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Sample records for spirulina platensis utilizing

  1. Response of Spirulina Platensis to Sulfamethazine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiankuan; Lu, Xiaohong; Ma, Xiangjuan; Xia, Huilong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between a positive important biological energy source algae Spirulina platensis and an antimicrobial drug sulfamethazine was studied by a panel of bioassays. The result demonstrated that the acute toxicity of sulfadimidine on Spirulina platensis gradually increased with the increasing of the concentration of sulfadimidine. During the exposure, the toxicity of sulfamethazine on Spirulina platensis enlarged at first and reduced thereafter, and the summit was at 48 h, showing a typical “bell” curve. The EC50 in 48 h was 6.06 mg/L. Spirulina platensis was able to accumulate and degrade sulfamethazine simultaneously. The amounts of sulfamethazine accumulated and degraded by Spirulina platensis were 1.40 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg (dry weight) at 24 h, respectively. After 96 h of exposure, the accumulation decreased to 0.47 mg/kg, however, the degradation of sulfamethazine increased to 6.57 mg/kg. Due to biological activity, the removal rate of sulfamethazine was 5.2 times in the nutrient solution with Spirulina platensis as that of without Spirulina platensis. The results of this study implied that Spirulina platensis had a potential to remove sulfamethazine in the sulfamethazine contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  3. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Spirulina platensis, nutritional, quality, proteins, fatty acids. ... advantages make S. platensis a good raw material for the healthy food (Anitha and ... The fat content is determined by the Soxhlet extraction method by using .... human milk and some expensive vegetable oils according to Pierlovisi ...

  4. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  5. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis, a blue green microalga, has been used since ancient times as a source of food because of its high protein content (65%) and nutritional value. Lipids isolated from S. platensis have been shown to contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linolenic acid which is a precursor of ...

  6. Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartsch, Peter C

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes.

  7. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10 -3 up to 10 4 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  8. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  9. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  10. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  11. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  12. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  13. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

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    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  14. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, dry chicken manure (DCM) was used as the source of nitrogen in the production of Spirulina platensis. Experiment was conducted in two different types of nutrition. In the type I nutrition, the highest average cell increase was recorded as 289.70 filaments mL-1 in value in the type I group (DCM+urea). In the type ...

  15. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... générale, les extraits ou la poudre de Spirulina platensis ont eu des ... Mots clés: Biostimulant, croissance, Spirulina platensis, Jatropha curcas, Solanum lycopersicum .... Le test de ..... in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and.

  16. Improvement the Yoghurt Nutritional Value, Organoleptic Properties and Preferences by Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Hadiyanto; Sutanto, H.; Widiastuti, Y.; Judiono

    2018-04-01

    Spirulina sp has been identified as potential source food functional such as protein, amino acids and other high added value compounds from microalgae. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. This research was aimed to increase the nutritional value and organoleptic properties and preferences yoghurt by Spirulina platensis supplementation. Completely randomized controlled group design conducted by 31 respondents. Spirulina Research accomplished in Food Technology, Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory at Bandung Health Polytechnic in Bandung. Samples divided randomly into three groups: (1) yoghurt standard supplemented 50 ml, (2) yoghurt and spirulina 1% supplemented 50 ml, (3) yoghurt and spirulina 1,2% supplemented 50 ml. Spirulina was added concentration by 0, 1, 1,2 % calculated by dx trial. Proximate analysis revealed the highest protein in enriched by spirulina 1%. However fat was lower 3.48 – 3.56 compare to control. All products found growing Lactobacillus acidophilus with a pH of 4.0 range. There was no microbial contamination such as E coli, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas sp. Supplementation of spirulina to yoghurt products can be accepted by organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests of concentrations of 1 and 1.2%. The material makes the blue colours more attractive and can be accepted by the expert panellist.

  17. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

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    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  18. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

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    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  19. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

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    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  20. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Linchuan; Zhou Chen; Cai Peng; Chen Wenli; Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei; Gu Jidong; Huang Qiaoyun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH 4 NO 3 , respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  1. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  2. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Zhou, Chen; Cai, Peng; Chen, Wenli; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Liang, Wei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2011-06-15

    Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH(4)NO(3), respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  4. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

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    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  5. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

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    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  6. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ( 13 C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of 13 C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure 13 C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard

  7. Experimental grounds for developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for production of the selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals was studied. The dependence of Se and I accumulation in Spirulina biomass during the cultivation in a nutrient medium loading of above elements was determined more precisely. The dynamics of Spirulina biomass growth was observed with nutrient medium loading of selenium. It is found that Spirulina platensis biomass quality may be used for pharmaceutical purposes

  8. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Dotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium experimental data (R²>0.99 and ARE<5.0% and the maximum biosorption capacities were 363.2 and 468.7 mg g-1 for tartrazine and allura red, respectively, obtained at 298 K. The negative values of ΔG and ΔH showed that the biosorption of both dyes was spontaneous, favorable and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS suggested that the system disorder increases during the biosorption process.

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Spirulina platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Spirulina platensis 名詞 一般 * * * *... スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Spirulina platensis

  10. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Oprea, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  11. Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Spirulina Platensis Protein Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Sharif, M. K.; Butt, M. S.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein malnutrition and food insecurity represent serious obstructions to sustainable development, poverty reduction and food quality throughout the world. The present study has been designed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis (SP) as a protein alternative source for the utilization in food products. A protein isolate was prepared from S. platensis powder through extraction with 0.1N NaOH, precipitation at pH 3, neutralization of the dispersed precipitate to pH 6.8-7.0, and subsequent freeze drying. The S. platensis isolate amino acids compositions revealed that the total essential amino acids contribution was comparatively higher in SPI (31.16±1.43 g/100 g) as compared with SP (27.75±1.21 g/100 g). Moreover, oil and water absorption capacities, foaming and emulsifying properties, surface hydrophobicity and nitrogen solubility index were found better functional properties under laboratory conditions except emulsion properties. Conclusively, SP and its isolates might be used in various food products to curtail protein energy malnutrition. (author)

  12. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  13. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  14. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  15. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  16. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  17. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  18. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  19. Spirulina platensis attenuates the associated neurobehavioral and inflammatory response impairments in rats exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Khalifa, Hesham A; Abdel-Motal, Sabry M; Mohammed, Hesham H; Elewa, Yaser H A; Mahmoud, Hend Atta

    2018-08-15

    Heavy metals are well known as environmental pollutants with hazardous impacts on human and animal health because of their wide industrial usage. In the present study, the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing the oxidative stress-mediated brain injury elicited by lead acetate exposure was evaluated. In order to accomplish this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw Spirulina for 15 d, before and simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw lead acetate [6 injections through the two weeks]. As a result, the co-administration of Spirulina with lead acetate reversed the most impaired open field behavioral indices; however, this did not happen for swimming performance, inclined plane, and grip strength tests. In addition, it was observed that Spirulina diminished the lead content that accumulated in both the blood and the brain tissue of the exposed rats, and reduced the elevated levels of oxidative damage indices, and brain proinflammatory markers. Also, because of the Spirulina administration, the levels of the depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and interleukin-10 in the lead-exposed rats were improved. Moreover, Spirulina protected the brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum) against the changes elicited by lead exposure, and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 and Caspase-3 in both cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Spirulina has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  1. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana CEPOI; Ludmila RUDI; Vera MISCU; Angela COJOCARI; Tatiana CHIRIAC; Daniela SADOVNIC

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC), radical-scavenging activity by DPPH ...

  2. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  3. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  4. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalabegishvili, T.; Kirkesali, E.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by one of the many popular microorganisms - blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was studied. The complex of optical and analytical methods was applied for investigation of experimental samples after exposure to chloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) solution at different doses and for different time intervals. To characterize formed gold nanoparticles UV-vis, TEM, SEM, EDAX, and XRD were used. It was shown that after 1.5-2 days of exposure the extracellular formation of nanoparticles of spherical form and the distribution peak within the interval of 20-30 nm took place. To determine gold concentrations in the Spirulina platensis biomass, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were applied. The results obtained evidence that the concentration of gold accumulated by Spirulina biomass is rapidly growing in the beginning, followed by some increase for the next few days. The obtained substance of Spirulina biomass with gold nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical, and technological purposes

  5. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Minea, R.; Mitru, Ecaterina; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Albulescu, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  6. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  7. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  8. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; El-Shaer, E.A.; Ismaiel, M.M.S.; Shabana, E.F.; Gabr, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same

  9. Pão sem gluten enriquecido com a microalga Spirulina platensis Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha. Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães não sofreram alteração com a adição de até 4% da alga, porem mostraram redução de 22% nos valores de volume e aumento de 113% na dureza quando se adicionou-se 5% (em base de farinha. Quando comparados ao pão não enriquecido, a adição de Spiriulina platensis provocou uma melhoria da qualidade nutricional dos pães, confirmada pelo aumento significativo de 39,04% do conteúdo protéico, alem de vários aminoácidos essenciais (treonina, metionina, isoleucina e leucina. Com relação a cor, os pães com Spirulina apresentaram redução de luminosidade com o aumento de adição de microalga, sendo também observada tendência de aumento de tonalidade verde. Na avaliação sensorial, não se verificou diferença significativa quanto a preferência entre os pães adicionados com 3% e 5% de Spirulina na formulação.With the objective of offering a product for people with celiac disease, due to their gluten intolerance, gluten-free bread made with rice flour was elaborated, in substitution of the wheat flour. To increase the protein content of the bread, dried Spirulina platensis, a microalga, was added to the products in the range from 2 to 5% (flour basis. The bread samples were evaluated according to their specific volume (V/W, crumb hardness, measured with a texturometer, and the crumb color. It was shown that the specific volume and crumb hardness were not affected by the addition of up to 4% of alga, but a decrease of 22% in the

  10. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    Full Text Available The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli, in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml, against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  11. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  12. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  13. Investigation of the interaction of chrome compounds with blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of CrIII with the cells of blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis in course of cultivation in a nutrient medium loaded with corresponding chrome compounds is studied. It is shown that the rate of absorption of CrVI ions by spirulina biomass from the nutrient medium is approximately two orders of magnitude lower as compared to that of CrIII ions. At the same time the presence of CrVI in a nutrient medium is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cell growth rate and by deteriorating the quality of spirulina biomass. It is established that at endogenous insertion of CrIII into the biocomplex of spirulina no change in the valence state of chromium in the nutrient medium is observed and the natural properties of the biomass do not change. On the basis of the obtained concentration dependences, the recommended doses of CrIII in the preparation 'Cr-Spirulina' within the ranges of 30-100 μg/g as a food addition, and 200-250 μg/g for a medical preventive treatment are determined. (author)

  14. Compostos fenólicos totais, atividade antioxidante e antifúngica demultimisturas enriquecidas com a microalga Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bierhals, Vânia da Silva; Machado, Vanessa Goulart; Echevenguá, Walesca Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o conteúdo fenólico e as atividades antioxidantes e antifúngicas de multimisturas enriquecidas com Spirulina platensis, foram formuladas quatro multimisturas com farelo de arroz ou trigo, duas contendo Spirulina platensis e duas com sementes de girassol. Os compostos fenólicos foram estimados pela técnica de Folin-Ciocalteau. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada por meio de inibição do radical livre DPPH e a atividade antifúngica foi analisada por meio de ensaio de ...

  15. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  16. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muliterno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fonte orgânica de carbono (glicose em modo bateladaalimentada. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³ para o cultivo e as variáveis de estudo foram a concentração de glicose (0,5 gL-1 e 1,0 gL-1, a diluição do meio Zarrouk (50% e 75% e a iluminância (1800 lux e 3000 lux. A concentração celular máxima obtida foi de 5,38 gL-1 com uma velocidade específica máxima de crescimento de 0,0063 h-1, nas condições de 0,5 gL-1 de glicose, diluição do meio de 75% e iluminância de 3000 lux.The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied due to its high content (~65% of highly digestible protein as well as significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals and phycocyanin which could be useful in the human nutrition. The use of nutrients of low costs in the cyanobacterium growth could reduce the costs of production. We studied the fed-batch mixotrophic growth of the S. platensis in Zarrouk's medium with glucose (0.5 gL-1 and 1.0 gL-1 as carbon source and also investigated the effects of dilution (50% and 75%, with water and illumination (1,800 lux and 3,000 lux using a 2³ factorial design. The maximum celular concentration of 5.38 gL-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.0063 h-1 were obtained with a glucose concentration of 0.5 gL-1, 50% dilution and 1800 lux of illuminance.

  17. Application of an Ultrafine Shearing Method for the Extraction of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

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    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption method, including soaking, ultrasonication, freezing-thawing, soaking-ultrafine shearing and soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication were applied to break the cell walls of S. platensis. The effectiveness of cell breaking was evaluated based on the yield of the C-phycocyanin. The results show that the maximum C-phycocyanin yield was 9.02%, achieved by the soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method, followed by soaking (8.43%, soaking-ultrafine shearing (8.89%, freezing and thawing (8.34%, and soaking-ultrasonication (8.62%. The soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method is a novel technique for breaking the cell walls of S. platensis for the extraction of C-phycocyanin.

  18. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM, collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks with 100 litres of culture medium and an initial biomass concentration of 0.5 g/L. The culture media were prepared to test the effect of unsupplemented DCM, DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U, and/or 40 mg/L of sodium bicarbonate (DCM+U+B or DCM+B. The best cellular growth and highest protein production were observed for S. platensis in the biomass harvested from the culture medium containing DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

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    Nur Maulida Safitri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51 was identified and synthetized, which exhibited 45.98 ± 1.7% at concentration 128.15 µg/mL. Therefore, S. platensis is indicated as a potential therapeutic source for combating oxidative stress.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Maulida Safitri; Endang Yuli Herawati; Jue Liang Hsu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51) was identified and synthetized, w...

  1. Phyocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis assisted by ultrasound irradiation: effect of time and temperature

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    Hadiyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina platensis using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was conducted by using variable of extraction time, temperature and ultrasound frequency, while ethanol was used as solvent. The results show that the yield of phycocyanin extract was 15.97% at constant frequency of 42 kHz and 11.24% at constant frequency of 28 kHz, while the soxhlet extraction method obtained yield at 11.13%. The ultrasound could reduce the extraction time from 4 hrs (conventional to 20 minutes, while the optimum temperature of extraction was found at 55°C.

  2. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13; Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis com isótopo estável Carbono-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: luiz_cnst@hotmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CIE/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Isótopos Estáveis Prof. Dr. Carlos Ducatti

    2017-07-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ({sup 13}C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of {sup 13}C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure {sup 13}C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard.

  3. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Lim, Yen-Wei; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2010-09-21

    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  4. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníčková, R.; Vaňková, K.; Vaníková, J.; Váňová, K.; Muchová, L.; Subhanová, I.; Zadinová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, S.; Ruml, T.; Wong, R.J.; Vítek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 1665-2681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : bilirubin * chlorophyll * heme oxygenase * phycocyanin * phycocyanobilin * Spirulina platensis * tetrapyrroles Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2014

  5. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is the production of biomass of S. platensis using different rates of stirring, nitrogen source, amount of micronutrients, and luminosity. A 2(4 experimental design with the following factors: stirring (120 and 140 RPM, amount of nitrogen (1.5 and 2.5 g/L, amount of micronutrients (0,25 and 0,75 mL/L (11 and 15 W, and luminosity was used. Fermentation was performed in a 500 mL conical flask with 250 mL of culture medium and 10% inoculum in an incubator with controlled stirring and luminosity. Fermentation was monitored using a spectrophotometer (560 nm, and each fermentation lasted 15 days. Of the parameters studied, luminosity is the one with the highest significance, followed by the amount of nitrogen and the interaction between stirring and micronutrients. Maximum production of biomass for 15 days was 2.70 g/L under the following conditions: luminosity15W; stirring, 120 RPM; source of nitrogen, 1.5 g/L; and micronutrients, 0.75 mL/L.A Spirulina platensis é uma cianobactéria mesofílica, fotoautotrófica, que utiliza como nutrientes os nitratos, ureia e sais de amônio. O cultivo necessita de controle de temperatura, intensidade de luz e do teor de nutrientes utilizados. Esta microalga tem sido estuda pelo seu potencial nutricional, antioxidante, terapêutico e adjuvante em tratamento de obesidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de biomassa de S. platensis em diferentes níveis de agitação, fonte de nitrog

  6. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

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    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  7. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan SowriArvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  8. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  9. Optimization of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina Growth: From Laboratory Scale to Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delrue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina is the most cultivated microalga worldwide. Improving its cultivation in terms of biomass productivity, quality, or production cost could significantly impact the Spirulina industry. The objectives of this paper were defined as to contribute to this goal. Spirulina biomass productivity was investigated through medium choice. A modified Zarrouk’s medium was selected as it gave higher final dry weights and longer sustained growth than Hiri’s and Jourdan’s media. Then, in order to reduce Spirulina production cost, modified Zarrouk’s medium was rationalized by testing different dilutions. It was found that modified Zarrouk’s medium could be diluted up to five times without impacting the growth rates in a 28-days batch cultivation. Higher dry weights were even observed after 21 days of batch cultivation (1.21 g/L for 20%-modified Zarrouk’s medium in comparison to 0.84 g/L for modified Zarrouk’s medium. Iron uptake was then investigated as one of the major contributors to Spirulina nutritional quality. An increase in iron content was obtained by replacing iron sulfate by iron EDTA at a concentration of 10 mgFe/L (2.11 ± 0.13 mgFe/gbiomass for EDTA-FeNa, 3 H2O at 10 mgFe/L compared to 0.18 ± 0.13 for FeSO4,6H2O at 2 mgFe/L. Impact of light intensity on Spirulina biomass productivity was also investigated in a 2 L Photobioreactor (PBR. Specific growth rates were calculated for Photosynthetically Photon Flux Densities (PPFD from 85 to 430 µmol/m2/s. At 430 µmol/m2/s, photoinhibition was not observed and the specific growth rate was maximum (0.12/day. Finally, a 40-day cultivation experiment was conducted in a 1000 L PBR giving a maximum daily areal productivity of 58.4 g/m2/day. A techno-economic analysis gave production cost two to 20 times higher for PBR (from 18.71 to 74.29 €/kg than for open ponds (from 3.86 to 9.59 €/kg depending on Spirulina productivity.

  10. In vitro evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract incorporated skin cream with its wound healing and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Seda; Tamburaci, Sedef; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Deliloglu Gurhan, Ismet

    2017-12-01

    Algae have gained importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their beneficial effects on skin health and therapeutical value with bioactive compounds. Spirulina platensis Parachas (Phormidiaceae) is renowned as a potential source of high-value chemicals and recently used in skincare products. This study develops and evaluates skin creams incorporated with bioactive S. platensis extract. Spirulina platensis was cultivated, the aqueous crude extract was prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity of S. platensis extract in the range of 0.001-1% concentrations for 1, 3 and 7 d on HS2 keratinocyte cells was determined. Crude extracts were incorporated in skin cream formulation at 0.01% (w/w) concentration and in vitro wound healing and genotoxicity studies were performed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the collagen activity. 0.1% S. platensis extract exhibited higher proliferation activity compared with the control group with 198% of cell viability after 3 d. Skin cream including 1.125% S. platensis crude extract showed enhanced wound healing effect on HS2 keratinocyte cell line and the highest HS2 cell viability % was obtained with this concentration. The micronucleus (MN) assay results indicated that S. platensis extract incorporated creams had no genotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that collagen 1 immunoreactivity was improved by increased extract concentration and it was strongly positive in cells treated with 1.125% extract incorporated skin cream. The cell viability, wound healing activity and genotoxicity results showed that S. platensis incorporated skin cream could be of potential value in cosmeceutical and biomedical applications.

  11. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  12. Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V B; Madyastha, K M

    2001-07-13

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is known to inactivate important cellular targets and also mediate oxidative damage in DNA. The present study has demonstrated that phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina platensis and its chromophore, phycocyanobilin (PCB), efficiently scavenge ONOO(-), a potent physiological inorganic toxin. Scavenging of ONOO(-) by phycocyanin and PCB was established by studying their interaction with ONOO(-) and quantified by using competition kinetics of pyrogallol red bleaching assay. The relative antioxidant ratio and IC(50) value clearly indicate that phycocyanin is a more efficient ONOO(-) scavenger than PCB. The present study has also shown that PCB significantly inhibits the ONOO(-)-mediated single-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 2.9 +/- 0.6 microM. These results suggest that phycocyanin, has the ability to inhibit the ONOO(-)-mediated deleterious biological effects and hence has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Felipe da Silva; Crizel, Tainara de Morais; Silva, Camila Rubira; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de las Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha). Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães ...

  14. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  15. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Mingxiong; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumao

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis. A novel antioxidant peptide was obtained by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay used to measure the antioxidant activity, and the sequence was determined to be Pro-Asn-Asn (343.15 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This peptide was synthesized to confirm its antioxidant properties, and it exhibited 81.44 ± 0.43% DPPH scavenging activity at 100 µg/ml, which was similar to that of glutathione (82.63 ± 0.56%). Furthermore, the superoxide anion and hydroxyl free-radical scavenging activities and the SOD activity of the peptide were 47.84 ± 0.49%, 54.01 ± 0.82%, and 12.55 ± 0.75%, respectively, at 10 mg/ml. These results indicate that S. platensis is a good source of antioxidant peptides, and that its hydrolysate may have important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  16. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cell-Free Extract of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the cell-free extract of Spirulina platensis. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis and finally evaluated for antibacterial activity. Extracellular synthesis using aqueous extract of S. platensis showed the formation of well scattered, highly stable, spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30–50 nm. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that biomolecules, proteins and peptides, are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilisation of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised nanoparticles exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli, MTCC-9721; Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-7299; Klebsiella pneumoniae, MTCC-9751, and Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-9542; S. epidermidis, MTCC-2639; Bacillus cereus, MTCC-9017, bacteria. The AgNPs had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI that is 31.3±1.11 in P. vulgaris. Use of such a microalgal system provides a simple, cost-effective alternative template for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials of silver in a large scale that could be of great use in biomedical applications.

  17. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Señorans, F. Javier; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol andwater). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 ◦C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using m...

  18. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  19. Phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater by Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt Geiteler: pigment content, production variable cost and nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater by Spirulina platensis was carried out using kitchen wastewater. A complete randomised design (CRD was created for the experiment which was performed on modified Zarrouk’s medium (Zm, 100% kitchen wastewater (100%Kw and 90% kitchen wastewater (90%Kw. Water quality, biomass production, pigment content and nutritional value of Spirulina platensis were determined from cultures harvested every 5 days for a period of 15 days. The physico-chemical properties of cultivated wastewater were: water temperature 27-28 oC, pH 8.73-9.77 and DO 0.20-7.20 mg L-1. The 100%Kw and 90%Kw produced lower BOD, COD, TP, NH3-N, ON, TKN, NO3-N, NO2-N, TON and TN compared to Zm with p< 0.05. After cultivation, the treated kitchen wastewater met the standards for safe discharge in Thailand. The highest level of -carotene of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.29 mg g-1 and 100%Kw (0.29 mg g – 1 while the highest levels of C-phycocyanin were obtained in 100%Kw (17.95 mg g -1 and 90%Kw (16.31 mg g-1. The highest production variable cost for dry weight of S. platensis was in Zm (310.6 Baht kg -1 and 90%Kw (303.6 Baht kg -1 as compared to 100%Kw (276.6 Baht kg -1, with p<0.05. The highest biomass production of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.84 g L-1 and 100%Kw (0.82 g L-1, with protein content of 54.44% and 35.86%, respectively. Implications for the use of S. platensis for phytoremediation and C-phycocyanin production using of 100%Kw and 90% Kw are discussed.

  20. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  1. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  2. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis evaluated with broilers Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis avaliada com frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis, the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metabolic cages for 10 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions with five birds each. Diets consisted on a reference-ration based on corn and soybean meal and two test diets, one containing spirulina (30% and the other one with soybean meal (30%. Spiruline was superior to soybean meal for contents of dry matter (DM, gross energy (9.60%, crude protein (26.56%, ether extract (54.45%, mineral matter (42.77%, calcium (100% and total phosphorus (130.77% and also for most amino acids, except lysine, glutamate, histidine and proline. Nevertheless, spiruline presented lower values of gross fiber (83.95%, acid detergent fiber (85.12% and neutral detergent fiber (6.15. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg of DM were, respectively, 2,906 and 2,502 for the spirulina and 2,646 and 2,340 for the soybean meal and AMEn of spirulina was 6.92% higher than soybean meal.Objetivou-se determinar a composição química e energética da espirulina (Spirulina platensis, os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn em frangos de corte. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas com 90 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com peso inicial de 256 ± 5 g aos 11 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo durante dez dias, distribuídas em delineamento

  3. Spirulina platensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... techniques for cultivation of useful microalgae ... cheaper nutritional sources such as ammonia and urea. (Bezerra et al., 2008; .... The analysis was conducted with .... tion effect was less marked with urea due to enzymatic.

  4. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3% had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7% had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12 and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22 by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group

  5. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-04-01

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  6. Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huili

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis (ASP is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328. The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport, translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and

  7. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  8. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis. The algal dry weight (DW was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g DW was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

  9. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  10. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  11. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  12. Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis) avaliada com frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Cantarelli, Vinícius de Souza; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Silva Júnior, José Walter da; Silva, Leonardo Rafael da; Santos, Luziane Moreira dos; Pereira, Luciano José

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis), the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metab...

  13. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  14. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  15. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheevadhanarak Supapon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation.

  16. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  17. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. E. Bashandy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO, and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication.

  18. Investigation of the Structure and Element Composition of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from the Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism.

  19. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  20. Sequence of the gamma-subunit of Spirulina platensis : a new principle of thiol modulation of F0F1 ATP synthase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinemann, D.; Lill, H

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the gamma subunit of Spirulina platensis F0F1, the relative of the chloroplast F1 subunit responsible for thiol activation, has been cloned and sequenced. As in other cyanobacteria, a specific couple of cysteines like those involved in thiol modulation of the chloroplast enzyme was

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  2. Composition and functional property of photosynthetic pigments under circadian rhythm in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Richa; Pathak, Jainendra; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2018-05-01

    Circadian rhythm is an important endogenous biological signal for sustainable growth and development of cyanobacteria in natural ecosystems. Circadian effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations on pigment composition have been studied in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under light (L)/dark (D) oscillation with a combination of 4/20, 8/16, 12/12, 16/8, 20/4 and 24/24 h time duration. Circadian exposure of PAR + UV-A (PA) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B (PAB) showed more than twofold decline in Chl a, total protein and phycocyanin (PC) in light phase and significant recovery was achieved in dark phase. The fluorescence emission wavelength of PC was shifted towards lower wavelengths in the light phase of PAB in comparison to P and PA whereas the same wavelength was retrieved in the dark phase. The production of free radicals was accelerated twofold in the light phase (24 h L) whereas the same was retrieved to the level of control during the dark phase. Oxidatively induced damage was alleviated by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the light phase (0-24-h L) whereas the dark phase showed significant inhibition of the same enzymes. Similar characteristic inhibition of free radicals and recovery of PC was observed inside cellular filament after circadian rhythm of 24/24 h (L/D). Circadian exposure of P, PA and PAB significantly altered the synthesis and recovery of pigments that could be crucial for optimization and sustainable production of photosynthetic products for human welfare.

  3. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  4. The effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis (Oscillatoriales: Cyanobacteria on the experimental breeding of Pseudosuccinea columella (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Prepelitchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae, as Pseudosuccinea columella, are the intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis in human and livestock all over the world. A thorough knowledge of snail biology is essential for describing the transmission dynamics and for controlling this disease. Since food quality has had a significant effect on snail growth, fecundity and fertility, in this study we evaluated the use of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis as a food resource for the artificial breeding of P. columella, an invasive snail and the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Northeastern Argentina. The main purpose was to measure the effect of spirulina on fitness parameters such as survival rate, growth rate, size at first reproduction, lifetime fecundity and viable offspring. A total of 20 676 newly-laid F2 eggs were used; half of them were fed with lettuce (treatment L and the other half with lettuce plus spirulina (treatment L+S. In comparison with P. columella snails fed only with lettuce, we found that P. columella fed with lettuce plus spirulina: 1 showed higher survival rates, 2 grew faster and showed higher growth increments, 3 attained sexual maturity earlier in time (L+S:60 days vs. L:120 days and at a smaller size (L+S:4.8mm vs. L:8.2mm, 4 had a longer reproductive period (L+S:150 days vs. L:90 days, 5 produced a higher number of eggs/snail (L+S:29.6 vs. L:13.3, and 6 showed a higher offspring hatching rate (L+S:70% vs. L:40%. The supplementation of P. columella diet with commercial spirulina enhances it fitness and improved the artificial breeding of this species. Spirulina may have a direct positive effect on P. columella development by consuming it, along with an indirect positive effect by improving the water quality. This rearing technique provided large number of reproducing adults and a continuous production of offspring, which are essential for developing future experimental studies in order to

  5. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  6. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  7. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  8. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  9. In vitro and in vivo preliminary results on Spirulina platensis for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... platensis for treatment of impetigo: Topical cream application .... 7.5 g; liquid paraffin 3.75 ml; and aqueous phase: deionized water,. 35 ml; sodium ..... macroalgae from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Int. Microbiol.

  10. Separation, identification and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls in dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynstova, Veronika; Sterbova, Dagmar; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech

    2018-01-30

    In this study, 14 commercial products (dietary supplements) containing alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, originated from China and Japan, were analysed. UV-vis spectrophotometric method was applied for rapid determination of chlorophylls, carotenoids and pheophytins; as degradation products of chlorophylls. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used for effective separation of these compounds, and also Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of heavy metals as indicator of environmental pollution. Based on the results obtained from UV-vis spectrophotometric determination of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), it was confirmed that Chlorella vulgaris contains more of all these pigments compared to the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. The fastest mobility compound identified in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using HPTLC method was β-carotene. Spectral analysis and standard calibration curve method were used for identification and quantification of separated substances on Thin-Layer Chromatographic plate. Quantification of copper (Cu 2+ , at 324.7 nm) and zinc (Zn 2+ , at 213.9nm) was performed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with air-acetylene flame atomization. Quantification of cadmium (Cd 2+ , at 228.8 nm), nickel (Ni 2+ , at 232.0nm) and lead (Pb 2+ , at 283.3nm) by Electrothermal Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; and quantification of mercury (Hg 2+ , at 254nm) by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  12. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  13. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Sherif, N.H

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  14. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sommella; Giulio Maria Conte; Emanuela Salviati; Giacomo Pepe; Alessia Bertamino; Carmine Ostacolo; Francesca Sansone; Francesco Del Prete; Rita Patrizia Aquino; Pietro Campiglia

    2018-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary sup...

  15. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Señoráns, Javier

    2004-08-27

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

  16. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Wong, Ka-Hing; Yang, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Wenjie; Wu, Hualian; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC) and allophycocyanin (Te-APC), two organic tellurium (Te) species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 μg g(-1) protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2008-06-25

    Both selenium and phycocyanin have been reported to show potent cancer chemopreventive activities. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) purified from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis. The antioxidant activity of Se-PC was evaluated by using four different free radical scavenging assays, namely, the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, and erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The results indicated that Se-PC exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than phycocyanin by scavenging ABTS, DPPH, superoxide anion, and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride free radicals. Se-PC also showed dose-dependent protective effects on erythrocytes against H 2O 2-induced oxidative DNA damage as evaluated by the Comet assay. Moreover, Se-PC was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against human melanoma A375 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Induction of apoptosis in both A375 and MCF-7 cells by Se-PC was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and nuclear condensation. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms indicated that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi m) was involved in Se-PC-induced cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that Se-PC is a promising organic Se species with potential applications in cancer chemoprevention.

  18. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  19. Selection and protein sds-page identification of a new high-producing polysaccharide strain of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Liu Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between anti-radiation capacity and polysaccharide contents of ten Spirulina platensis strains were studied. The results showed that the correlation coefficient between 60 Co γ-ray half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) and polysaccharide contents of the 10 strains was 0.9873. After the single cells or spheroplasts of Sp-08 were treated by 0.6%EMS and 2.4 kGy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, four morphological mutant named Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, which could endure about 7.0 kGy γ-ray irradiation, were obtained. The polysaccharide contents of Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, were 32.8%, 17.3%, 3.4% and 42.3% higher than that of their parent Sp-08, respectively. The results of protein SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heredity of Sp-08A, Sp-08C and Sp-08D were mutated. Therefore, Sp-08A was a perfect high-producing polysaccharide strain with excellent characteristics of morphology and growth. Now, Sp-08A is applied in mass cultivation and industrialization. (authors)

  20. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  1. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions on Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seker, Ayseguel [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysegulseker@iyte.edu.tr; Shahwan, Talal [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: talalshahwan@iyte.edu.tr; Eroglu, Ahmet E. [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmeteroglu@iyte.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Sinan [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: sinanyilmaz@iyte.edu.tr; Demirel, Zeliha [Department of Biology, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: zelihademirel@gmail.com; Dalay, Meltem Conk [Department of Bioengineering, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: meltemconkdalay@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    The biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution by Spirulina platensis was studied as a function of time, concentration, temperature, repetitive reactivity, and ionic competition. The kinetic results obeyed well the pseudo second-order model. Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models were applied in describing the equilibrium partition of the ions. Freundlich isotherm was applied to describe the design of a single-stage batch sorption system. According to the thermodynamic parameters such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}and {delta}S{sup o} calculated, the sorption process was endothermic and largely driven towards the products. Sorption activities in a three metal ion system were studied which indicated that there is a relative selectivity of the biosorbent towards Pb{sup 2+} ions. The measurements of the repetitive reusability of S. platensis indicated a large capacity towards the three metal ions.

  2. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  3. Aplicación de estrategias nutricionales y su efecto en el crecimiento en el cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas,Elizabet; Ávila,Marcela; Parada,Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) durante 78 días en un fotobiorreactor tubular de 300 L de volumen. Durante este periodo se registró el crecimiento en biomasa y la respuesta del cultivo a la estrategia de adición del medio nutritivo. Utilizando como base el medio Zarrouk modificado, se elaboraron tres medios: medio inicial (MI), medio crecimiento (SA1+SA2) y medio mantenimiento (SB1+SB2) para las distintas etapas del cultivo. La entrega de los medios se efec...

  4. Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Daria; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-08-03

    Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds. In the conducted research, we showed that in vitro application of Spirulina platensis contributes to the restoration of ASCs' and IECs' morphology and function through the reduction of cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhanced viability, suppressed senescence, and improved proliferation of ASCs and IECs isolated from metabolic syndrome-affected individuals were evident following exposition to Spirulina. A protective effect of the investigated extract against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration was also observed. Moreover, our data demonstrate that Spirulina extract effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vivo studies showed that horses fed with a diet based on Spirulina platensis supplementation lost weight and their insulin sensitivity improved. Thus, our results indicate the engagement of Spirulina platensis nourishing as an interesting alternative approach for supporting the conventional treatment of equine metabolic syndrome.

  5. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang,1 Ka-Hing Wong,2 Yufeng Yang,3 Xiaoling Li,1 Jie Jiang,1 Wenjie Zheng,1 Hualian Wu,1 Tianfeng Chen1 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Hydrobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC and allophycocyanin (Te-APC, two organic tellurium (Te species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 µg g-1 protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropanedihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress. Keywords: tellurium, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, purification, antioxidant activity

  6. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  8. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan Ammu; Lim Yen-Wei; Chu Wan-Loy; Lim Phaik-Eem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protectiv...

  9. Rapid mutation of Spirulina platensis by a new mutagenesis system of atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP and generation of a mutant library with diverse phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Fang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to improve the carbohydrate productivity of Spirulina platensis by generating mutants with increased carbohydrate content and growth rate. ARTP was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant library of S. platensis with diverse phenotypes. Protocol for rapid mutation of S. platensis by 60 s treatment with helium driven ARTP and high throughput screening method of the mutants using the 96-well microplate and microplate reader was established. A mutant library of 62 mutants was then constructed and ideal mutants were selected out. The characteristics of the mutants after the mutagenesis inclined to be stable after around 9(th subculture, where the total mutation frequency and positive mutation frequency in terms of specific growth rate reached 45% and 25%, respectively. The mutants in mutant library showed diverse phenotypes in terms of cell growth rate, carbohydrate content and flocculation intensity. The positive mutation frequency in terms of cellular carbohydrate content with the increase by more than 20% percent than the wild strain was 32.3%. Compared with the wild strain, the representative mutants 3-A10 and 3-B2 showed 40.3% and 78.0% increase in carbohydrate content, respectively, while the mutant 4-B3 showed 10.5% increase in specific growth rate. The carbohydrate contents of the representative mutants were stable during different subcultures, indicating high genetic stability. ARTP was demonstrated to be an effective and non-GMO mutagenesis tool to generate the mutant library for multicellular microalgae.

  10. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  11. The effects of pH in profile of lipid and ester accumulation of arthrospira platensis (spirulina) as a potential source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Patrick A.; Ybañez, Manolito G. Jr.; Avilla, Ruel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to produce biodiesel (ester-based fuel) using the extracts of microalgae Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina). Specifically, the research focused in determining effect of pH in culturing the Spirulina and its lipid accumulation; determining the constituents present in the lipid extracts; and determining the methyl esters in the transesterified lipids. The best pH condition in culturing the algal sample was found to be at pH 10 to 11. Analysis of the extracted lipid samples revealed that pH condition in culturing medium has a significant effect on the lipid accumulation in Spirulina. Perkin Elmer Claurus 500 GC-MS system elucidated that the constituents present in the experimental samples were esterified lipids. The esters were derived from butanoic, hexadeanoic and octadecanoic acid. About 19 free fatty acids out of 23 determined compounds present were from the controlled sample which suggests that these were main precursors of the esters found in the sample were butyl, allyl nonyl, propyl tetradecyl, methylpropyl, allyl dodecyl, hexyl pentadecyl, dodecyl propyl, heptyl esters with the parent chain of fatty acids enumerated above. These showed that pH manipulations could be used as a direct transesterification of fatty acids in producing biodiesels. (author)

  12. The Effect of Temperature on Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Hızarcı Uslu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sıcaklığın Spirulina platensis’in protein ve amino asit kompozisyonu üzerine etkisi. Bu çalışma, mevsime bağlı iklim değişikliğinin yaz ve kış mevsimlerinde kültüre alınan Spirulina platensis’in protein içeriği ve amino asit kompozisyonuna etkilerini incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Çalışma boyunca ışık yoğunluğu, pH ve tuzluluk günlük olarak ölçülmüş, sıcaklık ve çözünmüş oksijen gün boyunca ve gece ölçülmüştür. Yaz ve kış mevsiminde ortalama gündüz sıcaklığı sırasıyla 33,9±0,4 ºC ve 18,6±0,5 ºC olarak belirlenirken, gece sıcaklığı 29,9±0,2 °C ve 14.4±0.2°C olarak belirlenmiştir. Ortalama ışık yoğunluğu yaz mevsiminde 848,3 µmol m-2s-1 iken kışın 506,26±48 µmol m-2s-1 olmuştur. Yaz büyüme döneminde protein miktarı (72,9±03 % ve amino asit konsantrasyonu kış dönemine göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Amino asitlerden Prolin, Sistin ve Arjinin sadece kış mevsiminde gözlenmiştir

  13. Produção, aspectos nutricionais e fisiológicos de alface sob adubação foliar com Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Samara Oliveira e Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de concentrações do fertilizante orgânico a base de Spirulina platensis sobre a produção, crescimento, teores de N, P, K e sódio e sobre as trocas gasosas de alface cv. Elba em condições de campo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, constituídos das concentrações do fertilizante (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5% com seis repetições. No ponto de colheita da cultura foram avaliadas variáveis de produção e crescimento, os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e sódio, bem como, as trocas gasosas das plantas com o medidor de gás infravermelho (IRGA. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as concentrações do fertilizante, não afetaram a produção, o crescimento, os teores de nutrientes avaliados, assim como não influenciaram as trocas gasosas das plantas.Production, mineral nutrition and physiological aspects of lettuce under foliar fertilization with Spirulina platensis Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of concentrations of organic fertilizer based on Spirulina platensis on yield, growth, in N, P, K and sodium contents and on gaseous changes of lettuce cv. Elba in field conditions. Use the design of randomized blocks, with six treatments consisting of different concentrations of fertilizer (0; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 and 7.5% with six replications. At the harvest point were evaluated the growth and production, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, as well as gas exchange plant with infrared gas meter (IRGA. The results showed that the fertilizer concentrations did not affect production, growth, levels of nutrients evaluated, and did not influence the gas exchange of plants.

  14. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  15. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Natali F.; Lima, Eder C.; Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V.; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A.; Calvete, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. ► The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. ► The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for SP and AC, respectively. ► Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. ► SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4–99.0% and 93.6–97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  16. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  17. Study on the effect of different concentration of Spirulina platensis paste added into dried noodle to its quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, T. W.; Ma'ruf, W. F.; Widayat; Wibowo, B. A.; Hadiyanto

    2017-02-01

    High nutritional content of microalgae S. platensis is very good for human health especially for its protein and β-carotene. These compounds can be used for improving quality of food from nutritional point of view. This study was designed to observe the effect of different concentration of S. platensis paste to dried noodle quality based on physical, chemical and sensory perspectives. Material used in this study was S. platensis powder obtained from CV Neoalgae, Sukoharjo. The best treatment observed from preliminary study was then used for further study and compared to control treatment (without added S. platensis paste). The dried noodle resulted was then analyzed for elasticity, chemical (β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate) and sensory (hedonic). Parametric data obtained were analyzed using t-Test while non-parametric data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Multiple Comparison test. The study showed that dried noodle added with 9% S. platensis paste give significant effect (P<0.05) on elasticity; β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate and also sensory (hedonic). Dried noodle without added S. platensis paste has lower in β-carotene and protein compared to that of added S. platensis paste with the value of 0.06 mg/100 gr and 17.51 mg/100gr (β-carotene) and 8.88% and 38.6% (protein), respectively. Those, chemical composition of dried noodle added with S. platensis comply with Indonesian National Standard in term of protein, water, and ash content with sensory of 7.26 ≤ μ ≤ 7.63. Addition of S. platensis can significantly increase the nutritional of dried noodle especially protein (by 4 times) and β-carotene.

  18. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C., E-mail: kdas@engr.uga.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo [Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-06-23

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  19. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  20. UTILIZAÇÃO DE Spirulina platensis COMO SUPLEMENTO ALIMENTAR DURANTE A REVERSÃO SEXUAL DE TILÁPIA DO NILO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO LAFAIETE MOREIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of S. platensis as a food supplement for Nile tilapia post-larvae. Two trials was running. In the first, was used two treatments, one offered freshwater microalgae (green water and other offered microalga S. platensis. In the second trial, were evaluated the effect of without copepods, administration of copepods alone and copepods enriched with S. platensis. Throughout the study, all animals were fed diets with masculinizing hormone 17-K-methyl-testosterone. It was evaluated the growth in weight and length, the survival rate and the rate of sex reversal of tilapia (mean +,- SD. In the first trial, the fish that received the S. platensis and receiving freshwater microalgae showed as result, 0.21 +,- 0.042 g; 2.50 +,- 0.091 cm; 97.5 ± 1,00% and 0.11 +,- 0.022 g; 1.91 +,- 0.419 cm; 98.33 +,- 0.70%, respectively. In the second trial, when the copepods were utilized, with and without S. platensis, the post-larvae as result, 0.221 ± 0.008 g; 2.70 ± 0.070 cm; 86.67 +,- 1.03% and 0.211 +,- 0.014 g; 2.56 ± 0.121 cm; 77.50 +,- 1.33%, respectively. The animals that received only commercial had as result, 0.190 +,- 0.008 g; 2.22 +,- 0.215 cm and 79.17 +,-0.21%. Using S. platensis resulted in better growth in weight and length, but did not affect survival and rates of sex reversal Nile tilapia post-larvae of exposed to natural food.

  1. UTILIZAÇÃO DE Spirulina platensis COMO SUPLEMENTO ALIMENTAR DURANTE A REVERSÃO SEXUAL DA TILÁPIA-DO-NILO (VAR. CHITRALADA EM ÁGUA SALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lafaiete Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis influence as a food supplement in Nile tilapia post-larvae grown in saline water. The experiment consisted of two treatments with three replicates. In first one the animals were fed ration containing the androgen 17 α - methyltestosterone and S. platensis, and in the other only diet with the hormone. At the end of the reversal (28 days, tilapia that received S. platensis showed average weights of 1.17 ± 0.16 g, significantly superior to the animals fed only ration, which reached an average weight of 0.62 ± 0.38 g (P < 0.05; however, survival rates showed no significant difference (P < 0.05. At the end of the experiment (78 days, fish gonadal analysis showed indices of 47.5% of males for fish reared without microalgae and 59.09% for fish reared with S. platensis. It was conclude that Nile tilapia showed good growth and survival rate in the presence of S. platensis, compared to the fish fed only diet in saline water. However, it was not possible to obtain acceptable rates of sex reversal after the administration of masculinizing hormone through the diet.

  2. SpirPro: A Spirulina proteome database and web-based tools for the analysis of protein-protein interactions at the metabolic level in Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachak, Jittisak; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Hongsthong, Apiradee

    2015-07-29

    Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is the only cyanobacterium that in addition to being studied at the molecular level and subjected to gene manipulation, can also be mass cultivated in outdoor ponds for commercial use as a food supplement. Thus, encountering environmental changes, including temperature stresses, is common during the mass production of Spirulina. The use of cyanobacteria as an experimental platform, especially for photosynthetic gene manipulation in plants and bacteria, is becoming increasingly important. Understanding the mechanisms and protein-protein interaction networks that underlie low- and high-temperature responses is relevant to Spirulina mass production. To accomplish this goal, high-throughput techniques such as OMICs analyses are used. Thus, large datasets must be collected, managed and subjected to information extraction. Therefore, databases including (i) proteomic analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and (ii) domain/motif visualization tools are required for potential use in temperature response models for plant chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria. A web-based repository was developed including an embedded database, SpirPro, and tools for network visualization. Proteome data were analyzed integrated with protein-protein interactions and/or metabolic pathways from KEGG. The repository provides various information, ranging from raw data (2D-gel images) to associated results, such as data from interaction and/or pathway analyses. This integration allows in silico analyses of protein-protein interactions affected at the metabolic level and, particularly, analyses of interactions between and within the affected metabolic pathways under temperature stresses for comparative proteomic analysis. The developed tool, which is coded in HTML with CSS/JavaScript and depicted in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), is designed for interactive analysis and exploration of the constructed network. SpirPro is publicly available on the web

  3. Fed-batch strategy for enhancing cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under phototrophic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youping; Jin, Yiwen; Zeng, Xianhai; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yinghua; Jing, Keju

    2015-03-01

    The C-phycocyanin generated in blue-green algae Arthrospira platensis is gaining commercial interest due to its nutrition and healthcare value. In this study, the light intensity and initial biomass concentration were manipulated to improve cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis in batch cultivation. The results show that low light intensity and high initial biomass concentration led to increased C-phycocyanin accumulation. The best C-phycocyanin productivity occurred when light intensity and initial biomass concentration were 300μmol/m(2)/s and 0.24g/L, respectively. The fed-batch cultivation proved to be an effective strategy to further enhance C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis. The results indicate that C-phycocyanin accumulation not only requires nitrogen-sufficient condition, but also needs other nutrients. The highest C-phycocyanin content (16.1%), production (1034mg/L) and productivity (94.8mg/L/d) were obtained when using fed-batch strategy with 5mM medium feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sommella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  5. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Conte, Giulio Maria; Salviati, Emanuela; Pepe, Giacomo; Bertamino, Alessia; Ostacolo, Carmine; Sansone, Francesca; Prete, Francesco Del; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Campiglia, Pietro

    2018-05-11

    Arthrospira platensis , better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS) and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min) and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm) tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  6. Capacidade antioxidante da microalga Spirulina platensis em células da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae submetidas ao estressor paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Guarienti, Cíntia; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Em virtude de várias publicações terem mostrado a alta associação entre a geração de radicais livres e as doenças crônico-degenerativas, tem havido grande interesse por alimentos funcionais antioxidantes. O excesso de espécies reativas no organismo resulta em estresse oxidativo que provoca danos celulares e teciduais. A microalga Spirulina tem sido pesquisada em função de suas propriedades nutricionais e antioxidantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar a atividade antioxidante da mi...

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis Assisted by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agregán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW and total phenolic compounds (TPC (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE/100 g DW yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be

  8. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  10. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  11. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  12. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  13. GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis IN A TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR USING AMMONIUM NITRATE AS THE NITROGEN SOURCE IN A FED-BATCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNH4NO3 simultaneously provides a readily assimilable nitrogen source (ammonia and a reserve of nitrogen (nitrate, allowing for an increase in Arthrospira platensis biomass production while reducing the cost of the cultivation medium. In this study, a 22plus star central composite experimental design combined with response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of light intensity (I and the total amount of added NH4NO3 (Mt on a bench-scale tubular photobioreactor for fed-batch cultures. The maximum cell concentration (Xm, cell productivity (PX and biomass yield on nitrogen (YX/N were evaluated, as were the protein and lipid contents. Under optimized conditions (I = 148 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 9.7 mM NH4NO3, Xm = 4710 ±34.4 mg·L-1, PX = 478.9 ±3.8 mg·L-1·d-1 and YX/N = 15.87 ±0.13 mg·mg-1 were obtained. The best conditions for protein content in the biomass (63.2% were not the same as those that maximized cell growth (I = 180 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 22.5 mM NH4NO3. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that ammonium nitrate is an interesting alternate nitrogen source for the cultivation of A. platensisin a fed-batch process and could be used for other photosynthetic microorganisms.

  14. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Análisis microscópico de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1996-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophytu), expendidas en el mercado como suplementos dietéticos y adelgazantes. Fueron observadas al microscopio fotónico y al microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), previo tratamiento por "freeze drying". Los resultados indican que todas contienen Spirulina platensis. En algunas de ellas esta especie se presenta pura, mientras que en otras se halla mezclada con otras Cyanophyta (Oscillatoria y Phormidium) debido probablemente...

  16. İki Farklı Spirulina platensis Suşunun Büyüme Özelliklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenker Kılıç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikroalgal biyoteknoloji kapsamında sıklıkla kullanılan türlerden Spirulina platensis’in üretimi son yıllarda ülkemizde de başarıyla gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, düz ve spiral formda olan iki farklı Spirulina suşunun büyüme karakteristikleri incelendi. Ayrıca, klorofil ve kuru ağırlık ölçümlerinde pratiklik sağlayacak spektrofotometrik ölçümler çalışıldı. Deneme süresince, hücre sayıları haricinde tüm parametrelerin birbirine benzerlik gösterdiği saptandı. Denemenin başında spiral/düz form oranı 2.43 iken bu oran deneme sonunda 5.53’e yükseldi. Spektrofotometrik ölçümler, kültürlerde büyümenin izlenmesinde pratiklik sağlaması bakımından önemlidir. Bu kapsamda, 680 nm’de ölçülen absorbans değeri ile kuru ağırlık ve klorofil a miktarları arasında önemli bir ilişki olduğu saptandı (p

  17. Phycocyanin extraction in Spirulina produced using agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, N.; Religia, P.; Mulyani, G.; Suryana, D.; Ichsan; Tanjung, F. A.; Arifin, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex synthesized by blue-green microalgae such as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. This pigment is used mainly as natural colouring in food industry. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of this natural pigment. The price of phycocyanin is a vital factor that dictates its marketability. The cost of culturing the algae, particularly from the substrate used for growth, is one of the main factors that determine the price of phycocyanin. Another important factor is the growth yield of the algae. In our research, agricultural waste such as charcoal produced from rice husk was utilized for the algae cultivation to replace the synthetic chemicals such as urea and triple superphosphate used the mineral medium. The use of this low cost substrate increases the cell concentration by 60 % during 8 days’ cultivation to reach 0.39 g/l. The phycocyanin extraction was performed using water at the different biomass-to-solvent ratio and shaking rates. The phycocyanin concentration and purity (A615/A280) obtained were 1.2 g/l and 0.3. These values are 40 % and 20 % lower than the value obtained from the algae produced using the synthetic chemicals. Further purification produced the extract purity required for food grade. The biomass-solvent ratio does not significantly affect the extract purity; however, the higher shaking rate during extraction reduces the purity. This finding demonstrates the potential of using rice husk as an alternative substrate to cultivate algae for phycocyanin extraction.

  18. Acoustic, electrochemical and microscopic characterization of interaction of Arthrospira platensis biofilm and heavy metal ions

    OpenAIRE

    Tekaya , Nadèje; Gammoudi , Ibtissèm; Braiek , Mohamed; Tarbague , Hakim; Morote , Fabien; Raimbault , Vincent; Sakly , Nawfel; Rebière , Dominique; Ben Ouada , Hatem; Lagarde , Florence; Ben Ouada , Hafedh; Cohen-Bouhacina , Touria; Déjous , Corinne; Jaffrezic-Renault , Nicole

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study examines a biofilm of Arthrospira platensis and its interactions with cadmium and mercury, using electrochemical admittance spectroscopy technique combined with highly sensitive Love wave platform for the real-time detection in liquid medium. Spirulina cells were immobilized via multilayers of polyelectrolyte (PEM) on Si/SiO2 surface of both transducers and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cell images reve...

  19. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina®, a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Balachandran, Premalatha; Christensen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Immulina®, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a potent activator of THP-1 monocytes and CD4+ T cells IN VITRO and enhances several immunological functions in mice. We further characterized Immulina® by determining that Braun-type lipoproteins are responsible for a major...

  20. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A(H1N1) virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that Immulina, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is a potent activator of innate immune cells and that Braun-type lipoproteins (a principal toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand) are the main active components within this product. In the present study, ...

  1. Evaluation of the cosmetic potential of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Alessandra Cristine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Toiletry, Perfumery and Cosmetics Sector (TPCS) occupies a prominent place in modern society. The search for beauty and wellness, combined with increased life expectancy of the population, causes the intensive search to products that improve appearance, hygiene and health. Thus, the development of cosmetics is very stimulated. Another important feature is the continuously pressure from consumers and companies to this development of new and innovative products, raising competitivenes...

  2. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... consumption of carbohydrates for respiration and this resulted in a decrease ... crease of cell took place in the type II nutrition due to the rates of urea and .... the best cellular increase and the best protein ratio. In this case, we ...

  3. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  4. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  5. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with Recovered Phosphorus from Wastewater by Means of Zeolite Sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Depraetere, Orily; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P) source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15–1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%–20% (control). Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control. PMID:25690037

  6. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with Recovered Phosphorus from Wastewater by Means of Zeolite Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Markou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15–1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%–20% (control. Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control.

  7. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  8. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  9. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  10. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  11. Changes of the delayed fluorescence characteristics in Spirulina, Anabaena and Chlorella in response to chromatic adaptation and irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znak, N.Y.; Morgun, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiency of the energy transformation for CO2 fixation (E), and kinetics of the initial O-2-mediated electron transport of Spirulina platensis (Gem. ) Geitl, and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells were measured after adaptation to various growth irradiances (I) by means of the delayed fluorescence (DF) induction curves. Maxima of the membrane potential expenses during induction period were observed at I half saturating oxygen evolution; they were shifted according to growth I remaining higher in Spirulina than in Chlorella. The alterations of absorbance and fluorescence spectra at 25 degrees C after adaptation to I demonstrated changes in composition of pigments of algae, created to compensate for the imbalance in radiation absorption between the two photosystems. For Spirulina cells, the value of E was higher after growing under low I, or under blue radiation absorbed mainly by photosystem (PS) 1 (400-500 nm) with excitation by yellow (570 nm) radiation. For Chlorella cells, it was also higher after growing under low I. Under such conditions the half-rise time for DP-phase of DF induction curve decreased, which reflected an acceleration of kinetics of the initial electron transport between photosystems. An opposite situation was observed with Spirulina cells grown under high I or yellow radiation, and Chlorella cells from high I. Enhancement of effective PS2/PS1 ratio associated with decrease of reaction centre (RC) 2/RC1 stoichiometry may because of the increase of E and high membrane energization under saturating I in algae adapted to low I

  12. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  13. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen-Haur Hwang

    Full Text Available Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC, the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.

  14. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  15. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  16. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  17. Construction of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 and Metabolic Design for Cyanobacterial Bioproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yoshikawa

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis is a promising feedstock and host strain for bioproduction because of its high accumulation of glycogen and superior characteristics for industrial production. Metabolic simulation using a genome-scale metabolic model and flux balance analysis is a powerful method that can be used to design metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of target molecule production. In this study, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of A. platensis NIES-39 including 746 metabolic reactions and 673 metabolites, and developed novel strategies to improve the production of valuable metabolites, such as glycogen and ethanol. The simulation results obtained using the metabolic model showed high consistency with experimental results for growth rates under several trophic conditions and growth capabilities on various organic substrates. The metabolic model was further applied to design a metabolic network to improve the autotrophic production of glycogen and ethanol. Decreased flux of reactions related to the TCA cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate reaction were found to improve glycogen production. Furthermore, in silico knockout simulation indicated that deletion of genes related to the respiratory chain, such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c oxidase, could enhance ethanol production by using ammonium as a nitrogen source.

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity assessment on alcoholic extract of cyanobacteria cultures from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran Jagadeesh J, Jaiganesh K, Somasundaram G

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant supplementation such as vitamin C, E, A and beta carotene etc, has proven to prevent the process of ageing caused by free radicals. Antioxidants either prevent free radical production or counteract the impeding damage by doing so they are involved in the protection and prevention of cellular damage which is the common pathway for cancer, aging and much disease. The cyanobacteria is a blue green micro algae believed to be a rich antioxidant source, found in abundance in Spiruli...

  19. Photodynamic effect and mechanism study of selenium-enriched phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis against liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Fu, Xiang; Huang, Wei; Li, Chunxia; Wang, Xinyan; Huang, Bei

    2018-03-01

    Selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) has been proved to have many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects of Se-PC against liver tumour in vitro and in vivo experiment. Our results demonstrated that the half lethal dose of Se-PC PDT on HepG2 cells was 100μg/ml PC containing 20% selenium. Se-PC location migration from lysosomes to mitochondria was time dependent. In in vivo experiments, the tumour inhibition rate was 75.4% in the Se-PC PDT group, compared to 52.6% in PC PDT group. Histological observations revealed that the tumour cells outside the tissue showed cellular necrosis, and those inside the tissue exhibited apoptotic nuclei and digested vacuoles in the cytoplasm after Se-PC PDT treatment. Antioxidant enzyme analysis indicated that GSH-Px activity was linked to the selenium content of Se-PC, and SOD activity was affected by PC PDT. Therefore, Se-PC PDT could induce cell death through free radical production of PDT in tumours and enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes with selenium in vivo. The mechanism of Se-PC PDT against liver tumour involves hematocyte damage and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis accompanied with autophagy inhibition during early stage of tumour development, which displayed new prospect and offered relatively safe way for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C). Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS) yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars) with higher rates, while...... the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used...

  1. First description of a cyanophage infecting the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacquet, S.; Zhong, X.; Parvathi, A.; Ram, A.S.P.

    Cyanobacteria constitute a versatile group of photosynthetic bacteria of immense commercial and ecological importance. Some species of this group are cultivated and sold as food because of their high nutritional value. This is typically the case...

  2. Kandungan Minyak Botryococcus Braunii, Nannochloropsis sp., dan Spirulina Platensis pada Umur yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Amini

    2011-06-01

    cell density was reached by S. platensiswith 8.46 log cell/mL on day 13, while the highest growth rate was shown by S. platensiswith growth rate (k = 9.40 on day 3. The highest yield of oil was obtained from B. brauniion day 9 which was 14.90%.

  3. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  4. Performance of the mixed LED light quality on the growth and energy efficiency of Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ruixin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2018-06-01

    The effect of mixed light quality with red, blue, and green LED lamps on the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied, so as to lay the theoretical and technical basis for establishing a photo-bioreactor lighting system for application in space. Meanwhile, indexes, like morphology, growth rate, photosynthetic pigment compositions, energy efficiency, and main nutritional components, were measured respectively. The results showed that the blue light combined with red light could decrease the tightness of filament, and the effect of green light was opposite. The combination of blue light or green light with red light induced the filaments to get shorter in length. The 8R2B treatment could promote the growth of Arthrospira platensis significantly, and its dry weight reached 1.36 g L -1 , which was 25.93% higher than the control. What's more, 8R2B treatment had the highest contents of carbohydrate and lipid, while 8R2G was rich in protein. 8R0.5G1.5B had the highest efficiency of biomass production, which was 161.53 mg L -1  kW -1  h -1 . Therefore, the combination of red and blue light is more conducive to the growth of Arthrospira platensis, and a higher biomass production and energy utilization efficiency can be achieved simultaneously under the mixed light quality with the ratio of 8R0.5G1.5B.

  5. Isolation, characterization and localization of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, M.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wijnholds, A.; Stal, L.J.; Hasnain, S.

    2014-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium known for its nutritional value and secondary metabolites. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are an important trait of most cyanobacteria, including A. platensis. Here, we extracted and analysed different fractions of EPS from a locally isolated

  6. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  7. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Possible role of Arthrospira platensis in reversing oxidative stress-mediated liver damage in rats exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Elhady, Walaa M; Elewa, Yaser H A; Abd El-Hameed, Noura E; Ali, Sozan A

    2018-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, particularly metallic elements, mobilized and released into the environment, eventually accumulate in the food chain and thus pose a serious threat to human and animal health. In the present study, the role of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis; SP) as a protector against oxidative stress-mediated liver damage induced by an exposure to lead acetate (LA; as a metallic pollutant) was assessed. To achieve this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw SP for 15 days, before and concurrently with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw LA (6 injections throughout 15 days). As a result, co-administration of SP with LA reduced the amount of lead that accumulated in both blood and liver tissue of the exposed rats and minimized the increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA oxidative damage, and liver enzyme endpoints. In addition, because of SP administration, the levels of depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and total antioxidant capacity in LA-exposed rats improved. Moreover, SP protected the liver tissue against the changes caused by LA exposure and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that SP has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals such as lead. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative Isotope-Dilution High-Resolution-Mass-Spectrometry Analysis of Multiple Intracellular Metabolites in Clostridium autoethanogenum with Uniformly 13C-Labeled Standards Derived from Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Abdelrazig, Salah; Safo, Laudina; Henstra, Anne M; Millat, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P; Barrett, David A

    2018-04-03

    We have investigated the applicability of commercially available lyophilized spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis), a microorganism uniformly labeled with 13 C, as a readily accessible source of multiple 13 C-labeled metabolites suitable as internal standards for the quantitative determination of intracellular bacterial metabolites. Metabolites of interest were analyzed by hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple internal standards obtained from uniformly (U)- 13 C-labeled extracts from spirulina were used to enable isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in the identification and quantification of intracellular metabolites. Extraction of the intracellular metabolites of Clostridium autoethanogenum using 2:1:1 chloroform/methanol/water was found to be the optimal method in comparison with freeze-thaw, homogenization, and sonication methods. The limits of quantification were ≤1 μM with excellent linearity for all of the calibration curves ( R 2 ≥ 0.99) for 74 metabolites. The precision and accuracy were found to be within relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 15% for 49 of the metabolites and within RSDs of 20% for all of the metabolites. The method was applied to study the effects of feeding different levels of carbon monoxide (as a carbon source) on the central metabolism and Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of C. autoethanogenum grown in continuous culture over 35 days. Using LC-IDMS with U- 13 C spirulina allowed the successful quantification of 52 metabolites in the samples, including amino acids, carboxylic acids, sugar phosphates, purines, and pyrimidines. The method provided absolute quantitative data on intracellular metabolites that was suitable for computational modeling to understand and optimize the C. autoethanogenum metabolic pathways active in gas fermentation.

  10. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  12. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  13. Acute phase and transport protein synthesis in simulated infection in undernourished men using uniformly labelled Spirulina Platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeds, P.J.; Opekun, A.; Jahoor, F.; Wong, W.W.; Klein, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that injury and infection lead to body nitrogen loss, the reason has remained obscure. In this paper, we develop the argument that the processes that are activated during infection demand the provision of specific amino acids which have to be supplied from body protein. In particular, we show that the positive acute phase proteins are very rich in the aromatic amino acids and the exaggerated use of these amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) in acute phase protein synthesis lead to an endogenous ''amino acid imbalance'' which restricts the use of other amino acids for tissue protein synthesis. Minimally invasive protocols, involving the administration of 15 N and 13 C-labelled amino acids for studying whole body nitrogen turnover, amino acid oxidation and plasma protein synthesis are described. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  14. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tianfeng; Yang,Fang; Wong,Ka-Hing; Yang,Yufeng; Li,Xiaoling; Jiang,Jie; Wu,Hualian; Zheng,Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Fang Yang,1 Ka-Hing Wong,2 Yufeng Yang,3 Xiaoling Li,1 Jie Jiang,1 Wenjie Zheng,1 Hualian Wu,1 Tianfeng Chen1 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Hydrobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tellu...

  15. Biomass composition of Arthrospira platensis during cultivation on industrial process water and harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubic, Anita; Safafar, Hamed; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    2018-01-01

    by optical microscopy showed that microfiltration caused cell rupture at the moderate level while centrifugation had more severe effect on A. platensis. Effect of centrifugal forces and shear stress on A. platensis cells was confirmed by detecting lower lipid content in samples after applying both...... microfiltration and centrifugation due to cell content leakage....

  16. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  17. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  18. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  19. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  20. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  1. The radioactivity of spirulina and its heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantariandraintsoa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is one of the three classes of algae that have the ability to accumulate contaminants from the environment in which they live. The main aim of this work is to study the radioactive contamination of Spirulina using gamma spectrometry and to determine its content of heavy elements using the technique of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Use of detector and Gamma Vision software, in the laboratory of nuclear analysis of the I nstitut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires -Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar), allowed us to find some amount of radioactive elements such as potassium, lead, thallium and bismuth. The elements found in the laboratory of X-ray fluorescence analysis, of the same institute, using the conventional method along with the XRF AXIL software are calcium, iron, magnesium, bromine, rubidium and strontium as well as heavy elements zinc and copper. Spirulina is rich in potassium, its activity is 98±56 Bq.Kg -1 and the average concentration of the radioactive element is 16.2 g.Kg -1 . Analysis results leads us to say that it is best to consume spirulina from well secured against pollution (greenhouse) culture and we can say that we need to improve crops in natural environments. [fr

  2. Characterization of phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Darojatun, K.; Gumilar, G. G.; Aisyah, S.; Wulandari, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Microalgae have some pigments which are potential to be used as functional colorant for foods and cosmetics industries. Here, Spirulina fusiformis is one of the major sources of a blue pigment phycocyanin which has commercial and biotechnological value for biomedical research, as well as a natural colorant for food and cosmetic industries. This study aims at investigating the characteristic of isolated C-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its stability under different temperature. A food grade phycocyanin with purity of 2.0 (A620/A280) was obtained successfully from Spirulina fusiformis cultured in seawater-based modified medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. No significant changes were observed in the spectrum absorbance of C-phycocyanin at temperature up to 60°C over 30 minutes of incubation, and was observed to significantly denaturation at 70°C and higher temperature. Incubation of the pigment at relatively high temperature resulted in a decrease in the spectrum intensities of the C-phycocyanin in a temperature-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that the optimal condition for preserving the stability of food grade phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina fusiformis is taking it at low temperature.

  3. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Birot, Raphaëlle; Jouvencel, Diane de; Raginel, Laetitia; Rouillé, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  4. Antiviral activity of exopolysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis against koi herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, M; Bergmann, S M; Hwang, J; Buchholz, R; Lindenberger, C

    2017-10-01

    Although koi herpesvirus (KHV) has a history of causing severe economic losses in common carp and koi farms, there are still no treatments available on the market. Thus, the aim of this study was to test exopolysaccharides (EPS) for its antiviral activity against KHV, by monitoring inhibition and cytotoxic effects in common carp brain cells. These substances can be easily extracted from extracellular algae supernatant and were identified as groups of sulphated polysaccharides. In order to reach this aim, Arthrospira platensis, which is well known for its antiviral activity of intra- and extracellular compounds towards mammalian herpesviruses, was investigated as standard organism and compared to commercial antiviral drug, ganciclovir, which inhibits the viral DNA polymerization. The antiviral activity of polysaccharides of A. platensis against KHV was confirmed in vitro using qualitative assessment of KHV life cycle genes, and it was found by RT-PCR that EPS, applied at a concentration of >18 μg mL -1 and a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.45 of KHV, suppressed the viral replication in common carp brain (CCB) cells even after 22 days post-infection, entirely. Further, this study presents first data indicating an enormous potential using polysaccharides as an additive for aquacultures to lower or hinder the spread of the KHV and koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nitrogen limitation in natural populations of cyanobacteria (Spirulina and Oscillatoria spp.) and its effect on macromolecular synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; Shilo, M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural populations of the cyanobacteria Spirulina species and Oscillatoria species obtained from Israeli fish ponds were limited in growth by nitrogen availability in summer. Physiological indicators for nitrogen limitation, such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carbohydrate content, did not show clear evidence for nitrogen limited growth, since these organisms are capable of vertical migration from and to the nitrogen-rich bottom. By means of 14 C labeling of the cells under simulated pond conditions followed by cell fractionation into macromolecular compounds, it was found that carbohydrates synthesized at the lighted surface were partially utilized for dark protein synthesis at the bottom of these ponds

  6. A lithium-sensitive and sodium-tolerant 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase encoded by halA from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is closely related to its counterparts from yeasts and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yuan; Zou, Jie; Bao, Qiyu; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to the PAPases of yeasts and plants, was identified from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Phylogenic analysis indicated that proteins related to PAPases from several cyanobacteria were found in different clades, suggesting multiple origins of PAPases in cyanobacteria. The HalA polypeptide from A. platensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and used for the characterization of its biochemical properties. HalA was dependent on Mg2+ for its activity and could use PAP or 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as a substrate. HalA is sensitive to Li+ (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.6 mM) but only slightly sensitive to Na+ (IC50 = 600 mM). The salt sensitivity of HalA was thus different from that of most of its eukaryotic counterparts, which are much more sensitive to both Li+ and Na+, but was comparable to the PAPase AtAHL (Hal2p-like protein) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The properties of HalA could help us to understand the structure-function relationship underlying the salt sensitivity of PAPases. The expression of halA improved the Li+ tolerance of E. coli, suggesting that the sulfur-assimilating pathway is a likely target of salt toxicity in bacteria as well.

  7. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  8. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ambrosi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Arthrospira platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Arthrospira platensis 名詞 一般 * * *... * スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Arthrospira platensis

  10. Production of the α and β Subunits of Spirulina Allophycocyanin and C-Phycocyanin in Escherichia coli : A Comparative Study of Their Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdkiatikul, Thiti; Suwanwong, Yaneenart

    2014-07-01

    Allophycocyanin and c-phycocyanin have been reported to be potent antioxidants. In this work, the genes encoding the apo-proteins of allophycocyanin α (ApcA), allophycocyanin β (ApcB), c-phycocyanin α (CpcA), and c-phycocyanin β (CpcB) from Spirulina platensis were cloned, and the recombinant proteins were produced in Escherichia coli to study their antioxidant effects. All four recombinant phycocyanins could be produced in the soluble form and purified to more than 97% purity. The results of radical scavenging assays showed that the Trolox equivalent values for peroxyl radical scavenging by the ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, and CpcB proteins were 1.81 ± 0.2 µM, 1.98 ± 0.22 µM, 0.95 ± 0.15 µM, and 1.49 ± 0.15 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for hydroxyl radical scavenging of ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, CpcB, and Trolox were 269 ± 9 µg/mL, 190 ± 5 µg/mL, 129 ± 8 µg/mL, 108 ± 4 µg/mL, and 195 ± 12 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicated that allophycocyanin exhibited higher activity than c-phycocyanin in scavenging peroxyl radicals, whereas c-phycocyanin exhibited higher activity than allophycocyanin in scavenging hydroxyl radicals. All of the apo-phycocyanin subunits possessed strong antioxidant activities and can be further developed and applied to the food and drug industries. However, the selection of the most useful antioxidant should depend on the type of targeted free radical to obtain the highest efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Phosphonate degradation by Spirulina strains: cyanobacterial biofilters for the removal of anticorrosive polyphosphonates from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Prearo, Valentina; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2011-03-07

    The ability of Spirulina spp. to metabolize the recalcitrant xenobiotic Dequest 2054(®) [hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid)], a CaSO(4) inhibitor used for boiler treatment and reverse osmosis desalination, was investigated. The compound served as sole source of phosphorus, but not of nitrogen, for cyanobacterial growth. In vivo utilization was followed by (31)P NMR analysis. The disappearance of the polyphosphonate proceeded only with actively dividing cells, and no release of inorganic phosphate was evident. However, no difference was found between P-starved and P-fed cultures. Maximal utilization reached 1.0 ± 0.2 mmoll(-1), corresponding to 0.56 ± 0.11 mmol g(-1) dry biomass, thus residual amounts were still present in the exhausted medium when the compound was supplied at higher initial concentrations. At low substrate levels metabolism rates were lower, suggesting that a concentration-driven uptake may represent a limiting step during the biodegradation process. The compound was not retained by biocolumns made with immobilized cyanobacterial cells, either alive or dead. A lab-scale pilot plant, consisting of a series of sequentially connected vessels containing an actively proliferating algal culture, was built and tested for wastewater treatment. Results showed 50% removal of the polyphosphonate added to an initial concentration of 2.5mM. Although further optimization will be required, data strengthen the possibility of using cyanobacterial strains for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  13. Proteome-wide analysis and diel proteomic profiling of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Matallana-Surget

    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation.

  14. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  15. Use of rotifers for the maintenance of monoalgal mass cultures of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Richmond, A.

    1987-01-01

    Zooplankton was successfully used for the biological control of unicellular algal contaminants in Spirulina mass cultures even under conditions adverse to the growth of Spirulina (maximal winter daily temperature of approximately 10 degrees C and very low bicarbonate concentration). Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) was the most successful species of zooplankton used. The interrelationships between Spirulina, green unicellular contaminant, and B. plicatilis were studied under various conditions. Two species of unicellular contaminant were used; Monoraphidium minutum was isolated from local cultures and Chlorella vulgaris, obtained from contaminated Spirulina cultures in Israel. The rotifer B. plicatilis successfully controlled the population size of both contaminants whether they were introduced in a single addition or as a daily dose. The biological control of the unicellular contaminants allows Spirulina to be cultured in a medium low in bicarbonate, thereby reducing the cost of the medium and increasing the quantity of CO2 that may be freely absorbed from the atmosphere at the optimal pH for Spirulina cultivation. (Refs. 9).

  16. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  17. Isolation and characterization of oxygen-evolving photosystem II particles and photosystem II core complex from the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šetlíková, Eva; Sofrová, D.; Kovář, V.; Budáč, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2013), s. 517-530 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1683; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : antibodies * fluorescence spectra * IMAC chromatography Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.007, year: 2013

  18. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  19. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  20. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [es

  1. Nutritional comparison of Spirulina sp powder by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Amalia, U.

    2018-01-01

    The Spirulina sp powder contains high levels of protein and Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) improved protein level. The aims of the study was to find the proximate contents in Spirulina sp’s powder fermentation. The experiments were conducted by SSF of Spirulina sp’s powder using fungi Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127). SSF was carried out for 10 days at 35% moisture level. The protein contents of Spirulina sp’s powder fermented by L. plantarum were consistently lower (p fermentation. The Spirulina sp fermented products contained the highest level of protein after 6 days.

  2. Consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis is associated with reduction of chronic pain: results from two human clinical pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Victoria L Attridge,1 Steve G Carter,1 Jesse Guthrie,2 Axel Ehmann,2 Kathleen F Benson1 1NIS Labs, 2Cerule LLC, Klamath Falls, OR, USA Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE from Arthrospira platensis on chronic pain in humans, in two clinical pilot studies. Design and interventions: The two pilot studies each involved 12 subjects experiencing chronic pain. The initial study followed an open-label 4-week study design involving consumption of 1 g ACE per day. A subsequent placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover study involved consumption of 500 mg ACE, 250 mg ACE, or 0 mg ACE (placebo per day for 1-week duration, separated by 1-week washout period. Subjects: Adult subjects of both sexes, with chronic joint-related pain for at least 6 months prior to enrollment, were recruited after obtaining written informed consent. Outcome measures: Visual analog scales were used to score pain at rest and during physical activity for each person's primary and secondary areas of chronic pain. An activities of daily living questionnaire was used to collect data on physical functioning. Results: The data showed rapid reduction of chronic pain in people consuming ACE, where the reduction in pain scores for each person's primary pain area reached a high level of statistical significance after 2 weeks of consumption (P<0.01, both when at rest and when being physically active. Secondary pain areas when physically active showed highly significant improvements within 1 week of consumption of 1 g/d (P<0.001 and borderline significant improvements within 1 week of consuming 500 mg/d (P<0.065 and 250 mg/d (P<0.05. This was accompanied by an increased ability to perform daily activities (P<0.05. A small but significant weight loss was observed during the 4-week study, as the average body mass index dropped from 31.4 to 29.4 (P<0.01. Conclusion: Consumption of ACE was associated

  3. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-08-31

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  4. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  5. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  6. Effect of humic acids on the growth and the biochemical composition of Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massiel Vanessa Rivera Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of humic acids (HA 1, 10, 100 mg/L against a concentration of indole acetic acid (IAA on production of biomass, pigments, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids of A. platensis.  Cultures discontinuous in Zarrouk 25% medium supplemented with HA and IAA under conditions of aeration constant and photoperiod from 12:12 hours, during 30 days were made. It was found that the maximum biomass production was higher in the culture supplemented with 10 mg / L of AH, compared to the control and cultures supplemented with AIA. In the same way the highest production of pigments, proteins and carbohydrates were observed in this treatment. Therefore, the growth and production of metabolites of A. platensis was increased, which makes it possible to observe the potential use of these substances as organic biological stimulants.

  7. Nutritional control of antibiotic production by Streptomyces platensis MA7327: importance of L-aspartic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Falzone, Maria; Crespo, Emmanuel; Jones, Klarissa; Khan, Gulaba; Korn, Victoria L; Patel, Amreen; Patel, Mira; Patel, Krishnaben; Perkins, Carrie; Siddiqui, Sana; Stenger, Drew; Yu, Eileen; Gelber, Michael; Scheffler, Robert; Nayda, Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces platensis MA7327 is a bacterium producing interesting antibiotics, which act by the novel mechanism of inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis. The antibiotics produced by this actinomycete are platensimycin and platencin plus some minor related antibiotics. Platensimycin and platencin have activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; they also lack toxicity in animal models. Platensimycin als...

  8. Deodorization of Arthrospira platensis biomass for further scale-up food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Barba-Davila, Bertha; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, José; Morales-Davila, Sandra; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Chuck-Hernández, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Given the importance of A. platensis as a potential food protein source, we describe an affordable deodorization process that does not significantly affect the nutritional value of algae biomass. Ethanol, acetone or hexane were used to deodorize algae biomass and then to identify the profile of volatile compounds associated with its distinctive odor. Sensorial characteristics were improved in the biomass cake after the proposed solvent extraction. Panelists identified the ethanolic extract with the most pronounced algae-related odor. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that a mixture of 20 different compounds derived from fatty acids and amino acids contributed to the characteristic smell of A. platensis biomass. The results of the present study show that the ethanol solvent-free A. platensis biomass contained > 600 g kg -1 protein,  65% in vitro protein digestibility, similar to the original biomass. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy secondary protein structure was comparable among samples, indicating that the only change after ethanol extraction was a reduction of the algae smell. The various extraction procedures investigated in the present study were effective in deodorizing the algae biomass. The most effective protocol was the removal of odoriferous compounds with ethanol. This particular procedure yielded an algae biomass with an improved sensorial traits. The results of the present study should help with the identification of odoriferous compounds derived from fatty acids, pigments and proteins associated with A. platensis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  10. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  11. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  13. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M. Neyrinck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

  14. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  15. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  16. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  17. C-phycocyanin extraction assisted by pulsed electric field from Artrosphira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Manuel; Luengo, Elisa; Saldaña, Guillermo; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2017-09-01

    This paper assesses the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to the fresh biomass of Artrhospira platensis in order to enhance the extraction of C-phycocyanin into aqueous media. Electroporation of A. platensis depended on both electric field strength and treatment duration. The minimum electric field intensity for detecting C-phycocyanin in the extraction medium was 15kV/cm after the application of a treatment time 150μs (50 pulses of 3μs). However higher electric field strength were required when shorter treatment times were applied. Response surface methodology was used in order to investigate the influence of electric field strength (15-25kV/cm), treatment time (60-150μs), and temperature of application of PEF (10-40°C) on C-phycocyanin extraction yield (PEY). The increment of the temperature PEF treatment reduced the electric field strength and the treatment time required to obtain a given PEY and, consequently decreased the total specific energy delivered by the treatment. For example, the increment of temperature from 10°C to 40°C permitted to reduce the electric field strength required to extract 100mg/g d w of C-phycocyanin from 25 to 18kV/cm, and the specific energy input from 106.7 to 67.5kJ/Kg. Results obtained in this investigation demonstrated PEF's potential for selectively extraction C-phycocyanin from fresh A. platensis biomass. The purity of the C-phycocyanin extract obtained from the electroporated cells was higher than that obtained using other techniques based on the cell complete destruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-01-01

    : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure bu...

  19. Antioxidative effect of Arthrospira platensis biomass on the lipid oxidation| Efeito antioxidante da biomassa de Arthrospira platensis sobre a oxidação lipídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Meireles de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyanobacteria are promising natural sources of antioxidants. Environmental conditions that influence synthesis of substances in cultures of cyanobacteria have been studied. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the antioxidative effect of Arthrospira platensis biomass on the process of lipid oxidation in bulk oil and oil/water emulsion. Method: Arthrospira platensis growth potential for antioxidant production under different cultivation conditions using an experimental design. The antioxidative effect of the methanolic extracts and the biomass on preventing lipid oxidation was measured by peroxide value (PV. Results: The results showed that the growing conditions to obtain the biomass promoted change in the protective ability of different biomass extracts. Extracts obtained from the cultivated biomass grown under 150 μmol photons/m2s-1, 1.875 g.L-1 NaNO3; 13.5 g.L-1 NaHCO3 (assay14 and 50 μmol photons/m2s-1, 2.5 g.L-1 NaNO3; 18.0 g.L-1 NaHCO3 (standard showed the most antioxidative effect on preventing lipid oxidation, therefore used in the formulation of mayonnaise. The mayonnaise made with soybean oil and 0.5% biomass was preserved against lipid photodegradation during seven days of storage, but the peroxide value related to control varied from 2.9 to 3.1 mEqO2.Kg-1, with no significant difference in the preservation afforded by tert-butilhydroquinone, in the same period of storage. In mayonnaise made with sunflower oil, biomass, independent of concentration, was unable to protect the product against photooxidation. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the protective ability on preventing lipid oxidation of Arthrospira platensis biomass and its potential for use in food lipid-based of soybean oil. ============================================== Introdução: Cianobactérias são promissoras fontes naturais de antioxidantes. Condições ambientais que influenciam síntese de substâncias em cultivos de cianobact

  20. New evidences on the presence of Stegomastodon platensis Ameghino, 1888, Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae, in the Late Pleistocene of Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarca, R.; Alberdi, M.T.; Prado, J.L.; Mansilla, P.; Mourgues, F.A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper contextualizes, describes and taxonomically assigned cranial and dental Gomphotheriidae materials from the El Trebal 1, late Pleistocene form central Chile. Starting from metric and morphological variables fossils are included in Stegomastodon platensis. Taxonomic implications of this finding as well as some regional paleoenvironmental history are discussed. (Author)

  1. Bacterias halotolerantes/alcalofilas productoras de acido indol acético (AIA asociadas a Arthrospira platensis (Cyanophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cecilia Gómez Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Halotolerant alkalophilic and indolacetic acid producing acid producing bacteria associated with Arthrospira platensis (Cyanophyceae Resumen: Este trabajo tuvo como propósito contribuir al conocimiento de la interacción entre la cianobacteria alcalófila Arthrospira platensis y las bacterias que crecen asociadas a su mucilago. Se desarrolló un  medio de cultivo heterotrófico en el cual se aislaron cinco cepas bacterianas asociadas a un monocultivo de A. platensis. Se determinó la capacidad de estas cinco cepas para producir ácido 3- indol acético (AIA. La tipificación molecular de los aislamientos bacterianos permitió identificarlos como Exiguobacterium aurantiacum str. DSM 20416, Xanthomonas sp. ML-122, Halomonas sp. Ap-5, Bacillus okhensis str.  Kh10-101, Indibacter alkaliphilus, type str. LW1T; todas las cepas bacterianas obtenidas  son halotolerantes, alcalófilas y productoras de AIA. Los resultados aportan evidencia para sugerir una interacción benéfica entre A. platensis y sus bacterias asociadas,  quizá como estrategia evolutiva  de cooperación para desarrollarse en  un ambiente hipersalino.    Palabras claves: Bacillus okhensis, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, Halomonas sp., Indibacter alkaliphilus. Xanthomonas sp. Abstract: The aim of this study was contribute to knowledge over alkalophilic cianobacteryum  Arthrospira platensis  and their  interaction with some associated bacteria growing in their mucilage. Heterotrophic culture medium was designed, in this medium were isolated five bacterial strains associated to single culture of A. platensis. It was measured the 3-indol acetic acid (IAA production by these bacterial strains. Molecular typing allowed identify these bacterial strains like Exiguobacterium aurantiacum str. DSM 20416, Xanthomonas sp. ML-122, Halomonas sp. Ap-5, Bacillus okhensis str. Kh10-101, Indibacter alkaliphilus, type str. LW1T; all these bacteria are halotolerant

  2. Isolation and antibacterial activity of anabaena phycocyanin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... (Yoshida et al., 1996) due to their antioxidant and anti- inflammatory ... studies indicated that phycocyanin from spirulina have obvious curative effect on .... phycocyanin from spirulina platensis using expanded bed adsorption.

  3. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima . The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % ( P  maxima -is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements.

  4. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  5. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  6. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

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    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  7. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  9. Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  10. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  11. Experimental and modelling of Arthrospira platensis cultivation in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Amal, J C; Savithri, S; Haridas, Ajith

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied in an open raceway pond. Furthermore, dynamic model for algae growth and CFD modelling of hydrodynamics in open raceway pond were developed. The dynamic behaviour of the algal system was developed by solving mass balance equations of various components, considering light intensity and gas-liquid mass transfer. A CFD modelling of the hydrodynamics of open raceway pond was developed by solving mass and momentum balance equations of the liquid medium. The prediction of algae concentration from the dynamic model was compared with the experimental data. The hydrodynamic behaviour of the open raceway pond was compared with the literature data for model validation. The model predictions match the experimental findings. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic behaviour and residence time distribution in our small raceway pond were predicted. These models can serve as a tool to assess the pond performance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  13. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  14. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  15. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  16. Inspiration fuels space research in Congo. Combating malnutrition with Spirulina, the green protein source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Congo, around 43% of all children under the age of five suffer from chronic malnutrition. The result is a high infant mortality rate./ Researchers from the Belgian Nuclear research Center SCK•CEN started working on the cultivation of spirulina, a type of algae rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for combating chronic malnutrition in children. This Inspiration project is the first in a series and signals the ambition of SCK•CEN to contribute towards a balanced and sustainable world.

  17. The effects of nitrogen deficiencies on the lipid and protein contents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen deficiencies were studied in Spirulina platensis (Cyanophyceae) with the aim of determining the effects of the 50 and 100% deficient nitrogen on the lipid and protein contents of the cell under laboratory conditions. S. platensis cultures were grown in Spirulina medium and kept at the constant room temperature of ...

  18. Studies on the water quality and biota of a tidal eutrophic creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... E.monodon, Navicula gracilis, N. mutica, Ulnariaulna, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba, Microcystis aeruginosa and Spirulina platensis. Of the 15 mudflat algae Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba and Spirulina platensis were environmentally important species. The population of the benthic fauna was ...

  19. Influence of desalinator wastewater for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis. Fatty acids profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmann, Harriet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a desalination processes in northeastern Brazil is due to the salinity of its water sources. However, these processes produce residues with high saline concentrations and a significant environmental impact. These wastewaters can be used for Arthrospira platensis cultivation. This work aimed to cultivate Arthrospira platensis in three different media: Paoletti Synthetic Medium (PSM, Salinated Water Medium (SWM and Desalinator Wastewater Médium (DWWM. Microalgae were cultivated under controlled conditions, in 4 L photobioreactors, 30±1°C, 12 hours of light/dark photoperiod provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 μmol• m–2•s–1 and constant bubbling of air (0.5 L•L–1 •min–1. The effect of different media on cell concentration, productivity, total content of lipids and fatty acids profile was verified. Higher cell concentration, as well as higher productivity was observed in DWWM: 4.954 (±0.554 g•L–1 and 0.225 (±0.042 g•L–1 •day–1, respectively. Concerning total lipids, the contents of 4.54% and 4.69% were observed in DWWM and SWM, respectively. High levels of saturated fatty acids were observed in both treatments. Concerning γ-linolenic acid, the contents of 13.09% (DWWM and 11.95% (SWM were found.En la región nordeste de Brasil, debido a la elevada salinidad de los acuíferos, existe la necesidad de utilizar procesos de desalación. Sin embargo, estos procesos generan residuos con alta concentración salina, con significativo impacto ambiental. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el cultivo de Arthrospira platensis en tres medios de cultivo diferentes: medio de Paoletti, medio de agua salinizada y medio de agua de desecho obtenida en el proceso de desalación de acuíferos. Las microalgas fueron cultivadas en laboratorio, con condiciones controladas, en fotobiorreactores de 4 L, a 30±1°C y periodos de 12 horas de claridad/oscuridad con iluminación de 140 μmol•m–2•s–1 e

  20. SOILS, FERTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gómez G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibith better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  1. Induction of ovarian growth in Aegla platensis (Crustacea, Aeglidae by means of neuroregulators incorporated to food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V Cahansky

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater crab Aegla platensis was used as a model to induce ovarian growth by adding different neuroregulators to a pellet food formulation. Added compounds were the dopaminergic inhibitor spiperone or the enkephalinergic inhibitor naloxone, both of them at a dose of 10-8 mol/animal. Animals were fed on the enriched pellets twice a week. After 7 wk, the gonadosomatic index (GI was calculated as (gonad fresh weight / body fresh weight x 100. GI significantly increased only for those females fed on spiperone pellets, compared to a control group receiving pellets with no compound added. During the assayed period, spiperone would be reverting the arrest exerted by dopamine on the neuroendocrine stimulation of ovarian growth. On the other hand, for both spiperone and naloxone a higher GI was correlated to a higher lipid content of both gonads and/or hepatopancreas, suggesting an increased energetic demand in accordance with an active investment in reproduction. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1201-1207. Epub 2008 September 30.Se utilizó al anomuro de agua dulce Aegla platensis como modelo para inducir el crecimiento ovárico mediante el agregado de diferentes neuroreguladores a una formulación de alimento pelleteado. Los compuestos agregados fueron el inhibidor dopaminergico spiperona ó el inhibidor encefalinérgico naloxone, ambos a una dosis de 10-8 moles/animal. Los animales fueron alimentados dos veces a la semana con pellets enriquecidos con alguno de los neuroreguladores. Luego de 7 semanas, se calculó el índice gonadomático (IG como (peso gonadal fresco/ peso corporal fresco x 100. El IG mostró un incremento significativamente sólo en aquellas hembras alimentadas con pellets enriquecidos con spiperona, en comparación con un grupo control que recibió pellets sin agregado alguno. Durante el período ensayado, la spiperona estaría revirtiendo el arresto ejercido por la dopamina sobre la estimulación neuroendocrina del crecimiento ov

  2. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  3. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  4. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  5. Development of a chemically defined medium for the production of the antibiotic platensimycin by Streptomyces platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Maria; Martens, Evan; Tynan, Heather; Maggio, Christian; Golden, Samantha; Nayda, Vasyl; Crespo, Emmanuel; Inamine, Gregory; Gelber, Michael; Lemence, Ryan; Chiappini, Nicholas; Friedman, Emily; Shen, Ben; Gullo, Vincent; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-11-01

    The actinomycete Streptomyces platensis produces two compounds that display antibacterial activity: platensimycin and platencin. These compounds were discovered by the Merck Research Laboratories, and a complex insoluble production medium was reported. We have used this medium as our starting point in our studies. In a previous study, we developed a semi-defined production medium, i.e., PM5. In the present studies, by varying the concentration of the components of PM5, we were able to develop a superior semi-defined medium, i.e., PM6, which contains a higher concentration of lactose. Versions of PM6, containing lower concentrations of all components, were also found to be superior to PM5. The new semi-defined production media contain dextrin, lactose, MOPS buffer, and ammonium sulfate in different concentrations. We determined antibiotic production capabilities using agar diffusion assays and chemical assays via thin-layer silica chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. We reduced crude nutrient carryover from the seed medium by washing the cells with distilled water. Using these semi-defined media, we determined that addition of the semi-defined component soluble starch stimulated antibiotic production and that it and dextrin could both be replaced with glucose, resulting in the chemically defined medium, PM7.

  6. Theoretical investigation of biomass productivities achievable in solar rectangular photobioreactors for the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Jeremy; Cornet, J F; Goetz, Vincent; Legrand, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Modeling was done to simulate whole-year running of solar rectangular photobioreactors (PBRs). Introducing the concept of ideal reactor, the maximal biomass productivity that could be achieved on Earth on nitrate as N-source was calculated. Two additional factors were also analyzed with respect to dynamic calculations over the whole year: the effect of PBR location and the effects of given operating conditions on the resulting decrease in productivity compared with the ideal one. Simulations were conducted for the cyanobacterium Arthospira platensis, giving an ideal productivity (upper limit) in the range 55-60 tX ha(-1) year(-1) for a sun tracking system (and around 35-40 tX ha(-1) year(-1) for a fixed horizontal PBR). For an implantation in France (Nantes, west coast), the modification in irradiation conditions resulted in a decrease in biomass productivity of 40%. Various parameters were investigated, with special emphasis on the influence of the incident angle of solar illumination on resulting productivities, affecting both light capture and light transfer inside the bulk culture. It was also found that with appropriate optimization of the residence time as permitted by the model, productivities close to maximal could be achieved for a given location. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  7. Nutritional control of antibiotic production by Streptomyces platensis MA7327: importance of l-aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Maria; Crespo, Emmanuel; Jones, Klarissa; Khan, Gulaba; Korn, Victoria L; Patel, Amreen; Patel, Mira; Patel, Krishnaben; Perkins, Carrie; Siddiqui, Sana; Stenger, Drew; Yu, Eileen; Gelber, Michael; Scheffler, Robert; Nayda, Vasyl; Ravin, Ariela; Komal, Ronica; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Shen, Ben; Gullo, Vincent; Demain, Arnold L

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces platensis MA7327 is a bacterium producing interesting antibiotics, which act by the novel mechanism of inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis. The antibiotics produced by this actinomycete are platensimycin and platencin plus some minor related antibiotics. Platensimycin and platencin have activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; they also lack toxicity in animal models. Platensimycin also has activity against diabetes in a mouse model. We have been interested in studying the effects of primary metabolites on production of these antibiotics in our chemically defined production medium. In the present work, we tested 32 primary metabolites for their effect. They included 20 amino acids, 7 vitamins and 5 nucleic acid derivatives. Of these, only l-aspartic acid showed stimulation of antibiotic production. We conclude that the stimulatory effect of aspartic acid is due to its role as a precursor involved in the biosynthesis of aspartate-4-semialdehyde, which is the starting point for the biosynthesis of the 3-amino-2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid portion of the platensimycin molecule.

  8. Diurnal changes of photosynthesis and growth of Arthrospira platensis cultured in a thin-layer cascade and an open pond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benavides, A.M.S.; Ranglová, Karolína; Malapascua, José R.; Masojídek, Jiří; Torzillo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, DEC (2017), s. 48-56 ISSN 2211-9264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-29 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arthrospira platensis * Pond * Thin-layer cascade Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016

  9. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Walsted, Anette; Larsen, Rune

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus...

  10. PRODUKSI DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI Spirulina fusiformis YANG DIKULTUR DENGAN PENCAHAYAAN MONOKROMATIS LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-06-01

    yang bersumber dari LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah (M, biru (B, dan biru-merah (BM, serta cahaya dari lampu fluoresens sebagai kontrol (K. Puncak kepadatan sel terjadi pada hari ke-18 dengan kepadatan masing-masing sebanyak 5,56 x 104 sel/mL (M; 1,65 x 104 sel/mL (B; 4,15 x 104 sel/mL (BM; dan 4,56 x 104 sel/mL (K. Perlakuan pencahayaan LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah mencapai biomassa panen tertinggi sebesar 3,91 mg/mL dengan kandungan protein 49,77%; lemak 19,61%; karbohidrat 6,15%; serat kasar 0,00%; dan abu 24,48%. Pencahayaan dengan LED merah berpotensi diaplikasikan sebagai sumber cahaya dalam produksi Spirulina.

  11. Characteristic of resistant ionization-radiation and its relationship with polysaccharide contents in spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Xu Bujin

    2001-01-01

    The anti-radiation capacities of intact filaments, no-sheath filaments and cells of 4 kinds of Spiralina strains (Ss-V, Sp-F, Sp-Z and Sp-D) treated by "6"0Co γ-rays were studied. The relationship between polysaccharide contents and anti-radiation capacity of 4 strains were also detected. The results showed that Spirulina is highly resistant toγ-radiation, however there were significant differences with various strains. The order of anti-radiation capacity is Ss-V > Sp-F > Sp-Z > Sp-D. Moreover, the anti-radiation capacity were remarkably related with polysaccharide contents in the 4 strains. This showed that polysaccharide is very important for raising and maintain-ing super anti-radiation capacity in Spiralina. (authors)

  12. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  13. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  14. Influência do consumo de diferentes níveis de Spirulina no desenvolvimento e perfil lipídico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Moreira Chiattoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina é uma cianobactéria que vem sendo produzida e estudada por suas propriedades nutricionais e por seus benefícios à saúde. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a influência de dietas acrescidas de diferentes concentrações de Spirulina sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e o perfil lipídico de ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, alimentados, durante 40 dias, com quatro dietas isoproteicas (10% distintas, sendo seis animais por grupo: 1 Dieta controle (AIN93G adaptada; 2 Dieta S1 (8,8% de Spirulina; 3 Dieta S2 (17,6% de Spirulina; 4 Dieta S3 (26,4% de Spirulina. Foram avaliados parâmetros nutricionais e o perfil lipídico dos animais, cujos dados foram analisados estatisticamente por Análise de Variância, seguida do teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância (p ≤ 0,05. O tratamento com 8,8% de Spirulina mostrou-se equivalente ao controle, apresentando respostas mais adequadas de CEA, medidas de crescimento e lipídios séricos. Já o S2 não foi capaz de promover um bom desenvolvimento corporal, comparado com o do controle, além de elevar os níveis de colesterol total e LDL-c. O tratamento S3 apresentou somente valores estatisticamente diferentes de HDL-c, quando comparado com os do controle (p ≤ 0,05. Conclui-se que, no tempo e condições do estudo, o tratamento S3, único com Spirulina como fonte exclusiva de proteína, foi capaz de substituir a fonte proteica padrão (caseína na dieta para roedores, promovendo o adequado desenvolvimento corporal e lipídico dos animais.

  15. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  16. Determination of antioxidant and chelating activity of protein hydrolysates from spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) obtained by simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Palma, N.; Martínez-Ayala, A.; Dávila-Ortíz, G.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  17. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

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    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  18. Magnetic field action on outdoor and indoor cultures of Spirulina: Evaluation of growth, medium consumption and protein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether a magnetic field (MF) affects the growth of Spirulina sp. when applied to it at different exposure times in indoor and outdoor culture systems. The effects of MF on chlorophyll content, medium consumption and protein profile were also investigated. In raceway tanks, a 25 mT MF was applied for 24 h or for 1 h d -1 . MF for 24 h to outdoor assays increased biomass concentration and chlorophyll-a content besides altering the protein profile. Outdoor Spirulina growth was higher (∼3.65 g L -1 ) than the growth found in indoor assays (∼1.80 g L -1 ), while nitrogen and phosphorus consumption was not enhanced by the application of MF. This is the first study that investigated the influence of MF on outdoor microalga assays, and the results showed that MF affected the metabolism of Spirulina cultured in raceways, especially when it was grown outdoors in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin of Spirulina powder treated with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

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    Monchai Dejsungkranont

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The functionality and activity of proteins can be modified by supercritical fluid CO2 (SCFCO2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of enhanced antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC proteins from light-harvested Spirulina maxima powder using the SCFCO2 pretreatment and to optimize the SCFCO2 pretreatment conditions enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the SCFCO2 pretreatment. The experimental factors were the pretreatment temperature, pressure, pretreatment mode (static, dynamic and conjugated and duration. The optimal conditions of SCFCO2 pretreatment were: 60 °C, 24.13 MPa and 60 min in static batch mode. Using these pretreatment conditions, the maximum antioxidant activity of C-PC from the treated residual biomass was 410.1 μmole trolox/mg, which was 1.7-fold higher than the untreated biomass (control. The factor that most affected the antioxidant activity of C-PC was temperature (59%. A high pretreatment temperature could damage C-PC, but promoted antioxidant activity. Of note is that this work was the first to explore SCFCO2 treatment enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC in Spirulina sp. powder. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C-phycocyanin, Spirulina sp., Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide pretreatment, Taguchi method

  20. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  1. Determination of uranium in Toxodon Platensis' teeth from Alto Ribeira region in Sao Paulo State for isotope dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Saiki, Mitiko; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Karmann, Ivo

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, the concentration of uranium in dentine and dental enamel of a pre-molar of Toxodon platensis (kind of herbivorous) from South America Quaternary, present in the region of Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo, was determined, in order to date this fossil by using the ESR method (Electron Spin Resonance). The analytical techniques Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis and High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry were employed. The results obtained by using the two cited analytical techniques were in good agreement. These results, together with the data of total dose of deposed ionizing radiation and of the rate dose, allowed to find a ESR age of (6,7 +/- 1,3) Ka for the dentine, and of (5,0 +/- 1,6 Ka) for the dental enamel. Considering an average age of 6 Ka, this date corresponds to the Low to Medium Holocene, which is an unprecedented datum for this species in the southeastern region of Brazil. (author)

  2. Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Laura M. Ferman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assemble data on the summer feeding ecology of the Great Pampa-finch, Embernagra platensis at the Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to explore the differences related to the dietary patterns for each sex between winter and summer when possible. The stomach contents of 43 birds were analyzed. The animal fraction was composed of Hymenoptera (45.1%, Coleoptera (32.4%, Lepidoptera (6.0%, Araneae (5% and Orthoptera (3.2%. The application of the index of relative importance (IRI resulted in 1490.4 for Coleoptera, 428.5 for Hymenoptera and 162.5 for Lepidoptera caterpillars. The vegetal fraction consisted of Triticum aestivum (26.9%, Cyperaceous (25%, Poaceae (Gramineae (19.3% and Panicum sp. (11.2%. The IRI values were 893.8 for Triticum aestivum, 174.5 for Gramineae, 126.5 for Panicum sp. and 112.8 for Scirpus sp. The food niche width was 0.33 for both sexes; the diversity index resulted in 1.06 for females and 1.33 for males and specific diversity ranged from 1.87 to 2.84. A canonical component analysis (CCA was performed on environmental and morphometric variables, and a Monte Carlo test confirmed the canonical correlations. A t-test showed that some birds harmonized with a logarithmic model and some with a geometric curve. During the summer, Embernagra platensis ingests Hymenoptera and Coleoptera more often than seeds, suggesting that two biological mechanisms could be taking place in this bird.O objetivo deste estudo foi reunir dados referentes à ecologia alimentar do Sabiá-do-banhado, Embernagra platensis, na laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, e explorar as diferenças relacionadas aos padrões dietéticos para cada sexo entre inverno e verão, quando possível. O conteúdo estomacal de 43 pássaros foi analisado. A fração animal foi composta por Hymenoptera (45,1%, Coleoptera (32,4%, Lepidoptera(6,0%, Araneae (5% e Orthoptera (3,2%. A aplicação do índice de importância relativa (IRI

  3. Outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 in different geographic locations for evaluating its growth and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Cristiane Santos; da Silva Uebel, Lívia; Costa, Samantha Serra; Miranda, Andréa Lobo; de Morais, Etiele Greque; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Nunes, Itaciara Larroza; de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated whether outdoor cultivation of Spirulina sp. in different geographical locations affected its growth and biomass quality, with respect to the chemical composition, volatile compound and heavy metal content, and thermal stability. The positive effect of solar radiation and temperature on biomass productivity in Spirulina sp. cultivated in the northeast was directly related to its improved nutritional characteristics, which occurred with an increase in protein, phycocyanin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (mainly γ-linolenic) content. The biomass produced in Northeast and South Brazil showed high thermal stability and had volatile compounds that could be used as biomarkers of Spirulina, and their parameters were within the limits of internationally recognized standards for food additives; hence, they have been considered safe foods. However, the growth of crops in south Brazil occurred at lower rates due to low temperatures and luminous intensities, indicative of the robustness of microalgae in relation to these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dampak Intervensi Sumber Iodium Alami Spirulina sp terhadap Kadar T4 Bebas (FT4 dan Tiroglobulin (TG pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Kalibawang Kulon Progo

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    R. Agus Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSRACT Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Salt iodization was one of IDD prevention programme to prevent IDD, however the national coverage for iodized salt is still less than 90%. Alternative solution to solve IDD elimination is needed to find a better iodine sources. One of nutrient rich source from the sea that was developed to improve the nutritional status is Spirulina sp. Spirulina has high bioavailability due to the simple structure of the cell wall, so that the nutrients contained iodine will be more easily absorbed by the body. The aim of this research was to describe the effect of Spirulina sp to free T4 and thyroglobulin level in women of child bearing age in Kalibawang Kulon Progo regency. This is an experimental study using double blind randomized control trial (RCT. Subjects are euthyroid child bearing woman (18-40 years old, with TSH levels of 3 to 6.2 μIU/L. They were divided into 2 groups with subjects in control group were given placebo while the treatment group were given Spirulina sp (1 gr/day for 3 months. Serum for free T4 and thyroglobulin was analysed using ELISA. The results showed that there were significant changes in free T4 level in both groups after intervention (P <0.05, but there were no significant differences between the two groups at the beginning and end of treatment (P> 0.05 in thyroglobulin. The intervention using Spirulina sp has potential effect to increase free T4 level, however it did not effect thyroglobulin level. Keywords: FreeT4, RCT, Spirulina sp, Thyroglobulin   ABSTRAK   Masalah kekurangan asupan iodium dan gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium (GAKI masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. Program iodisasi garam merupakan salah satu program yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah Indonesia untuk menanggulangi GAKI, namun sampai saat ini cakupan angka nasional untuk garam beriodium belum mencapai 90%. Dibutuhkan metode baru yang efektif dalam membantu program

  5. Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Parameters on the Biological Activities and Metabolites Present in Extracts from Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; García-Pérez, J Saúl; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Núñez-Echevarría, Jade E; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; García-García, Rebeca M; Torres, J Antonio; Chen, Wei Ning; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2017-06-12

    Arthrospira platensis was used to obtain functional extracts through supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE-CO₂). Pressure (P), temperature (T), co-solvent (CX), static extraction (SX), dispersant (Di) and dynamic extraction (DX) were evaluated as process parameters through a Plackett-Burman design. The maximum extract yield obtained was 7.48 ± 0.15% w/w. The maximum contents of bioactive metabolites in extracts were 0.69 ± 0.09 µg/g of riboflavin, 5.49 ± 0.10 µg/g of α-tocopherol, 524.46 ± 0.10 µg/g of β-carotene, 1.44 ± 0.10 µg/g of lutein and 32.11 ± 0.12 mg/g of fatty acids with 39.38% of palmitic acid, 20.63% of linoleic acid and 30.27% of γ-linolenic acid. A. platensis extracts had an antioxidant activity of 76.47 ± 0.71 µg GAE/g by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, 0.52 ± 0.02, 0.40 ± 0.01 and 1.47 ± 0.02 µmol TE/g by DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, respectively. These extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Overall, co-solvent was the most significant factor for all measured effects ( p extraction parameters P: 450 bar, CX: 11 g/min, SX: 15 min, DX: 25 min, T: 60 °C and Di: 35 g.

  6. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  7. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina: Toxicity assessment and minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Schideman, Lance C.; Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Yan; Nair, Ken; Qian, Wanyi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient reuse and energy recovery of HTL-WW are realized. • Anaerobic digestion of HTL-WW is vital to the sustainability of algal biocrude. • An anaerobic toxicity assay was conducted to evaluate HTL-WW toxicity. • The presence of adsorbents and biofilms effectively minimized inhibition. • A portion of the toxic compounds could be removed after anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTL-WW) is significant to the sustainability of algal biofuel development for nutrient reuse and residual energy recovery. HTL-WW contains substantial amounts of residual energy but is toxic to anaerobes. With 6% HTL-WW converted from cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina), anaerobes were 50% inhibited. In this study, zeolite, granular activated carbon (GAC), and polyurethane matrices (PM) were used during a two-round anaerobic batch test with HTL-WW, and in the presence of each material, the total methane yields were 136 mL/g COD, 169 mL/g COD, and 168 mL/g COD, respectively, being 11%, 37% and 36% higher than the control. GAC was considered promising due to its highest methane yield of 124 mL/g COD at the second feeding, indicating a good recovery of adsorption capacity. The observed low methane production rates indicated the necessity for anaerobic process optimization. The physicochemical analysis of the digestates demonstrated that most of the compounds identified in the HTL-WW were degraded.

  8. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  10. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pmaxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  11. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  12. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  13. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadiyanto,; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur; Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Synthesis by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Using Biopolymer Extraction Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleber Klasener; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2018-01-20

    The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis. Concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (v/v) of biopolymer extraction waste were tested. For comparison, two assays were used without addition of waste, Zarrouk (SZ) and modified Zarrouk (ZM), with reduction of nitrogen. The assays were carried out in triplicate and evaluated for the production of microalgal biomass and PHB. The tests with addition of waste presented a biomass production statistically equal to ZM (0.79 g L -1 ) (p PHB in the assay containing 25% of waste was higher when compared to the other cultivations, obtaining 10.6% (w/w) of biopolymer. From the results obtained, it is affirmed that the use of PHB extraction waste in the microalgal cultivation, aiming at the synthesis of biopolymers, can occur in a cyclic process, reducing process costs and the deposition of waste, thus favoring the preservation of the environment.

  15. Effect of operating conditions on hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina over Ni/TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenying; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Wenjia; Yin, Zhaosen; Yi, Xuewen

    2018-05-04

    In this study, the effects of reaction temperature, holding time, algae/water ratio and catalyst dosage on the yield and quality of bio-oil produced via the HTL of Spirulina were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield (43.05 wt%) and energy recovery (ER) value (64.62%) were obtained at 260 °C for 30 min, with an algae/water ratio of 1/4 and a catalyst dosage of 5 wt%. The bio-oil samples were characterized by elemental analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FI-IR), and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results indicated that higher heating values (HHVs) of bio-oils were in the range of 27.28-36.01 MJ/kg, and main compounds of bio-oil were amides, esters, nitriles, hydroperoxide and alkanes. Adding of the Ni/TiO 2 catalyst can decrease the contents of oxygenated and nitrogenous compounds and promote the formation of desirable components such as esters and alkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioprocess Engineering Aspects of Biopolymer Production by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina Strain LEB 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guimarães Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biopolymers can replace environmentally damaging plastics derived from petrochemicals. We investigated biopolymer synthesis by the cyanobacterium Spirulina strain LEB 18. Autotrophic culture used unmodified Zarrouk medium or modified Zarrouk medium in which the NaNO3 content was reduced to 0.25 g L−1 and the NaHCO3 content reduced to 8.4 g L−1 or increased to 25.2 g L−1. Heterotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 with the NaHCO3 replaced by 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose (C6H12O6 or sodium acetate (CH3COONa. Mixotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 plus 16.8 g L−1 NaHCO3 with the addition of 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose or sodium acetate. The highest biopolymer yield was 44% when LEB 18 was growing autotrophically in media containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 and 8.4 g L−1 NaHCO3.

  17. Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez G. Liliana Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibit better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  18. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  19. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  20. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  1. Molecular Cloning of cpcU and Heterodimeric Bilin Lyase Activity Analysis of CpcU and CpcS for Attachment of Phycocyanobilin to Cys-82 on the β-Subunit of Phycocyanin in Arthrospira platensis FACHB314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB producing genes (hoxI and pcyA, while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the β-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314.

  2. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  3. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (L-AsnA is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2 showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU, total protein (405 mg/g, specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein, and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima.

  4. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon.

  5. Functional Lycopene Cyclase (CruA) in Cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis NIES-39, and its Role in Carotenoid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kenjiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Nagashima, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2017-04-01

    The genus Arthrospira is filamentous, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria that is commercially important. We identified the molecular structures of carotenoids in Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. The major carotenoid identified was β-carotene. In addition, the hydroxyl derivatives of β-cryptoxanthin and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin were also found to be present. The carotenoid glycosides were identified as (3R,2'S)-myxol 2'-methylpentoside and oscillol 2,2'-dimethylpentoside. The methylpentoside moiety was a mixture of fucoside and chinovoside in an approximate ratio of 1 : 4. Trace amounts of the ketocarotenoid 3'-hydroxyechinenone were also found. Three types of lycopene cyclases have been functionally confirmed in carotenogenesis organisms. In cyanobacteria, the functional lycopene cyclases (CrtL, CruA and CruP) have only been found in four species. In this study, we found that CruA exhibited lycopene cyclase activity in transformed Escherichia coli, which contains lycopene, but CruP exhibited no lycopene cyclase activity and crtL was absent. This is the third cyanobacterial species in which CruA activity has been confirmed. Neurosporene was not a substrate of CruA in E. coli, whereas lycopene cyclases of CrtY (bacteria), CrtL (plants) and CrtYB (fungi) have been reported to convert neurosporene to 7,8-dihydro-β-carotene. β-Carotene hydroxylase (CrtR) was found to convert β-carotene to zeaxanthin in transformed E. coli, which contains β-carotene. Among the β-carotene hydroxylases, bacterial CrtZ and eukaryotic CrtR and BCH have similarities, whereas cyanobacterial CrtR appears to belong to another clade. Based on the identification of the carotenoids and the completion of the entire nucleotide sequence of the A. platensis NIES-39 genome, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for the carotenoids as well as the corresponding genes and enzymes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved

  6. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-08-17

    Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  8. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  10. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Logan, Alan C; Giddings, Sabrina D; Quilliam, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications.

  12. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  13. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaëlle Birot; Diane de Jouvencel; Laetitia Raginel; Geneviève Rouillé

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  14. Acute toxicity of excess mercury on the photosynthetic performance of cyanobacterium, S. platensis--assessment by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C M; Chau, C W; Zhang, J H

    2000-07-01

    Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be a rapid, non-invasive, and reliable method to assess photosynthetic performance in a changing environment. In this study, acute toxicity of excess Hg on the photosynthetic performance of the cyanobacterium S. platensis, was investigated by use of chlorophyll fluorescence analysis after cells were exposed to excess Hg (up to 20 microM) for 2 h. The results determined from the fast fluorescence kinetics showed that Hg induced a significant increase in the proportion of the Q(B)-non-reducing PSII reaction centers. The fluorescence parameters measured under the steady state of photosynthesis demonstrated that the increase of Hg concentration led to a decrease in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry, the efficiency of excitation energy capture by the open PSII reaction centers, and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport. Mercury also resulted in a decrease in the coefficients of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. Mercury may have an acute toxicity on cyanobacteria by inhibiting the quantum yield of photosynthesis sensitively and rapidly. Such changes occurred before any other visible damages that may be evaluated by other conventional measurements. Our results also demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can be used as a useful physiological tool to assess early stages of change in photosynthetic performance of algae in response to heavy metal pollution.

  15. Chlorophyll concentration assays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heaven

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... compounds, seven algal species belonging to cyanobacteria such as Spirulina platensis, ... Key words: Algae isolation, scanning electron microscope, ..... Antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic fresh.

  16. 1750-IJBCS-Article-Henri Gautier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    2012-01-02

    Jan 2, 2012 ... Effects of spirulina supplementation on selected anthropometric, biochemical, and ... up periods will be necessary to test these assumptions. ... platensis), an edible microalgae, is naturally ..... biliprotein with antioxidant, anti- ...

  17. [Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(CH3COO)2] on growth, biomass and proline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Spirulina platensis growth parameters [chlorophyll a (chl a) and dry-wet weight] effects on proline ... between lead accumulation in the test algae and low pH which ... vitamins, antioxidants and immunositimulants for both.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... rats were accidentally divided into the control, sham and test group ... cadmium chloride due to abundant antioxidant property. ..... Karadeniz A, Cemek M, Simsek N. The effects of Panax ginseng and Spirulina platensis on.

  19. Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis) exogenous strain UTEXLB2340. Yahia Mustafa A Fagiri, Aisha Salleh, Saifeldin Ahmed F El-Nagerabi ...

  20. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 14 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and urea into chicken manure medium · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hilal Kargin Yilmaz, Ozlem Sezgin ...

  1. Species-specific differences of the spectroscopic properties of P700 - Analysis of the influence of non-conserved amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, H.; Bordignon, E.; Carbonera, D.; Dekker, J.P.; Karapetyan, N.; Teutloff, C.; Webber, A.; Lubitz, W.; Schlodder, E.

    2003-01-01

    We applied optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance techniques, and redox titrations to investigate the properties of the primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I (PS I) core complexes from cyanobacteria (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Spirulina platensis, and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), algae

  2. Influência da ingestão de espirulina sobre o metabolismo de ratos exercitados Influencia de ingestión de Spirulina sobre el metabolismo de ratones exercitados Influence of spirulina intake on metabolism of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Puggina Rogatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram comparadas as respostas metabólicas agudas ao exercício em ratos alimentados com dieta padrão e à base de espirulina. Ratos Wistar jovens foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a dieta: controle (C (dieta padrão e espirulina (S (dieta à base de espirulina. Ao final do período experimental (cinco semanas os animais foram submetidos a uma sessão aguda de exercício de natação (20 minutos, suportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% do peso corporal para avaliação do lactato sanguíneo, glicose, insulina, proteínas, albumina e ácidos graxos livres (AGL séricos. Amostras do músculo gastrocnêmio e fígado foram utilizadas para determinação dos teores de glicogênio e lipídeos. Ambos os grupos C e S apresentaram aumento da glicemia e dos AGL, queda da insulinemia e redução dos teores de glicogênio muscular e hepático pós-exercício. A lactacidemia durante o exercício foi superior no grupo S em relação ao C. Conclui-se que o padrão de respostas ao exercício agudo dos grupos C e S foi semelhante. Contudo, a proteína da dieta pareceu influenciar aspectos do metabolismo glicídico.En el presente estudio fueron comparadas las respuestas metabólicas agudas al ejercicio en ratones alimentados con dieta padrón y a base de Spirulina. Ratones Wistar jovenes fueron divididos en dos grupos de acuerdo con la dieta: control (C (dieta padrón y Spirulina (S (dieta a base de Spirulina. Al final del período experimental (5 semanas los animales fueron sometidos a una sesión aguda de ejercício de natación (20 minutos, soportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% de su peso corporal para evaluación del lactato sanguíneo, glucosa, insulina, proteínas, albumina y ácidos grasos libres (AGL séricos. Las muestras del músculo gastrocnemio y fígado fueron utilizadas para la determinación de los tenores de glicogeno y de lípidos. Ambos grupos C e S presentaron un aumento de la glicemia y de los AGL, mantenimiento

  3. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  5. Bioleaching of UO22+ ions from poor uranium ores by means of cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, A.; Humelnicu, D.; Popa, K.; Palamaru, I.; Nemtoi, G.; Rudic, V.; Gulea, A.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium (VI) leaching, as uranyl ions, from ores with a poor content in util minerals, using some algae as: Porphyridium cruentum (Smith and Soerly) Naegeli, Spirulina platensis CNM-CB-02 and Nostoc linkia (Roth) Born and Flah was studied. The basic composition of these ores allowed the self-maintenance and self-development of these microorganisms, which have facilitated then the leaching of the uranium (VI) as UO 2 2+ ions. The microbial leaching degree was comprised between 40-90%, depending on the used alga and experimental conditions. (author)

  6. Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Maria C; Piccardi, Raffaella; Ventura, Stefano; Viti, Carlo; Giovannetti, Luciana

    2003-05-01

    Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters, belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was well delineated.

  7. Characterization and pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis: potential of bio-oil and chemical production by Py-GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hanna N; Calixto, Guilherme Q; Chagas, Bruna M E; Melo, Dulce M A; Resende, Fabio M; Melo, Marcus A F; Braga, Renata Martins

    2017-06-01

    Biofuels have been seen as potential sources to meet future energy demand as a renewable and sustainable energy source. Despite the fact that the production technology of first-generation biofuels is consolidated, these biofuels are produced from foods crops such as grains, sugar cane, and vegetable oils competing with food for crop use and agricultural land. In recent years, it was found that microalgae have the potential to provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels as source of biofuels without compromising food supplies or arable land. On this scenario, this paper aims to demonstrate the energetic potential to produce bio-oil and chemicals from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis. The potential of these biomasses was evaluated in terms of physical-chemical characterization, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis interfaced with gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The results show that C. vulgaris and A. platensis are biomasses with a high heating value (24.60 and 22.43 MJ/kg) and low ash content, showing a high percentage of volatile matter (72.49 and 79.42%). These characteristics confirm their energetic potential for conversion process through pyrolysis, whereby some important aromatic compounds such as toluene, styrene, and phenol were identified as pyrolysis products, which could turn these microalgae a potential for biofuels and bioproduct production through the pyrolysis.

  8. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  9. The Effect of a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on macrophage, PMN, and lymphocyte cell expressions in post extraction wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijantini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is the ultimate treatment option for defective teeth followed by the need for dentures. Inflammation is one phase of the healing process that should be minimized in order to preserve alveolar bone for denture support. Macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells are indicators of acute inflammation. Spirulina and chitosan are natural compounds with the potential to be anti-inflammatory agents. Purpose: This research aimed to determine macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells of animal models treated with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd post-extraction day. Methods: Animal models were randomly divided into control (K and treatment (P groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (KI, KII, KIII and PI, PII, PIII. The post-extraction sockets of the control group animals were then filled with CMC Na 3%. Meanwhile, the post-extraction sockets of the treatment group members were filled with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan. Subsequently, the number of PMN, macrophage and lymphocyte cells was analyzed by means of HE analysis on the 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. days. Statistical analysis was then performed using a T-test. Results: There was a decrease in PMN cells and an increase in macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can not only decrease PMN cells, but can also increase macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2 and 3 after tooth extraction.

  10. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  11. 2716-IJBCS-Article-Laurencia Toulsoumde SONGRE-OUATTARA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Use of the moringa, spirulina, orange-fleshed sweet potato and a multivitamin complex in the manufacture ... spiruline (Spirulina platensis) et la patate douce à chair .... utilisant le test d'acceptabilité avec l'épreuve ...... Antioxidant properties of ...

  12. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  13. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp Mecanismo de inibição de Fusarium graminearum por compostos fenólicos extraídos de Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.A aplicação de substâncias naturais com efeito antifúngico é motivada pela necessidade de alternativas aos métodos existentes que nem sempre são aplicáveis, eficientes ou sem risco de danos ao consumidor ou meio ambiente. Além disso, estudos para elucidar o comportamento de espécies toxigênicas mediante fungicidas naturais tornam-se necessárias, contribuindo dessa forma com a segurança alimentar. Neste trabalho, extrato fenólico de Spirulina foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antifúngica sobre 12 cepas toxigênicas de Fusarium graminearum, isoladas de cevada e trigo. As rotas metabólicas que poderiam ser afetadas foram avaliadas através da determinação de compostos estruturais (glicosamina e ergosterol e da atividade de enzimas do metabolismo primário dos micro-organismos. Os resultados indicaram que os

  14. Perfil metabólico de Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Aeglidae, Anomura submetida a dietas ricas em carboidratos ou proteínas Metabolic profile of Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Anomura submitted to carbohydrate-rich or high-protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Della P. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidratos e uma dieta rica em proteínas sobre o metabolismo de Aegla platensis, um caranguejo anomuro de água doce. Os animais foram coletados no Arroio do Mineiro, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, em agosto/2002 e janeiro/2003, e foram alimentados durante 15 dias com carne bovina crua e arroz branco, em aquários aerados. O fotoperíodo foi controlado: 12 horas claro - 12 horas escuro. Glicose, proteínas, lipídios e triglicerídios foram dosados na hemolinfa; glicogênio e lipídios foram dosados no hepatopâncreas, brânquias e músculo. Em Aegla platensis, mantida em condições de laboratório, em todos os tecidos estudados pode ser observado que o aporte regular de alimento, bem como o tipo de dieta administrada determinaram um perfil diferenciado de resposta metabólica entre os sexos e o período de realização dos experimentos (inverno e verão.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a carbohydrate-rich and a high-protein diets on metabolism of Aegla platensis, a freshwater anomuram crab. The animals were collected in Mineiro Creek, Taquara city, Rio Grande do Sul, at august/2002 and january/2003, and were feed during 15 days with crude bovine meat and white rice, in an aerated aquarium. The photoperiod was controlled: 12 hours day - 12 hours night. Glucose, proteins, lipids and triglycerides were dosed in haemolymph; glycogen and lipids were dosed in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle tissues. In Aegla platensis, maintained in laboratory conditions, in all studied tissues can be seen that the regular food intake, as well as the kind of administered diet determinated a differential profile of metabolic response between sexes and the period of the experiments performance (winter and summer.

  15. Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Effect of Polyphenol Free Spirulina maxima and Its Hydrolyzed Protein Content: Investigation on Azoxymethane Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Palma, Nikte Y; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela

    2017-07-01

    Spirulina maxima (Sm) is known to have nutritive value as well as a number of potentially useful biomedical properties. The initial purpose of this report was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the alga (without its polyphenol content), on the induction of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypts (AC) in mouse. Besides, we hydrolyzed the protein content of such mixture. Our second aim was to determine the inhibitory potential of this last plant mixture on the AOM-induced colon AC in mouse. Moreover, we also determined the effect of the two indicated Sm samples on the oxidative damage caused by AOM in the colon and liver of treated mice. The experiment lasted 5 weeks. At the end, we registered the level of AC, nitric oxide, and the lipid and protein oxidation. Our results showed the following: (1) the carcinogen increased more than 18 times the amount of the AC found in the control group. (2) On the contrary, the two tested mixtures of Sm produced a significant reduction over this damage (about 45%). (3) The two tested Sm mixtures were generally able to reduce the oxidative stress markers although with variable effects which go from 59% to 100% with respect to the control mice. Therefore, the present report established that the tested Sm fractions have mouse colon anticarcinogenic potential, partially related with their antioxidant capacity. Our report also suggested the need to further evaluate specific Sm chemicals as chemopreventive agents.

  16. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  17. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  18. Development and characterization of bioactive edible films from spider crab (Maja crispata) chitosan incorporated with Spirulina extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Mansour, Mohamed Ben; Sayari, Nadhem; Yacoubi, Lamia; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Brodu, Nicolas; Massé, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Active food packaging films based on crab chitosan and Spirulina extract (SE) were developed. The effects of the SE incorporation at different levels on physical (color, opacity water vapor and oxygen permeability) and mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) properties of chitosan films were investigated. FTIR was carried out to observe the potential modifications of the chitosan films when incorporated with SE. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of SE into chitosan films improved mechanical and barrier properties. The antioxidant activity of the chitosan/SE films was characterized by means of three different analytical assays (DPPH, FRAP and FIC). Crab chitosan edible films containing SE showed higher antioxidant activity, regardless concentrations and methods assayed. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of chitosan edible films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The chitosan/SE films were more effective (pchitosan edible films incorporated with SE showed great potential to be used for active food packaging due to its excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-11-13

    Spirulina maxima , a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ 1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ 1-42 -induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice.

  20. Influência da ingestão de biomassas de spirulina (Arthrospira sp. sobre o peso corporal e consumo de ração em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Kátia Gomes de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho verificou-se a influência do consumo de biomassas provenientes de três diferentes origens sobre o peso corporal e consumo de ração em ratos Wistar, machos e adultos. Grupos que consumiram 5% ou 10% (p/p da biomassa foram comparados com um controle. A biomassa I não promoveu diferença significativa no consumo de ração ou peso corporal dos três grupos. A biomassa II não causou diferença significativa no peso corporal, mas sim no consumo de ração. A biomassa III não causou diferença significativa no consumo de ração, nem no peso corporal, mas houve tendência de maior ganho de peso para o grupo que consumiu a ração contendo 10% de spirulina. Os resultados obtidos indicam que diferentes biomassas podem apresentar diferentes propriedades, mas não confirmam a alegação de que a spirulina pode levar a diminuição de peso ou de consumo de alimento.

  1. Neutron activation analysis for development of mercury sorbent based on blue-green alga salipriina palatinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobylsky, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamic of accumulation of Hg was investigated over days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was / out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼ 100 μg/1

  2. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  3. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  4. Efecto de la intensidad de diodos electroluminosos y fotoperiodo en la optimización de la producción de biomasa de Spirulina ( Arthrospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vásquez - Villalobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó la producción de biomasa ( ф de cultivos batch d e Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactores a escala de laboratorio (FBL de 0,2 L, por efecto de X 1 : intensidad de diodos electroluminosos (LED’s entre 1,25 a 41,7 klux y X 2 : fotoperiodo de12/12 a 24/0, h de luz/h de oscuridad (L/O utilizando un diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR y metodología de superficie de respuesta (MSR. Asimismo, se eval uaron las características hidráulicas y el valor ф de un cultivo batch de Spirulina en un fotobiorreactor de canal bucle cerrado abierto a la atmósfera (FB - BCAA por efecto de la iluminación LED de 8,3±1,9 klux y fotoperiodos de 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O. En los FBL se encontró dos zonas óptimas de ф , ambas con una intensidad LED de 21,5 klux y fotoperiodos 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O, siendo los valores ф de 1,65 y 1,62 respectivamente. El modelo matemático que indicó estas zonas fue de segundo orden (p = 0,000396 < 0,05 con una consistencia de predicción de R² = 0,92. En el FB - BCAA, el cultivo de Spirulina sp. con fotoperiodo de 12/12 h L/O, mostr ó un valor ф de 0,72, una adaptación más rápida de λ = 4,62 h, una mayor velocidad específica de crecimiento de μ max = 0,033 h - 1 y menor tiempo de consumo de energía de 74,05 h ; comparado con el cultivo desarrollado con fotoperiodo 24/0 h L/O. Los parámetros hidráulicos del FB - BCAA fueron: volumen de operación 2,5 L, velocidad de flujo 0,26 m/s, números de Reynolds ( Re 15488, Froude ( Fr 0,60 y Vedernikov ( V ed 0,90.

  5. Spirulina maxima extract prevents cell death through BDNF activation against amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-04-23

    Spirulina maxima is a blue-green micro alga that contains abundant amounts of proteins (60-70%), vitamins, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). It has been shown to reduce oxidative stress, and prevent diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, it is unclear whether Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE), chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aβ 1-42 -induced cell death. SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC suppressed the Aβ 1-42 -induced increase in poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage and reduced Aβ 1-42 -induced decreases in glutathione and its associated factors. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection, was increased by SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC in Aβ 1-42 -treated cells. SM70EE treatment decreased oxidative stress and cell death in response to Aβ 1-42 treatment, while simultaneously suppressing PARP cleavage and increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH) and its associated factors. Moreover, SM70EE lowered the levels of APP and BACE1, two major factors involved in APP processing, and increased BDNF expression during Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. We suggest that SM70EE prevents cell death caused by Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity via the activation of BDNF signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  7. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  8. Modelamiento matemático y por redes neuronales artificiales del crecimiento de Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactor con fuente de luz fluorescente e iluminación en estado sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los modelos matemáticos de Gompertz y logístico en la cinética de crecimiento de Spirulina sp., los cuales fueron comparados con un modelamiento por Redes Neuronales Artificiales Backpropagation (RNA-BP. La Spirulina fue cultivada en un fotobiorreactor de laboratorio aireado (3 L/min de 500 mL, con iluminación fluorescente de 40W y en Estado Sólido (LED-Light Emitting Diode de 1W; obteniendo con ambos sistemas 11,0 klx. La iluminación LED, permitió obtener un valor elevado de biomasa (ɑ de 0,90 , en comparación con la obtenida con iluminación fluorescente de 0,82; así como una mayor velocidad de crecimiento μ=0,63 h-1, precedida de un menor tiempo de latencia λ=0,34 h. La RNA-BP mostró buena precisión con respecto al modelo corregido de Gompertz I, tanto para el caso del cultivo de Spirulina sp. con iluminación fluorescente y con LED, mostrando coeficientes de correlación (R del orden de 0,993 y 0,994 respectivamente, con respecto a los datos experimentales. Resulta ventajoso el modelamiento a través del modelo corregido de Gompertz I, porque además de valores de R de 0,987 y 0,990 en los cultivos de Spirulina sp. Con iluminación fluorescente y con LED respectivamente, permite obtener los parámetros de la cinética de crecimiento de manera directa.

  9. Evaluation of glass leaching as nutrient source for microalgae growth; Evaluacion del comportamiento de vidrios lixiviados como nutrientes de algas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabska, N.; Tamayo, A.; Mazo, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Rubio, J.

    2015-10-01

    Three glasses with an elemental composition similar to the nutrient ratio required for Spirulina platensis growth and with different SiO{sub 2} content have been prepared. The glasses were crushed and sieved into 2 different fractions and the effect of the particle size has been studied in terms of the leaching kinetics of each element. The chemical analysis of the leaching water was used for obtaining the dissolution rate curves for each element taking part of the glass composition. From the calculation of the leaching rate constant and the exponential constant of the lixiviation reaction, it has been evaluated the Spirulina platensis growth in ambient normal conditions of light, temperature and pH of the growing media. It has been concluded that, either from the modification of the chemical composition of the glass or its particle size, it is possible to tune the delivery of the nutrients to match the growth rate of Spirulina platensis. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of glass leaching as nutrient source for microalgae growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabska, N.; Tamayo, A.; Mazo, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Rubio, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three glasses with an elemental composition similar to the nutrient ratio required for Spirulina platensis growth and with different SiO 2 content have been prepared. The glasses were crushed and sieved into 2 different fractions and the effect of the particle size has been studied in terms of the leaching kinetics of each element. The chemical analysis of the leaching water was used for obtaining the dissolution rate curves for each element taking part of the glass composition. From the calculation of the leaching rate constant and the exponential constant of the lixiviation reaction, it has been evaluated the Spirulina platensis growth in ambient normal conditions of light, temperature and pH of the growing media. It has been concluded that, either from the modification of the chemical composition of the glass or its particle size, it is possible to tune the delivery of the nutrients to match the growth rate of Spirulina platensis. (Author)

  11. Promoting helix pitch and trichome length to improve biomass harvesting efficiency and carbon dioxide fixation rate by Spirulina sp. in 660 m2 raceway ponds under purified carbon dioxide from a coal chemical flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Guo, Wangbiao; Ameer Ali, Kubar; Ye, Qing; Jin, Guiyong; Qiao, Zhanshan

    2018-08-01

    The helix pitch and trichome length of Spirulina sp. were promoted to improve the biomass harvesting efficiency and CO 2 fixation rate in 660 m 2 raceway ponds aerated with food-grade CO 2 purified from a coal chemical flue gas. The CO 2 fixation rate was improved with increased trichome length of the Spirulina sp. in a raceway pond with double paddlewheels, baffles, and CO 2 aerators (DBA raceway pond). The trichome length has increased by 33.3 μm, and CO 2 fixation rate has increased by 42.3% and peaked to 51.3 g/m 2 /d in a DBA raceway pond. Biomass harvesting efficiency was increased with increased helix pitch. When the day-average greenhouse temperature was 33 °C and day-average sunlight intensity was 72,100 lu×, the helix pitch of Spirulina sp. was increased to 56.2 μm. Hence the biomass harvesting efficiency was maximized to 75.6% and biomass actual yield was increased to 35.9 kg in a DBA raceway pond. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure of the ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase PtmT2 from Streptomyces platensis CB00739, a Bacterial Type II Diterpene Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Dong, Liao-Bin; Cao, Hongnan; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Endres, Michael; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Ma, Ming; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2016-08-31

    Terpenoids are the largest and most structurally diverse family of natural products found in nature, yet their presence in bacteria is underappreciated. The carbon skeletons of terpenoids are generated through carbocation-dependent cyclization cascades catalyzed by terpene synthases (TSs). Type I and type II TSs initiate cyclization via diphosphate ionization and protonation, respectively, and protein structures of both types are known. Most plant diterpene synthases (DTSs) possess three α-helical domains (αβγ), which are thought to have arisen from the fusion of discrete, ancestral bacterial type I TSs (α) and type II TSs (βγ). Type II DTSs of bacterial origin, of which there are no structurally characterized members, are a missing piece in the structural evolution of TSs. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a type II DTS from bacteria. PtmT2 from Streptomyces platensis CB00739 was verified as an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase involved in the biosynthesis of platensimycin and platencin. The crystal structure of PtmT2 was solved at a resolution of 1.80 Å, and docking studies suggest the catalytically active conformation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed residues involved in binding the diphosphate moiety of GGPP and identified DxxxxE as a potential Mg(2+)-binding motif for type II DTSs of bacterial origin. Finally, both the shape and physicochemical properties of the active sites are responsible for determining specific catalytic outcomes of TSs. The structure of PtmT2 fundamentally advances the knowledge of bacterial TSs, their mechanisms, and their role in the evolution of TSs.

  13. The biomechanical role of overall-shape transformation in a primitive multicellular organism: A case study of dimorphism in the filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasitdhi, Atitheb; Miphonpanyatawichok, Wirat; Riehle, Mathis Oliver; Phatthanakun, Rungrueang; Surareungchai, Werasak; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kuntanawat, Panwong

    2018-01-01

    Morphological transformations in primitive organisms have long been observed; however, its biomechanical roles are largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate the structural advantages of dimorphism in Arthrospira platensis, a filamentous multicellular cyanobacterium. We report that helical trichomes, the default shape, have a higher persistence length (Lp), indicating a higher resistance to bending or a large value of flexural rigidity (kf), the product of the local cell stiffness (E) and the moment of inertia of the trichomes' cross-section (I). Through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we determined that the E of straight and helical trichomes were the same. In contrast, our computational model shows that I is greatly dependent on helical radii, implying that trichome morphology is the major contributor to kf variation. According to our estimation, increasing the helical radii alone can increase kf by 2 orders of magnitude. We also observe that straight trichomes have improved gliding ability, due to its structure and lower kf. Our study shows that dimorphism provides mechanical adjustability to the organism and may allow it to thrive in different environmental conditions. The higher kf provides helical trichomes a better nutrient uptake through advection in aquatic environments. On the other hand, the lower kf improves the gliding ability of straight trichomes in aquatic environments, enabling it to chemotactically relocate to more favorable territories when it encounters certain environmental stresses. When more optimal conditions are encountered, straight trichomes can revert to their original helical form. Our study is one of the first to highlight the biomechanical role of an overall-shape transformation in cyanobacteria.

  14. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  15. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  16. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  17. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  18. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage

  19. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.

  20. Hydrothermal Disintegration and Extraction of Different Microalgae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kröger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the disintegration and extraction of microalgae to produce lipids and biofuels, a novel processing technology was investigated. The utilization of a hydrothermal treatment was tested on four different microalgae species (Scenedesmus rubescens, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Arthorspira platensis (Spirulina to determine whether it has an advantage in comparison to other disintegration methods for lipid extraction. It was shown, that hydrothermal treatment is a reasonable opportunity to utilize microalgae without drying and increase the lipid yield of an algae extraction process. For three of the four microalgae species, the extraction yield with a prior hydrothermal treatment elevated the lipid yield up to six times in comparison to direct extraction. Only Scenedesmus rubescens showed a different behaviour. Reason can be found in the different cell wall of the species. The investigation of the differences in cell wall composition of the used species indicate that the existence of algaenan as a cell wall compound plays a major role in stability.

  1. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent compositions, and various other fields and can be extracted from plants and algae. To extract, separate and purify chlorophyll a from associated pigments such as xanthophylls, carotenes, and pheophytins, very costly processes are reported. The present approach is perfectly adequate for use in Chemistry experiments for undergraduate students.

  2. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  3. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid; Mejora de la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva: Incorporación de Espirulina y evaluación de su sinergismo con ácido cítrico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [Spanish] Se evaluaron los efectos de diferentes concentraciones de Espirulina usadas solas y en combinación con ácido cítrico sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva. Las cantidades de productos de oxidación primarios y secundarios producidos en muestras de Espirulina fueron menores que las del control. Además, la estabilidad oxidativa de muestras de Espirulina con y sin ácido cítrico estaban en el intervalo de 85,20–94,47% y 258,10–260,21%, respectivamente. En comparación con el control, las muestras de Espirulina mostraron un contenido significativamente mayor de carotenoides y clorofila al inicio y al final del período de almacenamiento. La presencia de estos compuestos bioactivos y la presencia de Espirulina en el medio pueden retardar la oxidación del aceite de oliva. Se obtuvo una mayor estabilidad oxidativa usando BHT en comparación con muestras de Espirulina. Además, no se observó ninguna acción sin

  4. A study of acute phase and transport protein synthesis in undernourished men using simulated infection and uniformly 15N-labelled Spirulina Platenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Soares, M.J.; Sekhar, R.V.; Reeds, P.J.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that acute phase protein synthesis is accelerated and transport protein synthesis is decelerated in adult men in whom the stress of infection is superimposed upon undernutrition. As a pilot study, four chronically undernourished men and two well-nourished controls were studied on two occasions separated by four days; the second session was conducted 24 hours after the administration of typhoid vaccine. Basal urine and blood samples were collected and then subjects were given priming oral doses of 15 N-Spirulina (13.5mg/kg body weight) and oral doses (3.5mg/kg body weight) every 30 min for the next six hours. Meals were aliquoted during the dosing period. Blood samples were collected at four, five and six hours. 15 N enrichment in different fractions of plasma i.e., albumin, non-albumin and amino acids, was measured by combustion GC-IRMS. Total urinary nitrogen was measured by Kjeldahl. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Down-regulation of histamine-induced endothelial cell activation as potential anti-atherosclerotic activity of peptides from Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-10-09

    Histamine, a potent inflammatory mediator, has been known to cause the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this sense, two bioactive peptides P1 (LDAVNR; 686Da) and P2 (MMLDF; 655Da) purified from gastric enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima were examined for their protective effects against early atherosclerotic responses induced by histamine in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Interestingly, both P1 and P2 exhibited inhibitory activities on the production and expression of IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, P1 and P2 inhibited the production of adhesion molecules including P-selectin and E-selectin, and thus reducing in vitro cell adhesion of monocyte onto endothelial cells. In addition, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed to reduce in the presence of P1 or P2. Notably, the inhibitory activities of P1 and P2 were found due to down-regulating Egr-1 expression via histamine receptor and PKCδ-dependent MAPKs activation pathway. These results suggest that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima are effective to suppress histamine-induced endothelial cell activation that may contribute to the prevention of early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutagenic potential of Cordia ecalyculata alone and in association with Spirulina maxima for their evaluation as candidate anti-obesity drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Rechiutti, B M; Mendes, T B; Ito, E T; Souza, E B

    2014-07-07

    Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders, and can be currently considered as an epidemic. Although there are few weight reduction drugs available on the market, some new drug candidates have been proposed, including Cordia ecalyculata, a Brazilian plant with anorectic properties, and Spirulina maxima, a cyanobacterium with antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activity. In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic potential of C. ecalyculata at doses of 150, 300, and 500 mg/kg alone and in association with S. maxima at doses of 75, 150, and 250 mg/kg, respectively, through an in vivo micronucleus test, using mice of both sexes, and an in vitro micronucleus test and comet assay, using human peripheral blood. For all tests, cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. The results showed that treatment of 300 mg/kg C. ecalyculata and the combination treatment of 500 mg/kg C. ecalyculata with 250 mg/kg S. maxima resulted in anorectic effects. The mutagenic tests did not reveal any clastogenic or genotoxic activity for any treatment, indicating that these candidates could be marketed as weight-reduction drugs. Moreover, the drugs contain chemo-preventive substances that can protect against tumorigenesis, which has been associated with obesity.

  7. Optimization of a process for high fibre and high protein biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Rasane, Prasad; Gautam, Anuj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Biscuits are popular and convenient food products due to their ready to eat nature. Biscuits were prepared from sorghum and whole wheat flour with the addition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) powder to produce high fibre and high protein biscuit. Levels of ingredients in biscuits such as spirulina powder, sorghum flour and guar gum were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for its sensory, textural and antioxidant attributes. Sensory attributes as colour intensity (R2 = 0.89, P powder and sorghum flour was found to have significant effect on the responses.

  8. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  9. Spirulina maxima Extract Reduces Obesity through Suppression of Adipogenesis and Activation of Browning in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Jin; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-06-01

    Obesity predisposes animals towards the metabolic syndrome and diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Spirulina maxima is a microalga with anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective activities, but the anti-obesity effect of Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has not yet been fully established. We investigated the effect of SM70EE on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning using in vitro and in vivo obesity models. SM70EE treatment reduced lipid droplet accumulation by the oil red O staining method and downregulated the adipogenic proteins C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2, and the lipogenic proteins SREBP1, ACC, FAS, LPAATβ, Lipin1, and DGAT1 by western blot analysis. In addition, the index components of SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin, reduced adipogenesis and lipogenesis protein levels in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice administered with SM70EE demonstrated smaller adipose depots and lower blood lipid concentrations than control HFD-fed mice. The lower body mass gain in treated SM70EE-administrated mice was associated with lower protein expression of adipogenesis factors and higher expression of AMPKα-induced adipose browning proteins PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1. SM70EE administration ameliorates obesity, likely by reducing adipogenesis and activating the thermogenic program, in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese mice.

  10. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hatice BASMANCIOGLU

    performance and antioxidant status of broilers fed n-3 PUFA-enriched feeds ..... plastic bags in dry ice and stored at -80 oC for assay of SOD. At the end of the trial ...... Biomass nutrient profiles of three microalgae: Spirulina Platensis, Chlorella.

  11. Antibacterial activities of the extracts of cyanobacteria and green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In compliance to the recent surveys on algal species and their potentials to produce biologically active compounds, seven algal species belonging to cyanobacteria such as Spirulina platensis, Nostoc linckia, Phormidium autumnale, Tolypothrix distorta and Microcystis aeruginosa and green algae such as Chlorella vulgaris, ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihyperglycemic activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn) in rats. Abstract · Vol 16, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet anti-ulcereux de l'extrait hydroalcoolique D'ecorce de tronc et de racine de Ficus polita vahl. (Moraceae) Abstract · Vol 17, No 2 (2015) - Articles Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugiharto, S. Vol 48, No 1 (2018) - Articles Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth performance, haematological parameters, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits of broiler chicks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2221-4062. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  14. The effect of ultrasound at 256 KHz on Microcystis aeruginosa, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-31

    Oct 31, 2012 ... for 5 min inhibits the growth of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis for 3 d, while a sonication with 20 kHz showed no constant effect (Hao et al., 2004). Several mechanisms were discovered by which ultrasonic treatment affects the cells, of which the collapsing of gas vacu- oles during cavitation was ...

  15. One-Week Antihypertensive Effect of Ile-Gln-Pro in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Jun; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Xue, You-Lin; Cai, Mu-Yi; Egashira, Yukari; Ren, Di-Feng; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide lie-Gin-Pro (IQP), whose sequence was derived from Spirulina platensis, was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for 1 week. The weighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood

  16. EDITORIAL:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe Stéfanini and. Samuel Ravatua-Smith attempt to shed light on the phenomenon of social conversion that occurs when farmers change from traditional agricultural practices towards a less well-known form of aquaculture; in this case, the production of the Spirulina superfood. (Arthrospira platensis). Though the focus ...

  17. Electric field effects on red chlorophylls, b-carotenes and P700 in cyanobacterial photosystem I complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Palacios, M.A.; Azzizi, A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Kruip, J.; Rögner, M.; Karapetyan, N.V.; Schlodder, E.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have probed the absorption changes due to an externally applied electric field (Stark effect) of Photosystem I (PSI) core complexes from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis. The results reveal that the so-called C719 chlorophylls in S.

  18. Diseño de una crema para masajes con extracto de spirulina cubana Design of Cuban spirulin extract-derived massage cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Almirall Díaz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La spirulina constituye la microalga de mayor uso en Cuba y una de las más importantes en el ámbito mundial por su alto contenido proteico y poseer una excelente mezcla de vitaminas, minerales y agentes antioxidantes que protegen al organismo contra la acción nociva de los radicales libres. Por estas razones se ha incursionado en la elaboración de productos cosméticos destinados al cuidado de la piel con la utilización del principio bioactivo del extracto hidroalcohólico de esta microalga. Se realizó el diseño de una crema para masajes y se evaluaron 3 lotes del producto hasta los 18 meses desde un punto de vista tecnológico, microbiológico y toxicológico. La formulación resultó ser estable durante el tiempo de ensayo y el estudio toxicológico desarrollado demostró la no irritabilidad dérmica ni oftálmica del cosmético. Se analizó la aceptación del producto por parte de 130 consumidores mediante la aplicación de una prueba sensorial afectiva y se encontró que este es aceptado con agrado.Spirulin constitutes the most used microalga in Cuba and one of the most important worldwide because of its high protein content and excellent combination of vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative agents that protect the body against harmful action of free radicals. For these reasons, the manufacture of cosmetic products for the skin care using the bioactive principle of the hydroalcoholic extract of this microalga has been undertaken. The design of a massage cream was technologically, microbiologically and toxicologically evaluated in three different product batches for 18 months. The formulation was stable during the testing period and the toxicological study showed that the cosmetic did not cause skin or eye irritation. The acceptance of the product by 130 consumers was analyzed on the basis of a sensorial test where it was found that the cream was satisfactorily accepted.

  19. Ozone Application for Tofu Waste Water Treatment and Its Utilisation for Growth Medium of Microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industries produce waste water containing high organic contents and suspendid solid which is harmful if directly discharged to the environment. This waste can lead to disruption of water quality and lowering the environmental carrying capacity of waters around the tofu industries. Besides, the tofu waste water still contains high nitrogen contents which can be used for microalgae growth. This study was aimed to reduce the pollution load (chemical oxygen demand-COD of tofue wastewater by using ozone treatments and to utilize nutrients in treated tofu waste water as medium growth of microalgae. The result showed that the reduction of COD by implementation of ozone treatment followed first order kinetic. Under variation of waste concentrations between 10-40%, the degradation rate constant was in the range of 0.00237-0.0149 min-1. The microalgae was able to grow in the tofue waste medium by the growth rate constants of 0.15-0.29 day-1. This study concluded that tofu waste was highly potent for microalgae growth.

  20. Ozone Application for Tofu Waste Water Treatment and Its Utilisation for Growth Medium of Microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Tofu industries produce waste water containing high organic contents and suspendid solid which is harmful if directly discharged to the environment. This waste can lead to disruption of water quality and lowering the environmental carrying capacity of waters around the tofu industries. Besides, the tofu waste water still contains high nitrogen contents which can be used for microalgae growth. This study was aimed to reduce the pollution load (chemical oxygen demand-COD) of tofue wastewater by using ozone treatments and to utilize nutrients in treated tofu waste water as medium growth of microalgae. The result showed that the reduction of COD by implementation of ozone treatment followed first order kinetic. Under variation of waste concentrations between 10-40%, the degradation rate constant was in the range of 0.00237-0.0149 min-1. The microalgae was able to grow in the tofue waste medium by the growth rate constants of 0.15-0.29 day-1. This study concluded that tofu waste was highly potent for microalgae growth.

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE NITROGÊNIO NO CULTIVO DE Spirulina maxima EM DOIS NÍVEIS DE TEMPERATURA: Parte II: PRODUÇÃO DE LIPÍDIOS INFLUENCE OF THE NITROGEN LEVEL IN THE CULTIVATION OF Spirulina maxima IN TWO LEVELS OF TEMPERATURES: PART II: "PRODUCTION OF LIPIDS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Verthein Tavares de MACEDO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina maxima foi cultivada em meios com 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposto por PAOLETTI et al [10] e considerado meio padrão, em meios com 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N e em ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N nas temperaturas de 25°C e 35°C. A composição da biomassa celular seca apresentou a 35°C um aumento médio dos lipídios totais, de 2,8 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 2,9 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A 25°C apresentou um aumento médio de 3,1 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 3,2 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A biomassa em forma de gel de cada tratamento foi recolhida e feita a extração dos lipídios totais, os quais foram pesados em base seca. As análises estatísticas dos resultados, em estimativa não linear com superfície de resposta e regressão múltipla com análise de resíduos, mostraram para o aumento dos lipídios totais uma função linear com a temperatura (T e não linear com o nitrogênio (N, ajustando-se a um modelo onde o coeficiente de regressão R=0,99459 e a equação LIPT = A+B²T+CN ².The micraolgae Spirulina maxima was cultivated in medium with 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposed by Paoletti et al [10] and considered standard medium, in media with 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N and in absence of nitrogen (0,0N in temperatures of 25°C and 35°C. The composition of the dry cellular biomass presented to 35°C a medium increase of the total lipids, of 2,8 times of the middle with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 2,9 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. To 25°C it presented a medium increase of 3,1 times of the medium with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 3,2 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. The biomass in form of gel of each treatment was picked up and made the extraction of the total lipids, which were heavy in base evaporate. The statistical analyses of the results, in estimate non lineal with answer surface and

  2. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  3. Physiological justification for using an unconventional method for processing raw material in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Honcharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the influence of Spirulina рlatensis, which was previously treated by a non-traditional method, on physiological and biochemical processes in the organism of hydrobionts. To analyze the growth rate of Ukrainian scaly carp and tilapia under the influence of the feeding factor. Methodology. Experimental studies were carried out in the laboratory of biological resources and aquaculture. Following was performed during the experiments: clinical examination of hydrobionts, control of growth rates, survival rate by recording the results in a working journal, physiological studies, analysis of morphological and functional blood indices, which were performed according to generally accepted methods. Findings. It was found that the proposed method of non-traditional processing of feed resource for hydrobionts promoted the activation of metabolic processes, contributed to the improvement of fish development indices. During the process of cultivation of Spirulina рlatensis, the use of plasma-chemically activated water had a positive effect on the dynamics of development. Originality. This article presents for the first time the results of a positive effect of the pretreatment of Spirulina Platensis culture with plasma-chemically activated water for its feeding to hydrobionts. A positive effect of this method of feeding on the functional status of fish organism and the process of adaptation-compensatory mechanisms in ontogenesis has been found. Practical value. The proposed method will provide an opportunity to improve the rate of the development of hydrobionts, physiological and biochemical processes with the maximum utilization of the potential of fish organism at the stages of active growth, and also to reduce the cost of artificial feeds.

  4. Structure of the ent -Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase PtmT2 from Streptomyces platensis CB00739, a Bacterial Type II Diterpene Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Dong, Liao-Bin; Cao, Hongnan; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Endres, Michael; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Ma, Ming; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N.; Shen, Ben

    2016-08-31

    Terpenoids are the largest and most structurally diverse family of natural products found in nature, yet their presence in bacteria is underappreciated. The carbon skeletons of terpenoids are generated through carbocation-dependent cyclization cascades catalyzed by terpene synthases (TSs). Type I and type II TSs initiate cyclization via diphosphate ionization and protonation, respectively, and protein structures of both types are known. Most plant diterpene synthases (DTSs) possess three alpha-helical domains (alpha beta gamma), which are thought to have arisen from the fusion of discrete, ancestral bacterial type I TSs (alpha) and type II TSs (beta gamma). Type II DTSs of bacterial origin, of which there are no structurally characterized members, are a missing piece in the structural evolution of TSs. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a type II DTS from bacteria. PtnaT2 from Streptomyces platensis CB00739 was verified as an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase involved in the biosynthesis of platensimycin and platencin. The crystal structure of PtmT2 was solved at a resolution of 1.80 angstrom, and docking studies suggest the catalytically active conformation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed residues involved in binding the diphosphate moiety of GGPP and identified DxxxxE as a potential Mg2+-binding motif for type II DTSs of bacterial origin. Finally, both the shape and physicochemical properties of the active sites are responsible for determining specific catalytic outcomes of TSs. The structure of PtmT2 fundamentally advances the knowledge of bacterial TSs, their mechanisms, and their role in the evolution of TSs.

  5. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  6. Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... oxidation of sulphide and ammonia, and the trapping of other odour-causing compounds was observed. An attempt was made to achieve ... manipulation of the biological processes may offer a conceptual basis for the more ... oxidation, blending and aeration followed by flocculant-assisted settling of a por-.

  7. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  8. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  9. Algal autolysate medium to label proteins for NMR in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuccio, Carmelo; Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia; Neri, Sara; Fragai, Marco

    2016-04-01

    In-cell NMR provides structural and functional information on proteins directly inside living cells. At present, the high costs of the labeled media for mammalian cells represent a limiting factor for the development of this methodology. Here we report a protocol to prepare a homemade growth medium from Spirulina platensis autolysate, suitable to express uniformly labeled proteins inside mammalian cells at a reduced cost-per-sample. The human proteins SOD1 and Mia40 were overexpressed in human cells grown in (15)N-enriched S. platensis algal-derived medium, and high quality in-cell NMR spectra were obtained.

  10. Algal autolysate medium to label proteins for NMR in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuccio, Carmelo; Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy); Neri, Sara [Giotto Biotech S.R.L. (Italy); Fragai, Marco, E-mail: fragai@cerm.unifi.it [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    In-cell NMR provides structural and functional information on proteins directly inside living cells. At present, the high costs of the labeled media for mammalian cells represent a limiting factor for the development of this methodology. Here we report a protocol to prepare a homemade growth medium from Spirulina platensis autolysate, suitable to express uniformly labeled proteins inside mammalian cells at a reduced cost-per-sample. The human proteins SOD1 and Mia40 were overexpressed in human cells grown in {sup 15}N-enriched S. platensis algal-derived medium, and high quality in-cell NMR spectra were obtained.

  11. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  12. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  13. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  14. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  15. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  16. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  17. Variación temporal de la población de la almeja Darina solenoides y del mejillón Mytilus Edulis Platensis, y su relación con la alimentación del ostrero austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Javier Gallardo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El presente trabajo de investigación se ha planteado en el marco de una beca para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, Unidad Académica Río Gallegos. Tiene como objetivo analizar las variaciones temporales de la población del mejillón Mytilus edulis platensis y de la almeja Darina solenoides y se inserta en un Proyecto de Investigación (29A/227 dirigido por Dra. Z. Lizarralde que tiene como objeto estudiar la ecología trófica del Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Durante el 2010 se efectuaron muestreos mensuales (abril a diciembre en un banco de mejillones y otro de almejas, con el objeto de analizar la variación temporal de la densidad y biomasa, y la estructura de tallas poblacional. Se analizó la granulometría y porcentaje de materia orgánica de los sedimentos. El sedimento del banco de mejillones se encuentra constituido en su mayoría por la fracción correspondiente a los gránulos; en el banco de almejas por arenas muy finas (43% y finas (39%. En ambos casos la materia orgánica no supera el 3 %. La densidad de mejillones alcanzó un valor máximo de 2255 individuos/m2 en abril y un mínimo de 497 en noviembre. La biomasa máxima se encontró en abril (110 g/m 2. La densidad de Darina solenoides alcanzó un valor máximo de 565 en junio y un mínimo de 282 individuos/m2 en el mes de octubre. La biomasa máxima ocurrió en diciembre (132 g/m2. No se detectó el período de reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en los bancos de las especies estudiadas.

  18. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Birot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced in these developing countries continues to increase to the extent that it can now be exported. Thus, associations such as Spirulidaire market a traditional, fair and supportive spirulina in France and Europe and thus promote local producers.The perception of spirulina continues to evolve with the multiplication of field initiatives and the accumulation of scientific data. New studies demonstrate that spirulina also presents clinically significant anti-viral and immuno-stimulating effects in people infected by HIV.Sur la base de sa composition en micronutriments, de son potentiel pour la santé et du fait qu’elle soit cultivable localement, la spiruline présente des avantages majeurs dans la lutte contre la malnutrition chronique. Des associations de solidarité internationale, comme Antenna Technologies et Entrepreneurs du Monde qui ont comme vocation de réduire l’extrême pauvreté et les problèmes de santé publique dans les pays en développement, ont entrepris des programmes de culture et de distribution de spiruline notamment en Afrique de l’Ouest. La qualité de la spiruline produite dans ces pays en développement ne cesse d’augmenter et est telle qu’elle permet son exportation. C’est ainsi que des associations comme Spirulidaire commercialisent une spiruline artisanale, équitable et solidaire en France et en Europe et permettent ainsi de soutenir les producteurs locaux.La perception de la spiruline ne cesse d’évoluer avec la

  19. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  20. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  1. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  2. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  3. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  4. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  5. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  6. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Frontasyeva

    2012-01-01

    Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)

  8. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  9. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  10. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  11. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  12. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  13. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  14. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  15. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  16. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  17. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  18. A Review of Cyanobacterial Odorous and Bioactive Metabolites: Impacts and Management Alternatives in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-06

    Ben-Amotz, A., 1985. Lipid and lipopoly- saccharide constituents of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (Cyanophyceae, Nostocales). Mar. Ecol. Prog...only been confirmed in liver and brain cells (Fischer et al., 2005; Meier- Abt et al., 2007). Once inside cells, microcystins and nodularins inhibit... assay ) or PPIA (protein phosphatase inhibition assay ) but the actual toxin responsible was not confirmed (i.e., confirmation by LC-MS, MALDI, or HPLC is

  19. 1829-IJBCS-Article-Barry Mamoudou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Le Spirulina platensis est une algue utilisée pour ses effets nutritionnel et thérapeutique. De nombreuses études ont montré son intérêt ..... Mesure des cytokines (interleukine-4 (IL-4), l'interféron-γ (IFN-γ) et l'interleukine-2). - Réduction ... avec les métaux et les médicaments pouvant générer des radicaux libres toxiques ...

  20. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Leenawaty Limantara3); Budhi Prasetyo1); AB. Susanto2); Helly de Fretes1)*

    2012-01-01

    Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarez...

  1. Characterization of Various Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Biomass represents the renewable energy source and their use reduces the consumption of fossil fuels and limits the emission of CO2. In this work, various biomass feedstocks were assessed for assessing their suitability as energy production sources using thermochemical conversion routes especially...... hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. The methods used to analyze involved performing proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetry analysis. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetry analysis, the dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS), corn silage, chlorella vulgaris, spirulina platensis...

  2. A espirulina: um novo modismo brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Terãn,Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    A autora apresenta uma série de dados referentes a morfologia, cultura, processamemto, composicao química e usos da espirulina (Spirutina maxima, Spirulina platensis), microalga verde-azulada cujo consumo está muito em evidência em diversos países da Eutopa, Ásia e América do Norte e que começa também a ser miuto utilizada por brasileiros.

  3. A espirulina: um novo modismo brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Terãn

    Full Text Available A autora apresenta uma série de dados referentes a morfologia, cultura, processamemto, composicao química e usos da espirulina (Spirutina maxima, Spirulina platensis, microalga verde-azulada cujo consumo está muito em evidência em diversos países da Eutopa, Ásia e América do Norte e que começa também a ser miuto utilizada por brasileiros.

  4. Competitive biosorption of different forms of lead [Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis growth parameters [chlorophyll a (chl a) and dry-wet weight] effects on proline content, lead accumulation and the combined effect of the different forms of lead [Pb (NO3)2, Pb (CH3COO)2] and pH (6 to 8) were investigated for 192 h. The accumulation and form of lead were determined to be effective on ...

  5. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  6. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima ) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  8. Biotechnology in Georgia for Various Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.; Tsibakhashvili, N.; Kirkesali, E.; Tsertsvadze, L.; Frontasyeva, M.; Pavlov, S.

    2008-01-01

    The results of collaborative work carried out in the field of biotechnology at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) (Dubna, Russia) jointly with scientists from Georgia are presented. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA), significant results were ontained in the following directions - medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. In the biomedical experiments a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis biomass has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such vitally important trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into Spirulina platensis biocomplexes retaining its protain composition and natural beneficial properties has been proved. The adsorption of such toxic metal as mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass in dynamics of growth has been studied also. NAA has been successfully applied to investigate the biotechnology of toxic Cr(VI) transformation into less toxic Cr(III) complexes by Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts in Georgia. This method was used to track accumulation of chromium in the bacterial cells. To monitor and identify Cr(III) complexes in these bacteria, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was employed. For the first time, the elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria has been studied using epithermal NAA. The natural organic mass of vegetal origin - peat - was applied as a source of microorganisms to study the bacterial leaching of some metals from lean ores, rocks and industrial wastes. (author)

  9. Evaluación del comportamiento de vidrios lixiviados como nutrientes de algas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Grabska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se han preparado 3 vidrios con distinto contenido en SiO2 y de composición similar a los nutrientes necesarios para el crecimiento del alga Spirulina platensis. Se han escogido 2 fracciones con distinto tamaño de partícula para cada uno de los vidrios preparados y la cinética de lixiviación de dichos vidrios ha sido estudiada a través del análisis químico de las aguas de lixiviado, permitiendo obtener las curvas de velocidad para cada uno de los componentes del vidrio. A partir del cálculo de la constante de velocidad y del exponente de la reacción de lixiviado, se ha realizado una aproximación al crecimiento del alga Spirulina platensis en condiciones ambientales normales de luz, pH y temperatura y se ha obtenido que, a través de la modificación de la composición del vidrio de partida o de su tamaño de partícula, es posible ajustar el aporte de nutrientes al medio a la velocidad de crecimiento del alga Spirulina platensis.

  10. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  11. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  12. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  13. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  14. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  15. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  16. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  17. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  18. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  20. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  1. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  2. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  3. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  4. Decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes by hydrophytic vegetal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al; Popa, K.; Potoroaca, V.; Melniciuc-Puica, N.

    2001-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of some radioactive ions from contaminated waste solutions, on hydrophytic vegetal organisms is discussed. In order to follow the distribution of radioactive ions 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 51 Cr 3+ in various cell components extracted from Spirulina platensis, Porphiridium cruentum, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Lemna minor, Elodea canadensis, Pistia stratiotes and Riccia fluitans, the plants were cultivated in radioactive solutions. The resulting complexes were extracted with acetone or acetic acid and separated chromatographically. The results show an intense activity of the polysaccharide and lipoid fractions in the bioaccumulation process. The bioaccumulation varies in the series: Spirulina > Scenedesmus > Porphiridium > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna ≥ Elodea for 137 Cs + and 60 Co 2+ ; Spirulina > Porphiridium > Scenedesmus > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna > Elodea for 51 Cr 3+ . (author)

  5. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  6. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  8. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  9. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  10. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  11. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  12. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  13. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  14. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  15. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  16. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  17. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  18. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  19. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  20. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  1. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  2. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  3. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  4. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  5. Effects of dietary on antioxidant status, lipid profile, immune response and performance characteristics of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mirzaie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue-green algae but more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira. This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat-exposed broilers. Methods Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615.6 g at 17 days of age were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 chicks. Treatment groups were as follows: positive and negative controls with 0% Spirulina supplement and three Spirulina receiving groups with 5 g/kg (0.5%, 10 g/kg (1%, and 20 g/kg (2% supplementation. Spirulina receiving groups as well as positive control were exposed to high ambient temperature at 36°C for 6 h/d from 38 to 44 days of age. Biochemical variables were measured in serum samples at 35, 38, 42, and 45 days of broiler chickens age. Results The results showed that supplementation of the diet with Spirulina decreased concentration of stress hormone and some serum lipid parameters while enhanced humoral immunity response and elevated antioxidant status whereas it didn’t meaningfully affect performance characteristics. Nevertheless, feed conversion ratio was improved numerically but not statistically in broilers fed with 1% Spirulina under high ambient temperature. Conclusion Overall, the present study suggests that alleviation of adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature at biochemical level including impaired enzymatic antioxidant system, elevated stress hormone and lipid profile can be approached in broiler chickens through supplementation of the diet with Spirulina platensis.

  6. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  8. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  9. Agronomic Biofortification of Amaranthus dubius with Macro Nutrients and Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, R.; Celsia, A. S. Ruby; Mahalakshmi, R.; Rajeswari, S.

    2017-08-01

    Agronomic biofortification of Amaranthus dubius with carbohydrates, proteins and Vitamin A using Spirulina platensis is reported in the present preliminary study. S. platensis was applied basally to field and its influence on germination, concentration of proteins, carbohydrates, chlorophyll, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of leaves were assessed in CO1 variety of A. dubius. Biofortification of the nutrients were evaluated on 5th and 20th day. Germination was optimum at 0.005 % of S. platensis as a fertilizer and the agronomic fortifying agent. Germination in control was 82 % and 95 % in 0.005 % of S. platensis fortification. The concentration of total chlorophyll in control and biofortified leaf on 20th day were 85.6 mg/g and 325 mg/g of dried leaf. The concentration of proteins was 71.93 mg/g and 450 mg/g on 20th day in control and fortified leaves. S. platensis applied field produced leaves fortified with 1.27 % of vitamin A aldehyde. Antioxidant activity of control leaf was 34.85 % and it was significantly increased in fortified leaves to 87 %. Thus the study confirms the fortification of leaf with proteins, carbohydrates and vitamin A.

  10. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  11. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  12. A utility perspective on BRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, B.

    1988-01-01

    The author is program manager for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for the Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG), an activity funded by 45 utilities with nuclear power programs. The UNWMG represents the utility industry on high-level and low-level radioactive waste issues in legislative, regulatory, and technical proceedings, and therefore has a strong interest in the progress of below-regulatory-concern (BRC) regulations. The author addresses waste disposal volumes prior to discussing recent developments and status of BRC regulations

  13. Respons Imunoglobulin-G dan Imunoglobulin-M Mencit yang Diberi Ekstrak Methanol Alga Biru Hijau dan Diinfeksi Dengan Takizoit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This disease could severelyaffect humans and animals. Up to now there has been no simple treatment to fight toxoplasmosis. Aprospective alternative treatment to overcome this problem is by increasing immunity of the body using animmunostimulant such as Spirulina platensis. The aims of this research were to observe the potency of S.platensis as an immunostimulant and to find the most potential fraction of S. Platensis that can increasethe responses of IgG and IgM antibodies againts toxoplasma. The responses of these antibodies weremeasured using ELISA method. The isolation of compounds from S. platensis using Preparative ThinLayer Chromatography (PTLC found three fractions which were a top fraction (I, a middle fraction (II,and a lower fraction (III. Forty-eight mice used in this research were divided into four different groupswith 12 mice in each group and treated differently. The top, middle, and lower fractions of S. platensis wereadministered orally to three groups of mice respectively at dose of 3mg/ml for each mouse while the micein the fourth group were kept as untreated controls. The treatment was conducted for 14 days consecutivelyand on the next day, all mice, including the controls, were challenged with tachizoit. The effect of S.platensisfractions on the responses of IgG and IgM antibodies were then measured at various time intervals, i.e. day0 (before infection and day 1, 2, and 3 after infection. The results showed that IgG response increased inthe day 0 (2.504 OD and the day 3 after infection (2.608 OD while IgM response increased in day 1 afterinfection (2.898 OD. In conclusion, S. platensis was an immunostimulant and the middle fraction (II of S.Platensis was the most potential fraction to increase immunity againts toxoplasma .

  14. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  19. Build Resilience at Your Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAT allows users to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on their utility and to evaluate adaptation options to address them using both traditional risk assessment and scenario-based decision making.

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...