensures that learners actively engage in exploration and discovery, while receiving targeted feedback to push through challenges. To ensure that this and future experiences reach and meet the needs of as many educators as possible, Infiniscope includes a digital teaching network to host the experiences and support the reuse and adaptation of digital resources in new lessons. "Where are the small worlds?" puts learners in an interactive simulation of the solar system and provides a mission structure in which they hunt for "astrocaches" on near earth objects, main belt asteroids, and Kuiper-belt objects. These activities allow the learner to discover the locations of the small worlds in the solar system and develop an intuitive understanding for the relative motion of objects at various distances from the Sun. The experience is NGSS-aligned and accompanied by a lesson plan for integration into the classroom. In testing with more than 500 middle-school students, 83% of participants said they wanted to do more experiences like "Where are the small worlds?" They also found the experience both "fun" and "interesting" while being moderately difficult. "Where are the small worlds?" is one of many visualizations and lessons that is available within the Infiniscope teaching network. The network already has hundreds of members and is expected to grow in both numbers and engagement over time. Currently, educators can search and use pre

  7. Influencing Intended Teaching Practice: Exploring pre-service teachers' perceptions of science teaching resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grant; Kenny, John; Fraser, Sharon

    2012-08-01

    Many researchers have identified and expressed concern over the state of science education internationally, but primary teachers face particular obstacles when teaching science due to their poor science background and low confidence with science. Research has suggested that exemplary resources, or units that work, may be an effective way to support primary teachers. This study explores the effect of one such resource on the intentions of pre-service primary teachers to teach science. The resource in question is Primary Connections, a series of learning resources produced by the Australian Academy of Science specifically designed for primary science. Evaluative studies of Primary Connections have indicated its efficacy with practising primary teachers but there is little evidence of its impact upon pre-service teachers. The purpose of this study was to investigate how effective these quality teaching resources were in influencing the intentions of primary pre-service teachers to teach science after they graduated. The theory of planned behaviour highlighted the linkage between the intentions of the pre-service teachers to teach science, and their awareness of and experiences with using Primary Connections during their education studies. This enabled key factors to be identified which influenced the intentions of the pre-service teachers to use Primary Connections to teach science after they graduate. The study also provided evidence of how quality science teaching resources can be effectively embedded in a teacher education programme as a means of encouraging and supporting pre-service teachers to teach science.

  8. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 Å emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  10. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-08-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the

  11. The Pedagogy of Ingenuity in Science: An Exploration of Creative Thinking in the Secondary Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink, Allison

    2012-01-01

    The importance of creative thinking in science cannot be overstated. Creativity is integral to the development of knowledge about the natural world and the knowledge, skills and abilities that support it are in need of greater understanding. The Next Generation Science Standards (2012) include practices that implicitly emphasize the creative…

  12. The ISECG Science White Paper - A Scientific Perspective on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, David B.; Worms, Jean-Claude; Spiero, Francois; Schlutz, Juergen; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As an element of this continued road mapping effort, the ISECG agencies are therefore soliciting input and coordinated discussion with the scientific community to better articulate and promote the scientific opportunities of the proposed mission themes. An improved understanding of the scientific drivers and the requirements to address priority science questions associated with the exploration destinations (Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its moons) as well as the preparatory activities in cis-lunar space is beneficial to optimize the partnership of robotic assets and human presence beyond low Earth orbit. The interaction has resulted in the development of a Science White Paper to: • Identify and highlight the scientific opportunities in early exploration missions as the GER reference architecture matures, • Communicate overarching science themes and their relevance in the GER destinations, • Ensure international science communities' perspectives inform the future evolution of mission concepts considered in the GER The paper aims to capture the opportunities offered by the missions in the GER for a broad range of scientific disciplines. These include planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and Earth science. The paper is structured around grand science themes that draw together and connect research in the various disciplines, and it will focus on

  13. Specifying a curriculum for biopolitical critical literacy in science teacher education: exploring roles for science fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2017-12-01

    In this essay I suggest some ways in which science teacher educators in Western neoliberal economies might facilitate learners' development of a critical literacy concerning the social and cultural changes signified by the concept of biopolitics. I consider how such a biopolitically inflected critical literacy might find expression in a science teacher education curriculum and suggest a number of ways of materializing such a curriculum in specific literatures, media, procedures, and assessment tasks, with particular reference to the contributions of science fiction in popular media.

  14. Engaging Students, Teachers, and the Public with NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Foxworth, S.; Kascak, A.; Luckey, M. K.; Mcinturff, B.; Runco, S.; Willis, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Engaging students, teachers, and the public with NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) assets, including Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) experts and NASA curation astromaterial samples, provides an extraordinary opportunity to connect citizens with authentic aspects unique to our nation's space program. Effective engagement can occur through both virtual connections such as webcasts and in-person connections at educator workshops and public outreach events. Access to NASA ARES assets combined with adaptable resources and techniques that engage and promote scientific thinking helps translate the science and research being facilitated through NASA exploration, elicits a curiosity that aims to carry over even after a given engagement, and prepares our next generation of scientific explorers.

  15. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; McLean, Harry M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Theobald, Wolfgang [Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Akli, Kramer U. [The Ohio State University; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Sentoku, Yasuhiko [University of Nevada, Reno; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  16. Exploring the effects of developing collaboration in a primary science teacher community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe

    2010-01-01

    collective work in schools and developing network between schools. The objective is to improve the collaboration within primary science teacher communities on sharing best practice and developing new ways of teaching. This study represents an in-depth approach to explore possibilities and constraints for how......This paper presents findings from a qualitative study to explore factors that may facilitate sustainable changes of collaboration in a primary science teacher community in one school. The context for this study is a development project aimed at improving science teaching by changing teacher’s...... a development project can facilitate sustainable change in primary science teachers’ collaboration. The purpose of the research project introduced here is to examine closer, why many development projects fail to produce sustainable results. The framework of McLaughlin and Talbert (2006) on building teacher...

  17. Exploring the effects of developing collaboration in a primary science teacher community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study to explore factors that may facilitate sustainable changes of collaboration in a primary science teacher community in one school. The context for this study is a development project aimed at improving science teaching by changing teacher......’s collective work in schools and developing network between schools. The objective is to improve the collaboration within primary science teacher communities on sharing best practice and developing new ways of teaching. This study represents an in-depth approach to explore possibilities and constraints for how...... a development project can facilitate sustainable change in primary science teachers’ collaboration. The purpose of the research project introduced here is to examine closer, why many development projects fail to produce sustainable results. The framework of McLaughlin and Talbert (2006) on building teacher...

  18. It's not maths; it's science: exploring thinking dispositions, learning thresholds and mindfulness in science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinnell, R.; Thompson, R.; LeBard, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    Developing quantitative skills, or being academically numerate, is part of the curriculum agenda in science teaching and learning. For many of our students, being asked to 'do maths' as part of 'doing science' leads to disengagement from learning. Notions of 'I can't do maths' speak of a rigidity of mind, a 'standoff', forming a barrier to learning in science that needs to be addressed if we, as science educators, are to offer solutions to the so-called 'maths problem' and to support students as they move from being novice to expert. Moving from novice to expert is complex and we lean on several theoretical frameworks (thinking dispositions, threshold concepts and mindfulness in learning) to characterize this pathway in science, with a focus on quantitative skills. Fluid thinking and application of numeracy skills are required to manipulate experimental data sets and are integral to our science practice; we need to stop students from seeing them as optional 'maths' or 'statistics' tasks within our discipline. Being explicit about the ways those in the discipline think, how quantitative data is processed, and allowing places for students to address their skills (including their confidence) offer some ways forward.

  19. Spitzer Observations of Massive, Red Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Moustakas, L. A.; Dickinson, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Rieke, G. H.; Daddi, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Dahlen, T.; Egami, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Elbaz, D.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Lucas, R. A.; Mobasher, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Stutz, A.; Rieke, M. J.; Yan, H.

    2006-03-01

    We study massive galaxies at z~1-3.5 using HST optical imaging, ground-based near-IR imaging, and Spitzer observations at 3-24 μm. From Ks-selected galaxies in the ~=130 arcmin2 GOODS-S field, we identify 153 distant red galaxies (DRGs) with (J-Ks)Vega>=2.3. This sample is approximately complete in stellar mass for passively evolving galaxies above 1011 Msolar and z~4-6 mag) starbursts (at zmed~1.7). Very few DRGs (=1011 Msolar have specific star formation rates (SFRs per unit mass) including the reradiated far-IR emission that range from 0.2 to 10 Gyr-1. Based on the X-ray luminosities and rest-frame near-IR colors, roughly one-quarter of the DRGs contain AGNs, implying that the growth of supermassive black holes coincides with the formation of massive galaxies. At 1.5=1011 Msolar have an integrated specific SFR comparable to the global value of all galaxies. In contrast, galaxies at z~0.3-0.75 with M>=1011 Msolar have an integrated specific SFR less than the global value and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs. At zcontract 1407; on observations taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 and on observations collected at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), National Optical Astronomical Observatory (NOAO), which is operated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Observations have also been carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under program ID LP168.A-0485.

  20. Investigating Space Weather Events Impacting the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Leo Y.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Stowers, Kennis; Lowrance, Patrick; Stewart, Andrzej; Travis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamical process in the space environment has increased dramatically. A relatively new field of study called "Space Weather" has emerged in the last few decades. Fundamental to the study of space weather is an understanding of how space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections impact spacecraft in varying orbits and distances around the Sun. Specialized space weather satellite monitoring systems operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allow scientists to predict space weather events affecting critical systems on and orbiting the Earth. However, the Spitzer Space Telescope is in an orbit far outside the areas covered by those space weather monitoring systems. This poses a challenge for the Spitzer's Mission Operations Team in determining whether space weather events affect Spitzer.

  1. SPITZER IRAC PHOTOMETRY FOR TIME SERIES IN CROWDED FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gould, A.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryden, G.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer, Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Udalski, A.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Collaboration: Spitzer team; OGLE group; and others

    2015-12-01

    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spitzer time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of Spitzer's instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by Kepler and WFIRST, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  3. Improving Health with Science: Exploring Community-Driven Science Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne Emerson

    This study examines the role of place-based science education in fostering student-driven health interventions. While literature shows the need to connect science with students' place and community, there is limited understanding of strategies for doing so. Making such connections is important for underrepresented students who tend to perceive learning science in school as disconnected to their experiences out of school (Aikenhead, Calabrese-Barton, & Chinn, 2006). To better understand how students can learn to connect place and community with science and engineering practices in a village in Kenya, I worked with community leaders, teachers, and students to develop and study an education program (a school-based health club) with the goal of improving knowledge of health and sanitation in a Kenyan village. While students selected the health topics and problems they hoped to address through participating in the club, the topics were taught with a focus on providing opportunities for students to learn the practices of science and health applications of these practices. Students learned chemistry, physics, environmental science, and engineering to help them address the health problems they had identified in their community. Surveys, student artifacts, ethnographic field notes, and interview data from six months of field research were used to examine the following questions: (1) In what ways were learning opportunities planned for using science and engineering practices to improve community health? (2) In what ways did students apply science and engineering practices and knowledge learned from the health club in their school, homes, and community? and (3) What factors seemed to influence whether students applied or intended to apply what they learned in the health club? Drawing on place-based science education theory and community-engagement models of health, process and structural coding (Saldana, 2013) were used to determine patterns in students' applications of their

  4. Creative Cognition in Secondary Science: An exploration of divergent thinking in science among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Lederman, Norman G.

    2015-07-01

    The divergent thinking skills in science of 282 US high school students were investigated across 16 weeks of instruction in order to determine whether typical academic time periods can significantly influence changes in thinking skills. Students' from 6 high school science classrooms completed the Scientific Structures Creativity Measure (SSCM) before and after a semester of instruction. Even the short time frame of a typical academic term was found to be sufficient to promote both improvements in divergent thinking skills as well as declining divergent thinking. Declining divergent thinking skills were more common in this time frame than were improvements. The nature of student performance on the SSCM and implications are discussed.

  5. Exploring the development of science self-efficacy in preservice elementary school teachers participating in a science education methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Amanda M.

    The demands of society's increasing dependence on science and technology call for our students to have a solid foundation in science education, starting in the earliest grades. However, elementary school teachers often lack the necessary experiences to deliver that education. This qualitative study seeks to explore the development of six preservice elementary teachers in a semester-long science methods course. The course consisted of many components; one in particular was a microteaching experience, which emerged as especially significant. The participants' experiences throughout the semester were studied primarily through the lens of self-efficacy, but were also examined considering learning theories and mental models. It was found that two participants in particular were self-directed learners and were able to construct for themselves a self-selected cognitive apprenticeship. Other findings include the significance of a microteaching experience on development of self-efficacy in science teaching and the role mental models may or may not play in development of self-efficacy in the science methods course. This study has implications both for preservice elementary education in science and in general.

  6. Of responsible research-Exploring the science-society dialogue in undergraduate training within the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre

    2017-01-02

    We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in the scientific agenda. Developing abilities in this regard seems particularly relevant to training in the life sciences, as new developments in this area somehow evoke the involvement of all of us citizens, our engagement to debate and take part in processes of change. The present analysis draws from the implementation of a curricular unit focused on science-society dialogue, an optional course included in the Biochemistry Degree study plan offered at the University of Porto. This curricular unit was designed to be mostly an exploratory activity for the students, enabling them to undertake in-depth study in areas/topics of their specific interest. Mapping topics from students' final papers provided a means of analysis and became a useful tool in the exploratory collaborative construction of the course. We discuss both the relevance and the opportunity of thinking and questioning the science-society dialogue. As part of undergraduate training, this pedagogical practice was deemed successful. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):46-52, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Social Justice and Out-of-School Science Learning: Exploring Equity in Science Television, Science Clubs and Maker Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…

  8. Specifying a Curriculum for Biopolitical Critical Literacy in Science Teacher Education: Exploring Roles for Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2017-01-01

    In this essay I suggest some ways in which science teacher educators in Western neoliberal economies might facilitate learners' development of a critical literacy concerning the social and cultural changes signified by the concept of "biopolitics." I consider how such a biopolitically inflected critical literacy might find expression in…

  9. Meanings teachers make of teaching science outdoors as they explore citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Aerin Benavides

    This descriptive case study examined the meanings public elementary school teachers (N = 13) made of learning to enact citizen science projects in their schoolyards in partnership with a local Arboretum. Utilizing Engestrom's (2001) framework of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), the Arboretum's outreach program for area Title 1 schools was viewed as an activity system composed of and acting in partnership with the teachers. The major finding was that teachers designed and mastered new ways of teaching (expansive learning) and transformed their citizen science activity to facilitate student engagement and learning. I highlight four important themes in teachers' expansive learning: (a) discussion, (b) inclusion, (c) integration, and (d) collaboration. Teacher learning communities formed when colleagues shared responsibilities, formed mentor/mentee relationships, and included student teachers and interns in the activity. This program could serve as a model for elementary school citizen science education, as well as a model for professional development for teachers to learn to teach science and Environmental Education outdoors.

  10. NOAA Ocean Exploration: Science, Education and Ocean Literacy Online and in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.

    2012-12-01

    "Engagement" in ocean science initially might seem like a simple concept, however within an agency like NOAA, with a broad mission and a wide variety of stakeholders, the concept of engagement becomes quite complex. Several years ago, a Kellogg Commission Report was submitted to NOAA's Science Advisory Board to assist the Agency with more closely defining-and refining-how it could more effectively engage with the multiple audiences with which it works. For NOAA, engagement is a two-way relationship that unfolds in a commitment of service to society. It is an Enterprise-wide capability represented in NOAA's Next Generation Strategic Plan and carries the same weight across the Agency as science and technology. NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) engages scientists, educators and the public through a variety of online and social media offerings explicitly tied to the exploration science of its expeditions. The principle platform for this engagement is the Ocean Explorer website (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov). It is the single point of entry for formal and informal educators and the public to chronicled OER expeditions to little known regions of the world ocean. The site also enables access to live streaming video and audio from the United States' first ship solely dedicated to ocean exploration, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the Institute for Exploration's E/V Nautilus. Video includes footage from the remotely operated vehicles, sonar displays, navigation displays, and mapping data displays. Through telepresence technologies and other online communication tools, scientists at remote locations around the world, including Exploration Command Centers, collaborate in deep-sea exploration conducted by the Okeanos Explorer. Those wanting access to the ship's track, oceanographic data, daily updates, web logs, and imagery during an expedition can access the online Okeanos Explorer Digital Atlas. Information on archived expeditions can be accessed

  11. Exploring ideation: Knowledge development in science through the lens of semantic and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, C.; Birkholz, J.M.; Deichmann, D.; Hellsten, I.; Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore changes in both structural and semantic characteristics of a scientific social network. We trace the emergence of knowledge, what we refer to as ideation, through publication data from two conferences in a sub-field of Computer Science. Social network analysis is used to

  12. Inventing Creativity: An Exploration of the Pedagogy of Ingenuity in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Allison Antink; Lederman, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns with the ability of U.S. classrooms to develop learners who will become the next generation of innovators, particularly given the present climate of standardized testing, warrants a closer look at creativity in science classrooms. The present study explored these concerns associated with teachers' classroom practice by addressing the…

  13. Exploring Sex Differences in Science Enrolment Intentions: An Application of the General Model of Academic Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Geoffrey; McInerney, Dennis M.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2005-01-01

    In many countries there remain substantial sex differences in enrolments in elective science courses, despite concerted efforts in recent years to alleviate them. This paper explores the reasons for these differences by comparing models of male and female enrolment intentions in elective courses in biology, chemistry and physics. The models are…

  14. Designing Philadelphia Land Science as a Game to Promote Identity Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Amanda; Shah, Mamta; Cellitti, Jessica; Duka, Migela; Swiecki, Zachari; Evenstone, Amanda; Kinley, Hannah; Quigley, Peter; Shaffer, David Williamson; Foster, Aroutis

    2017-01-01

    Few digital tools are designed to support identity exploration around careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) that may help close existing representation gaps in STEM fields. The aim of this project is to inform the design of games that facilitate learning as identity change as defined by the Projective Reflection…

  15. Science and Religion on the Blackboard: Exploring Schoolmasters' Beliefs and Practices in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croché, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article treats the various forms of adjustment between scientific and religious discourses at school. It aims to analyse the beliefs and practices of schoolmasters and to explore how the oppositions between the "dominant" discourses of Western science and those of religion are addressed in secondary education in Senegal. The…

  16. Exploring the Associations among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Methods: Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across…

  17. A Vehicle for Science and Exploration: Bringing Offshore Industry Advances and Experience to the Oceanographic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MBARI’s first generation Tiburon vehicle, and the Institute for Exploration/University of Rhode Island’s Hercules. Each of these systems has made...replacement of the in- house built Tiburon with a Soil Machine Dynamics (SMD) vehicle. III. COMMON ATTRIBUTES OF COMMERCIALLY BUILT ‘NEW’ SCIENCE

  18. Three education modules using EnviroAtlas-Exploration and Discovery Through Maps: Teaching Science with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Session #1: Exploration and Discovery through Maps: Teaching Science with Technology (elementary school) - EnviroAtlas is a tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its partners that empowers anyone with the internet to be a highly informed local decision-ma...

  19. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  20. Exploring How Creating Stop-Motion Animations Supports Student Teachers in Learning to Teach Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an exploration of teaching and learning through creating rudimentary stop-motion animations set up to identify how learning opportunities involving stop-motion animations can support student learning and science teacher education. Participants were student teachers, volunteers representing both secondary and primary school…

  1. Spitzer/IRS Observations Of Multiple Main-Belt And Binary Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Im, S.

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of Ida's companion in 1993, 195 companions of asteroids have been discovered. To understand the formation process of these interesting bodies, their physical properties such as their bulk density, size, shape, and surface roughness need to be determined. During the Spitzer Cycle-4, we obtained IRS thermal emission spectra (5-42 um) of 23 known binary systems. The majority of asteroids are from the main-belt (16), while the rest are NEOs (7). After extracting the thermal spectra, we used a modified Standard Thermal Model (STM) to calculate their equivalent diameter (from 0.8 km to 237 km), their albedo (from 0.04 for C-type to 0.394 for a V-type) and their beaming factor related to the surface roughness and thermal inertia. We derive their emissivity spectra, which is useful to detect silicate features. Combining these measurements with 3D-models of these multiple asteroid systems obtained by lightcurve inversion, we should be able to derive an accurate estimate of their bulk-density and contrast them with their taxonomic classes. Preliminary studies by Marchis et al. (2008)1, suggested a relationship between bulk density and the taxonomic class of asteroids, which varies from 0.9 g/cc for C-complex to 2.4 g/cc for S-complex asteroids. The National Science Foundation supported this research under award number AAG-0807468. It was conducted with the Spitzer space telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. 1 Marchis et al. , 2008, "Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS", 40th DPS Meeting, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 40, 508

  2. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  3. The Science of Serious Gaming: Exploring the Benefits of Science-Based Games in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N.

    2016-02-01

    Finding ways to connect scientists with the classroom is an important part of sharing enthusiasm for science with the public. Utilizing the visual arts and serious gaming techniques has benefits for all participants including the engagement of multiple learning sectors and the involvement of whole-brain teaching methods. The activities in this presentation draw from real-world events that require higher level thinking strategies to discover and differential naturally occurring patterns.

  4. Budgeting for Exploration: the History and Political Economy of Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The availability of financial resources continues to be one of the greatest limiting factors to NASA’s planetary science agenda. Historians and members of the space science community have offered many explanations for the scientific, political, and economic actions that combine to form NASA’s planetary science efforts, and this essay will use budgetary and historical analysis to examine how each of these factors have impacted the funding of U.S. exploration of the solar system. This approach will present new insights into how the shifting fortunes of the nation’s economy or the changing priorities of political leadership have affected government investment in science broadly, and space science specifically. This paper required the construction of a historical NASA budget data set displaying layered fiscal information that could be compared equivalently over time. This data set was constructed with information collected from documents located in NASA’s archives, the Library of Congress, and at the Office of Management and Budget at the White House. The essay will examine the effects of the national gross domestic product, Federal debt levels, the budgets of other Federal agencies engaged in science and engineering research, and party affiliation of leadership in Congress and the White House on the NASA budget. It will also compare historic funding levels of NASA’s astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science efforts to planetary science funding. By examining the history of NASA’s planetary science efforts through the lens of the budget, this essay will provide a clearer view of how effectively the planetary science community has been able to align its goals with national science priorities.

  5. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  6. Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K S

    2016-01-01

    Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932-December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard.

  7. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  8. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel [Institute d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jfraine@astro.umd.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  9. Unlocking Resources: Self-Guided Student Explorations of Science Museum and Aquarium Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Phipps, M.; Hamilton, P.

    2010-12-01

    Remarkably few undergraduate programs take full advantage of the rich resources provided by science museums, aquariums and other informal science education institutions. This is not surprising considering the logistical hurdles of class trips, but an even more fundamental barrier is that these institutions’ exhibit text seldom explicitly convey their information at a level suitable for undergraduate curriculum. Traditionally, this left the burden of interpretation on individual instructors, who rarely have the time to undertake it. To overcome these hurdles, the University of Minnesota has partnered with the Science Museum of Minnesota and Underwater Adventures Aquarium to test the efficacy of self-guided student explorations in revealing the rich data encoded in museum and aquarium exhibits. An initial module at the Science Museum of Minnesota focused on interpreting animal designs, specifically exploring how differences in dinosaur skeletal features reflected variations in the animals’ lifestyles. Students learn to interpret diet and lifestyle not only from characteristics of the skull and teeth, but also from variations in vertebrae and rib design or the relative proportion of limb elements. A follow-up module, based on exhibits at Underwater Adventures Aquarium focuses on interpreting energy flow through ecosystems from the behavior of living organisms. Students explore the information on lifestyle and diet that is encoded in a sturgeon’s ceaseless glide or a muskellunge’s poised stillness. These modules proved to be immensely popular with students. In classes with up to 500 students, half to two-thirds of the students volunteered to complete the modules, despite the additional expense and distances of up to 13 miles between the University and partner institutions. More importantly, quantitative assessment with pre-instruction and post-instruction surveys demonstrate that these ungraded, self-guided explorations match or exceed the efficacy of

  10. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  11. Teaching and Learning Science Through Song: Exploring the experiences of students and teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and students suggested about using songs for middle school classroom science instruction. Data gathered included three teacher interviews, one classroom observation and a student focus-group discussion from each of six cases. The data from each unit of analysis were examined independently and then synthesized in a multi-case analysis, resulting in a number of merged findings, or assertions, about the experience. The results of this study indicated that teachers used content-rich music to enhance student understanding of concepts in science by developing content-based vocabulary, providing students with alternative examples and explanations of concepts, and as a sense-making experience to help build conceptual understanding. The use of science-content songs engaged students by providing both situational and personal interest, and provided a mnemonic device for remembering key concepts in science. The use of songs has relevance from a constructivist approach as they were used to help students build meaning; from a socio-cultural perspective in terms of student engagement; and from a cognitive viewpoint in that in these cases they helped students make connections in learning. The results of this research have implications for science teachers and the science education community in developing new instructional strategies for the middle school science classroom.

  12. Exploring the contexts of urban science classrooms: Cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    The body of work presented in this dissertation is a response to the reported association between poor outcomes in science achievement and students of color in urban schools. By presenting counterexamples to the cultural motif that urban students of color perform poorly in science, I argue that poor achievement cannot be traced to a group of people but can be linked to institutions promoting subject delivery methods that instill distaste for science and compel students to display an illusion of disinterest in school. There are two major goals of this study. First, I plan to demonstrate how plans of action generated by coteachers and cogenerative dialogue groups can coalesce under the ethos of making science and schooling accessible to populations that are traditionally marginalized from science achievement. My second aim is to develop mechanisms for transforming science learning contexts into cosmopolitan learning communities that develop student success in science. Through a three-year ethnographic study of physics and chemistry classrooms in a high school in New York City, I present explorations of the culture and context of the urban classroom as a chief means to meet my goals. In my research, I find that obstacles to identity development around science can be tied to corporate understandings of teaching and learning that are amenable to local efforts toward change. This change is facilitated through the use of transformative tools like cogenerative dialogues, coteaching, and cosmopolitanism. Through the application of these research tools, I uncover and investigate how various misalignments that present themselves in physics and chemistry classrooms serve as signifiers of macro issues that permeate science classrooms from larger fields. By utilizing cogenerative dialogues as a tool for investigating both micro enactments within classrooms and the macro structures that generate these enactments, I show how students and teachers can work together as co

  13. Exploring Best Practices for Research Data Management in Earth Science through Collaborating with University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Branch, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Science research data, its data management, informatics processing and its data curation are valuable in allowing earth scientists to make new discoveries. But how to actively manage these research assets to ensure them safe and secure, accessible and reusable for long term is a big challenge. Nowadays, the data deluge makes this challenge become even more difficult. To address the growing demand for managing earth science data, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) partners with the Library and Technology Services (LTS) of Lehigh University and Purdue University Libraries (PUL) on hosting postdoctoral fellows in data curation activity. This inter-disciplinary fellowship program funded by the SLOAN Foundation innovatively connects university libraries and earth science departments and provides earth science Ph.D.'s opportunities to use their research experiences in earth science and data curation trainings received during their fellowship to explore best practices for research data management in earth science. In the process of exploring best practices for data curation in earth science, the CLIR Data Curation Fellows have accumulated rich experiences and insights on the data management behaviors and needs of earth scientists. Specifically, Ting Wang, the postdoctoral fellow at Lehigh University has worked together with the LTS support team for the College of Arts and Sciences, Web Specialists and the High Performance Computing Team, to assess and meet the data management needs of researchers at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES). By interviewing the faculty members and graduate students at EES, the fellow has identified a variety of data-related challenges at different research fields of earth science, such as climate, ecology, geochemistry, geomorphology, etc. The investigation findings of the fellow also support the LTS for developing campus infrastructure for long-term data management in the sciences. Likewise

  14. Worms to astronauts: Canadian Space Agency approach to life sciences in support of exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Lefebvre, Luc

    As the pace of human exploration of space is accelerated, the need to address the challenges of long-duration human missions becomes imperative. Working with limited resources, we must determine the most effective way to meet this challenge. A great deal of science management centres on "applied" versus "basic" research as the cornerstone of a program. We have chosen to largely ignore such a labeling of science and concentrate on quality, as determined by peer review, as the primary criterion for science selection. Space Life Sciences is a very young science and access to space continues to be difficult. Because we have few opportunities for conducting science, and space life science is very challenging, we are comfortable maintaining a very high bar for selection. In order to ensure adequate depth to our community we have elected to concentrate our efforts. Working in concert with members of the community, we have identified specific areas of focus that are chosen by their importance in space, but also according to Canada's strength in the terrestrial counterpart of the research. It is hoped that through a balanced but highly competitive program with the emphasis on quality, Canadian scientists can contribute to making space a safer, more welcoming place for our astronauts.

  15. New Dimensions of GIS Data: Exploring Virtual Reality (VR) Technology for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, S.; Ramirez-Linan, R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and Navteca are exploring virtual reality (VR) technology as an approach and technique related to the next generation of Earth science technology information systems. Having demonstrated the value of VR in viewing pre-visualized science data encapsulated in a movie representation of a time series, further investigation has led to the additional capability of permitting the observer to interact with the data, make selections, and view volumetric data in an innovative way. The primary objective of this project has been to investigate the use of commercially available VR hardware, the Oculus Rift and the Samsung Gear VR, for scientific analysis through an interface to ArcGIS to enable the end user to order and view data from the NASA Discover-AQ mission. A virtual console is presented through the VR interface that allows the user to select various layers of data from the server in both 2D, 3D, and full 4pi steradian views. By demonstrating the utility of VR in interacting with Discover-AQ flight mission measurements, and building on previous work done at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley supporting analysis of sources of CO2 during the Discover-AQ mission, the investigation team has shown the potential for VR as a science tool beyond simple visualization.

  16. Fun and Games: using Games and Immersive Exploration to Teach Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2011-12-01

    We have been using games to teach Earth and Space Science for over 15 years. Our software "TicTacToe" has been used continuously at the Houston Museum of Natural Science since 2002. It is the single piece of educational software in the "Earth Forum" suite that holds the attention of visitors the longest - averaging over 10 minutes compared to 1-2 minutes for the other software kiosks. We now have question sets covering solar system, space weather, and Earth science. In 2010 we introduced a new game technology - that of immersive interactive explorations. In our "Tikal Explorer", visitors use a game pad to navigate a three-dimensional environment of the Classic Maya city of Tikal. Teams of students climb pyramids, look for artifacts, identify plants and animals, and site astronomical alignments that predict the annual return of the rains. We also have a new 3D exploration of the International Space Station, where students can fly around and inside the ISS. These interactive explorations are very natural to the video-game generation, and promise to bring educational objectives to experiences that had previously been used strictly for gaming. If space permits, we will set up our portable Discovery Dome in the poster session for a full immersive demonstration of these game environments.

  17. COMETS Profiles. Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science. 24 Biographical Sketches of Women in Science Careers plus Accompanying Language Arts Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Ruth, Ed.

    Twenty-four biographical sketches of women in scientific professions are included in this COMETS Profiles package. Each biography relates to a science topic dealt with in one of the instructional modules of COMETS Science (Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science). The purpose of these materials is to demonstrate to early adolescents…

  18. Qualitative exploration of the career aspirations of rural origin health science students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Paula N; Flack, Penny S; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Reid, Stephen J Y

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence in the literature that rural background significantly encourages eventual rural practice. Given the shortage of healthcare providers in rural areas, we need to explore ways of ensuring throughput and success of rural-origin students in health sciences. It is therefore important to understand who these students are, what motivates them and the factors involved in the formation of their career choices. The aim of this study is to understand the aspirations of undergraduate health science students of rural origin with regard to their future career plans. The objectives of the study include to explore and identify the key issues facing rural-origin students with regard to their future career plans. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 health science students from two South African universities. Transcriptions were analyzed with the aid of Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com). The findings suggest health science students of rural origin studying at universities in the South African context face specific challenges related to the nature of the contrast between rural and urban life, in addition to the more generic adaptations that confront all students on entering tertiary education. In order to support rural students in their studies, academic, financial, emotional and social stressors need to be addressed. Universities should strengthen existing support structures as well as aid the development of further support that may be required.Key words: career plan, health science, rural background, South Africa.

  19. Exploring Science Teachers' Affective States: Pedagogical Discontentment, Self-efficacy, Intentions to Reform, and Their Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda; Kahveci, Murat; Mansour, Nasser; Alarfaj, Maher Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    Teachers play a key role in moving reform-based science education practices into the classroom. Based on research that emphasizes the importance of teachers' affective states, this study aimed to explore the constructs pedagogical discontentment, science teaching self-efficacy, intentions to reform, and their correlations. Also, it aimed to provide empirical evidence in light of a previously proposed theoretical model while focusing on an entirely new context in Middle East. Data were collected in Saudi Arabia with a total of randomly selected 994 science teachers, 656 of whom were females and 338 were males. To collect the data, the Arabic versions of the Science Teachers' Pedagogical Discontentment scale, the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument and the Intentions to Reform Science Teaching scale were developed. For assuring the validity of the instruments in a non-Western context, rigorous cross-cultural validations procedures were followed. Factor analyses were conducted for construct validation and descriptive statistical analyses were performed including frequency distributions and normality checks. Univariate analyses of variance were run to explore statistically significant differences between groups of teachers. Cross-tabulation and correlation analyses were conducted to explore relationships. The findings suggest effect of teacher characteristics such as age and professional development program attendance on the affective states. The results demonstrate that teachers who attended a relatively higher number of programs had lower level of intentions to reform raising issues regarding the conduct and outcomes of professional development. Some of the findings concerning interrelationships among the three constructs challenge and serve to expand the previously proposed theoretical model.

  20. Using online pedagogy to explore student experiences of Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE) issues in a secondary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel Roman

    With the proliferation of 21st century educational technologies, science teaching and learning with digitally acclimatized learners in secondary science education can be realized through an online Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE)-based issues approach. STSE-based programs can be interpreted as the exploration of socially-embedded initiatives in science (e.g., use of genetically modified foods) to promote the development of critical cognitive processes and to empower learners with responsible decision-making skills. This dissertation presents a case study examining the online environment of a grade 11 physics class in an all-girls' school, and the outcomes from those online discursive opportunities with STSE materials. The limited in-class discussion opportunities are often perceived as low-quality discussions in traditional classrooms because they originate from an inadequate introduction and facilitation of socially relevant issues in science programs. Hence, this research suggests that the science curriculum should be inclusive of STSE-based issue discussions. This study also examines the nature of students' online discourse and, their perceived benefits and challenges of learning about STSE-based issues through an online environment. Analysis of interviews, offline classroom events and online threaded discussion transcripts draws from the theoretical foundations of critical reflective thinking delineated in the Practical Inquiry (P.I.) Model. The PI model of Cognitive Presence is situated within the Community of Inquiry framework, encompassing two other core elements, Teacher Presence and Social Presence. In studying Cognitive Presence, the online STSE-based discourses were examined according to the four phases of the P.I. Model. The online discussions were measured at macro-levels to reveal patterns in student STSE-based discussions and content analysis of threaded discussions. These analyses indicated that 87% of the students participated in

  1. From a lunar outpost to Mars: Science, policy and the U.S. Space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    The U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is aimed at the establishment of an outpost for humans on the Moon, followed by the human exploration of Mars. It also encompasses robotic missions to the Moon and Mars that will precede and perhaps accompany human presence. Science plays a dual role in SEI. First, many scientific questions must be answered to insure the health and safety of human explorers. Second, scientific investigations will be among the central objectives of human explorers. A substantial body of U.S. policy on SEI has been announced by President Bush. Its implementation is coordinated by the U.S. National Space Council under the Chairmanship of Vice President Quayle. That policy directs the early focus of SEI to be on technology development, including the identification of ``high leverage technologies,'' and the identification of alternative mission architectures. It also envisions international cooperation as an important beneficial aspect of SEI.

  2. Earth sciences: Uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with earth sciences and issued during the period of 1986-1996. These topics are mainly in the field of uranium geology, exploration and mining, isotope applications in hydrology, IAEA Yearbook 1996 on the developments in nuclear science and technology and meetings on atomic energy. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English but all of these papers have English abstracts. The prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings

  3. When Science and Information Literacy Meet: An Approach to Exploring the Sources of Science News with Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majetic, Cassie; Pellegrino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The skill set associated with lifelong scientific literacy often includes the ability to decode the content and accuracy of scientific research as presented in the media. However, students often find decoding science in the media difficult, due to limited content knowledge and shifting definitions of accuracy. Faculty have developed a variety of…

  4. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.

    2001-05-01

    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  5. Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    "Water in the Solar System" is an out-of-school time (OST) science education activity for middle school students that was developed as part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project. The PLANETS project was selected in support of the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice, with the goal of developing and disseminating OST curriculum and related professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. "Water in the Solar System" is a science activity that addresses the abundance and availability of water in the solar system. The activity consists of three exercises based on the following guiding questions: 1) How much water is there on the Earth? 2) Where can you find water in the solar system? and 3) What properties affect whether or not water can be used by astronauts? The three exercises involve a scaling relationship demonstration about the abundance of useable water on Earth, a card game to explore where water is found in the solar system, and a hands-on exercise to investigate pH and salinity. Through these activities students learn that although there is a lot of water on Earth, most of it is not in a form that is accessible for humans to use. They also learn that most water in the solar system is actually farther from the sun, and that properties such as salinity and pH affect whether water can be used by humans. In addition to content for students, the activity includes background information for educators, and links to in-depth descriptions of the science content. "Water in the Solar System" was developed through collaboration between subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, and curriculum and professional development experts in the Center for Science Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University. Here we describe our process of curriculum development, education objectives of

  6. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cross-waiver of liability between the parties to agreements for NASA's science or space exploration activities that are not related to the International Space Station (ISS) but involve a launch. It is intended... this section: (1) The term “Party” means a party to a NASA agreement for science or space exploration...

  7. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data

  8. Exploring the middle school science achievement gap: Influences of curriculum, instruction and students' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winning, Rosalie Anne

    Students' science achievement has been subject to scrutiny and criticism in the United States. The decline in rankings on standardized international assessments has been the focus of concern for educators, policy makers, parents and society at large. This study, designed as an action research, explored the factors contributing to the decrease in the number of students attaining advanced proficiency in science learning as measured by state assessments in grades four and eight in a New Jersey school district. Specifically, this study addressed the degree to which the middle school curriculum reflected the national science framework standards for 21st century leaning and the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards; the pedagogical approaches regularly planned and implemented in the middle school science classrooms; and the students' perceptions of their science learning. Research data were collected by teacher and student surveys, focus group discussions, student interviews, document reviews of written curricula, and classroom observations. An important disparity emerged between the document analysis of the local curriculum and the teachers' views that 21st century learning skills are reflected in the written curriculum and classroom pedagogy. Further, classroom observations revealed the prevalence of a traditional pedagogy, focused on repetition of teacher-disseminated information and featuring limited differentiation, inquiry-based or constructivist learning strategies. The students expressed a value for discovery and collaboration with peers in order to develop, share and refine their understanding of science. The research concluded with recommendations for a revised curriculum process, sustained and collaborative professional development, on-going formative assessments of student learning and the formal integration of an online student science blog as a means of encouraging the co-construction of deep and enduring science knowledge.

  9. Exploring spiritual value in earth science concept through learning using chain till unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Henny; Suhandi, Andi; Samsudin, Ahmad; Ratna Wulan, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Now days, the youth's moral decline is an urgent problem in our country. Natural science especially earth and space science learning is potential to insert spirituality value in its learning activities. The aim of this study is to explore concept of planet earth to embed spirituality attitude through earth science learning. Interactive conceptual learning model using chain till unanswered questions (CTUQ) with help visualizations was implemented in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher in Bengkulu, Indonesia participated in this study. A sixth indicator of spiritual aspect about awareness of divinity were used to identify the shifted of students' spirituality. Quasi experimental research design had been utilized to implement the learning model. The data were collected using a questionnaire in pretest and posttest. Open ended question was given at post-test only. Questionnaire was analyzed quantitative while open ended question was analyzed qualitatively. The results show that after implementation student's spiritual shifted to be more awareness of divinity. Students' response at scale 10 increased been 97.8% from 87.5% of total responses. Based on analysis of open ended question known that the shifted was influenced by spiritual value inserted in concepts, CTUQ, and media visualization used to show unobservable earth phenomenon during learning activities. It can be concluded that earth science concepts can be explored to embed spiritual aspect.

  10. MyMoon: Engaging the “Missing Link” in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public’s interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists - and the public - to populate the site with science content, diverse media exhibits, events, and opportunities for involvement. Through MyMoon, the general public interacts with lunar content that informs them about lunar science research and missions, and engages them in future plans for lunar exploration and eventual habitation. MyMoon’s objectives are to: 1) develop a dynamic, new media learning portal that will enable the general public, with a focus on adults ages 18-35; 2) host a growing, active audience that becomes further involved in NASA’s lunar exploration by sharing their ideas about lunar topics, creating their own materials, and participating in events and experiences; 3) build a community of enthusiasts through social networking media; 4) create a model for online engagement of audiences 18 to 35, and provide detailed evaluation data on best practices and strategies for success. Immersive new media technologies are changing the way that people interact, work, learn, and teach. These provide potentially high-impact opportunities for reaching an audience of young adults, age 18 to 35, that largely is not accessed by, or accessing, NASA (Dittmar, 2004). MyMoon strives to engage - and involve - this audience to build a community of enthusiasts for lunar scientific exploration through social networks and current and emerging new media platforms, including posting videos on YouTube, photo contests on Flickr, and sharing events and challenges on Facebook and Twitter. MyMoon features interactive exhibits that are audience driven and added on a quarterly basis

  11. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in

  12. Low-Latency Telerobotics from Mars Orbit: The Case for Synergy Between Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, A.; Garvin, J. B.; Vondrak, R.; Thronson, H.; Lester, D.; Schmidt, G.; Fong, T.; Wilcox, B.; Sellers, P.; White, N.

    2012-01-01

    Initial, science-directed human exploration of Mars will benefit from capabilities in which human explorers remain in orbit to control telerobotic systems on the surface (Figure 1). Low-latency, high-bandwidth telerobotics (LLT) from Mars orbit offers opportunities for what the terrestrial robotics community considers to be high-quality telepresence. Such telepresence would provide high quality sensory perception and situation awareness, and even capabilities for dexterous manipulation as required for adaptive, informed selection of scientific samples [1]. Astronauts on orbit in close communication proximity to a surface exploration site (in order to minimize communication latency) represent a capability that would extend human cognition to Mars (and potentially for other bodies such as asteroids, Venus, the Moon, etc.) without the challenges, expense, and risk of putting those humans on hazardous surfaces or within deep gravity wells. Such a strategy may be consistent with goals for a human space flight program that, are currently being developed within NASA.

  13. Early 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Demory, B.-O.; de Wit, J.; Ingalls, J. G.; Agol, E.; Bolmont, E.; Burdanov, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Carey, S. J.; Jehin, E.; Leconte, J.; Lederer, S.; Queloz, D.; Selsis, F.; Van Grootel, V.

    2018-04-01

    The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) in 2017 February and March. We combine these observations with previously published Spitzer transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive data set. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-μm band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11 per cent at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyse the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the Spitzer transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. A Cross-cultural Exploration of Children's Everyday Ideas: Implications for science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Children's everyday ideas form critical foundations for science learning yet little research has been conducted to understand and legitimize these ideas, particularly from an international perspective. This paper explores children's everyday ideas about the environment across the US, Singapore and China to understand what they reveal about children's relationship to the environment and discuss its implications for science teaching and learning. A social constructivist lens guides research, and a visual methodology is used to frame children's realities. Participants' ages range from elementary to middle school, and a total of 210 children comprized mainly of Asians and Asian Americans were sampled from urban settings. Drawings are used to elicit children's everyday ideas and analyzed inductively using open coding and categorizing of data. Several categories support existing literature about how children view the environment; however, novel categories such as affect also emerged and lend new insight into the role that language, socio-cultural norms and perhaps ethnicity play in shaping children's everyday ideas. The findings imply the need for (a) a change in the role of science teachers from knowledge providers to social developers, (b) a science curriculum that is specific to learners' experiences in different socio-cultural settings, and (c) a shift away from inter-country comparisons using international science test scores.

  15. "Socratic Circles are a Luxury": Exploring the Conceptualization of a Dialogic Tool in Three Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelin, Michelle Renee

    Research has shown that dialogic instruction promotes learning in students. Secondary science has traditionally been taught from an authoritative stance, reinforced in recent years by testing policies requiring coverage. Socratic Circles are a framework for student-led dialogic discourse, which have been successfully used in English language arts and social studies classrooms. The purpose of this research was to explore the implementation process of Socratic Circles in secondary science classes where they have been perceived to be more difficult. Focusing on two physical science classes and one chemistry class, this study described the nature and characteristics of Socratic Circles, teachers' dispositions toward dialogic instruction, the nature and characteristics of student discussion, and student motivation. Socratic Circles were found to be a dialogic support that influenced classroom climate, social skills, content connections, and student participation. Teachers experienced conflict between using traditional test driven scripted teaching, and exploring innovation through dialogic instruction. Students experienced opportunities for peer interaction, participation, and deeper discussions in a framework designed to improve dialogic skills. Students in two of the classrooms showed evidence of motivation for engaging in peer-led discussion, and students in one class did not. The class that did not show evidence of motivation had not been given the same scaffolding as the other two classes. Two physical science teachers and one chemistry teacher found that Socratic Circles required more scaffolding than was indicated by their peers in other disciplines such as English and social studies. The teachers felt that student's general lack of background knowledge for any given topic in physical science or chemistry necessitated the building of a knowledge platform before work on a discussion could begin. All three of the teachers indicated that Socratic Circles were a

  16. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  17. Giovanni in the Cloud: Earth Science Data Exploration in Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Hegde, Mahabal; Smit, Christine; Zhang, Hailiang; Pilone, Paul; Zasorin, Andrey A.; Pham, Long

    2017-01-01

    Giovanni is an exploration tool at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing 22 analysis and visualization services for over 1600 Earth Science data variables. Owing to its popularity, Giovanni has experienced a consistent growth in overall demand, with periodic usage spikes attributed to trainings by education organizations, extensive data analysis in response to natural disasters, preparations for science meetings, etc. Furthermore, the new generation of spaceborne sensors and high resolution models have resulted in an exponential growth in data volume with data distributed across the traditional boundaries of data centers. Seamless exploration of data (without users having to worry about data center boundaries) has been a key recommendation of the GES DISC User Working Group. These factors have required new strategies for delivering acceptable performance. The cloud-based Giovanni, built on Amazon Web Services (AWS), evaluates (1) AWS native solutions to provide a scalable, serverless architecture; (2) open standards for data storage in the Cloud; (3) a cost model for operations; and (4) end-user performance. Our preliminary findings indicate that the use of serverless architecture has a potential to significantly reduce development and operational cost of Giovanni. The combination of using AWS managed services, storage of data in open standards, and schema-on-read data access strategy simplifies data access and analytics, in addition to making data more accessible to the end users of Giovanni through popular programming languages.

  18. Giovanni in the Cloud: Earth Science Data Exploration in Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, M.; Petrenko, M.; Smit, C.; Zhang, H.; Pilone, P.; Zasorin, A. A.; Pham, L.

    2017-12-01

    Giovanni (https://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/) is a popular online data exploration tool at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing 22 analysis and visualization services for over 1600 Earth Science data variables. Owing to its popularity, Giovanni has experienced a consistent growth in overall demand, with periodic usage spikes attributed to trainings by education organizations, extensive data analysis in response to natural disasters, preparations for science meetings, etc. Furthermore, the new generation of spaceborne sensors and high resolution models have resulted in an exponential growth in data volume with data distributed across the traditional boundaries of datacenters. Seamless exploration of data (without users having to worry about data center boundaries) has been a key recommendation of the GES DISC User Working Group. These factors have required new strategies for delivering acceptable performance. The cloud-based Giovanni, built on Amazon Web Services (AWS), evaluates (1) AWS native solutions to provide a scalable, serverless architecture; (2) open standards for data storage in the Cloud; (3) a cost model for operations; and (4) end-user performance. Our preliminary findings indicate that the use of serverless architecture has a potential to significantly reduce development and operational cost of Giovanni. The combination of using AWS managed services, storage of data in open standards, and schema-on-read data access strategy simplifies data access and analytics, in addition to making data more accessible to the end users of Giovanni through popular programming languages.

  19. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  20. Frontiers of Life Sciences: The Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Regina M.; Pellis, Neal R.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid development of the productive processes after World War II extended human settlements into new ecological niches. Advances in Life Sciences played a decisive role supporting the establishment of human presence in areas of the planet where human life could have not existed otherwise. The evolution of life support systems, and the fabrication of new materials and technologies has enabled humans to inhabit Polar Regions, ocean surfaces and depths; and to leave Earth and occupy Low Earth Orbit. By the end of the 20 th Century, stations in the Antarctic and Arctic, off shore oil platforms, submarines, and space stations had become the ultimate demonstration of human ability to engineer habitats at Earth extreme environments and outer space. As we enter the 21st Century, the next development of human settlements will occur through the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The major risks of space exploration derive from long exposure of humans and other life systems to radiation, microgravity, isolation and confinement, dependence on artificial life support systems, and unknown effects (e.g., altered magnetic fields, ultrahigh vacuum on bacteria, fungi, etc.). Countermeasures will require a complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes. To sustain life in transit and on the surface of the Moon and Mars will require a balance of spacecraft, cargo, astronaut crews, and the use of in situ resources. Limitations on the number of crewmembers, payloads, and the barrenness of the terrain require a novel design for the capabilities needed in transit and at exploration outpost sites. The planned destinations have resources that may be accessed to produce materials, food, shelter, power, and to provide an environment compatible with successful occupation of longterm exploration sites. Once more, the advancements of Life Sciences will be essential for the design of interplanetary voyages and planetary surface operations. This

  1. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can

  2. Rethinking Approaches to Exploration and Analysis of Big Data in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. J.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing amounts of data available for exploration and analysis, there are increasing numbers of users that need information extracted from the data for very specific purposes. Many of the specific purposes may not have even been considered yet so how do computational and data scientists plan for this diverse and not well defined set of possible users? There are challenges to be considered in the computational architectures, as well as the organizational structures for the data to allow for the best possible exploration and analytical capabilities. Data analytics need to be a key component in thinking about the data structures and types of storage of these large amounts of data, coming from a variety of sensing platforms that may be space based, airborne, in situ and social media. How do we provide for better capabilities for exploration and anaylsis at the point of collection for real-time or near real-time requirements? This presentation will address some of the approaches being considered and the challenges the computational and data science communities are facing in collaboration with the Earth Science research and application communities.

  3. Space life and biomedical sciences in support of the global exploration roadmap and societal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetts, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    The human exploration of space is pushing the boundaries of what is technically feasible. The space industry is preparing for the New Space era, the momentum for which will emanate from the commercial human spaceflight sector, and will be buttressed by international solar system exploration endeavours. With many distinctive technical challenges to be overcome, human spaceflight requires that numerous biological and physical systems be examined under exceptional circumstances for progress to be made. To effectively tackle such an undertaking significant intra- and international coordination and collaboration is required. Space life and biomedical science research and development (R & D) will support the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by enabling humans to 'endure' the extreme activity that is long duration human spaceflight. In so doing the field will discover solutions to some of our most difficult human health issues, and as a consequence benefit society as a whole. This space-specific R&D will drive a significant amount of terrestrial biomedical research and as a result the international community will not only gain benefits in the form of improved healthcare in space and on Earth, but also through the growth of its science base and industry.

  4. Giving children space: A phenomenological exploration of student experiences in space science inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christopher R.

    This study explores the experiences of 4th grade students in an inquiry-based space science classroom. At the heart of the study lies the essential question: What is the lived experience of children engaged in the process of space science inquiry? Through the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the author investigates the essence of the lived experience of twenty 4th grade students as well as the reflections of two high school students looking back on their 4th grade space science experience. To open the phenomenon more deeply, the concept of space is explored as an overarching theme throughout the text. The writings of several philosophers including Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer are opened up to understand the existential aspects of phenomenology and the act of experiencing the classroom as a lived human experience. The methodological structure for the study is based largely on the work of Max van Manen (2003) in his seminal work, Researching Lived Experience, which describes a structure of human science research. A narrative based on classroom experiences, individual conversations, written reflections, and group discussion provides insight into the students' experiences. Their stories and thoughts reveal the themes of activity , interactivity, and "inquiractivity," each emerging as an essential element of the lived experience in the inquiry-based space science classroom. The metaphor of light brings illumination to the themes. Activity in the classroom is associated with light's constant and rapid motion throughout the Milky Way and beyond. Interactivity is seen through students' interactions just as light's reflective nature is seen through the illumination of the planets. Finally, inquiractivity is connected to questioning, the principal aspect of the inquiry-based classroom just as the sun is the essential source of light in our solar system. As the era of No Child Left Behind fades, and the next generation of science standards emerge, the

  5. A critical exploration of science doctoral programs: Counterstories from underrepresented women of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Senetta F.

    Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive

  6. Our school's Earth and Space Sciences Club: 12 years promoting interdisciplinary explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarida Maria, Ana; Pereira, Hélder

    2017-04-01

    During the past 12 years, we have been engaging secondary level science students (15 to 18 years old) in the extracurricular activities of our school's Earth and Space Sciences Club, providing them with some of the skills needed to excel in science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM). Our approach includes the use of authentic scientific data, project based learning, and inquiry-centred activities that go beyond the models and theories present in secondary level textbooks. Moreover, the activities and projects carried out, being eminently practical, also function as an extension of the curriculum and frequently enable the demonstration of the applicability of several concepts taught in the classroom in real life situations. The tasks carried out during these activities and research projects often require the combination of two or more subjects, promoting an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Outside of the traditional classroom settings, through interdisciplinary explorations, students also gain hands-on experience doing real science. Thereby, during this time, we have been able to promote meaningful and lasting experiences and spark students' interest in a wide diversity of topics.

  7. Exploring the Associations Among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C; Kolasa, Kathryn M; Díaz, Sebastián R; Duffrin, Melani W

    2018-01-01

    Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across North Carolina and Ohio; mean age 10 years old; gender (I = 53.2% female; C = 51.6% female). Dependent variable = post-test-nutrition knowledge; independent variables = baseline-nutrition knowledge, and post-test science and mathematics knowledge. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The hypothesized model predicted post-nutrition knowledge (F(437) = 149.4, p Science and mathematics knowledge were predictive of nutrition knowledge indicating use of an integrative science and mathematics curriculum to improve academic knowledge may also simultaneously improve nutrition knowledge among fourth-grade students. Teachers can benefit from integration by meeting multiple academic standards, efficiently using limited classroom time, and increasing nutrition education provided in the classroom. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  8. Exploring the Impact of Culture- and Language-Influenced Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-02-01

    "Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science. Their cultural preference or profile defined their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning processes. The culture- and language-influenced curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by Pangasinan learners' cultural preference or profile. Results of the experimental participants' pretest and posttest on science attitude measure, when compared, showed significant statistical difference. Assessment of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data gathered from postimplementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries indicated the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study yielded that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning processes of physics concepts allowed students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  9. Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers for Space-based Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Coyle, Barry; Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.; Li, Steven X.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present current and near-term uses of high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers for NASA science and spacecraft applications. Fiber lasers and amplifiers offer numerous advantages for the deployment of instruments on exploration and science remote sensing satellites. Ground-based and airborne systems provide an evolutionary path to space and a means for calibration and verification of space-borne systems. NASA fiber-laser-based instruments include laser sounders and lidars for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor and methane and a pulsed or pseudo-noise (PN) code laser ranging system in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength band. The associated fiber transmitters include high-power erbium, ytterbium, and neodymium systems and a fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator. We discuss recent experimental progress on these systems and instrument prototypes for ongoing development efforts.

  10. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Obery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267. Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational newsletters, and social media channels. Analysis of the data was conducted using both partial least squares and covariance based structural equation modeling to explore the relationships between the constructs. Additionally, qualitative definitions of proenvironmental behavior were investigated in order to address potential gaps between self-reported and observed behaviors. Quantitative findings show a renewed positive connection between science education, nature relatedness, and proenvironmental behaviors. Furthermore, qualitative findings suggest positive relationships between how publicly people are willing to share their passion for the outdoors and their willingness to engage in proenvironmental behaviors.

  11. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  12. Exploring the role of national culture in the management of large-scale international science projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Whittemore School of Business and Economics; Cross, B.J. [Westinghouse, Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative projects extending across national boundaries introduce their own set of project management challenges. These challenges begin when individuals from different organizations, from different countries, and from different value systems must share authority, responsibility, and decision-making. But national culture and its influence on the project management process have received little emphasis in the literature. Using evidence from two case studies, this paper explores the role of national culture in the management of large-scale science projects. It raises questions about the relevance of this topic, proposes a method for studying the role of culture in the management process, and concludes with recommendations for those who manage these projects. (author)

  13. Community-based arts initiatives: exploring the science of the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine H; Faigin, David A

    2015-03-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we describe some of the rewards and challenges of community-based arts initiatives for our discipline. We explore the inherent tensions between art and science that are reflected in community-based arts activities. We pose larger questions about researching community-based arts activities and defining the arts as a means of promoting social change. The diversity of populations, settings, and issues represented by the papers in the special issue are described and a common set of values, methods of inquiry and action are discussed.

  14. Exploring first-grade teachers' use of children's literature in science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Melany

    The purpose of this study is to explore, through the use of case studies, two early childhood teachers' methods of teaching science using children's literature and how it effects their students' conceptions of science concepts. Four research questions guided this study: how do teachers use children's literature to address science concepts during instruction? how are children's understandings of science concepts affected when teachers use children's trade books that provide inaccurate information on a particular topic/concept? how are children's understandings of a particular science concept clarified when teachers address a misconception presented on the topic in a children's book? when children have misconceptions about science concepts, how are those misconceptions corrected? Data sources included classroom observations, teacher interviews, student interviews, and document surveys. All interviews were transcribed, and field notes were taken and expanded on. These interview transcriptions and expanded field notes were coded; patterns and themes were identified. A comparison of the experience of these two classrooms was made with the research literature. Recurrent themes confirmed from multiple data sources provide validity for this study (triangulation). The teacher participants in this study chose books that contained many inaccuracies. The teachers utilized open-ended questions and discussion to address science concepts during instruction while using children's literature. After sharing the stories with students, the teachers almost always extended the book sharing experience with additional activities to reinforce concepts. Though the teachers used books with inaccuracies, it was difficult to distinguish the influence of the children's book, especially the fiction stories, since many of the first grade students are still learning to distinguish reality and fantasy. The results from this study do not provide enough information to say whether or not it is the

  15. Teacher Transformation: An Exploration of Science Teachers' Changing Professional Identities, Knowledge, and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Michelle Phillips

    This qualitative, multiple case study examines five teachers' experiences with a National Science Foundation-funded professional development (PD) program focused on science literacy. Using a three dimensional conceptual framework combining transformative learning theory, communities of practice, and sociocultural conceptions of identity it explores: the ways the "Science Literacy through Science Journalism" (SciJourn) project built professional community and influenced teacher learning; the influence of the project on participating science teachers' professional identities, knowledge, and classroom practices; and the ways teachers were or were not transformed by participation in the project. To this end, data from surveys and phenomenological interviews were analyzed through qualitative textual analysis and narrative analysis. Four of the teachers experienced a change in their stories to live by, aka, an identity shift. Three predominant themes emerged across these cases. These included a changed conceptualization of science literacy, the importance of student engagement and authenticity, and the value of SciJourn's professional development and community. The changed conceptualization of science literacy was particularly salient as it challenged these teachers' assumptions, led them to rethink how they teach science literacy, and also influenced them to re-evaluate their teaching priorities beyond the PD. Consequently, this study concludes that PD efforts should focus as much, or more, on influencing teachers' ideas regarding what and how they teach and less on teaching strategies. A close comparison between two teachers' diverging experiences with the program showed that student engagement played a significant role in teachers' perceptions of the value of project, suggesting that whether or not teachers sustain a new practice is closely tied to their students' feedback. Additionally, this analysis showed that a teacher's individualized needs and sense of efficacy

  16. Enabling Science and Deep Space Exploration through Space Launch System (LSL) Secondary Payload Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). By reaching this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. NASA is making investments to expand science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently planned for launch no earlier than July 2018, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS. The EM-1 launch will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites that will be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload capacity of SLS, and the payload requirements for launch and

  17. Science and Exploration in the Classroom & Beyond: An Interdisciplinary STEAM Curriculum Developed by SSERVI Educators & Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Runyon, Cassandra; Cynthia, Hall; Britt, Daniel; Tracy Becker

    2017-10-01

    Through NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the Center for Lunar and Asteroid Surface Science (CLASS) and the SSERVI Evolution and Environment of Exploration Destinations (SEEED) nodes have developed an interdisciplinary formal and informal hands-on curriculum to bring the excitement of space exploration directly to the students.With a focus on exploring asteroids, this 5-year effort has infused art with traditional STEM practices (creating STEAM) and provides teachers with learning materials to incorporate art, social studies, English language arts, and other courses into the lesson plans. The formal curricula being developed follows Next Generation Standards and incorporates effective and engaging pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), design thinking, and document based questions, using authentic data and articles, some of which are produced by the SSERVI scientists. From the materials developed for the formal education component, we have built up a collection of informal activities of varying lengths (minutes to weeks-long programs) to be used by museums, girl and boy scouts, science camps, etc.The curricula are being developed by formal and informal educators, artists, storytellers, and scientists. The continual feedback between the educators, artists, and scientists enables the program to evolve and mature such that the material will be accessible to the students without losing scientific merit. Online components will allow students to interact with SSERVI scientists and will ultimately infuse ongoing, exciting research into the student’s lessons.Our Education & Public Engagement (EPE) program makes a strong effort to make educational material accessible to all learners, including those with visual or hearing impairments. Specific activities have been included or independently developed to give all students an opportunity to experience the excitement of the universe.

  18. News Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education

  19. Developing Student Science and Information Literacy through Contributions to the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.; Farley, I.; Geary, A.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory-level Earth science courses provide the opportunity for science and non-science majors to expand discipline-specific content knowledge while enhancing skill sets applicable to all disciplines. The outcomes of the student work can then benefit the education and outreach efforts of an international organization - in this case, a wiki devoted exclusively to the geosciences, managed by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). The course Environment Earth at Penn State Brandywine is a general education science course with the overarching course goal for students to understand, communicate examples, and make informed decisions relating to big ideas and fundamental concepts of Earth science. To help accomplish this goal, students carry out a semester-long digital engaged scholarship project that benefits the users of the SEG Wiki (http://wiki.seg.org/). To begin with developing the literacy of students and their ability to read, interpret, and evaluate sources of scientific news, the first assignment requires students to write an annotated bibliography on a specific topic that serves as the foundation for a new SEG Wiki article. Once students have collected and summarized information from reliable sources, students learn how writing for a wiki is different than writing a term paper and begin drafting their wiki page. Students peer review each other's work for content and clarity before publishing their work on the SEG wiki. Students respond positively to this project, reporting a better understanding of and respect towards the authors of online wiki pages, as well as an overall satisfaction of knowing their work will benefit others. Links to student-generated pages and instructional materials can be found at: http://sites.psu.edu/segwiki/.

  20. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  1. Who Am I versus Who Can I Become? Exploring Women's Science Identities in STEM Ph.D. Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate; Mars, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the science identities of 21 women STEM Ph.D. students at three research universities in the United States. Following a narrative approach, the findings depict five salient science identities, including those of a) academic, b) entrepreneurial, c) industrial, and d) policy scientist and e) scientist as community educator. Our…

  2. Exploring the Use of Lesson Study to Develop Elementary Preservice Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Carter, Ingrid; Galindo, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This study explored a modified version of Japanese Lesson Study to determine whether and how it influenced preservice elementary teachers in their abilities to deliver science lessons that included nature of science (NOS) to their own students. We used a case study approach that focused on one subset of a cohort of preservice elementary teachers…

  3. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  4. Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors

  5. Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

    2010-01-01

    DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. During the rest of the mission, successful GPR surveys were conducted in four locations. Soil cores were collected in 5 locations representing soils from 4 different geologic units, to depths up to 1m. Soil cores from two locations were analyzed with PCR in the laboratory. The remainder were reserved for subsequent analysis. XRD analysis was performed in the habitat and in the field on 39 samples, to assist with sample characterization, conservation, and archiving. MUM was deployed at 3 field locations and 1 test location (outside the

  6. Reusable science tools for analog exploration missions: xGDS Web Tools, VERVE, and Gigapan Voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark; Deans, Matthew; Morse, Theodore; Park, Eric; Smith, Trey

    2013-10-01

    The Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS) project led by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center creates software tools to support multiple NASA-led planetary analog field experiments. The two primary tools that fall under the xGDS umbrella are the xGDS Web Tools (xGDS-WT) and Visual Environment for Remote Virtual Exploration (VERVE). IRG has also developed a hardware and software system that is closely integrated with our xGDS tools and is used in multiple field experiments called Gigapan Voyage. xGDS-WT, VERVE, and Gigapan Voyage are examples of IRG projects that improve the ratio of science return versus development effort by creating generic and reusable tools that leverage existing technologies in both hardware and software. xGDS Web Tools provides software for gathering and organizing mission data for science and engineering operations, including tools for planning traverses, monitoring autonomous or piloted vehicles, visualization, documentation, analysis, and search. VERVE provides high performance three dimensional (3D) user interfaces used by scientists, robot operators, and mission planners to visualize robot data in real time. Gigapan Voyage is a gigapixel image capturing and processing tool that improves situational awareness and scientific exploration in human and robotic analog missions. All of these technologies emphasize software reuse and leverage open source and/or commercial-off-the-shelf tools to greatly improve the utility and reduce the development and operational cost of future similar technologies. Over the past several years these technologies have been used in many NASA-led robotic field campaigns including the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), the Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), the K10 Robotic Follow-Up tests, and most recently we have become involved in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) field experiments. A major objective of these joint robot and crew experiments is

  7. Exploring culture in the world of international nutrition and nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone Stefani, Monique; Humphries, Debbie L

    2013-09-01

    This symposium was organized to bring insights from the social sciences into the awareness of nutrition scientists committed to developing and implementing effective nutrition interventions internationally. The symposium explored three different areas in the field where a more precise analysis of culture could enhance the effectiveness of nutrition science: 1) in the implementation of nutrition science research in the field; 2) in the collaboration of multiple stakeholders working to enhance nutrition in a national setting; and 3) in the language and discussions used to frame proposed changes in large scale food and nutrition security policy transnationally. Three social scientists, Monique Centrone Stefani, Lucy Jarosz, and David Pelletier were invited to share insights from their respective disciplines and respondents from within the field of nutrition provided initial reflections to better understand such perspectives. The symposium's interdisciplinary nature was designed to illustrate the challenge of multiple perspectives and methodologies and to advance understanding that could derive from such an exchange for those in the field of international nutrition seeking to decrease global hunger and malnutrition.

  8. Exploring professional development needs of educators in the health sciences professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönwetter, Dieter J; Hamilton, Joanne; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2015-02-01

    An increasing number of institutions of higher education are clustering their health sciences schools into a common unit. Therefore, it is imperative that the individual faculty development units assume new mandates to meet faculty development needs for stakeholders across these disciplines. Critical to providing current and relevant professional development activities is an awareness of the needs of academicians, including common as well as discipline-specific needs. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the extent to which factors such as discipline, rank, gender, education, and years as an academician impact on perceived needs for faculty development. In February 2012, a cross-sectional survey of the perceived faculty development needs of academicians in the health sciences unit of a Canadian university was conducted using an online assessment tool. A total of 133 out of 1,409 potential participants completed the survey, for a response rate of 9.4%. The findings revealed more similarities than differences in terms of perceived faculty development needs. In addition, differences were found across all health professions schools and in factors such as discipline, academic rank, education, gender, and years as an academician. These findings suggest that faculty development and educational specialists should understand the shared as well as the unique needs of the individual health sciences schools in planning their professional development services.

  9. A Case Study Exploring the Identity of an In-Service Elementary Science Teacher: a Language Teacher First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Bujosa, Lisa; Levy, Abigail Jurist; McNeill, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Teachers are central to providing high-quality science learning experiences called for in recent reform efforts, as their understanding of science impacts both what they teach and how they teach it. Yet, most elementary teachers do not enter the profession with a particular interest in science or expertise in science teaching. Research also indicates elementary schools present unique barriers that may inhibit science teaching. This case study utilizes the framework of identity to explore how one elementary classroom teacher's understandings of herself as a science specialist were shaped by the bilingual elementary school context as she planned for and provided reform-based science instruction. Utilizing Gee's (2000) sociocultural framework, identity was defined as consisting of four interrelated dimensions that served as analytic frames for examining how this teacher understood her new role through social positioning within her school. Findings describe the ways in which this teacher's identity as a science teacher was influenced by the school context. The case study reveals two important implications for teacher identity. First, collaboration for science teaching is essential for elementary teachers to change their practice. It can be challenging for teachers to form an identity as a science teacher in isolation. In addition, elementary teachers new to science teaching negotiate their emerging science practice with their prior experiences and the school context. For example, in the context of a bilingual school, this teacher adapted the reform-based science curriculum to better meet the unique linguistic needs of her students.

  10. Introduction to EGU session "Lunar Science and Exploration Towards Moon Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" Towards Moon Village" will address: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs polar lander, SLIM, Chandrayaan2, Chang'E 4 & 5, Lunar Resource Prospector, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties - Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, support studies - ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with new stakeholders. The Moon Village is an open concept proposed by ESA DG with the goal of a sustainable human and robotic presence on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. Multiple goals of the Moon Village include planetary science, life sciences, astronomy, fundamental research, resources utilisation, human spaceflight, peaceful cooperation, economical development, inspiration, training and capacity building. ESA director general has revitalized and enhanced the original concept of MoonVillage discussed in the last decade. Space exploration builds on international collaboration. COSPAR and its ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group (created in 1994) have fostered collaboration between lunar missions [4-8]. A flotilla of lunar orbiters has

  11. An exploration of the science teaching orientations of Indian science teachers in the context of curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    This study explores the concepts and behaviors, otherwise referred to as orientations, of six Indian science teachers and the alignment of these orientations to the 2005 India National Curriculum Framework (NCF-2005). Differences in teachers' orientations across grade bands (elementary, middle, and secondary) and school types (public versus private) are also examined to determine how contextual factors may influence this alignment. First, a content analysis of the NCF-2005 was completed to identify the overarching principles of the NCF-2005 and goals specific to the teaching and learning of science. Interviews with school principals were also analyzed to understand how the goals of NCF-2005 were communicated to schools and teachers. Together, these data sources served to answer research question one. Next, profiles were created based on three interviews with each teacher and several observations of their teaching. These profiles provide a point of reference for answering the remaining three research questions. Findings include teacher's orientations falling along a continuum from traditionalist in nature to inquiry/constructivist in nature. Stark contrasts were found between traditionalist orientations and the goals of NCF-2005, with much of this contrast due to the limited pedagogical content knowledge these teachers have regarding students' scientific thinking, curriculum design, instructional strategies, and assessment. Inquiry/constructivist teachers' orientations, while more in line with reform, still have a few key areas of pedagogical content knowledge needing attention (e.g., knowledge of assessment and a variety of purposes for constructivist instructional strategies). In response to the final research question, several contextual factors contributed to teachers' orientations including environmental constraints, such as limited resources and large class sizes, cultural testing pressures, and limited accessibility to professional development. Suggestions

  12. The contributions of occupational science to the readiness of long duration deep space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janis; Burr, Macy; Absi, Maria; Telles, Rochelle; Koh, Howard

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the contributions of occupational science (OS) to the preparation and support of astronauts during long duration space exploration. Given the hostile environment of space, it is not surprising that there is grave deterioration of both physical and mental health when off Earth. However, OS, through occupational therapy (OT), can identify strategies that maintain health and minimize disruptions in task performance for mission success. To determine the gaps in NASA's preparation of astronauts for long duration space exploration and the viable contributions of OT. Because occupational therapists are trained to address deficits and modify environments to support meaningful engagement in occupations, the OT practitioner is well suited to address the disabling conditions astronauts experience in space. A literature review revealing the challenges of deep space travel on humans was completed. A survey was also sent to (N = 170) occupational therapists worldwide to identify opinions about the profession's involvement in deep space exploration. Ninety-seven percent (N = 163) of the participants believed that OS can inform long duration space travel. Approximately ninety-eight percent (N = 166) of respondents believed that OT interventions can be used on space travelers during long duration space flights. OT interventions can be implemented in any phase of space flight to increase the likelihood of mission success and astronaut safety and well-being.

  13. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: pcubillos@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  14. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-09-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archived MIPS observations of Phoebe reproduces Cassini results very accurately, thereby validating our method. For all targets, the geometric albedo is found to be low, probably below 10% and clearly below 15%. Irregular satellites are much darker than the large regular satellites. Their albedo is, however, quite similar to that of small bodies in the outer Solar System (such as cometary nuclei, Jupiter Trojans, or TNOs). This is consistent with color measurements as well as dynamical considerations which suggest a common origin of the said populations. There appear to be significant object-to-object albedo differences. Similar albedos found for some members of dynamical clusters support the idea that they may have originated in the breakup of a parent body. For three satellites, thermal data at two wavelengths are available, enabling us to constrain their thermal properties. Sub-solar temperatures are similar to that found from Cassini's Phoebe fly-by. This suggests a rather low thermal inertia, as expected for regolith-covered objects. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  15. Exploring the efficacy of electronic response devices in ninth-grade science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, John A., Jr.

    Student use of electronic response technology has been prevalent in postsecondary institutions and is beginning to penetrate K--12 classroom settings. Despite these trends, research exploring the impact of this technology in these settings has been limited. The extant research has relied heavily on survey methodologies and largely has focused on student/teacher perception or implementation practices while remaining silent on learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to broaden the scope of research models used to explore electronic response technology and its impact on student learning. The study took place in a ninth-grade science classroom at a large high school with a comprehensive curriculum. Study participants were first-year high school students enrolled in one of two sections of the freshman science sequence focusing on Physical Science content. One section, serving as the Treatment group, used electronic response devices on a daily basis to respond to preplanned teacher questions. The other section, serving as the Comparison group, relied on traditional methods of interaction such as raising hands to respond to questions. They responded to the same set of preplanned questions and differed only in the manner of response, with the teacher asking the class and then calling on one of the students to answer. The study focused on academic achievement, as measured by student performance on a pre- and posttest, as well as student engagement, measured by momentary time sample data taken throughout the entire class with focused attention on periods of teacher questioning. The analysis of academic achievement employed an ANOVA, and no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. Engagement data were analyzed using an independent samples t test, and statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. Findings from this study indicated that, when using electronic response technology in their science classes, students

  16. Exploring the influence of middle school leaders on middle school girls' interest in high school science course enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Lori

    The purpose of this research was to explore middle school leaders' perceptions of the reasons girls' enrollment levels in science courses during high school declines and if the advice given to middle school girls may be perpetuating the diminished enrollment of girls in science courses as they move from middle school to high school. The study explored the contributions of expectancy and role theory using a qualitative method. Data analysis found that cultural influences on middle school girls' career goals emerged as a significant influence on school leaders' perceptions. Instructional methodology and cultural, gendered assumptions of women in science were found as themes in middle school leaders' perceptions that further shaped the advice to girls to enroll in high school science courses. The study provided information that clarified how middle school leaders can maintain the academic pathway for girls in science as well as recommendations for further study.

  17. Albedo and Diameter Distributions of Asteroid Families Using the Spitzer Asteroid Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enga, Marie-Therese; Trilling, D.; Mueller, M.; Wasserman, L.; Sykes, M.; Blaylock, M.; Stansberry, J.; Bhattacharya, B.; Spahr, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Asteroid Catalog contains flux measurements of asteroidsserendipitously observed in publicly available Spitzer data. At present,this catalog contains some 10,000 measurements at 24 microns only, andwill ultimately contain 100,000 measurements or more. These measurements, along with with

  18. Multiple asteroid systems : Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the

  19. Secondary Payload Opportunities on NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Enable Science and Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). With this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. This first launch of SLS and the Orion Spacecraft is planned no later than November 2018 and will fly along a trans-lunar trajectory, testing the performance of the SLS and Orion systems for future missions. NASA is making investments to expand the science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites to be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for the advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload

  20. Exploring teachers' learning: A teacher's experiences integrating scientific modeling in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Maza, Mirta Elizabeth

    This study, a narrative inquiry into the teaching of models and modeling in an elementary science classroom, explores a teacher's growth in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as she implemented a novel curriculum adapted from the MoDeLS (Modeling Designs for the Learning of Science) project. The purpose of the study was to explore, from the teacher's point of view, the pedagogical and conceptual changes she underwent while implementing a model-based approach in her classroom. The study summarizes the teacher's experiences, her decisions about teaching, her understanding of how her choices and practices influenced her content knowledge (CK), her PCK, and her motivations for changing her teaching. During the three years of the project I collected data from four science units (Astronomy, Animal Science, Electricity, and Light). Each of the units were observed and videotaped and Ms. Delaney (pseudonym), the classroom teacher, audio-recorded her practices every day. I observed and analyzed classroom videotapes in order to explore how Ms. Delaney's modeling practices unfolded and changed in her classroom and how her PCK on modeling developed. I analyzed professional development activities and informal interviews conducted during and after the units. Subsequently I interviewed Ms. Delaney about these issues using open-ended questions and video clips of her classroom practices. Three aspects of models and modeling expressed in the MoDeLS project were taken into account as I developed categories of analysis: a) models have purpose; b) models have limitations; and c) models change. These categories and the codes proposed were revised and refined while analyzing the data. The findings from the interview analyses and the classroom practices showed that Ms. Delaney developed new CK around models and modeling throughout the three years she was involved in the project. She adapted some of the proposed strategies from the MoDeLS project and adopted them in her curriculum in ways

  1. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Six Years of Science and Exploration at the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Since entering lunar orbit on June 23, 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. These measurements provide new information regarding the physical properties of the lunar surface, the lunar environment, and the location of volatiles and other resources. Scientific interpretation of these observations improves our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Scientific results from LRO observations overturned existing paradigms and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This paper summarizes the capabilities, measurements, and some of the science and exploration results of the first six years of the LRO mission.

  2. Mini-MITEE: Ultra Small, Ultra Light NTP Engines for Robotic Science and Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-01

    A compact, ultra lightweight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine design is described with the capability to carry out a wide range of unique and important robotic science missions that are not possible using chemical or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The MITEE (MInature ReacTor EnginE) reactor uses hydrogeneous moderator, such as solid lithium-7 hydride, and high temperature cermet tungsten/UO2 nuclear fuel. The reactor is configured as a modular pressure tube assembly, with each pressure tube containing an outer annual shell of moderator with an inner annular region of W/UO2 cermet fuel sheets. H2 propellant flows radially inwards through the moderator and fuel regions, exiting at ~3000 K into a central channel that leads to a nozzle at the end of the pressure tube. Power density in the fuel region is 10 to 20 megawatts per liter, depending on design, producing a thrust output on the order of 15,000 Newtons and an Isp of ~1000 seconds. 3D Monte Carlo neutronic analyses are described for MITEE reactors utilizing various fissile fuel options (U-235, U-233, and Am242m) and moderators (7LiH and BeH2). Reactor mass ranges from a maximum of 100 kg for the 7LiH/U-235 option to a minimum of 28 kg for the BeH2/Am-242 m option. Pure thrust only and bi-modal (thrust plus electric power generation) MITEE designs are described. Potential unique robotic science missions enabled by the MITEE engine are described, including landing on Europa and exploring the ice sheet interior with return of samples to Earth, hopping to and exploring multiple sites on Mars, unlimited ramjet flight in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and landing on, and sample return from Pluto.

  3. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  4. Exploring middle school science students' computer-based modeling practices and their changes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohui

    Modeling has been promoted by major policy organizations as important for science learning. The purpose of this dissertation is to describe and explore middle school science students' computer-based modeling practices and their changes over time using a scaffolded modeling program. Following a "design-based research" approach, this study was conducted at an independent school. Seventh graders from three classes taught by two experienced teachers participated. Two pairs of target students were chosen from each class for observation. Students created computer-based models after their investigations in a water quality unit and a decomposition unit. The initial modeling cycle for water quality lasted for four days in the fall season, the second cycle for water quality lasted three days in the winter season, and the third cycle for decomposition lasted two days in the spring season. The major data source is video that captured student pairs' computer screen activities and their conversations. Supplementary data include classroom videos of those modeling cycles, replicated students' final models, and models in production. The data were analyzed in terms of the efficiency, meaningfulness, and purposefulness of students' modeling practices. Students' understanding of content, models and modeling, metacognition, and collaboration and their changes were analyzed as secondary learning outcomes. This dissertation shows that with appropriate scaffolding from the modeling program and the teachers, students performed a variety of modeling practices that are valued by science educators, such as planning, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, and publicizing. In general, student modeling practices became more efficient, meaningful, and purposeful over time. During their modeling practices, students also made use of and improved content knowledge, understanding of models and modeling, metacognition, and collaboration. Suggestions for improving the modeling program and the learning

  5. The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been "institutes without walls," fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes' international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA's strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA's Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

  6. Spitzer Observations of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 During Deep Impact : Water and Dust Production and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.

    2009-09-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005 (rh = 1.506 AU). Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope (ΔSpitzer = 0.72 AU) at different times around the Deep Impact event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations (Lisse et al 2006, Sciences 313, 635) were taken from the Spitzer data archive. We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 µm spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. On the first stage we studied the water ν2 vibrational band emission at 6.4µm, which is present in most spectra. The water production rate before impact is deduced ( 4.25e27 molecules/sec). In order to study both the amount and origin of the water molecules released after impact, we used extractions centered on the nucleus and along the length of the slit. We analyzed the spatial distribution of water and its time evolution with a time-dependent model which describes the evolution of the water cloud after impact. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the evolution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  7. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - Six Years of Science and Exploration at the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Petro, Noah E.; McClanahan, Timothy P.; Vondrak, Richard R.

    2015-11-01

    The LRO mission, currently in an extended mission phase, is producing a remotely sensed dataset that is unrivaled in planetary science. With an ever-increasing baseline of measurements the LRO data has revealed the Moon’s surface and environment to be dynamic, with new craters and distal ejecta, variations in volatiles at and near the surface, a variable exosphere, and a surface that responds to variations in the flux of radiation from the Sun. Taken together the LRO dataset has significant value in forming how we understand airless bodies work in the Solar System and how planets evolve. We will discuss recent observations from the mission including, geologically recent volcanism, contemparay impacts, and polar volatiles.We will also discuss the mission's support of future exploration of the Moon. As initially conceived, one of the primary objectives for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was to identify safe landing sites for future human and robotic exploration, and LRO mission remains capable of targeted high resolution observations to support the planning of future robotic missions to the Moon. The LRO team seeks to engage with mission planners to discuss LRO's enabaling capabilities.

  8. Development of NASA's Small Fission Power System for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Mason, Lee S.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick R.; Creasy, John; Robinson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system has brought many exciting challenges to our nations scientific and engineering community over the past several decades. As we expand our visions to explore new, more challenging destinations, we must also expand our technology base to support these new missions. NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate is tasked with developing these technologies for future mission infusion and continues to seek answers to many existing technology gaps. One such technology gap is related to compact power systems (1 kWe) that provide abundant power for several years where solar energy is unavailable or inadequate. Below 1 kWe, Radioisotope Power Systems have been the workhorse for NASA and will continue to be used for lower power applications similar to the successful missions of Voyager, Ulysses, New Horizons, Cassini, and Curiosity. Above 1 kWe, fission power systems become an attractive technology offering a scalable modular design of the reactor, shield, power conversion, and heat transport subsystems. Near term emphasis has been placed in the 1-10kWe range that lies outside realistic radioisotope power levels and fills a promising technology gap capable of enabling both science and human exploration missions. History has shown that development of space reactors is technically, politically, and financially challenging and requires a new approach to their design and development. A small team of NASA and DOE experts are providing a solution to these enabling FPS technologies starting with the lowest power and most cost effective reactor series named Kilopower that is scalable from approximately 1-10 kWe.

  9. Development of NASA's Small Fission Power System for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Mason, Lee; Bowman, Cheryl; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick R.; Creasy, John; Robinson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system has brought great knowledge to our nation's scientific and engineering community over the past several decades. As we expand our visions to explore new, more challenging destinations, we must also expand our technology base to support these new missions. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is tasked with developing these technologies for future mission infusion and continues to seek answers to many existing technology gaps. One such technology gap is related to compact power systems (greater than 1 kWe) that provide abundant power for several years where solar energy is unavailable or inadequate. Below 1 kWe, Radioisotope Power Systems have been the workhorse for NASA and will continue, assuming its availability, to be used for lower power applications similar to the successful missions of Voyager, Ulysses, New Horizons, Cassini, and Curiosity. Above 1 kWe, fission power systems become an attractive technology offering a scalable modular design of the reactor, shield, power conversion, and heat transport subsystems. Near term emphasis has been placed in the 1-10kWe range that lies outside realistic radioisotope power levels and fills a promising technology gap capable of enabling both science and human exploration missions. History has shown that development of space reactors is technically, politically, and financially challenging and requires a new approach to their design and development. A small team of NASA and DOE experts are providing a solution to these enabling FPS technologies starting with the lowest power and most cost effective reactor series named "Kilopower" that is scalable from approximately 1-10 kWe.

  10. Engaging Students from Minority Serving Institutions Through Research Internships in NASA Space Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, S. A.; Harrington, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Through an ongoing partnership with NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) the MESSENGER, New Horizons and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions have hosted science, engineering and computer science undergraduate and masters students in summer internships over the past several years. These programs have proved beneficial to students, their institutions and local communities, and to the NASA missions. The first internship opportunity was a highly successful partnership between MU-SPIN and the MESSENGER program where fifteen undergraduate and masters students were placed at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory during the testing and integration of the MESSENGER spacecraft in Summer 2003. Many of these students are either in NASA related jobs or are pursuing advanced degrees. For example, of the five students from City University of New York one is an Aerospace Engineer at Wallops Flight Facility, another received her MS in Computer Science and is working for the NSF Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program. One just received her BS in Math and was accepted to the NASA Academy at Glenn Research Center while another is continuing his studies in Computer Engineering at City College of New York. The only community college student intern is now a Space Grant Fellow at Penn State, majoring in aerospace engineering. Student interns from the MESSENGER program were also involved in community outreach following their internship. Several students from South Carolina State University presented their internship experiences to local science teachers during an in-service teacher workshop on the MESSENGER mission. The second internship program took place in Summer 2005 and placed students at Goddard Space Flight Center with LRO and at JHUAPL with the New Horizons mission. LRO interns worked with individual instrument teams while New Horizons interns were engaged in environmental testing and software development

  11. Exploring science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the teaching of genetics in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Khetsiwe Eunice Faith

    Recent trends show that learners' enrolment and performance in science at secondary school level is dwindling. Some science topics including genetics in biology are said to be difficult for learners to learn and thus they perform poorly in examinations. Teacher knowledge base, particularly topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), has been identified by many researchers as an important factor that is linked with learner understanding and achievement in science. This qualitative study was an attempt to explore the PCK of four successful biology teachers and how they developed it in the context of teaching genetics. The purposive sampling technique was employed to select the participating teachers based on their schools' performance in biology public examinations and recommendations by science specialists and school principals. Pedagogical content knowledge was used as a theoretical framework for the study, which guided the inquiry in data collection, analysis and discussion of the research findings. The study adopted the case study method and various sources of evidence including concept maps, lesson plans, pre-lesson interviews, lesson observations, post-teaching teacher questionnaire, post-lesson interviews and document analysis were used to collect data on teachers' PCK as well as how PCK was assumed to have developed. The data were analysed in an attempt to determine the individual teachers' school genetics' content knowledge, related knowledge of instructional strategies and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The analysis involved an iterative process of coding data into PCK categories of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The findings of the study indicate that the four successful biology teachers generally have the necessary content knowledge of school genetics, used certain topic-specific instructional strategies, but lacked knowledge of

  12. Unusual Slowly Rotating Brown Dwarfs Discovered through Precision Spitzer Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Aren; Metchev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit low-amplitude rotationally modulated variability due to photospheric inhomogeneities caused by condensate clouds in their atmospheres. The Spitzer Space Telescope 'Weather on Other Worlds' (WoW) project has monitored 44 brown dwarfs at unprecedented photometric precision from space. We present one of several important new results from WoW: the discovery of brown dwarfs with unexpectedly slow rotation periods. While most brown dwarfs have periods of 2-12 hours, we have identified two with well-constrained periods of 13±1 and >20 hours, respectively, and 2 others that show more tentative evidence of longer than 20-hour periods. By serving as almost non-rotating standards, these objects will allow more accurate calibration of spectroscopic measurements of brown dwarfs' projected rotational velocities. The existence of such slowly-rotating objects also constrains models of brown dwarf formation and angular momentum evolution.

  13. Exploring the Relations of Inquiry-Based Teaching to Science Achievement and Dispositions in 54 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-06-01

    This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  14. Exploring Our World with Dr. Ryan: an adventure-science video series

    Science.gov (United States)

    vachon, R. W.; Kramer, N.

    2011-12-01

    Science is embedded in all that we do and experience. It brings perspective to the simplest and most complex systems: A rocket breaking free of the Earth's gravitational field to single stream recycling of waste. Everything! To many of us, these concepts are acknowledged as a part of our lives, but remain at arm's length because we don't understand the fundamental principles that make them all possible. However individuals, armed with information, make wise decisions about their lives and the world that we share. The adults of tomorrow are quickly growing up, which makes effective science outreach to youth all the more important, even urgent. In this presentation we shall describe the infrastructure behind the exciting Exploring Our World with Dr. Ryan series. These stirring, web-based videos (~4 min) are designed to educate audiences (with a target age of 8-12 years old) about various aspects of the world in which we live. Currently we are working on a Climate Change sub-series. The well-produced films are designed to be placed into the hands of educators but are appealing to youth outside of the classroom. The short vignettes are concise descriptions of fascinating and timely scientific topics, making them ideal multimodal teaching tools, introductions to topics of discussion and alternative perspectives to textbook-based curriculum. The series leverages enthusiastic hosting, otherwise inaccessible scientific expertise and authentic illustrations of experimentation. Additionally, each episode is strengthened by a carefully conceived work-flow that not only emphasizes the desired content but encourages critical thinking, models scientific methodology, humanizes scientists and celebrates collaborations that lead to clearer understandings of the Big Picture. Robust social networking is the capsicum to the series successful outreach. Example episode: http://vimeo.com/22397380

  15. Exploring the Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Preference for Teacher Authority among Computer Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Li; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Su, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Teacher-centered instruction has been widely adopted in college computer science classrooms and has some benefits in training computer science undergraduates. Meanwhile, student-centered contexts have been advocated to promote computer science education. How computer science learners respond to or prefer the two types of teacher authority,…

  16. Low-latency Science Exploration of Planetary Bodies: a Demonstration Using ISS in Support of Mars Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Valinia, Azita; Bleacher, Jacob; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a proposed experiment to use the International Space Station to formally examine the application and validation of low-latency telepresence for surface exploration from space as an alternative, precursor, or potentially as an adjunct to astronaut "boots on the ground." The approach is to develop and propose controlled experiments, which build upon previous field studies and which will assess the effects of different latencies (0 to 500 msec), task complexity, and alternate forms of feedback to the operator. These experiments serve as an example of a pathfinder for NASA's roadmap of missions to Mars with low-latency telerobotic exploration as a precursor to astronaut's landing on the surface to conduct geological tasks.

  17. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as a secondary payload on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS), currently scheduled for 2018. Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest volatiles may be present on the surface, though the detection is not yet definitive. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and map its concentration at the 1-2 kilometer scale within the PSRs. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit and then an elliptical polar orbit, spiraling down to a perilune of 10-30 km above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight will illuminate permanently shadowed regions, measuring surface albedo with point spectrometer at 1.1, 1.5 1.9, and 2.0 mm. Water ice will be distinguished from dry regolith in two ways: 1) spatial variations in absolute reflectance (water ice is much brighter in the continuum channels), and 2) reflectance ratios between absorption and continuum channels. Derived reflectance and water ice band depths will be mapped onto the lunar surface in order to distinguish the composition of the PSRs from that of the sunlit terrain, and to compare with lunar datasets such as LRO and Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Lunar Flashlight enables a low-cost path to science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) by identifying ice deposits (if there are any), which would be a game-changing result for expanded human exploration.

  18. Not all skepticism is equal: Exploring the ideological antecedents of science acceptance and rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; Sutton, Robbie M.; van der Lee, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people’s ideological worldviews. We report three studies—including an analysis of large-scale survey data— in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of science skepticism of climate change, vaccination, and GM. The main predictors are religiosity and political orientation, morality, and science understanding. Overall, science understanding is ass...

  19. The TMT International Observatory: A quick overview of future opportunities for planetary science exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christophe; Dawson, Sandra; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Squires, Gordon; Travouillon, Tony; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Li, Jian-Yang; Lu, Junjun; Marchis, Frank; Meech, Karen J.; Wong, Michael H.

    2015-11-01

    The construction of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is scheduled to take about eight years, with first-light currently planned for the horizon 2023/24, and start of science operations soon after. Its innovative design, the unequalled astronomical quality of its location, and the scientific capabilities that will be offered by its suite of instruments, all contribute to position TIO as a major ground-based facility of the next decade.In this talk, we will review the expected observing performances of the facility, which will combine adaptive-optics corrected wavefronts with powerful imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. TMT will enable ground-based exploration of our solar system - and planetary systems at large - at a dramatically enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution across the visible and near-/thermal- infrared regimes. This sharpened vision, spanning the study of planetary atmospheres, ring systems, (cryo-)volcanic activity, small body populations (asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects), and exoplanets, will shed new lights on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of our solar system, including the search for life outside the Earth, and will expand our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of extra-solar planets, complementing TIO's direct studies of planetary systems around other stars.TIO operations will meet a wide range of observing needs. Observing support associated with "classical" and "queue" modes will be offered (including some flavors of remote observing). The TIO schedule will integrate observing programs so as to optimize scientific outputs and take into account the stringent observing time constraints often encountered for observations of our solar system such as, for instance, the scheduling of target-of-oportunity observations, the implementation of short observing runs, or the support of long-term "key-science" programmes.Complementary information about TIO, and the

  20. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Van, Raan A.F.J.; Smart, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach

  1. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  2. Light and dark an exploration in science, nature, art and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, David

    2002-01-01

    An entertaining, instructive, diverse, and unusual book, Light and Dark: An Exploration in Science, Nature, Art and Technology encompasses a wide range of topics not normally found in one book.With more than 100 diagrams, graphs, and figures, the subjects discussed include the history of artificial lighting, eclipse cycles, light-sensitive eyeglasses, rainbows, art, bioluminescence, the clock setting at the South Pole, zebra stripe patterns, lighthouses, color perception, the harvest moon, and how information and speech can be conveyed by light from the sun or a laser.The book encourages readers to take a more careful look at many familiar phenomena, such as the variations in the duration of twilight through the year and the ability of human vision to misinterpret patterns of lines under certain conditions. It describes the anatomical peculiarities of four-eyed fish and explains how the Jewish calendar contrives to follow both solar and lunar cycles. It also presents the reasons why tortoise shell cats are al...

  3. In science communication, why does the idea of the public deficit always return? Exploring key influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldovsky, Brianne

    2016-05-01

    Despite mounting criticism, the deficit model remains an integral part of science communication research and practice. In this article, I advance three key factors that contribute to the idea of the public deficit in science communication, including the purpose of science communication, how communication processes and outcomes are conceptualized, and how science and scientific knowledge are defined. Affording science absolute epistemic privilege, I argue, is the most compelling factor contributing to the continued use of the deficit model. In addition, I contend that the deficit model plays a necessary, though not sufficient, role in science communication research and practice. Areas for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Creative Little Scientists: Exploring Pedagogical Synergies between Inquiry-Based and Creative Approaches in Early Years Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Teresa; Glauert, Esme; Craft, Anna; Compton, Ashley; Stylianidou, Fani

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the European Union's interest in creativity and innovation, this paper, drawing on data from the EU project Creative Little Scientists (2011-2014), explores the teaching and learning of science and creativity in Early Years education. The project's conceptual framework, developed from detailed analysis of relevant literatures,…

  5. The Importance of Apollo to Solar-System Science and Future Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Shearer, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    December 14, 2012 marks 40 years since humans walked on the Moon, and the demise of the Apollo program. Apollo will be remembered for America's response to the President's ambitious plan to go to the Moon that was fueled by cold-war "competition". However, the importance of Apollo goes far beyond that because it represents an achievement that spacefaring nations, including the USA, still aspire to. This presentation focuses on the Apollo influence on our understanding of the Moon and the Solar-System, as well as future human exploration activities. Apollo gave 2 things that continue to yield surprises and (re)shape our thinking about the Moon: ALSEP data sets and the Apollo lunar sample collection. The ALSEPs gave us data on the radiation and dust environment, as the nature of the lunar interior, and how the Moon interacts with the solar wind and Earth's magnetotail. Many of ALSEP datasets are STILL not available in the Planetary Data System, but those that are yield surprises, such as the direct detection of the Moon's core from Apollo seismic data (Weber et al., 2011, Science 331, 309). This is now possible because of the more sophisticated computing systems that are available. Apollo samples have shown the unequivocal presence of indigenous lunar water (Saal et al., 2008, Nature 454, 192). ALSEP data, Apollo samples, and the Apollo experience itself are still critical in shaping human space exploration, and showing the knowledge gaps that need to be filled to facilitate long-term human lunar exploration and beyond. ALSEP data are the only data we have regarding dust activity on the lunar surface. This coupled with the Apollo astronaut experience shows that systems (e.g., space suits) need to be engineered differently if a permanent human lunar presence is ever to be established. Seismic data show the magnitude of some moonquakes exceed 5 on the Richter scale and the maximum ground movement lasts several minutes and takes over an hour to dissipate. Any habitat

  6. Exploring Science in the Studio: NSF-Funded Initiatives to Increase Scientific Literacy in Undergraduate Art and Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The project Exploring Science in the Studio at California College of the Arts (CCA), one of the oldest and most influential art and design schools in the country, pursues ways to enable undergraduate students to become scientifically literate problem-solvers in a variety of careers and to give content and context to their creative practices. The two main branches of this National Science Foundation-funded project are a series of courses called Science in the Studio (SitS) and the design of the Mobile Units for Science Exploration (MUSE) system, which allow instructors to bring science equipment directly into the studios. Ongoing since 2010, each fall semester a series of interdisciplinary SitS courses are offered in the college's principal areas of study (architecture, design, fine arts, humanities and sciences, and diversity studies) thematically linked by Earth and environmental science topics such as water, waste, and sustainability. Each course receives funding to embed guest scientists from other colleges and universities, industry, or agriculture directly into the studio courses. These scientists worked in tandem with the studio faculty and gave lectures, led field trips, conducted studio visits, and advised the students' creative endeavors, culminating in an annual SitS exhibition of student work. The MUSE system, of fillable carts and a storage and display unit, was designed by undergraduate students in a Furniture studio who explored, experimented, and researched various ways science materials and equipment are stored, collected, and displayed, for use in the current and future science and studio curricula at CCA. Sustainable practices and "smart design" underpinned all of the work completed in the studio. The materials selected for the new Science Collection at CCA include environmental monitoring equipment and test kits, a weather station, a stream table, a rock and fossil collection, and a vertebrate skull collection. The SitS courses and MUSE system

  7. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  8. Not All Skepticism Is Equal: Exploring the Ideological Antecedents of Science Acceptance and Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T; Sutton, Robbie M; van der Lee, Romy

    2018-03-01

    Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people's ideological worldviews. We report three studies-including an analysis of large-scale survey data-in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of science skepticism of climate change, vaccination, and genetic modification (GM). The main predictors are religiosity and political orientation, morality, and science understanding. Overall, science understanding is associated with vaccine and GM food acceptance, but not climate change acceptance. Importantly, different ideological predictors are related to the acceptance of different scientific findings. Political conservatism best predicts climate change skepticism. Religiosity, alongside moral purity concerns, best predicts vaccination skepticism. GM food skepticism is not fueled by religious or political ideology. Finally, religious conservatives consistently display a low faith in science and an unwillingness to support science. Thus, science acceptance and rejection have different ideological roots, depending on the topic of investigation.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer photometric time series of HD 97658 (Van Grootel+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grootel, V.; Gillon, M.; Valencia, D.; Madhusudhan, N.; Dragomir, D.; Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S.; Demory, B.-O.; Deming, D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Scuflaire, R.; Seager, S.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2017-07-01

    We monitored HD 97658 with Spitzer's IRAC camera on 2013 August 10 from 13:01:00 to 18:27:00 UT, corresponding to a transit window as computed from the MOST transit ephemeris (Dragomir et al. 2013, J/ApJ/772/L2). These Spitzer data were acquired in the context of the Cycle 9 program 90072 (PI: M. Gillon) dedicated to the search for the transits of RV-detected low-mass planets. They consist of 2320 sets of 64 individual subarray images obtained at 4.5 μm with an integration time of 0.08 s. They are available on the Spitzer Heritage Archive database under the form of 2320 Basic Calibrated Data files calibrated by the standard Spitzer reduction pipeline (version S19.1.0). (1 data file).

  10. Prioritizing Active Learning: An Exploration of Gateway Courses in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Candace C.; Miller, Melissa K.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research in political science and other disciplines demonstrates the pedagogical and practical benefits of active learning. Less is known, however, about the extent to which active learning is used in political science classrooms. This study assesses the prioritization of active learning in "gateway" political science courses, paying…

  11. Implications of Wind-Assisted Aerial Navigation for Titan Mission Planning and Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, A.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Fathpour, N.; Blackmore, L.; Newman, C.; Kuwata, Y.; Wolf, M.; Assad, C.

    2010-01-01

    The recent Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) proposal incorporates a montgolfiere (hot air balloon) as part of its architecture. Standard montgolfiere balloons generate lift through heating of the atmospheric gases inside the envelope, and use a vent valve for altitude control. A Titan aerobot (robotic aerial vehicle) would have to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electric power, and the excess heat generated can be used to provide thermal lift for a montgolfiere. A hybrid montgolfiere design could have propellers mounted on the gondola to generate horizontal thrust; in spite of the unfavorable aerodynamic drag caused by the shape of the balloon, a limited amount of lateral controllability could be achieved. In planning an aerial mission at Titan, it is extremely important to assess how the moon-wide wind field can be used to extend the navigation capabilities of an aerobot and thereby enhance the scientific return of the mission. In this paper we explore what guidance, navigation and control capabilities can be achieved by a vehicle that uses the Titan wind field. The control planning approach is based on passive wind field riding. The aerobot would use vertical control to select wind layers that would lead it towards a predefined science target, adding horizontal propulsion if available. The work presented in this paper is based on aerodynamic models that characterize balloon performance at Titan, and on TitanWRF (Weather Research and Forecasting), a model that incorporates heat convection, circulation, radiation, Titan haze properties, Saturn's tidal forcing, and other planetary phenomena. Our results show that a simple unpropelled montgolfiere without horizontal actuation will be able to reach a broad array of science targets within the constraints of the wind field. The study also indicates that even a small amount of horizontal thrust allows the balloon to reach any area of interest on Titan, and to do so in a fraction of the time needed

  12. Planck, Herschel & Spitzer unveil overdense z>2 regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Herve; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chary, Ranga; Frye, Brenda; Martinache, Clement; Guery, David; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Altieri, Bruno; Flores-Cacho, Ines; Giard, Martin; Hurier, Guillaume; Lagache, Guilaine; Montier, Ludovic; Nesvadba, Nicole; Omont, Alain; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Pierini, Daniele; Puget, Jean-Loup; Scott, Douglas; Soucail, Genevieve

    2014-12-01

    At which cosmic epoch did massive galaxy clusters assemble their baryons? How does star formation occur in the most massive, most rapidly collapsing dark-matter-dense environments in the early Universe? To answer these questions, we take the completely novel approach to select the most extreme z>~2 star-forming overdensities seen over the entire sky. This selection nicely complements the other existing selections for high redshift clusters (i.e., by stellar mass, or by total mass like Sunyaev-Zeldovish (SZ) or X-ray selection). We make use of the Planck all-sky submillimetre survey to systematically identify the rarest, most luminous high-redshift sub-mm sources on the sky, either strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies, or the joint FIR/sub-mm emission from multiple intense starbursts. We observed 228 Planck sources with Herschel/SPIRE and discovered that most of them are overdensities of red galaxies with extremely high star formation rates (typically 7.e3 Msun/yr for a structure). Only Spitzer data can allow a better understanding of these promising Planck+Herschel selected sources, as is shown on a first set of IRAC data on 40 targets in GO9: (i) the good angular resolution and sensitivity of IRAC allows a proper determination of the clustered nature of each Herschel/SPIRE source; (ii) IRAC photometry (often associated with J, K) allows a good estimate of the colors and approximate photometric redshift. Note spectroscopic redshifts are available for two cluster candidates, at z=1.7 and z=2.3, confirming their high redshift nature. The successful GO9 observation of 40 fields showed that about half to be >7sigma overdensities of red IRAC sources. These observations were targeting the whole range of Herschel overdensities and significances. We need to go deeper into the Spitzer sample and acquire complete coverage of the most extreme Herschel overdensities (54 new fields). Such a unique sample has legacy value, and this is the last opportunity prior to JWST

  13. Micron to Mine: Synchrotron Science for Mineral Exploration, Production, and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N.; Van Loon, L.; Flynn, T.

    2017-12-01

    Synchrotron science for mineral exploration, production, and remediation studies is a powerful tool that provides industry with relevant micron to macro geochemical information. Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-µXRF) offers a direct, high-resolution, rapid, and cost-effective chemical analysis while preserving the context of the sample by mapping ore minerals with ppm detection limits. Speciation of trace and deleterious elements can then be probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Large-scale (tens of cm) µXRF mapping and XANES analysis of samples collected at various mine locations have been undertaken to address questions regarding mineralization history to develop novel trace element exploration vectors. This information provides integral insights into trace element associations with ore minerals, local redox conditions responsible for mineralization, and mineralizing mechanisms. Gold is commonly intimately associated with sulfide mineralization (e.g., pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc.) and is present both as inclusions and filling fractures in sulfide grains. Gold may also occur as nanoparticles and/or in the sulfide mineral crystal lattice, known as "invisible gold". Understanding the nature and distribution of invisible gold in ore is integral to processing efficiency. The high flux and energy of a synchrotron light source allows for the detection of invisible gold by µXRF, and can probe its nature (metallic Au0 vs. lattice bound Au1+) using XANES spectroscopy. The long-term containment and management of arsenic is necessary to protect the health of both humans and the environment. Understanding the relationship of arsenic mineralization to gold deposits can lead to more sophisticated planning for mineral processing and the eventual storage of gangue materials. µXANES spectroscopy is an excellent tool for determining arsenic speciation within the context of the sample. Mineral phases such as arsenopyrite, scorodite, and

  14. Exploring the Relationships Between Student Moon Observations and Spatial-Science Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Merryn; Wilhelm, J.; Jackson, C.; Yang, H.; Wilhelm, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    Relationships between student moon observation journaling and sixth-grade students’ spatial-scientific reasoning after implementation of an Earth/Space unit were examined. Teachers followed the NASA-based REAL (Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning) curriculum. As part of this curriculum, students kept daily moon observation journals for 5 weeks, recording position and appearance of the moon as well as noting patterns. An extensive search was conducted in both the multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) space and the single level model space. The final model identified for this data set is a single level linear model. The model shows that students performing better on moon observation journals, both in terms of overall score and number of entries, score higher on LPCI (Lunar Phases Concept Inventory) post-tests. For every 1 point increase in the overall moon journal score, participants are expected to score 0.18 points or nearly 1% point higher on the LPCI post-test when holding constant the effects of the other two predictors, LPCI pre-test score and number of moon journal entries. An examination of the quality of moon journal entries demonstrates that students who put more time and effort into their moon journals notice more patterns in the appearance (percentage of illumination) and location of the moon in the sky. These patterns additionally relate to their development of spatial skills as they are describing the apparently changing location of celestial objects in relation to their single position on Earth. This study is unique in the purposeful link created between student moon observations and spatial skills. The use of moon journals distinguishes this study further by fostering scientific observation along with skills from across STEM fields and other disciplines. We believe that future work will show a strong link between these improved spatial skills and performance in mathematics and science.

  15. Exploring the Effects of Communication Framed by Environmental Concern in Informal Science Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocco, Victor S.

    Informal science education (ISE) venues such as zoos, nature centers, parks, and natural history museums play a critical role in allowing the general public to learn scientific concepts (National Research Council, 2009; 2010). Most adult learning of scientific concepts takes place outside of classrooms and away from work (Rennie and Williams, 2006). It is also true that zoos and natural history museums have stated missions regarding conveying concepts related to the conservation of our natural resources (Krishtalka and Humphrey, 2000; Patrick, Mathews, Ayers, and Tunicliffe, 2007). Theoretically, the successful communication of the desired message of these ISE institutions would inspire a more informed citizenry on the use and conservation of our natural resources. Framing communication is to present a topic in a manner that promote a specific view of the information. Effectively framing information can be an avenue to achieving the goal of ISE institutions (Chong & Druckman, 2007; Nisbet, 2009). Shultz and Zelezny (2003) posit that messages framed by egoistic concerns, concerns which focus on the individual, will be better received by the general public, leading to a greater likelihood for them to become engaged. This dissertation reports on a series of descriptive mixed methods studies conducted at a zoo, a natural history museum, and a science center, exploring the framing effects of communications framed by environmental concern (Schultz, 2001). In two of the studies the researcher examined the relationship between individuals' perceptions of the overlap between their lives and nature, their levels of environmental concern, and their preferences for statements designed to align with the types of environmental concern (i.e. egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric). Two studies were conducted using a quasi-experimental design in which the researcher randomly assigned messages framed by environmental concern while also taking measurements of prior involvement

  16. Perceptions versus Realities: Exploring Needs and Science Learning Outcomes In the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Lacey S.

    The Mississippi Delta (MS Delta) is a high-poverty region in northwestern Mississippi located between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. The Delta is home to sixteen rural counties with over seventy failing or underperforming schools. Many of these schools lack the resources necessary to ensure adequate opportunities for all students. Learning outcomes for the state are among the lowest in the nation, and scores in the rural Delta are far below the state average. Graduating seniors take the ACT college entrance exam, with about 10% of Mississippi seniors scoring as "college-ready" in science. The region has a critical shortage of science teachers, and many schools do not offer advanced science courses. This study assessed teachers' needs, identified key characteristics of the secondary science programs in which they teach, and sought to understand conditions affecting science learning outcomes. An inventory of science teachers' needs was administered to teachers in the region. The greatest needs were material resources, high quality training, and strategies for improving poor reading and problem-solving skills of students. Of the factors examined, the percentage of students receiving free lunch had the strongest correlation with science learning outcomes in the school, higher than access to resources, number of science courses offered, and level of self-reported teacher need. A three-tiered approach to improving science learning outcomes has been developed, emphasizing community relationships, targeted professional development, and relevant science curriculum.

  17. Spitzer identification of potentially active Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Josh; Farnocchia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo

    2017-04-01

    The separation between asteroids and comets has become less clear with the discovery of a small group of asteroids that display comet-like activity. While the activity is attributed to different mechanisms, some objects seem to activate close to the Sun. Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) come close to the Earth and the Sun, constituting a natural laboratory for the study of thermally induced activity. Two NEA sub-populations are especially suspected of being potentially active: dormant comets and near-Sun asteroids. We propose 12.4 hrs of Spitzer IRAC observations of 3 near-Sun asteroids and one dormant comet (3552) Don Quixote, about which we have already published. Our goals are (1) to search for activity in Don Quixote, which showed CO/CO2 activity during its previous apparition and (2) to search for activity and measure the diameters and albedos of the near-Sun asteroids. In combination with a funded ground-based observing program, our results will provide significant legacy value to the investigation of activity in near-Earth asteroids.

  18. Science Learning and Graphic Symbols: An Exploration of Early Years Teachers' Views and Use of Graphic Symbols When Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouri, Maria; Pampoulou, Eliada Salowm; Pieridou, Myria; Allen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated early years teachers' understanding and use of graphic symbols, defined as the visual representation(s) used to communicate one or more "linguistic" concepts, which can be used to facilitate science learning. The study was conducted in Cyprus where six early years teachers were observed and interviewed. The results…

  19. An exploration of the impact of reform-based science instruction on second graders' academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Valeisha Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether possible relationships might exist between the quality of reform-based science instruction and science and reading achievement in second grade. The study also examined separately possible interactions between quality of instruction and gender and race. The study involved an analysis of data previously collected in a larger one-group pre/post test study of a science instructional intervention (ISI Science) (Connor et al., 2010). In the original study, six teachers and two graduate assistants taught two science units designed based upon constructivist principles and reform-based practices. Using the 5-E Learning Cycle (Bybee, 1997), reading and science were integrated into each lesson. Videotapes were made of all lessons and science and reading achievement data were collected. For the current study, dependent achievement variables were science achievement measured by the Iowa Science Test; reading comprehension, by the Woodcock Passage Comprehension; and vocabulary, by the Iowa Vocabulary. Pre- and post-tests scores on the dependent measures were available for 96 children from the original study. Quality of instruction was measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawanda & Piburn, 2000). Videotapes of 24 science lessons from the larger study were analyzed using the RTOP. Reliability of ratings for the RTOP in the study was determined to be .96. No significant results were found for relations between instructional quality (RTOP) and any of the achievement variables although significant pre to post increases on all three measures were observed. No differences by race or gender were found. This latter finding was noteworthy given the research in science identifying both gender and race differences in science achievement. Recommendations for future research and teacher education are discussed.

  20. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  1. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences Field Course for Quantitative Exploration, Data Management and Digital Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the French Alps, where new GIS methods were…

  2. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  3. Simulation-Based Performance Assessment: An Innovative Approach to Exploring Understanding of Physical Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…

  4. Science, Technology and Society--An Authentic Exploration of IR Thermometers Application in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Isaac Pak Hoi; Leung, Winston Kwok Kuen; Chan, Shing Yi

    2004-01-01

    "Science, Technology and Society" was identified an essential strand in the new Science Education curriculum guide. Shortly after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) threat to Hong Kong technical dealers introduced Infrared non-contact thermometers as a solution for schools to measure body temperature for a large number of…

  5. Women of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: A Qualitative Exploration into Factors of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olund, Jeanine K.

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of women entering science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has increased in recent years, overall there are still more men than women completing four-year degrees in these fields, especially in physics, engineering, and computer science. At higher levels of education and within the workplace, the…

  6. Science Inquiry into Local Animals: Structure and Function Explored through Model Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Tallakson, Denise A.; Glascock, Alex L.; Chao, Astoria

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an arts- and spatial thinking skill--integrated inquiry project applied to life science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards for fourth grade students that focuses on two unifying or crosscutting themes: (1) structure (or "form") and function and (2) use of models. Students made observations and…

  7. Exploring the Potential and Complexity of a Critical Pedagogy of Place in Urban Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindel Dimick, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    What does it mean to engage in critical pedagogy of place in formal science education? Although Gruenewald's (2003a) theoretical construct of a critical pedagogy of place has been heavily cited, there is nonetheless a lack of empirical research on critical pedagogy of place, particularly within formal science education. This paper provides a case…

  8. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences field course for quantitative exploration, data management and digital mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the

  9. Exploring Mars and Beyond: Science Fiction a Resource for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryder W.

    The purpose of this article is to show how traditional science fiction, an empowering literature of social criticism, can be used by environmental educators to reach the traditional goals of environmental education. The sub-genres of science fiction are discussed along with ways in which they can be used to reach certain goals of environmental…

  10. Beyond Contradiction: Exploring the Work of Secondary Science Teachers as They Embed Environmental Education in Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Traditional secondary science education draws on markedly different pedagogies than those made use of in contemporary environmental education, therefore, embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both epistemological and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic study examines the work of six…

  11. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  12. Science learning and graphic symbols : an exploration of early years teachers’ views and use of graphic symbols when teaching science

    OpenAIRE

    Kambouri, Maria; Allen, Michael; Pampoulou, Eliada; Pieridou, Myria

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated early years teachers’ understanding and use of graphic symbols, defined as the visual representation(s) used to communicate one or more “linguistic” concepts, which can be used to facilitate science learning. The study was conducted in Cyprus where six early years teachers were observed and interviewed. The results indicate that the teachers had a good understanding of the role of symbols, but demonstrated a lack of understanding in regards to graphic symbols specifical...

  13. Exploring Climate Science with WV Educators: A Regional Model for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberg, L. F.; Calinger, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Research Council Framework for K-12 Science Literacy reports that children reared in rural agricultural communities, who experience regular interactions with plants and animals, develop more sophisticated understanding of ecology and biological systems than do urban and suburban children of the same age. West Virginia (WV) is a rural state. The majority of its residents live in communities of fewer than 2,500 people. Based on the features of the population being served and their unique strengths, this presentation focuses on a regional model for teacher professional development that addresses agricultural and energy vulnerabilities and adaptations to climate change in WV. The professional development model outlined shows how to guide teachers to use a problem-based learning approach to introduce climate data and analysis techniques within a scenario context that is locally meaningful. This strategy engages student interest by focusing on regional and community concerns. Climate science standards are emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards, but WV has not provided its teachers with appropriate instructional resources to meet those standards. The authors addressed this need by offering a series of climate science education workshops followed by online webinars offered to WV science educators free of charge with funding by the West Virginia Space Grant Consortium. The authors report on findings from this series of professional development workshops conducted in partnership with the West Virginia Science Teachers Association. The goal was to enhance grades 5-12 teaching and learning about climate change through problem-based learning. Prior to offering the climate workshops, all WV science educators were asked to complete a short questionnaire. As Figure 1 shows, over 40% of the teacher respondents reported being confident in teaching climate science content. For comparison post workshops surveys measure teacher confidence in climate science

  14. The Mystery of “those icy climes” (Shelley 269): Literature, Science and Early Nineteenth-century Polar Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Lanone, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Nineteenth-century science probed into the mystery of ice, from the structure of snowflakes to glaciers to Polar exploration. Literature reflects this attempt to understand the shifting nature of ice, a transparent yet deceptive—neither liquid nor truly solid—elemental structure. While glaciers become the sublime site of Romantic poetic epiphany, Mary Shelley subverts the euphoric associations of pristine settings by choosing to locate a crucial confrontation between creature and creator in t...

  15. An exploration of equitable science teaching practices for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marlene

    In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The

  16. We teach as we are taught: exploring the potential for emotional climate to enhance elementary science preservice teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2013-09-01

    Bellocchi, Ritchie, Tobin, Sandhu and Sandhu's (2013) study highlights the crucial role that emotions play in learning at the university level in a preservice secondary science teacher education class. They examine the classroom structures that tended to lead to both a positive valence and a high level of intensity of the emotional climate (EC). This article explores the implications of their study for better understanding how to foster a positive classroom emotional climate for elementary level preservice teachers, given the specifics of elementary school environments. Drawing on theories of interactional solidarity. I explore the implications of EC for increasing pre-service teachers' capacity to avoid order-giving rituals and to create science-centered communities in their classrooms. I also suggest possible areas for future research, such as the role of expectations in EC, the different EC outcomes of lectures, EC and the development of confidence in science, and the ways in which teacher candidates are positioned within interaction rituals in elementary science methods classes.

  17. Learning More About Our Earth: An Exploration of NASA's Contributions to Earth Science Through Remote Sensing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    NASA is commonly known for its pioneering work in space exploration and the technological advancements that made access to space possible. NASA is now increasingly known for the agency's research and technologies that support the Earth sciences. This is a presentation focusing on NASA's Earth science efforts told mostly through the technological innovations NASA uses to achieve a greater understanding of the Earth, making it possible to explore the Earth as a system. Enabling this science is NASA's fleet of over two dozen Earth science spacecraft, supported by aircraft, ships and ground observations. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. With the launching of the three flagship satellite missions, Terra, Aqua and Aura, beginning in 1999, NASA's initial Mission to Planet Earth made it possible to measure aspects of the environment that touch the lives of every person around the world. NASA harnessing the unique space-based platform means, fortunately, no planet is better studied than the one we actually live on.

  18. The Calibration Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence instrument selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover instrument suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC instrument will require the use of a calibration target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer calibration targets for SHERLOC instrument function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC calibration target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  19. Exploring students' epistemological knowledge of models and modelling in science: results from a teaching/learning experience on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia; Levrini, Olivia; Dillon, Justin

    2016-03-01

    The scientific community has been debating climate change for over two decades. In the light of certain arguments put forward by the aforesaid community, the EU has recommended a set of innovative reforms to science teaching such as incorporating environmental issues into the scientific curriculum, thereby helping to make schools a place of civic education. However, despite these European recommendations, relatively little emphasis is still given to climate change within science curricula. Climate change, although potentially engaging for students, is a complex topic that poses conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers, as well as epistemological challenges. Whilst the conceptual and emotional barriers have already been the object of several studies, students' reactions to the epistemological issues raised by climate changes have so far been rarely explored in science education research and thus are the main focus of this paper. This paper describes a study concerning the implementation of teaching materials designed to focus on the epistemological role of 'models and the game of modelling' in science and particularly when dealing with climate change. The materials were implemented in a course of 15 hours (five 3-hour lessons) for a class of Italian secondary-school students (grade 11; 16-17 years old). The purpose of the study is to investigate students' reactions to the epistemological dimension of the materials, and to explore if and how the material enabled them to develop their epistemological knowledge on models.

  20. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 μm data on 20 luminous z ∼ 2 starbursts with S 1.2 m m > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S 350 μ m > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 μm-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T 1 ≅ 35.5 ± 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10 12.9±0.1 L sun for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at ≅4 x 10 10 M sun , assuming κ 850 μ m = 0.15 m 2 kg -1 and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply ∼>2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 μm flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z ∼ 1.5-2.5.

  1. GALACTIC CEPHEIDS WITH SPITZER. II. SEARCH FOR EXTENDED INFRARED EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmby, P.; Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Huelsman, D.; Fazio, G. G.; Bono, G.; Su, K. Y. L.; Welch, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    A deep and detailed examination of 29 classical Cepheids with the Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed three stars with strong nearby extended emission detected in multiple bands which appears to be physically associated with the stars. RS Pup was already known to possess extended infrared emission, while the extended emission around the other two stars (S Mus and δ Cep) is newly discovered in our observations. Four other stars (GH Lup, l Car, T Mon, and X Cyg) show tentative evidence for extended infrared emission. An unusual elongated extended object next to SZ Tau appears to be a background or foreground object in a chance alignment with the Cepheid. The inferred mass-loss rate upper limits for S Mus and δ Cep are in the range from 10 -9 to 10 -8 M sun yr -1 , with the upper limit for RS Pup as high as 10 -6 M sun yr -1 . Mass loss during post-main-sequence evolution has been proposed as a resolution to the discrepancy between pulsational and dynamical masses of Cepheid variable stars: dust in the lost material would make itself known by the presence of an infrared bright nebula or unresolved infrared excess. The observed frequency of infrared circumstellar emission (<24%) and the mass-loss rate we estimate for our sources show that dusty mass loss can only account for part of the Cepheid mass-loss discrepancy. Nevertheless, our direct evidence that mass loss is active during the Cepheid phase is an important confirmation that these processes need to be included in evolutionary and pulsation models of these stars and should be taken into account in the calibration of the Cepheid distance scale.

  2. Exploring the impact of an industrial volunteer/school science partnership on elementary teaching strategies and attitudes about future science study: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael Robert

    This study reports the results of research designed to explore the impact of industrial volunteer/school partnerships on elementary science teaching behaviors and students' attitudes about future science study. Since these partnerships involved teachers and students in hands-on or laboratory-type science experiences, the study will add an elementary school component to a series of other studies conducted through the Science Education Program at Temple University that have addressed how to improve the learning outcomes from these experiences. Three suburban elementary schools were randomly selected by a single school district's science supervisor to be involved in this study. Two of the buildings were designated as the experimental schools and teachers worked directly with the researcher as an industrial partner. The third school served as a control with no organized industrial partner. An additional school building in a second suburban school district was selected to serve as a comparison school and a second scientist participated as an industrial volunteer. Unlike the researcher, this scientist had no formal training in science education. Each phase of the study included instruments piloted and reviewed by experienced elementary teachers for appropriateness or by objective experts in the field of education. A student attitude survey and selected tasks from the Inventory of Piagetian Developmental Tasks were administered to all students involved in the study. Empirical data collected through videotaped analysis using the validated Modified-Revised Vickery Science Teacher Behavior Inventory led to the development of a pattern of the most frequently used behaviors during elementary science instruction. A profile of each participating teacher was developed through the use of a validated attitude survey, notes taken during classroom interactions and from information collected during ethnographic interviews. A major conclusion drawn from this study is that neither type

  3. Exploration of offering photoelectric experimental general elective courses for college students of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shen; Sun, Binchao

    2017-08-01

    The necessity of offering photoelectric experiment general elective courses, such as the experiments of modern optical and innovational photoelectric design for non optic-electric's science and engineering students were discussed based on the analysis of the status quo and problems in experimental general elective course in science and engineering colleges of our country. And the characters of photoelectric disciplines, the goal of science and engineering quality-oriented education and the reform of science education at home and abroad were also considered. The instructional objectives, contents and characteristics of the courses were investigated. The specific methods, the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) mode in the general courses has been proposed; the experiences and practical effects of offering these courses were concluded.

  4. Exploring Habitable Worlds: Science Questions for Future Direct Imaging Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apai, D.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the SAG15 team's comprehensive effort to compile community input on key science questions for future exoplanet imaging missions, many of which are essential to recognizing habitable planets and for correcting interpreting biosignatures.

  5. Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system

  6. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  7. Bonding Ideas About Inquiry: Exploring Knowledge and Practices of Metacognition in Beginning Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Arias, Ana Margarita

    Metacognition, identified generally as "thinking about thinking", plays a fundamental role in science education. It enhances the understanding of science as a way to generate new knowledge using scientific concepts and practices. Moreover, metacognition supports the development of students' life-long problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking skills. When teachers use metacognition with intention, it can promote students' agency and responsibility for their own learning. However, despite all of its benefits, metacognition is rarely seen in secondary science classrooms. Thus, it is important to understand what beginning teachers know and how they use metacognition during their first years in order to find ways to prepare and support them in incorporating metacognitive practices into their science teaching. The purpose of this multimethod study was to describe the metacognitive knowledge and experiences of beginning science teachers. For the quantitative research strand, I surveyed 36 secondary science teachers about their awareness of metacognition and used classroom observations coded from a larger research study to identify how often teachers were using metacognition to teach science. For the qualitative strand, I interviewed 15 participants about their knowledge and experiences of metacognition (including reflective practices) and spent two weeks observing two of the teachers who described exemplary metacognitive teaching practices. I found that participants had a solid awareness of metacognition, but considered the term complicated to enact, difficult for students, and less important to focus on during their first years of teaching than other elements such as content. Additionally, teaching experience seemed to have an effect on teachers' knowledge and experiences of metacognition. However, participants who were using metacognitive practices had recognized their importance since the beginning of their teaching. Reflective practices can help improve

  8. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our

  9. Science Possibilities Enabled by the Mars Base Camp Human Exploration Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichan, T.; Murrow, D. W.; Jolly, S. D.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B.

    2017-02-01

    The Mars Base Camp architecture study reveals scientific possibilities enabled by a crewed orbital base camp, and that collaborative human and robotic missions should be part of the vision for Mars exploration by 2050.

  10. Developing Science Operations Concepts for the Future of Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; McAdam, A.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Garry, W. B.; Whelley,; Scheidt, S.; Carter, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Through fly-by, orbiter, rover, and even crewed missions, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been extremely successful in exploring planetary bodies throughout our Solar System. The focus on increasingly complex Mars orbiter and rover missions has helped us understand how Mars has evolved over time and whether life has ever existed on the red planet. However, large strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) still exist in our understanding of the evolution of the Solar System (e.g. the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, Small Bodies Analysis Group, and Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group). Sending humans to these bodies is a critical part of addressing these SKGs in order to transition to a new era of planetary exploration by 2050.

  11. An exploration of citizen science for population health research in retail food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Stephanie J; Minaker, Leia M; Mah, Catherine L

    2018-01-22

    Public engagement is an essential component of public health research, practice, knowledge exchange processes, and decision making. Citizen science was first documented in the early 1900s as an approach to public engagement and there is growing interest in how it can be used in health research. This commentary describes how citizen science approaches were incorporated into a public engagement activity as part of a population health intervention research project on the retail food environment, a workshop we hosted called The Food In This Place in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. We used citizen science methods and approaches to train and support participants to critically analyze a sample of everyday local retail food environments.

  12. The Space Science Suitcase—Instruments for Exploring Near-Earth Space from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Kjartan; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Tanskanen, Eija

    2009-04-01

    The aurora and other phenomena in near Earth space are becoming a considerable part of the science curriculum in upper secondary school (high school) in Norway. Introducing scientific methods to the young students is an important objective of the education, but experimental experience is mainly restricted to simple laboratory exercises under controlled conditions; observations of uncontrollable natural phenomena are generally left to academic scientists and researchers. The Space Physics Group and The Science Education and Outreach Group at The Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, are constructing a Space Science Suitcase with a set of simple versions of instruments for monitoring solar and geophysical activity in near Earth space. The instruments will be lent to physics classes in upper secondary schools.

  13. Soccer science and the Bayes community: exploring the cognitive implications of modern scientific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrager, Jeff; Billman, Dorrit; Convertino, Gregorio; Massar, J P; Pirolli, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Science is a form of distributed analysis involving both individual work that produces new knowledge and collaborative work to exchange information with the larger community. There are many particular ways in which individual and community can interact in science, and it is difficult to assess how efficient these are, and what the best way might be to support them. This paper reports on a series of experiments in this area and a prototype implementation using a research platform called CACHE. CACHE both supports experimentation with different structures of interaction between individual and community cognition and serves as a prototype for computational support for those structures. We particularly focus on CACHE-BC, the Bayes community version of CACHE, within which the community can break up analytical tasks into "mind-sized" units and use provenance tracking to keep track of the relationship between these units. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  15. Teacher perspectives on science literacy in multilingual classrooms –multidisciplinary explorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajer, Maaike; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Tytler, Russell

    of instruction (Jakobsson, Mäkitalo & Säljö 2009). This is especially important where students with multilingual backgrounds face the challenge of moving from their mother tongue in a second language science discourse.Researching teachers’ understanding of science literacy is a complex process in itself...... to actively discuss the contributions of different disciplines to the analyses of concrete classroom data. C: Analysis of teacher growth during Continuing Professional Development (CPD)An important question to discuss in the roundtable will be how to represent both collective and individual teacher learning...

  16. Exploring a Science Teacher's Uncertainty with Integrating Engineering Design: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2011-11-01

    This study examines a fifth grade science teacher's attempts at integrating engineering design using the construct of uncertainty. Collaborative action research served as a supportive mechanism to uncover and confront the teacher's uncertainties. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, reflections, classroom observations, lesson plans, and student work. Data analysis entailed the use of grounded theory. Findings from this study revealed that teaching science through engineering design is both challenging and problematic. Underpinning the teacher's pedagogical experiences was the constant force of uncertainty, in various forms, and how her sense of doubt was beneficial rather than problematic.

  17. Analysis of Spitzer-IRS spectra of hyperluminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A.; Risaliti, G.; Nardini, E.; Panessa, F.; Carrera, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Hyperluminous infrared galaxies (HLIRG) are the most luminous persistent objects in the Universe. They exhibit extremely high star formation rates, and most of them seem to harbour an active galactic nucleus (AGN). They are unique laboratories for investigating the most extreme star formation and its connection to super-massive black hole growth. Aims: The relative AGN and starburst (SB) contributions to the total output in these objects is still debated. Our aim is to disentangle the AGN and SB emission of a sample of thirteen HLIRG. Methods: We studied the MIR low-resolution spectra of a sample of thirteen HLIRG obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on board Spitzer. The 5-8 μm range is an optimal window for detecting AGN activity even in a heavily obscured environment. We performed an SB/AGN decomposition of the continuum using templates, which has been successfully applied for ULIRG in previous works. Results: The MIR spectra of all sources is largely dominated by AGN emission. By converting the 6 μm luminosity into IR luminosity, we found that ~80% of the sample shows an IR output dominated by the AGN emission. However, the SB activity is significant in all sources (mean SB contribution ~30%), showing star formation rates ~300-3000 M⊙ yr-1. With X-ray and MIR data we estimated the dust covering factor (CF) of these HLIRG, finding that a significant fraction presents a CF consistent with unity. Along with the high X-ray absorption shown by these sources, this suggests that large amounts of dust and gas enshroud the nucleus of these HLIRG, as also observed in ULIRG. Conclusions: Our results agree with previous studies of the IR SED of HLIRG using radiative transfer models, and we find strong evidence that all HLIRG harbour an AGN. Moreover, this work provides further support for the idea that AGN and SB are both crucial to understanding the properties of HLIRG. Our study of the CF supports the hypothesis that HLIRG can be divided into two

  18. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-05-20

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  19. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  20. Working Memory and Science Education: Exploring the Compatibility of Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair-Thompson, H. L.; Botton, C.

    2009-01-01

    Research in science education has referred to limitations in information processing resulting from both mental capacity and working memory capacity. Mental capacity is often conceptualised within the framework of the theory of constructive operators. However, the cognitive resources underlying working memory are not well specified within the…

  1. Exploring the Effects of Digital Note Taking on Student Comprehension of Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Mark A.; Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Terra, Fatima

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of text notes and voice notes on the comprehension of science texts by fifth grade students. The study was conducted to determine whether digital note taking was an effective reading strategy, and whether one form of digital note taking was more effective than the other. Results revealed that general education…

  2. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (pdifferences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  3. This Is Who I Want to Be! Exploring Possible Selves by Interviewing Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jessica Singer

    2017-01-01

    This article shares a study of an interview/writing project for adolescent girls, which was a component of the Girls Writing Science Project at a diverse urban high school in the Southwestern United States. The group of high school girls planned, initiated, conducted, and wrote interview profiles of women scientists from their local community.…

  4. Exploration of the Lived Experiences of Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead-McDaniel, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of…

  5. Global Lunar Topography from the Deep Space Gateway for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, B.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Edmundson, K.; Stone, T.; Portree, D.; Keszthelyi, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway, in low lunar orbit, could be used to achieve a long standing goal of lunar science, collecting stereo images in two months to make a complete, uniform, high resolution, known accuracy, global topographic model of the Moon.

  6. Can I Blow It Up? Can I Eat It? Exploring the Science of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gill; Holyman, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Easy-to-use classroom resources that support science teaching are always welcomed by time-poor teachers. Ideally these resources should be easy to find, useful and have the flexibility to be incorporated with minimal adaptation into an already full teaching day. Using food in the classroom is certainly not a new idea--especially for primary school…

  7. DinoViz: Exploring the History and Nature of Science through the Progression of Dinosaur Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…

  8. Driven by Affect to Explore Asteroids, the Moon, and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingatantrige Perera, Jude Viranga

    2017-01-01

    Affect is a domain of psychology that includes attitudes, emotions, interests, and values. My own affect influenced the choice of topics for my dissertation. After examining asteroid interiors and the Moon's thermal evolution, I discuss the role of affect in online science education. I begin with asteroids, which are collections of smaller objects…

  9. Exploring Science Teachers' Argumentation and Personal Epistemology About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-06-01

    This case study investigated the nature of in-service science teachers' argumentation and personal epistemology about global climate change during a 3-year professional development program on climate change education. Qualitative analysis of data from interviews and written assessments revealed that while these teachers grounded their arguments on climate issues in evidence, the evidence was often insufficient to justify their causal claims. Compared with generating arguments for their own views, teachers had more difficulties in constructing evidence-based arguments for alternative perspectives. Moreover, while these teachers shared some similarities in their epistemology about climate science, they varied in their beliefs about specific aspects such as scientists' expertise and the credibility of scientific evidence. Such similarities and distinctions were shown to relate to how teachers used evidence to justify claims in their arguments. The findings also suggested a mismatch between teachers' personal epistemology about science in general and climate science, which was revealed through their argumentation. This work helps to further the ongoing discussions in environmental education about what knowledge and skills teachers need in order to teach climate issues and prepare students for future decision making. It constitutes first steps to facilitate reasoning and argumentation in climate change education and provides important implications for future design of professional development programs.

  10. Exploring the Self-Reported ICT Skill Levels of Undergraduate Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwegh, Dirk; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2016-01-01

    Computers have taken an important place in the training of science students and in the professional life of scientists. It is often taken for granted that most students have mastered basic Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) skills; however, it has been shown that not all students are equally proficient in this regard. Starting from…

  11. Exploring Undergraduates' Perceptions of the Use of Active Learning Techniques in Science Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ashley J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines students' mixed perceptions of the use of active learning techniques in undergraduate science lectures. Written comments from over 250 students offered an in-depth view of why students perceive these techniques as helping or hindering their learning and experience. Fourth- and fifth-year students were more likely to view…

  12. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obery, Amanda; Bangert, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267). Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational…

  13. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  14. Making Waves: An Exploration in Learning through Art, Science, and Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma Jane

    2017-01-01

    For nearly one hundred years, from progressive education to critical pedagogy, philosophers, researchers, and educators have advocated for listening, respecting, and providing space for the learner's voice within education. When teaching challenging science content, it is vital to provide both a context for the knowledge and a reason for learning…

  15. Exploring the Impact of Argumentation on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of argumentation on pre-service science teachers' (PST) conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. The sample consisted of 57 first-year PSTs enrolled in a teacher education program in Turkey. Thirty two of the 57 PSTs who participated in this study were in the experimental group and 25 in the control group.…

  16. Embodied experiences for science learning: A cognitive linguistics exploration of middle school students' language in learning about water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Barrios, Ivan Eduardo

    I investigated linguistic patterns in middle school students' writing to understand their relevant embodied experiences for learning science. Embodied experiences are those limited by the perceptual and motor constraints of the human body. Recent research indicates student understanding of science needs embodied experiences. Recent emphases of science education researchers in the practices of science suggest that students' understanding of systems and their structure, scale, size, representations, and causality are crosscutting concepts that unify all scientific disciplinary areas. To discern the relationship between linguistic patterns and embodied experiences, I relied on Cognitive Linguistics, a field within cognitive sciences that pays attention to language organization and use assuming that language reflects the human cognitive system. Particularly, I investigated the embodied experiences that 268 middle school students learning about water brought to understanding: i) systems and system structure; ii) scale, size and representations; and iii) causality. Using content analysis, I explored students' language in search of patterns regarding linguistic phenomena described within cognitive linguistics: image schemas, conceptual metaphors, event schemas, semantical roles, and force-dynamics. I found several common embodied experiences organizing students' understanding of crosscutting concepts. Perception of boundaries and change in location and perception of spatial organization in the vertical axis are relevant embodied experiences for students' understanding of systems and system structure. Direct object manipulation and perception of size with and without locomotion are relevant for understanding scale, size and representations. Direct applications of force and consequential perception of movement or change in form are relevant for understanding of causality. I discuss implications of these findings for research and science teaching.

  17. The Space Science Suitcase - Instruments for Exploring Space Weather From the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, K.; Ostgaard, N.

    2008-12-01

    The aurora and other phenomena in near Earth space are becoming a considerable part of the science curriculum in upper secondary school (high school - age 16 to 19) in Norway. Introducing scientific methods to the young students is an important task of the education, but experimental science experience is to a great extent restricted to simple laboratory exercises under controlled conditions; observations of uncontrollable natural phenomena are generally left to academic scientists and researchers. The Space Physics Group and The Science Education and Outreach Group at The Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, have constructed a "Space Science Suitcase" with a set of simple versions of instruments for monitoring solar and geophysical activity in near Earth space. The contents of the suitcase are: Two solar telescopes, commercial SLR digital camera with a fisheye lens for photographing the aurora, tri-axial magnetometer, Geiger counter, two spectroscopes, GPS-receiver, a laptop for collecting the pictures and measurements, and a manual with suggestions for some relevant experiments. The suitcase is lent to physics classes in upper secondary schools for 3-4 weeks at each school, allowing the students to do their own quantitative observations of sunspots, magnetic disturbances, optical aurora, background radiation etc. Comparison of these observations with online observations from ground based observatories and satellites is an integrated part of the project. The purpose of the experiment is to promote scientific literacy, bring excitement about space phenomena into the classroom, and, finally, to recruit enthusiastic students to university studies in physic and geophysics in general, and space science in particular.

  18. Exploring PCK ability of prospective science teachers in reflective learning on heat and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatin, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Learning can be planned by the person him/herself when he or she tries to reflect his/her learning. A study involving prospective science teachers in junior secondary schools was carried out to analyze their ability on Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in reflective learning after teaching practice. The study was focused especially in creating Pedagogical and Professional Repertoires (PaP-eRs) as part of resource-folios. PaP-eRs as a narrative writing in the learning activities are created by prospective science teachers after lesson plan implementation. Making the narrative writing is intended that prospective science teachers can reflect their learning in teaching. Research subjects are six prospective science teachers who are implementing "Program Pengalaman Lapangan" (PPL) in two junior secondary schools in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. All of them were assigned by supervisor teachers to teach VII grade students on certain topic "heat and its transfer". Instruments used as a means of collecting data in this study is PaP-eRs. Collected PaP-eRs were then analyzed using PaP-eRs analysis format as instruments for analysis. The result of analyzing PaP-eRs indicates that learning activities, which narrated, involve initial activities, core activities and final activities. However, any activity, which is narrated just superficial as its big line so the narration cannot be, used as reflective learning. It indicates that PCK ability of prospective science teachers in creating narrative writing (PaP-eRs) for reflective learning is still low.

  19. Exploring the Full Spectrum: the Power of Combining Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camnasio, Sara; Fonda, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Science is publicly perceived as a challenging discipline open only to a small elite of extremely intelligent individuals. Its historic deficiency of women and racial minorities has helped to keep it on a outwardly unreachable pedestal far higher than the public's reach. One way we can pull science out its stiff academic walls is to incorporate it into an artistic performance. I have produced a multi-disciplinary performance event, called "The View From Nowhere", which combined dance, physics and philosophy, all in one evening. The event is part of a long-term series which will attempt to translate scientific concepts into a diverse range of works by international choreographers. Because of the success of this series, both in the public feedback as well as in the amount of educational baggage acquired by the participants, I analyzed the structure of my own event and compared it to other existing ones to generate a model for multidisciplinary collaborations between the arts and the sciences. I will present a general structure for building collaborations between artists and scientists, more specifically in the context of visual, sound and performance art. From outlining the psychological aspects of human learning and their relationship with science communication, to discussing the potential of art as educational medium, I will discuss how science-inspired performances along with a pedagogy of the topic by a scientist allows a wider pool of people to have access to topics which are normally difficult to grasp in a traditional academic context. I will also be presenting the outline of a current APS-funded, long-term project which aims to build artistic collaborations between researchers in fluid dynamics from NYU, Georgia Tech, and University of Maryland and international artists which will result in an exhibit on the topic of quantum fluids at the New York City art venue Pioneer Works.

  20. Back- and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, Ryan; Shaw, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Back- and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences As two doctoral candidates in a health and rehabilitation sciences program, we describe in this paper our respective paradigmatic locations along a quite nonlinear ontological-epistemological-axiological-methodological chain. In a turn-taking fashion, we unpack the tenets of critical realism and pragmatism, and then trace the linkages from these paradigmatic locations through to the methodological choices that address a community-based research problem. Beyond serving as an answer to calls for academics in training to demonstrate philosophical-theoretical-methodological integrity and coherence in their scholarship, this paper represents critical realism and its fore-grounding of a deeply stratified ontology in reflexive relation to pragmatism and its back-grounding of ontology. We conclude by considering the merits and challenges of conducting research from within singular versus proliferate paradigmatic perspectives. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D. J.; Massa, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  2. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  3. The Ripple Effect: Exploring How a Joint Science Specialist/TOSA Can Change Classroom Teachers' Instructional Practices through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradias, Jean

    In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that connects students to their communities and their world. Therefore, teachers are in need of instructional support for science teaching that can enable them to achieve these higher expectations. This dissertation explored whether implementing a Project-Based Learning (PBL)-centered science specialist changed classroom teachers' frequency of science instruction and use of instructional strategies that support NGSS science delivery. In addition, this study examined how providing a PBL science specialist supported teachers in their comfort with using these more rigorous instructional strategies. Five elementary teachers participated in an action research project conducted over the course of a school year. The frequency with which teachers used the following instructional strategies was analyzed: connecting science to real world phenomena, accessing community resources, integrating science into other subject areas, and using inquiry in science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed that a PBL science specialist does support classroom teachers in implementing teaching practices aligned to the conceptual shifts implicated by the NGSS; however, individual growth rates varied by instructional strategy. The results of this study provide a foundation for the legitimacy of utilizing a PBL-focused science specialist to support teachers in shifting their instructional practices in order to achieve the Next Generation Science Standards.

  4. Exploring the interaction of personal and contextual factors during the induction period of science teachers and how this interaction shapes their enactment of science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yavuz

    year experience. This research also demonstrated that participation in a professional community that both acknowledges the strengths novices bring into the community and recognizes the support novices need is essential if novices are to become successful members of a community of practice. One implication of this research is the need to move beyond a singular focus on science teaching and learning in teacher education programs to include an exploration of the affective and professional aspects of teaching. Because this research points to the important role professional development communities play in the development of reform minded science teachers, a second implication of this research is that teacher preparation programs should include a close examination of the role and importance of communities in a teacher's initial success and long term development. Clearly disbanding the professional community constructed throughout a preservice experience upon graduation is artificial and counterproductive. Instead, induction programs that include some members of the preservice science teacher's community may be invaluable for providing support, recognition, and critical lens needed for novices to examine their work as they move into schools as professionals engaged in practice of reform-based science teaching.

  5. The Right "Fit": Exploring Science Teacher Candidates' Approaches to Natural Selection Within a Clinical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotger, Benjamin; Dotger, Sharon; Masingila, Joanna; Rozelle, Jeffrey; Bearkland, Mary; Binnert, Ashley

    2017-04-01

    Teachers and students struggle with the complexities surrounding the evolution of species and the process of natural selection. This article examines how science teacher candidates (STCs) engage in a clinical simulation that foregrounds two common challenges associated with natural selection—students' understanding of "survival of the fittest" and the variation of species over time. We outline the medical education pedagogy of clinical simulations and its recent diffusion to teacher education. Then, we outline the study that situates each STC in a one-to-one interaction with a standardized student who is struggling to accurately interpret natural selection concepts. In simulation with the standardized student, each STC is challenged to recognize content misconceptions and respond with appropriate instructional strategies and accurate explanations. Findings and implications center on the STCs' instructional practices in the simulation and the use of clinical learning environments to foster science teacher learning.

  6. Contents Exploring the Preservice Science Teachers' Written Argumentation Skills: The Global Climate Change Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Topcu, Mustafa S.

    2016-01-01

    The pedagogical methods and techniques used in teacher training programs are important tools to graduate qualified teachers. Argumentation, which is known as evidence based scientific discussions, is one of the most widely used tools in national and international literature. The aim of the present study is to explore the quality of Preservice…

  7. Exploring Lecturers' Views of First-Year Health Science Students' Misconceptions in Biomedical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…

  8. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE): Science Objectives, Mission and Instruments (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvits, L.; Plaut, J.J.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gladstone, R.; Grasset, O.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Iess, L.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.

    2014-01-01

    The JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) is a European Space Agency mission that will fly by and observe the Galilean satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, characterize the Jovian system in a lengthy Jupiter-orbit phase, and ultimately orbit Ganymede for in-depth studies of habitability, evolution and the local environment [1].

  9. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) : Science Objectives, Mission and Instruments (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurvits, L.; Plaut, J.J.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gladstone, R.; Grasset, O.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Iess, L.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Titov, D.; Wahlund, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) is a European Space Agency mission that will fly by and observe the Galilean satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, characterize the Jovian system in a lengthy Jupiter-orbit phase, and ultimately orbit Ganymede for in-depth studies of habitability, evolution

  10. Farside explorer : Unique science from a mission to the farside of the moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mimoun, D.; Wieczorek, M.A.; Gurvits, L.

    2012-01-01

    Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of theMoon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded the

  11. Can anyone be a scientist? Exploring the role of citizen science in coral reef research

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Miranda; Shein, Karsten; Abbott, J. Anthony; Foster, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    Individuals lacking scientific training have made important contributions in many disciplines historically, but the role and value of public participation in modern professional research is controversial within the scientific community. Beneficially, citizen scientists provide a source of labor, a variety of skills, and capital. This link between the public and research serves as a bridge between science and education, creating a more environmentally informed populace. Through a survey of par...

  12. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  13. Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    OpenAIRE

    Tobie, G.; Teanby, N.A.; Coustenis, A.; Jaumann, R.; Raulin, F; Schmidt, J.; Carrasco, N.; Coates, A.J.; Cordier, D.; de Kok, Remco; Geppert, W.D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lefevre, A.; Livengood, T.A.; Mandt, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Saturn?s moons, Titan and Enceladus, are two of the Solar System?s most enigmatic bodies and are prime targets for future space exploration. Titan provides an analogue for many processes relevant to the Earth, more generally to outer Solar System bodies, and a growing host of newly discovered icy exoplanets. Processes represented include atmospheric dynamics, complex organic chemistry, meteorological cycles (with methane as a working fluid), astrobiology, surface liquids and lakes, g...

  14. Persist in creating of science and technology (S.T.), promote the development of uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Letian; Yu Dagan

    2002-01-01

    The modern social production is characterized by high-grade S.T. leading, the guarantee of which are the creating and recreating. Creating is comprehensive, including the thinking, concepts, view points, theories, systems, management, S.T., engineering, etc. The prospecting and exploration of uranium deposits in China also must follow this trend by renewing the strategies, the management system, S.T. studies, the thinking fashion for more, faster, better, finding uranium deposits

  15. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  16. Exploring the Oceans in 4D: Using Paleoceanography to Engage Students in Interdisciplinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Fournier, A.; Paxson, M.; Grant, C.; MacFadden, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent collaborations between educators and scientists have helped to change the face of K-12 education and allow for the development of curricula that closely mimic real word scientific inquiry in ever more accessible formats. Here we capitalize on collaborations established by the Great American Biotic Interchange - Research Experience for Teachers (GABI-RET) and the Panama Canal Project - Partnerships in International Research and Education (PCP-PIRE) to create a series of hands-on activities that investigate the dynamic response of various components of the Earth's system to changes in ocean gateways through time. In particular, we focus on the rise of the Isthmus of Panama and subsequent closure of the Central American Seaway that provide an opportune platform for the interdisciplinary teaching of multiple secondary education topics. Relevant themes include, but are not limited to, geologic time, dating techniques, plate tectonics, ocean circulation, climate, and the speciation/diversification of life. We have taken a versatile approach to these activities by simulating deep sea sediment cores, complete with 3D printed microfossils and related data, that allow students to actively apply the scientific method to simplified geologic archives, graph and assess evidence, and debate their findings in a project based format. The exercises themselves are designed to meet Next Generation and Florida State Science Standards for 6th grade Earth Science and 12th grade Environmental Management/Science classes, though the nature of the activities can be adapted to intermediary skill levels with relative ease. The project kit is designed for use in classrooms without ready access to computers or microscopes and the associated lesson plans/materials will be made available through the GABI-RET and PaleoTEACH websites.

  17. Exploring new ways of working using virtual research environments in library and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lassi, Monica; Olson, Nasrine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present current and ongoing research investigating new ways of working across geographic distances and time within library and information science (LIS). Design/methodology/approach: A total of four studies were conducted focusing on: the design of a virtual...... research environment (VRE) to facilitate the sharing of data collection instruments among students, researchers and professionals; new ways professionals and researchers can collaborate; collaborative decision making in the context of purchasing a library management system; and collaboration among LIS...

  18. Earth sciences uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1998. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1986-1998. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  19. Exploring the Written Dialogues of Two First-Year Secondary Science Teachers in an Online Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the yearlong learning processes of two first-year secondary science teachers participating in an online mentoring program, through examination of their written dialogues within the program and other data. Using a case study method, this study (a) explored the patterns of written dialogues between the two new teachers and their mentors over the course of a year, (b) documented pertinent topics of importance, and finally (c) illustrated the new realities created in the mentees' classrooms as a result of the online mentoring process. Penelope and Bradley, who taught at an urban school and at a suburban school respectively, were selected as subjects. Our analysis revealed that the two pairs of mentee-mentors showed different participation patterns that affected the intensity of the creation of new realities, and affected whether the mentees tried/vetted new teaching practices suggested by their mentors. Yet, analysis also revealed that certain elements in the written dialogues between pairs were found to be similar, in that construction of knowledge was evident between both pairs when friction developed and appropriate teamwork emerged to deal with it. The topics of greatest interest and importance within the dialogues were those related to the logistics of the school system and the processes and methodologies of teaching. These results suggest that online mentoring programs are an effective dialogical tool for transferring the knowledge of experts to novices, and for thus expediting the professional induction and growth of new science teachers.

  20. Exploring the Construct of Pedagogical Discontentment: A Tool to Understand Science Teachers' Openness to Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Sowell, Scott; Blanchard, Margaret; Granger, E. M.

    2011-05-01

    It is well established that many teachers are resistant to take up the messages of reform if these messages require them to substantially shift their teaching practices. What accounts for this resistance? One well established explanation is that teachers lacks the self-efficacy required to attempt something new in their teaching—they simply do not feel capable of effectively enacting the messages. However, there are a host of studies describing teachers with high self—efficacy who remain resistant to messages of change. The purpose of this article is to address the gap in the application of self-efficacy to understand the change or lack of change of science teachers' practice through the introduction of a related construct, pedagogical discontentment. This construct reflects a state of cognitive conflict that exists when an individual recognizes a mismatch between her/his science teaching pedagogical goals and classroom practices. One potential result of this mismatch is that a teacher problematizes her teaching practices, prompting an increased receptivity to reform messages. Building on existing literature, we present vignettes of four hypothetical teachers who exemplify variations of pedagogical discontentment. When combined with self-efficacy, pedagogical discontentment provides a useful lens to understand teachers' consideration and adoption of messages of reform.

  1. Case studies of tenure-track science professors: Exploring the relationship between teaching and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jenay

    Current STEM workforce issues and retention problems faced by postsecondary STEM education have renewed educational research efforts in this arena. A review of literature on STEM professors indicates that although this population reports difficulties integrating teaching and research responsibilities, there have not yet been any qualitative studies conducted to deeply investigate the complexities of the relationship between teaching and research. This study utilized a set of four phenomenological case studies to address the following research questions: (1) What is the relationship between the teaching and research roles for individuals in a sample of tenure-track science professors at an RU/VH institution? (2) What types of activities and experiences (particularly professional development) do participants engage in to support their roles as teachers? What types of activities and experiences impede their roles as teachers? In what ways do these activities support or impede participants' roles as teachers? (3) What connections can be made between the participants' personal, cultural, and professional histories and the way they are currently experiencing the relationship between teaching and research? The results of this study suggest that science professors might make decisions about the way they allocate limited time in an unlimited work environment based on their intrinsic, personal career goals and desire to help students. Furthermore, all of the participants in the study indicated that other than research training, they received little to no preparation for their jobs. These findings provide the field with points of interest for further study as well as the design of educational support and interventions.

  2. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a

  3. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ∼44 deg 2 map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ∼20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  4. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...

  5. HST and Spitzer point source and dust lane detection in powerful narrow-line radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E. A.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Dicken, D.; Rose, M.; Axon, D. J.; Sparks, W.

    2014-10-01

    We present the analysis of infrared HST and Spitzer data for a sample of 13 FRII powerful radio galaxies at 0.03 scale toroidal structure when this is viewed edge-on (Barthel 1989, Antonucci 1993). Our high resolution infrared observations provide new information about the optical extinction, orientation, and direct AGN detection of the inner kpc-scale region of the AGN.

  6. Random walks, Brownian motion, and interacting particle systems: a festschrift in honor of Frank Spitzer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durrett, Richard; Kesten, Harry; Spitzer, Frank

    1991-01-01

    ..., made the transparency used in the printing process. STUDENTS OF FRANK SPITZERSTUDENTS OF FRANK SPITZER 1957 J. W. Lamperti, On the asymptotic behavior of recurrent and almostrecurrent events. 1964 W. W. Whitman, Some strong laws for random walks and Brownian motion. 1965 J. C. Mineka, The existence and uniqueness of positive solutions to the Wien...

  7. Thermal properties of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Mueller, Th.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Delsanti, A.; Groussin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory [8] (either PACS or PACS and SPIRE) and Spitzer Space Telescope [12] (MIPS). We apply radiometric modeling techniques (NEATM [2]) to the measured fluxes to

  8. Thermal Properties Of Trans-neptunian Objects And Centaurs From Combined Herschel And Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, Emmanuel; Santos-Sanz, P.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Müller, T.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Lacerda, P.; Harris, A.; TNOs are Cool Team, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory (either PACS or PACS/SPIRE) and Spitzer (MIPS). The combined wavelength range is 24-160 μm and additionally up to 500 μm for a few targets. We apply

  9. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars—the Spitzer view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhász, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, T.; Acke, B.; van den Ancker, M.E.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the

  10. Waters, dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around herbig ae/be stars—the spitzer view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhász, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Acke, B.; Van Den Ancker, M.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/277318416; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the

  11. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks Around Herbig Ae/Be Stars—the Spitzer View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhasz, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Acke, B.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the

  12. The Spitzer IRS infrared spectrum and abundances of the planetary nebula IC 2448

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiles, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Roellig, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 2448. In order to determine the chemical composition of the nebula, we use the infrared line fluxes from the Spitzer spectrum along with optical line fluxes from the literature and ultraviolet line fluxes from archival IUE spectra. We

  13. Visible photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Jones, Sarah; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Spahr, Tim; Delbo, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population -- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets -- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study some 700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. Remarkably, the primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. Fortunately, our targets are generally bright, and obtaining good V band measurements of them requires only a modest amount of time on modest aperture telescopes. We propose here for 36 hours of SMARTS 1.3-m time or 54 hours of SMARTS 0.9-m time to obtain visible photometry of the 72 southern moderately bright ``B'' semester targets in our Warm Spitzer program. These program is ideal for queue/service observing because each observation requires only ~30 minutes and our targets are all over the sky.

  14. Exploring the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms: A formative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Kay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study offers a formative analysis of the impact of learning objects in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Five reliable and valid measure of effectiveness were used to examine the impact of learning objects from the perspective of 262 students and 8 teachers (14 classrooms in science or mathematics. The results indicate that teachers typically spend 1-2 hours finding and preparing for learning-object based lesson plans that focus on the review of previous concepts. Both teachers and students are positive about the learning benefits, quality, and engagement value of learning objects, although teachers are more positive than students. Student performance increased significantly, over 40%, when learning objects were used in conjunction with a variety of teaching strategies. It is reasonable to conclude that learning objects have potential as a teaching tool in a middle school environment. L’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire : une analyse formative Résumé : Cette étude présente une analyse formative de l’impacte des objets d’apprentissage dans les classes de mathématique et de sciences à l’école intermédiaire. Cinq mesures de rendement fiables et valides ont été exploitées pour examiner l’effet des objets d’apprentissage selon 262 élèves et 8 enseignants (414 classes en science ou mathématiques. Les résultats indiquent que les enseignants passent typiquement 1-2 heures pour trouver des objets d’apprentissage et préparer les leçons associées qui seraient centrées sur la revue de concepts déjà vus en classe. Quoique les enseignants aient répondu de façon plus positive que les élèves, les deux groupes ont répondu positivement quant aux avantages au niveau de l’apprentissage, à la qualité ainsi qu’à la valeur motivationnelle des objets d’apprentissage. Le rendement des élèves aurait aussi augment

  15. Exploring science and mathematics teaching experiences in Thailand using reflective journals of an internship program between Vietnamese and Thai students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Phonphok, Nason; Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    An internship program between Vietnamese student teachers from Cantho University and Thai graduate students from Srinakharinwirot University has occurred in June 2016. There were six Vietnamese student teachers and four Thai graduate students participated in this program with the help of science teachers from two schools in Sa Kaeo and Chachoengsao Provinces of Thailand. To explore Vietnamese and Thai students' life experiences and their perceptions in science and Mathematics teaching, reflective journals were used to record their progress as team teaching in primary and lower secondary classrooms in the form of the online format via social media in English language. The data were collected from 54 reflective journals from their eight days experiences at the schools. The data were analyzed qualitatively using Van Manen's level of reflectivity which composed of three levels; 1) Technical Rationality (TR), 2) Practical Action (PA) and 3) Critical Reflection (CR). The results explicitly revealed that the three levels of reflectivity have appeared in the reflective journals. Besides, Vietnamese and Thai students have learned more from each other and can exchange their educational experiences and culture. Certainly, this was the first time for them to teach science and mathematics in English to Thai students. Moreover, they have shared their impressions toward schools, teachers and also students in the schools in their reflective journal as well.

  16. Rocket Science: The Shuttle's Main Engines, though Old, Are not Forgotten in the New Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), developed 30 years ago, remains a strong candidate for use in the new Exploration Initiative as part of a shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable booster. This is because the Boeing-Rocket- dyne man-rated SSME remains the most highly efficient liquid rocket engine ever developed. There are only enough parts for 12-15 existing SSMEs, however, so one NASA option is to reinitiate SSME production to use it as a throw-away, as opposed to a reusable, powerplant for NASA s new heavy-lift booster.

  17. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  18. Supporting metacognitive development in early science education: Exploring elementary teachers' beliefs and practices in metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Heather Leigh-Anne

    Metacognition is the understanding and control of cognitive processes. Students with high levels of metacognition achieve greater academic success. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine elementary teachers' beliefs about metacognition and integration of metacognitive practices in science. Forty-four teachers were recruited through professional networks to complete a questionnaire containing open-ended questions (n = 44) and Likert-type items (n = 41). Five respondents were selected to complete semi-structured interviews informed by the questionnaire. The selected interview participants had a minimum of three years teaching experience and demonstrated a conceptual understanding of metacognition. Statistical tests (Pearson correlation, t-tests, and multiple regression) on quantitative data and thematic analysis of qualitative data indicated that teachers largely understood metacognition but had some gaps in their understanding. Participants' reported actions (teaching practices) and beliefs differed according to their years of experience but not gender. Hierarchical multiple regression demonstrated that the first block of gender and experience was not a significant predictor of teachers' metacognitive actions, although experience was a significant predictor by itself. Experience was not a significant predictor once teachers' beliefs were added. The majority of participants indicated that metacognition was indeed appropriate for elementary students. Participants consistently reiterated that students' metacognition developed with practice, but required explicit instruction. A lack of consensus remained around the domain specificity of metacognition. More specifically, the majority of questionnaire respondents indicated that metacognitive strategies could not be used across subject domains, whereas all interviewees indicated that they used strategies across subjects. Metacognition was integrated frequently into Ontario elementary classrooms; however

  19. Exploring Methodologies for Researching Indigenous Knowledge of Plant Healing for Integration into Classroom Science: Insights Related to the Data Collection Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel; Otulaja, Femi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article forms part of a major study being conducted in Zimbabwe to explore the possibilities of integrating indigenous knowledge of plant healing (Ikoph) into western-oriented classroom science. The article reports on an aspect of research methodology. This study explored appropriate strategies for gaining access to indigenous knowledge…

  20. Exploring the Effects of Specific, Hands-On Interventions, on Environmental Science Topics in Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, S. M.; Hayhoe, D.

    2012-12-01

    With increased concern over the environment, all Ontario students now study soils, energy conservation, water systems, and climate change & the greenhouse effect in Grades 3, 5, 7, 8 and 10. Unfortunately, many prospective teachers at the elementary and intermediate levels come to teacher education programs with little or no formal science education beyond their own experiences as students in the K-12 system. We devised a series of concept tests (some binary choice, some multiple choice) designed to assess teacher candidates' conceptual understandings of soils, energy, water systems, and climate change and the greenhouse effect - the very content they are expected to teach their future students in the school system. We administered a pre-test to our students at two institutions to establish a baseline of their understanding. Then, we specifically devoted class time to exploring each of these themes in our science curriculum methods courses in order using research-based principles of teaching devoted to promoting conceptual change through the use of hands-on, inquiry approaches in science. After a few months had passed, we again administered the same tests to teacher candidates to measure candidates' conceptual gain. Some teacher candidates also participated in follow-up focus group interviews so that they could have the opportunity to articulate their understandings of concepts in environmental science using their own words. In this poster we will report on data collected for this project over the past two academic years. We have reached two broad conclusions. First, teacher candidates know a considerable amount about the four environmental topics that were selected, despite the fact that most participants in the research did not have post-secondary training in science. For example, participants tended to know that planting different crops on the soil in different years helps to maintain fertile soils and that warmer oceans will cause an increase in the severity of

  1. A preliminary exploration of the advanced molecular bio-sciences research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Takanori; Yamada, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kimio; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2001-01-01

    Low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on lifespan, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in mice have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess previous studies and advise on a future research plan for the Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). The committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology, and proposed the following five subjects: 1) molecular carcinogenesis by low dose radiation; 2) radiation effects on the immune and hemopoietic systems; 3) molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) noncancer diseases of low dose radiation, and 5) cellular mechanisms by low dose radiation. (author)

  2. How does materiality shape Childbirth? An explorative journey into evidence, childbirth practices & Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jette Aaroe

    2010-01-01

    is Science and Technology Studies (STS). (Post) Actor Network Theory and postphenomenology is used as theoretical resources to help formulate questions to EBM, midwifery and birthing practices. A central theoretical resource is the Dutch Philosopher Annemarie Mol’s concept of mul-tiplicity. Mol argues......" for those positioned in evidence based medicine and midwifery about the use of technology in childbirth. The empirical material is developed during a field study at a maternity ward. Noisy stories about the use of epidurals and fetal monitors are used as resources. Noisy stories are stories that do...... produced in RCTs and eve-ryday midwifery practices. This thesis encompasses 12 chapters aiming to make the familiar strange and the strange familiar. Histori-cally anthropologist travelled to far away exotic plac-es in an attempt to describe the unfamiliar in familiar terms. This text makes the opposite...

  3. So much more than just a list: exploring the nature of critical questioning in undergraduate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is heavily context dependent, in the sense that is applied, used by critical learners in a contextualised way. Purpose: Our research deals with enhancing science undergraduates' critical questioning. We are interested in understanding and describing the nature and development of students' critical questioning. The purpose is to conceptualise critical questioning as a competency, into three domains - knowledge, skills and attitudes/dispositions. We have no interest in a taxonomic category of context-free question-types called 'critical questions'. In contrast, our view is that 'being a critical questioner' trades heavily on context. Sources of evidence: Four cases are considered as illuminative of the dimensions of science undergraduates' critical questioning. Data were collected in natural learning environments through non-participant observation, audio-taping teacher-students interactions and semi-structured interviews. Students' written material resulting from diverse learning tasks was also collected. Main argument: Our supposition is that one vehicle for achieving university students as critical thinkers is to enable them not just to ask critical questions, but to be critical questioners. We relate critical questioning to three domains: (1) context, (2) competency and (3) delivery, and propose a model based on illuminating examples of the in-classroom action. Conclusions: The dimensions of the competency-context-delivery model provide a framework for describing successful student critical questioning, showing that students' capacity to be critical can be developed. It is possible, in our view, to generate critical

  4. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  5. Exploring the nature of science through courage and purpose: a case study of Charles Darwin's way of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel I

    2016-01-01

    In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection. This case study examines Darwin's way of learning and the reserve of courage and perseverance that he would need to see his treatise on evolution and natural selection published. To do this, themes from studying the "Nature of Science" are used to examine how Darwin's "way of knowing" advanced before and after his voyage upon HMS Beagle. Five themes from the "Nature of Science" were selected to illustrate Darwin's struggles and triumph: creating scientific knowledge is a human endeavor, such knowledge can explain an order and consistency in natural systems, knowledge comes from a scientist's way of knowing, is open to revision, and based on empirical evidence. The "Nature of Science" as applied to Charles Darwin is explored through the three above mentioned themes identified by the Next Generation Science Standards. Together, the themes help explain Darwin's way of knowing, from boyhood to manhood. This explanation helps humanize Darwin, allows students to see how he arrived at his theories, how the time taken to do so wore on his health and safety, and the risk Darwin had to weigh from their eventual publication. Each theme ends with a summary and related extension questions to draw students into the case, and facilitate inquiry. They relate Darwin's way of learning from the 1800s and his commitment to see his work published, to the learning environment of

  6. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Breen, K.; Warburton, J.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.; Owens, R.; Polly, B.; Wade, B.; Buxbaum, T.

    2007-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that advances polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently in its second year, the program fosters the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. Through PolarTREC, over 40 U.S. teachers will spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers in the field as an integral part of the science team. Research projects focus on a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. To learn more about PolarTREC visit the website at: http://www.polartrec.com or contact info@polartrec.com or 907-474-1600. PolarTREC is funded by NSF and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS).

  7. Exploring science with sound: sonification and the use of sonograms as data analysis tool

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Williams, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Resonances, periodicity, patterns and spectra are well-known notions that play crucial roles in particle physics, and that have always been at the junction between sound/music analysis and scientific exploration. Detecting the shape of a particular energy spectrum, studying the stability of a particle beam in a synchrotron, and separating signals from a noisy background are just a few examples where the connection with sound can be very strong, all sharing the same concepts of oscillations, cycles and frequency. This seminar will focus on analysing data and their relations by translating measurements into audible signals and using the natural capability of the ear to distinguish, characterise and analyse waveform shapes, amplitudes and relations. This process is called data sonification, and one of the main tools to investigate the structure of the sound is the sonogram (sometimes also called a spectrogram). A sonogram is a visual representation of how the spectrum of a certain sound signal changes with time...

  8. Plenario: A Spatio-Temporal Platform for Discovery and Exploration of Urban Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, W. H.; Malik, T.; Catlett, C.; Foster, I.; Goldstein, B.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade has seen the widespread release of open data concerning city services, conditions, and activities by government bodies and public institutions of all sizes. Hundreds of open data portals now host thousands of datasets of many different types. These new data sources represent enormous potential for improved understanding of urban dynamics and processes—and, ultimately, for more livable, efficient, and prosperous communities. However, those who seek to realize this potential quickly discover that discovering and applying those data relevant to any particular question can be extraordinarily difficult, due to decentralized storage, heterogeneous formats, and poor documentation. In this context, we introduce Plenario, a platform designed to automating time-consuming tasks associated with the discovery, exploration, and application of open city data—and, in so doing, reduce barriers to data use for researchers, policymakers, service providers, journalists, and members of the general public. Key innovations include a geospatial data warehouse that allows data from many sources to be registered into a common spatial and temporal frame; simple and intuitive interfaces that permit rapid discovery and exploration of data subsets pertaining to a particular area and time, regardless of type and source; easy export of such data subsets for further analysis; a user-configurable data ingest framework for automated importing and periodic updating of new datasets into the data warehouse; cloud hosting for elastic scaling and rapid creation of new Plenario instances; and an open source implementation to enable community contributions. We describe here the architecture and implementation of the Plenario platform, discuss lessons learned from its use by several communities, and outline plans for future work.

  9. Plenario: An Open Data Discovery and Exploration Platform for Urban Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlett, Charlie; Malik, Tanu; Goldstein, Brett J.; Giuffrida, Jonathan; Shao, Yetong; Panella, Alessandro; Eder, Derek; van Zanten, Eric; Mitchum, Robert; Thaler, Severin; Foster, Ian

    2014-12-01

    The past decade has seen the widespread release of open data concerning city services, conditions, and activities by government bodies and public institutions of all sizes. Hundreds of open data portals now host thousands of datasets of many different types. These new data sources represent enormous po- tential for improved understanding of urban dynamics and processes—and, ultimately, for more livable, efficient, and prosperous communities. However, those who seek to realize this potential quickly discover that discovering and applying those data relevant to any particular question can be extraordinarily dif- ficult, due to decentralized storage, heterogeneous formats, and poor documentation. In this context, we introduce Plenario, a platform designed to automating time-consuming tasks associated with the discovery, exploration, and application of open city data—and, in so doing, reduce barriers to data use for researchers, policymakers, service providers, journalists, and members of the general public. Key innovations include a geospatial data warehouse that allows data from many sources to be registered into a common spatial and temporal frame; simple and intuitive interfaces that permit rapid discovery and exploration of data subsets pertaining to a particular area and time, regardless of type and source; easy export of such data subsets for further analysis; a user-configurable data ingest framework for automated importing and periodic updating of new datasets into the data warehouse; cloud hosting for elastic scaling and rapid creation of new Plenario instances; and an open source implementation to enable community contributions. We describe here the architecture and implementation of the Plenario platform, discuss lessons learned from its use by several communities, and outline plans for future work.

  10. ATLAS Probe: Exploring Frontiers in Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Milky Way Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Robberto, Massimo; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hirata, Christopher M.; Cimatti, Andrea; Bartlett, James; Barkhouser, Robert; Benjamin, Robert A.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Conroy, Charlie; Daddi, Emanuele; Donahue, Megan; Dore, Olivier; Eisenhardt, Peter; Fraser, Wesley C.; Helou, George; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Moscardini, Lauro; Ninkov, Zoran; Ressler, Michael; Rhoads, James; Rhodes, Jason; Shapley, Alice; Smee, Stephen; ATLAS Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS (Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy) Probe is a concept for a NASA probe-class space mission that leverages WFIRST imaging for targeted spectroscopy. ATLAS Probe will obtain spectra of 90% of all galaxies imaged by the WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5, with slit spectra of 300 million galaxies to z = 7. ATLAS Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe with Mpc resolution over 2200 sq deg, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modification of general relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way.ATLAS Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionize galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from the local group to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionization through the peak era of galaxy assembly. (2) Open a new window into the Universe by mapping the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts to unveil the nature of the dark Universe, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and possible modification of general relativity using cosmic large-scale structure. (3) Probe the Milky Way's dust-shrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy. (4) Characterize asteroids and comets in the outer Solar System.ATLAS Probe is a 1.5m telescope with a field of view (FoV) of 0.4 sq deg, and uses Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 600, and a wavelength range of 1-4μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide FoV is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; ATLAS fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor of 5000-10000). It has an estimated cost under $1B, with a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology

  11. Exploring Music-Based Rehabilitation for Parkinsonism through Embodied Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavio, Andrea; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Recent embodied approaches in cognitive sciences emphasize the constitutive roles of bodies and environment in driving cognitive processes. Cognition is thus seen as a distributed system based on the continuous interaction of bodies, brains, and environment. These categories, moreover, do not relate only causally, through a sequential input–output network of computations; rather, they are dynamically enfolded in each other, being mutually implemented by the concrete patterns of actions adopted by the cognitive system. However, while this claim has been widely discussed across various disciplines, its relevance and potential beneficial applications for music therapy remain largely unexplored. With this in mind, we provide here an overview of the embodied approaches to cognition, discussing their main tenets through the lenses of music therapy. In doing so, we question established methodological and theoretical paradigms and identify possible novel strategies for intervention. In particular, we refer to the music-based rehabilitative protocols adopted for Parkinson’s disease patients. Indeed, in this context, it has recently been observed that music therapy not only affects movement-related skills but that it also contributes to stabilizing physiological functions and improving socio-affective behaviors. We argue that these phenomena involve previously unconsidered aspects of cognition and (motor) behavior, which are rooted in the action-perception cycle characterizing the whole living system. PMID:26539155

  12. Exploring Music-Based Rehabilitation for Parkinsonism through Embodied Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchiavio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent embodied approaches in cognitive sciences emphasise the constitutive roles of bodies and environment in driving cognitive processes. Cognition is thus seen as a distributed system based on the continuous interaction of bodies, brains, and environment. These categories, moreover, do not relate only causally, through a sequential input-output network of computations; rather, they are dynamically enfolded in each other, being mutually implemented by the concrete patterns of actions adopted by the cognitive system. However, while this claim has been widely discussed across various disciplines, its relevance and potential beneficial applications for music therapy remain largely unexplored. With this in mind, we provide here an overview of the embodied approaches to cognition, discussing their main tenets through the lenses of music therapy. In doing so we question established methodological and theoretical paradigms and identify possible novel strategies for intervention. In particular, we refer to the music-based rehabilitative protocols adopted for Parkinson’s Disease (PD patients. Indeed, in this context it has recently been observed that music therapy not only affects movement-related skills but that it also contributes to stabilising physiological functions and improving socio-affective behaviours. We argue that these phenomena involve previously unconsidered aspects of cognition and (motor behaviour, which are rooted in the action-perception cycle characterising the whole living system.

  13. Need for closer interaction between Space Science Education and Exploration programs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. N.

    Space science has become a subject of prime interest. Important issue is the involvement of major expenditures. For overcoming this problem a global co-operation has developed and is proving to be successful. Space programs in developing countries have not yet started in the true sense. India is very well known as one of the pioneering countries for its contribution to upper atmospheric research that was initiated and grew on University campuses. With the advent of space research, the rocket launching facilities were developed and it was used by various scientists groups from many countries. India has developed capability of rocket and satellite launching. With development of space commission, the ground-based study programs spread all over India have decayed slowly. The space research programs are run by governmental agencies only. Universities that initiated space research programs using ground-based radio waves are out of business. Space research has not yet entered the teaching curricula in Indian Universities. It is high time that the teaching and laboratory work in space research be initiated in Indian universities. Development of such a system is emphasized. Its development would enable university's scientists to participate in Indian space research programs on equal footing as commonly seen in American, European, Russian and Japanese programs.

  14. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2017-04-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section, integrating knowledge of anatomy acquired from longitudinal sections. The results show that they have very limited skills in producing these graphics judging by the dimensions (scale, shape, organs represented and its organization inside the section) and their conception of human anatomy at thoracic level (location of the organs, elements in the spaces between them and connections between organs). The results also indicate that the only exposure to cross-sections in daily life is not enough by itself to draw them correctly, so this type of graphic production should be addressed from the earliest stages of education, since it contributes to the development of visual literacy, and this is a crucial skill when it comes to learning science concepts and developing scientific literacy.

  15. Exploring emerging issues in research higher degree supervision of professional doctorate students in the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Martinez, Kay

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been an increase in the number of students undertaking traditional research masters and doctor of philosophy courses in the health sciences. This paper reviews and summarizes several aspects of the literature related to supervision of students in these traditional research higher degree (RHD) programs in Australasia: elements of RHD supervision; use of information and communication technologies in RHD supervision; warning signs for non-completion of RHD candidature; and evaluation of RHD supervision. The growth in traditional RHD enrolments has been paralleled by similar expansion in professional doctorate programs, and this paper draws attention to issues relating to supervision of these professional doctorate students, especially those studying at a distance. It draws on earlier research which compared structures of such programs across Australia and grounded professional doctorate supervision firmly in the workplace. Further, the emerging small body of literature associated with professional doctorate supervision is used to highlight features shared with and those distinct from traditional RHD supervision, and to identify fertile topics for further research into this burgeoning area.

  16. The Explorer's Guide to the Universe: A Reading List for Planetary and Space Science. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Bevan M. (Compiler); McDonagh, Mark S. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    During the last decade, both scientists and the public have been engulfed by a flood of discoveries and information from outer space. Distant worlds have become familiar landscapes. Instruments in space have shown us a different Sun by the "light" of ultraviolet radiation and X-rays. Beyond the solar system, we have detected a strange universe of unsuspected violence, unexplained objects, and unimaginable energies. We are completely remarking our picture of the universe around us, and scientists and the general public alike are curious and excited about what we see. The public has participated in this period of exploration and discovery to an extent never possible before. In real time, TV screens show moonwalks, the sands of Mars, the volcanoes of Io, and the rings of Saturn. But after the initial excitement, it is hard for the curious non-scientist to learn more details or even to stay in touch with what is going on. Each space mission or new discovery is quickly skimmed over by newspapers and TV and then preserved in technical journals that are neither accessible nor easily read by the average reader. This reading list is an attempt to bridge the gap between the people who make discoveries in space and the people who would like to read about them. The aim has been to provide to many different people--teachers, students, scientists, other professionals, and curious citizens of all kinds--a list of readings where they can find out what the universe is like and what we have learned about it. We have included sections on the objects that seem to be of general interest--the Moon, the planets, the Sun, comets, and the universe beyond. We have also included material on related subjects that people are interested in--the history of space exploration, space habitats, extraterrestrial life, and U F O ' s . The list is intended to be self-contained; it includes both general references to supply background and more specific sources for new discoveries. Although the list can

  17. Exploring Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching of Genetics in Swaziland Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Oke Onwu, Gilbert; de Villiers, Rian

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base included teacher-constructed concept maps, pre- and post-lesson teacher interviews, video-recorded genetics lessons, post-lesson teacher questionnaire and document analysis of teacher's reflective journals and students' work samples. The results showed that the teachers' individual PCK profiles consisted predominantly of declarative and procedural content knowledge in teaching basic genetics concepts. Conditional knowledge, which is a type of meta-knowledge for blending together declarative and procedural knowledge, was also demonstrated by some teachers. Furthermore, the teachers used topic-specific instructional strategies such as context-based teaching, illustrations, peer teaching, and analogies in diverse forms but failed to use physical models and individual or group student experimental activities to assist students' internalization of the concepts. The finding that all four teachers lacked knowledge of students' genetics-related preconceptions was equally significant. Formal university education, school context, journal reflection and professional development programmes were considered as contributing to the teachers' continuing PCK development. Implications of the findings for biology teacher education are briefly discussed.

  18. Tangible computer programming: Exploring the use of emerging technology in classrooms and science museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michael S.

    In considering ways to improve the use of digital technology in educational settings, it is helpful to look beyond desktop computers and conventional modes of interaction and consider the flood of emerging technologies that already play a prominent role in the everyday lives of children. In this dissertation, I will present a research project that builds on tangible user interface (TUI) technology to support computer programming and robotics activities in education settings. In particular, I will describe the design and implementation of a novel tangible computer programming language called Tern. I will also describe an evaluation of Tern's use in both formal and informal educational settings--as part of an interactive exhibit on robotics and computer programming called Robot Park on display at the Boston Museum of Science; and as part of a curriculum unit piloted in several kindergarten classrooms in the greater Boston area. In both cases, Tern allows children to create simple computer programs to control a robot. However, rather than using a keyboard or mouse to write programs on a computer screen, children instead use Tern to construct physical algorithmic structures using a collection of interlocking wooden blocks. The goal of this work is not to propose that tangible programming languages are general purpose tools that should replace existing graphical programming languages; rather, I will present evidence to support the argument that tangible programming begins to make sense when one considers the contexts and constraints of specific educational settings. Moreover, in these settings tangible languages can compensate for some of the shortcomings of graphical and text-based systems that have limited their use.

  19. Performed and preferred participation in science and technology across Europe: Exploring an alternative idea of "democratic deficit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Stares, Sally

    2013-08-01

    Republican ideals of active scientific citizenship and extensive use of deliberative, democratic decision making have come to dominate the public participation agenda, and academic analyses have focused on the deficit of public involvement vis-à-vis these normative ideals. In this paper we use latent class models to explore what Eurobarometer survey data can tell us about the ways in which people participate in tacit or in policy-active ways with developments in science and technology, but instead of focusing on the distance between observed participation and the dominant, normative ideal of participation, we examine the distance between what people do, and what they themselves think is appropriate in terms of involvement. The typology of citizens emerging from the analyses entails an entirely different diagnosis of democratic deficit, one that stresses imbalance between performed and preferred participation.

  20. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars.

  1. Science Applications of a Multispectral Microscopic Imager for the Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Key Words: Mars—Microscopic imager—Multispectral imaging

  2. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Jorge I; Farmer, Jack D; Sellar, R Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A; Blaney, Diana L

    2014-02-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Mars-Microscopic imager-Multispectral imaging-Spectroscopy-Habitability-Arm instrument.

  3. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  4. Exploring face-to-face and Web-based pedagogy in undergraduate natural resource sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabaliye, Theogene

    Little has been published about Internet instruction compared to traditional classroom teaching in undergraduate natural resource science (NRS) education. This study hypothesized associations between teaching environments (face-to-face only (FF), Web only (WE), mixed mode (MI)); and teaching philosophy, practices, and perceived course outcomes. A questionnaire was sent to 142 faculty members with experience teaching in these environments in Western US. Sixty percent responded. Data were analyzed using factor analysis and multivariate statistics. Only statistically significant differences are presented. Most respondents were male (68%) 50-59 years old (80%) and tenured (74%). Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction. Adoption of the Internet for teaching was beyond critical mass. Most faculty members ranked their ability to use the Internet as average (27%) or expert (22%). Faculty rarely perceived students' learning experience in a WE course as "better" than FF. Web-based courses were not usually required of majors in the offering department. Faculty age, gender and experience are significant variables in use of some teaching practices. Faculty members who used the Internet favored a constructivist teaching philosophy, while FF and MI instruction tended towards a behaviorist philosophy. Respondents' most frequent teaching practices addressed connections, collaboration, meaning making, and learner autonomy. Collaborative teaching strategies were seldom used in Web-based instruction relative to FF. Learning assessments focused on learner interactions, efforts (individual or groups), and recall. The latter assessment was used less on the Web. Respondents viewed effective teaching in all teaching environments as achieving competency and application of knowledge. Personal experience, resource availability, and feedback were the most important influences on teaching. Resource availability constrained Internet instruction most

  5. Heliophysical Explorers (HELEX): Solar Orbiter and Sentinels - Report of the Joint Science and Technology Definition Team (JSTDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Heliophysical Explorers (HELEX) brings together and augments the unique capabilities of ESA's Solar Orbiter mission (near-Sun and out-of-ecliptic in-situ plus remote-sensing observations) with those of NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (in-situ observations from multiple platforms arrayed at varying radial distances and azimuthal locations in the near-ecliptic plane)to investigate, characterize, and understand how the Sun determines the environment of the inner solar system and, more broadly, generates the heliosphere itself. This joint ESA-NASA science program offers a unique opportunity for coordinated, correlative measurements, resulting in a combined observational capability and science return that far outweighs that of either mission alone. Building on the knowledge gained from missions like Helios and Ulysses, and STEREO, HELEX will bring to bear the power of multipoint, in-situ measurements using previously unavailable instrumental capabilities in combination with remote-sensing observations from a new, inner heliospheric perspective to answer fundamental questions about the Sun-heliosphere linkage.

  6. Between (Racial) Groups and a Hard Place: An Exploration of Social Science Approaches to Race and Genetics, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, W Carson; Best, Latrica E

    2016-01-01

    As the social sciences expand their involvement in genetic and genomic research, more information is needed to understand how theoretical concepts are applied to genetic data found in social surveys. Given the layers of complexity of studying race in relation to genetics and genomics, it is important to identify the varying approaches used to discuss and operationalize race and identity by social scientists. The present study explores how social scientists have used race, ethnicity, and ancestry in studies published in four social science journals from 2000 to 2014. We identify not only how race, ethnicity, and ancestry are classified and conceptualized in this growing area of research, but also how these concepts are incorporated into the methodology and presentation of results, all of which structure the discussion of race, identity, and inequality. This research indicates the slippage between concepts, classifications, and their use by social scientists in their genetics-related research. The current study can assist social scientists with clarifying their use and interpretations of race and ethnicity with the incorporation of genetic data, while limiting possible misinterpretations of the complexities of the connection between genetics and the social world.

  7. Managing climate change in conservation practice: an exploration of the science-management interface in beech forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Jessica; Turnhout, Esther; Winkel, Georg; Blondet, Marieke; Borras, Lars; Ferranti, Francesca; Geitzenauer, Maria; Sotirov, Metodi; Jump, Alistair

    Scientific studies reveal significant consequences of climate change for nature, from ecosystems to individual species. Such studies are important factors in policy decisions on forest conservation and management in Europe. However, while research has shown that climate change research start to impact on European conservation policies like Natura 2000, climate change information has yet to translate into management practices. This article contributes to the on-going debates about science-society relations and knowledge utilization by exploring and analysing the interface between scientific knowledge and forest management practice. We focus specifically on climate change debates in conservation policy and on how managers of forest areas in Europe perceive and use climate change ecology. Our findings show that forest managers do not necessarily deny the potential importance of climate change for their management practices, at least in the future, but have reservations about the current usefulness of available knowledge for their own areas and circumstances. This suggests that the science-management interface is not as politicized as current policy debates about climate change and that the use of climate change ecology is situated in practice. We conclude the article by discussing what forms of knowledge may enable responsible and future oriented management in practice focusing specifically on the role of reflexive experimentation and monitoring.

  8. Significant life experience: Exploring the lifelong influence of place-based environmental and science education on program participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Corrie Ruth

    Current research provides a limited understanding of the life long influence of nonformal place-based environmental and science education programs on past participants. This study looks to address this gap, exploring the ways in which these learning environments have contributed to environmental identity and stewardship. Using Dorothy Holland's approach to social practice theory's understanding of identity formation, this study employed narrative interviews and a close-ended survey to understand past participants' experience over time. Participants from two place-based environmental education programs and one science-inquiry program were asked to share their reflections on their program experience and the influence they attribute to that experience. Among all participants, the element of hands-on learning, supportive instructors, and engaging learning environments remained salient over time. Participants of nature-based programs demonstrated that these programs in particular were formative in contributing to an environmental stewardship identity. Social practice theory can serve as a helpful theoretical framework for significant life experience research, which has largely been missing from this body of research. This study also holds implications for the fields of place-based environmental education, conservation psychology, and sustainability planning, all of which look to understand and increase environmentally sustainable practices.

  9. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Innovative Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that will advance polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wide range of activities occurring at both poles during and after IPY. PolarTREC will foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science and IPY. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at warnick@arcus.org or 907-474-1600 or visit www.arcus.org/trec/

  10. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directly—only effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung

  11. Reimagining publics and (non)participation: Exploring exclusion from science communication through the experiences of low-income, minority ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2018-01-01

    This article explores science communication from the perspective of those most at risk of exclusion, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork. I conducted five focus groups and 32 interviews with participants from low-income, minority ethnic backgrounds. Using theories of social reproduction and social justice, I argue that participation in science communication is marked by structural inequalities (particularly ethnicity and class) in two ways. First, participants' involvement in science communication practices was narrow (limited to science media consumption). Second, their experiences of exclusion centred on cultural imperialism (misrepresentation and 'Othering') and powerlessness (being unable to participate or change the terms of their participation). I argue that social reproduction in science communication constructs a narrow public that reflects the shape, values and practices of dominant groups, at the expense of the marginalised. The article contributes to how we might reimagine science communication's publics by taking inclusion/exclusion and the effects of structural inequalities into account.

  12. Exploring Vietnamese co-authorship patterns in social sciences with basic network measures of 2008-2017 Scopus data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Ha Viet; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Dam, Quang-Minh; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Collaboration is a common occurrence among Vietnamese scientists; however, insights into Vietnamese scientific collaborations have been scarce. On the other hand, the application of social network analysis in studying science collaboration has gained much attention all over the world. The technique could be employed to explore Vietnam's scientific community. Methods: This paper employs network theory to explore characteristics of a network of 412 Vietnamese social scientists whose papers can be found indexed in the Scopus database. Two basic network measures, density and clustering coefficient, were taken, and the entire network was studied in comparison with two of its largest components. Results: The networks connections are very sparse, with a density of only 0.47%, while the clustering coefficient is very high (58.64%). This suggests an inefficient dissemination of information, knowledge, and expertise in the network. Secondly, the disparity in levels of connection among individuals indicates that the network would easily fall apart if a few highly-connected nodes are removed. Finally, the two largest components of the network were found to differ from the entire networks in terms of measures and were both led by the most productive and well-connected researchers. Conclusions: High clustering and low density seems to be tied to inefficient dissemination of expertise among Vietnamese social scientists, and consequently low scientific output. Also low in robustness, the network shows the potential of an intellectual elite composed of well-connected, productive, and socially significant individuals.

  13. A dialogical exploration of the grey zone of health and illness: medical science, anthropology, and Plato on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a phenomenological hermeneutic orientation to explicate and explore the notion of the grey zone of health and illness and seeks to develop the concept through an examination of the case of alcohol consumption. The grey zone is an interpretive area referring to the irremediable zone of ambiguity that haunts even the most apparently resolute discourse. This idea points to an ontological indeterminacy, in the face of which decisions have to be made with regard to the health of a person (e.g., an alcoholic), a system (e.g., the health system), or a society. The fundamental character of this notion will be developed in relation to the discourse on health and the limitations of different disciplinary practices. The case of alcohol consumption will be used to tease out the grey zone embedded in the different kinds of knowledge made available through the disciplinary traditions of medical science, with its emphasis on somatic well-being, and anthropology, with its focus on communal well-being. This tension or grey zone embedded in different knowledge outcomes will be shown to have a discursive parallel with the dialogue between the Athenian, the Spartan, and the Cretan in Plato's Laws. Making use of the dialogical approach as described by Gadamer, the Athenian's particular resolution of the tension will be explored as a case study to demonstrate the necessarily particular analysis involved in a grey zone resolution.

  14. "Hard Science": A Career Option for Socially and Societally Interested Students? Grade 12 Students' Vocational Interest Gap Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Annemie; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A key theme in science education research concerns the decline in young peoples' interest in science and the need for professionals in hard science. Goal Congruity Theory posits that an important aspect of the decision whether to pursue hard science for study or as a career is the perception that hard science careers do not fulfil social (working…

  15. Data-Intensive Science meets Inquiry-Driven Pedagogy: Interactive Big Data Exploration, Threshold Concepts, and Liminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Word, Andrea; Nair, Udasysankar

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts in any discipline are the core concepts an individual must understand in order to master a discipline. By their very nature, these concepts are troublesome, irreversible, integrative, bounded, discursive, and reconstitutive. Although grasping threshold concepts can be extremely challenging for each learner as s/he moves through stages of cognitive development relative to a given discipline, the learner's grasp of these concepts determines the extent to which s/he is prepared to work competently and creatively within the field itself. The movement of individuals from a state of ignorance of these core concepts to one of mastery occurs not along a linear path but in iterative cycles of knowledge creation and adjustment in liminal spaces - conceptual spaces through which learners move from the vaguest awareness of concepts to mastery, accompanied by understanding of their relevance, connectivity, and usefulness relative to questions and constructs in a given discipline. For example, challenges in the teaching and learning of atmospheric science can be traced to threshold concepts in fluid dynamics. In particular, Dynamic Meteorology is one of the most challenging courses for graduate students and undergraduates majoring in Atmospheric Science. Dynamic Meteorology introduces threshold concepts - those that prove troublesome for the majority of students but that are essential, associated with fundamental relationships between forces and motion in the atmosphere and requiring the application of basic classical statics, dynamics, and thermodynamic principles to the three dimensionally varying atmospheric structure. With the explosive growth of data available in atmospheric science, driven largely by satellite Earth observations and high-resolution numerical simulations, paradigms such as that of dataintensive science have emerged. These paradigm shifts are based on the growing realization that current infrastructure, tools and processes will not allow

  16. SPITZER PARALLAX OF OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A COLD NEPTUNE IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, R. A.; Bachelet, E. [LCOGT, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Novati, S. Calchi [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Jørgensen, U. G. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5, DK-1350—Copenhagen K (Denmark); Zhu, W.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsapras, Y. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Andersen, M. I. [Niels Bohr Institute and Dark Cosmology Centre, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100—Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.R. Caianiello,” Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084, Fisciano (Italy); Bramich, D. M. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Collaboration: RoboNet Project and MiNDSTEp Consortium; OGLE Project; Spitzer Team; MOA Collaboration; KMTNet Modeling Team; and others

    2016-03-10

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune m{sub planet} = 21 ± 2 M{sub ⊕} orbiting a 0.38 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf lying 2.5–3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near to mid-disk and are clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  17. At the Beginning of the STEM Pipeline: A Case Study Exploring Preadolescent Female Students' Attitudes Toward Science, Perceptions of Scientists, and Developing Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Lucy Vogel

    The continuous underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), referred to as the leaky pipeline, has been examined from multiple perspectives internationally, while the attitudes and perceptions of preadolescent girls regarding STEM remain largely ignored. Employing a constructivist paradigm, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions and attitudes of 40 public elementary school female students across three grade levels regarding science, scientists, and career aspirations. Mixed-methods data collections included three survey instruments combined with semi-structured interviews. Self-efficacy, stereotype threat, and career choice theory provided the framework for the overarching research question: What are the attitudes and perceptions of female preadolescent students at the third, fourth, and fifth grade levels regarding science and scientists, and how might these dispositions affect their early development of STEM career aspirations and interests? The Three-Dimensions of Student Attitude Towards Science (TDSAS) instrument informed the exploration of self-efficacy; the modified Draw-A-Scientist Test (mDAST) and Rubric informed the exploration of stereotype threat; and the STEM-Career Interest Survey (CIS) informed the exploration of career aspirations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Results from this study indicated that the majority of the preadolescent girls thought science was an important topic to study and displayed an attitude of self-confident ability to learn science and be successful in science class. They highly enjoyed scientific experimentation and deeply valued problem solving. While they inferred they did not experience gender bias, the girls did engage in stereotyping scientists. Over half the girls expected to use science in their future careers, while a minority had already determined they wanted to be scientists when they grow up. The study concludes with

  18. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROMETER 16 μm OBSERVATIONS OF THE GOODS FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Chary, Ranga; Elbaz, David; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Dickinson, Mark; Bridge, Carrie; Howell, Justin H.; Siana, Brian; Colbert, James; Scarlata, Claudia; Frayer, David T.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew; Papovich, Casey; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer 16 μm imaging of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. We survey 150 arcmin 2 in each of the two GOODS fields (North and South), to an average 3σ depth of 40 and 65 μJy, respectively. We detect ∼1300 sources in both fields combined. We validate the photometry using the 3-24 μm spectral energy distribution of stars in the fields compared to Spitzer spectroscopic templates. Comparison with ISOCAM and AKARI observations in the same fields shows reasonable agreement, though the uncertainties are large. We provide a catalog of photometry, with sources cross-correlated with available Spitzer, Chandra, and Hubble Space Telescope data. Galaxy number counts show good agreement with previous results from ISOCAM and AKARI with improved uncertainties. We examine the 16-24 μm flux ratio and find that for most sources it lies within the expected locus for starbursts and infrared luminous galaxies. A color cut of S 16 /S 24 >1.4 selects mostly sources which lie at 1.1 -2 sr -1 .

  19. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-09-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a target of the planned ESA mission Don Quijote. Unfortunately, little is known about the physical properties of 1989 ML, in particular its size and albedo are unknown. Its exhibits an X type reflection spectrum, so depending on its albedo, 1989 ML may be an E, M, or P type asteroid. Provisional results from thermal-infrared observations carried out with Spitzer indicate that the albedo of 1989 ML is compatible with an M- or E-type classification. We will discuss our results and their implications for the physical properties and the rotation period of 1989 ML, and its importance as a potential spacecraft target. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  20. Spitzer and Variable Young Stars: Shining a Spotlight on Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Ann Marie; CSI 2264 Team

    2014-01-01

    Since its launch in 2003, the Spitzer Space Telescope has helped to uncover hundreds of disk bearing young stars in clusters by detecting their infrared excesses. Study of the spectral energy distributions of these objects has shed light on disk evolution, dispersal, and the relationship to planet formation. With the start of the Warm Spitzer Mission, mid-infrared time series observations have opened up a new window into the dynamic nature of these systems. Not only are young stellar objects (YSOs) highly variable, but so are their disks! I will review recent findings on mid-infrared variability in young stars, highlighting the Young Stellar Object Variability project and the joint Spitzer/CoRoT Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264. These efforts have resulted in a comprehensive census and categorization of YSO flux behavior at 0.5 through 4.5 microns, on timescales from hours to months. We now have evidence for multiple simultaneous variability mechanisms, supporting the picture of a highly dynamic star-disk system.

  1. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE SCORPIUS–CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Lisse, Carey M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Rd., Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We analyze spectra obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of 110 B-, A-, F-, and G-type stars with optically thin infrared excess in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The ages of these stars range from 11 to 17 Myr. We fit the infrared excesses observed in these sources by Spitzer IRS and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) to simple dust models according to Mie theory. We find that nearly all of the objects in our study can be fit by one or two belts of dust. Dust around lower mass stars appears to be closer in than around higher mass stars, particularly for the warm dust component in the two-belt systems, suggesting a mass-dependent evolution of debris disks around young stars. For those objects with stellar companions, all dust distances are consistent with truncation of the debris disk by the binary companion. The gaps between several of the two-belt systems can place limits on the planets that might lie between the belts, potentially constraining the mass and locations of planets that may be forming around these stars.

  2. Formative exploration of students’ perception about Community Medicine teaching at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Dongre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objectives of the present formative research were to explore the medical undergraduates’ study problems and their perceptions about various teaching approaches in currently practiced teaching curriculum of Community Medicine. Material and Methods: The present formative research was undertaken at Dr. Sushila Nayar School of Public Health incorporating Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram. The respondents were 17 (26.5% conveniently selected final year exam appearing medical undergraduates from 2004 regular batch of 64 students. A triangulation of qualitative research methods like free listing, pile sort exercise and a Focus Group Discussion (FGD were used. A two dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was completed with the pile sort data. The data was analyzed by using software Anthropac 4.98.1/X software. Results: The medical undergraduates could understand the topics like Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood (IMNCI, Primary Health Care (PHC, cold chain system for vaccines, immunization and health education, dietary survey and cluster survey method taught in the community based camp approaches. Students found it difficult to comprehend the core of subject from the scattered lecture series over a long teaching period, especially using lengthy over head projector/liquid crystal display presentations. The major problems encountered in studying the subject of Community Medicine were difficulty in understanding the concepts of biostatistics, confusions due to apparently similar text in National Health Programs and difficulty to recall disease statistics due to vast syllabus. Conclusions: Students perceived the community based camp approach of teaching as a best method to understand the subject, which is an integration of task oriented assignments, integration of social sciences within medical domain and active community involvement. Hence, the community

  3. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  4. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  5. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various

  6. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (e) New barrage under construction at Ustem in Mhadei. (f) Polluted stretch near Habbanhatti temple in Malaprabha. ness, dissolved oxygen) are the main governing factors that influ- ence fish species richness and distribution. Today, water bodies across many regions are degrading and this trend is increasing without ...

  7. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrological modifications on freshwater fish communities ... transformation on eco-hydrology. Freshwater ecosystems and associated habitats harbor incred- ible biodiversity. They offer various ecosystem services and sustain human livelihoods. However, due to ... complete their life cycle exclusively in the freshwater ...

  8. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Freshwater ecosystems and associated habitats harbor incrediblebiodiversity. They offer various ecosystem services andsustain human livelihoods. However, due to increasing developmentalpressure and rising water demand, these systemsare under huge threat. As a result, many aquatic species arefeared to become ...

  9. Middle school science teachers' beliefs about and reflections on teaching and learning science within a nascent professional learning community: A qualitative exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Lisa M.

    This dissertation explored the beliefs of five members of a nascent professional learning community for middle school science teachers over the first semester of its existence. A professional learning community is a place for colleagues to voice and hear beliefs, and is particularly conducive to fostering the development of one's own beliefs. Professional learning communities have the potential to serve as an effective method of professional development for teachers, with the ultimate goal of identifying and implementing practices that support student learning. In my research study, the creation of a professional learning community served as a medium for bringing science teachers from a large, traditional NYC public middle school, used to working and planning in isolation, together for the first time to talk about their beliefs and practice. I used a qualitative approach to collect and analyze my case study data. I collected transcripts of teacher interview data prior to their participation in the PLC; and transcript data from five 45-minute professional learning community discussions. The strategies I employed to analyze these data included reviews of analytic notes, reviews of transcripts, the development of preliminary codes, and coding and categorizing data to identify emerging themes. Drawing from the literature on professional learning communities and reflection on action, my research identified a sequence of stages unique to nascent professional learning communities that are vital to the development of a PLC forum that will be conducive to discussion about student learning objectives and outcomes. In addition, this research study acknowledges both independent and collaborative teacher reflection on action as effective methods for reported teacher growth and change in practice. The data collected on the nascent PLC within its particular research study has implications for identifying the conditions that support the development of good PLCs and the attributes

  10. An Exploration of the Preparation and Organization of Teaching Practice Exercise to Prospective Science and Mathematics Teachers toward Improving Teaching Profession at Morogoro Teachers' College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungure, Daudi Mika

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the preparation and organization of teaching practice exercise to prospective science and mathematics teachers in Tanzania teachers college specifically Morogoro Teachers' College toward improving teaching profession. Due to the challenges stated by different scholars on preparation and organization of teaching practice…

  11. Insights on Supporting Learning during Computing Science and Engineering Students' Transition to University: A Design-Oriented, Mixed Methods Exploration of Instructor and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloy, Sheryl; Salimi, Farimah; Cukierman, Diana; McGee Thompson, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Using a design-based orientation, this mixed-method study explored ways to support computing science and engineering students whose study strategies may be inadequate to meet coursework expectations. Learning support workshops, paired with university courses, have been found to assist students as they transition to university learning, thereby…

  12. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

  13. Footprint of Sandia's August 15 2016 Informal Idea Exploration Session on "Towards an Engineering and Applied Science of Research".

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming Lindsley, Elizabeth S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heffelfinger, Grant S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Narayanamurti, Venkatesh [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Schneider, Rick [glo USA, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Starkweather, Lynne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ting, Christina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yajima, Rieko [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Bauer, Travis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coltrin, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guy, Donald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mareda, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turnley, Jessica Glicken [Galisteo Consulting Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    On August 15, 2016, Sandia hosted a visit by Professor Venkatesh Narayanamurti. Prof Narayanamurti (Benjamin Peirce Research Professor of Technology and Public Policy at Harvard, Board Member of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, former Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard, former Dean of Engineering at UC Santa Barbara, and former Vice President of Division 1000 at Sandia). During the visit, a small, informal, all-day idea exploration session on "Towards an Engineering and Applied Science of Research" was conducted. This document is a brief synopsis or "footprint" of the presentations and discussions at this Idea Exploration Session. The intent of this document is to stimulate further discussion about pathways Sandia can take to improve its Research practices.

  14. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  15. Exploring How Research Experiences for Teachers Changes Their Understandings of the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science is a prevalent theme across United States national science education standards and frameworks as well as other documents that guide formal and informal science education reform. To support teachers in engaging their students in authentic scientific practices and reformed teaching strategies, research experiences for teachers…

  16. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Schier, James S.; Israel, David J.; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip E.; Townes, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  17. Data-Intensive Science Meets Inquiry-Driven Pedagogy: Interactive Big Data Exploration, Threshold Concepts, and Liminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Nair, U. S.; Word, A.

    2014-12-01

    Threshold concepts in any discipline are the core concepts an individual must understand in order to master a discipline. By their very nature, these concepts are troublesome, irreversible, integrative, bounded, discursive, and reconstitutive. Although grasping threshold concepts can be extremely challenging for each learner as s/he moves through stages of cognitive development relative to a given discipline, the learner's grasp of these concepts determines the extent to which s/he is prepared to work competently and creatively within the field itself. The movement of individuals from a state of ignorance of these core concepts to one of mastery occurs not along a linear path but in iterative cycles of knowledge creation and adjustment in liminal spaces - conceptual spaces through which learners move from the vaguest awareness of concepts to mastery, accompanied by understanding of their relevance, connectivity, and usefulness relative to questions and constructs in a given discipline. With the explosive growth of data available in atmospheric science, driven largely by satellite Earth observations and high-resolution numerical simulations, paradigms such as that of data-intensive science have emerged. These paradigm shifts are based on the growing realization that current infrastructure, tools and processes will not allow us to analyze and fully utilize the complex and voluminous data that is being gathered. In this emerging paradigm, the scientific discovery process is driven by knowledge extracted from large volumes of data. In this presentation, we contend that this paradigm naturally lends to inquiry-driven pedagogy where knowledge is discovered through inductive engagement with large volumes of data rather than reached through traditional, deductive, hypothesis-driven analyses. In particular, data-intensive techniques married with an inductive methodology allow for exploration on a scale that is not possible in the traditional classroom with its typical

  18. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation Near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard; Schier, James; Israel, David; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip; Townes, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  19. Hydrocarbon exploration in Zimbabwe. Example for network between science, technical cooperation and economy. Kohlenwasserstoff-Exploration in Simbabwe. Beispiel fuer eine Vernetzung von Wissenschaft, Technischer Zusammenarbeit und Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, K. (Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)); Wellmer, F.W. (Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Taking the hydrocarbon exploration project in Zimbabwe as an example, it is shown how technical cooperation (TC) projects and commercial exploration (Mobil Oil in the Zambezi Valley) can be initiated as a result of the interaction of the BGR's own research, cooperation with the Geological Survey of Zimbabwe and know-how transfer. The early activities comprised acquisition and interpretation of radiometric and aeromagnetic surveys (German industry/BGR/BMFT (research)/TC project) and sedimentological investigations (BGR TC project). A regional hydrocarbon prospectivity study and a magnetotelluric survey followed (both BGR TC projects). These activities initiated the commercial hydrocarbon exploration which is accompanied by a BGR TC project (technical third party opinion, government consultancy) including investigations of potential source rocks in other Karoo basins. (orig.)

  20. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further