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Sample records for spirulina platensis photosystem

  1. Response of Spirulina Platensis to Sulfamethazine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiankuan; Lu, Xiaohong; Ma, Xiangjuan; Xia, Huilong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between a positive important biological energy source algae Spirulina platensis and an antimicrobial drug sulfamethazine was studied by a panel of bioassays. The result demonstrated that the acute toxicity of sulfadimidine on Spirulina platensis gradually increased with the increasing of the concentration of sulfadimidine. During the exposure, the toxicity of sulfamethazine on Spirulina platensis enlarged at first and reduced thereafter, and the summit was at 48 h, showing a typical “bell” curve. The EC50 in 48 h was 6.06 mg/L. Spirulina platensis was able to accumulate and degrade sulfamethazine simultaneously. The amounts of sulfamethazine accumulated and degraded by Spirulina platensis were 1.40 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg (dry weight) at 24 h, respectively. After 96 h of exposure, the accumulation decreased to 0.47 mg/kg, however, the degradation of sulfamethazine increased to 6.57 mg/kg. Due to biological activity, the removal rate of sulfamethazine was 5.2 times in the nutrient solution with Spirulina platensis as that of without Spirulina platensis. The results of this study implied that Spirulina platensis had a potential to remove sulfamethazine in the sulfamethazine contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  3. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Spirulina platensis, nutritional, quality, proteins, fatty acids. ... advantages make S. platensis a good raw material for the healthy food (Anitha and ... The fat content is determined by the Soxhlet extraction method by using .... human milk and some expensive vegetable oils according to Pierlovisi ...

  4. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  5. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis, a blue green microalga, has been used since ancient times as a source of food because of its high protein content (65%) and nutritional value. Lipids isolated from S. platensis have been shown to contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linolenic acid which is a precursor of ...

  6. Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartsch, Peter C

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes.

  7. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  8. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  9. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  10. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, dry chicken manure (DCM) was used as the source of nitrogen in the production of Spirulina platensis. Experiment was conducted in two different types of nutrition. In the type I nutrition, the highest average cell increase was recorded as 289.70 filaments mL-1 in value in the type I group (DCM+urea). In the type ...

  11. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... générale, les extraits ou la poudre de Spirulina platensis ont eu des ... Mots clés: Biostimulant, croissance, Spirulina platensis, Jatropha curcas, Solanum lycopersicum .... Le test de ..... in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and.

  12. Improvement the Yoghurt Nutritional Value, Organoleptic Properties and Preferences by Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Hadiyanto; Sutanto, H.; Widiastuti, Y.; Judiono

    2018-04-01

    Spirulina sp has been identified as potential source food functional such as protein, amino acids and other high added value compounds from microalgae. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. This research was aimed to increase the nutritional value and organoleptic properties and preferences yoghurt by Spirulina platensis supplementation. Completely randomized controlled group design conducted by 31 respondents. Spirulina Research accomplished in Food Technology, Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory at Bandung Health Polytechnic in Bandung. Samples divided randomly into three groups: (1) yoghurt standard supplemented 50 ml, (2) yoghurt and spirulina 1% supplemented 50 ml, (3) yoghurt and spirulina 1,2% supplemented 50 ml. Spirulina was added concentration by 0, 1, 1,2 % calculated by dx trial. Proximate analysis revealed the highest protein in enriched by spirulina 1%. However fat was lower 3.48 – 3.56 compare to control. All products found growing Lactobacillus acidophilus with a pH of 4.0 range. There was no microbial contamination such as E coli, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas sp. Supplementation of spirulina to yoghurt products can be accepted by organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests of concentrations of 1 and 1.2%. The material makes the blue colours more attractive and can be accepted by the expert panellist.

  13. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  14. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  15. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Linchuan; Zhou Chen; Cai Peng; Chen Wenli; Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei; Gu Jidong; Huang Qiaoyun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH 4 NO 3 , respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  16. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  17. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Zhou, Chen; Cai, Peng; Chen, Wenli; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Liang, Wei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2011-06-15

    Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH(4)NO(3), respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  19. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  20. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

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    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  1. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ( 13 C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of 13 C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure 13 C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard

  2. Experimental grounds for developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for production of the selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals was studied. The dependence of Se and I accumulation in Spirulina biomass during the cultivation in a nutrient medium loading of above elements was determined more precisely. The dynamics of Spirulina biomass growth was observed with nutrient medium loading of selenium. It is found that Spirulina platensis biomass quality may be used for pharmaceutical purposes

  3. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

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    G. L. Dotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium experimental data (R²>0.99 and ARE<5.0% and the maximum biosorption capacities were 363.2 and 468.7 mg g-1 for tartrazine and allura red, respectively, obtained at 298 K. The negative values of ΔG and ΔH showed that the biosorption of both dyes was spontaneous, favorable and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS suggested that the system disorder increases during the biosorption process.

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Spirulina platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Spirulina platensis 名詞 一般 * * * *... スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Spirulina platensis

  5. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Oprea, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  6. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  7. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  8. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  9. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  10. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10 -3 up to 10 4 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  11. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  12. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  13. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

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    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  14. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  15. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  16. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  17. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

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    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  18. Spirulina platensis attenuates the associated neurobehavioral and inflammatory response impairments in rats exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Khalifa, Hesham A; Abdel-Motal, Sabry M; Mohammed, Hesham H; Elewa, Yaser H A; Mahmoud, Hend Atta

    2018-08-15

    Heavy metals are well known as environmental pollutants with hazardous impacts on human and animal health because of their wide industrial usage. In the present study, the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing the oxidative stress-mediated brain injury elicited by lead acetate exposure was evaluated. In order to accomplish this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw Spirulina for 15 d, before and simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw lead acetate [6 injections through the two weeks]. As a result, the co-administration of Spirulina with lead acetate reversed the most impaired open field behavioral indices; however, this did not happen for swimming performance, inclined plane, and grip strength tests. In addition, it was observed that Spirulina diminished the lead content that accumulated in both the blood and the brain tissue of the exposed rats, and reduced the elevated levels of oxidative damage indices, and brain proinflammatory markers. Also, because of the Spirulina administration, the levels of the depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and interleukin-10 in the lead-exposed rats were improved. Moreover, Spirulina protected the brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum) against the changes elicited by lead exposure, and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 and Caspase-3 in both cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Spirulina has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  20. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana CEPOI; Ludmila RUDI; Vera MISCU; Angela COJOCARI; Tatiana CHIRIAC; Daniela SADOVNIC

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC), radical-scavenging activity by DPPH ...

  1. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  2. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  3. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalabegishvili, T.; Kirkesali, E.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by one of the many popular microorganisms - blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was studied. The complex of optical and analytical methods was applied for investigation of experimental samples after exposure to chloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) solution at different doses and for different time intervals. To characterize formed gold nanoparticles UV-vis, TEM, SEM, EDAX, and XRD were used. It was shown that after 1.5-2 days of exposure the extracellular formation of nanoparticles of spherical form and the distribution peak within the interval of 20-30 nm took place. To determine gold concentrations in the Spirulina platensis biomass, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were applied. The results obtained evidence that the concentration of gold accumulated by Spirulina biomass is rapidly growing in the beginning, followed by some increase for the next few days. The obtained substance of Spirulina biomass with gold nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical, and technological purposes

  4. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Minea, R.; Mitru, Ecaterina; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Albulescu, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  5. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  6. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  7. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; El-Shaer, E.A.; Ismaiel, M.M.S.; Shabana, E.F.; Gabr, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same

  8. Pão sem gluten enriquecido com a microalga Spirulina platensis Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha. Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães não sofreram alteração com a adição de até 4% da alga, porem mostraram redução de 22% nos valores de volume e aumento de 113% na dureza quando se adicionou-se 5% (em base de farinha. Quando comparados ao pão não enriquecido, a adição de Spiriulina platensis provocou uma melhoria da qualidade nutricional dos pães, confirmada pelo aumento significativo de 39,04% do conteúdo protéico, alem de vários aminoácidos essenciais (treonina, metionina, isoleucina e leucina. Com relação a cor, os pães com Spirulina apresentaram redução de luminosidade com o aumento de adição de microalga, sendo também observada tendência de aumento de tonalidade verde. Na avaliação sensorial, não se verificou diferença significativa quanto a preferência entre os pães adicionados com 3% e 5% de Spirulina na formulação.With the objective of offering a product for people with celiac disease, due to their gluten intolerance, gluten-free bread made with rice flour was elaborated, in substitution of the wheat flour. To increase the protein content of the bread, dried Spirulina platensis, a microalga, was added to the products in the range from 2 to 5% (flour basis. The bread samples were evaluated according to their specific volume (V/W, crumb hardness, measured with a texturometer, and the crumb color. It was shown that the specific volume and crumb hardness were not affected by the addition of up to 4% of alga, but a decrease of 22% in the

  9. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    Full Text Available The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli, in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml, against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  10. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  11. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  12. Investigation of the interaction of chrome compounds with blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of CrIII with the cells of blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis in course of cultivation in a nutrient medium loaded with corresponding chrome compounds is studied. It is shown that the rate of absorption of CrVI ions by spirulina biomass from the nutrient medium is approximately two orders of magnitude lower as compared to that of CrIII ions. At the same time the presence of CrVI in a nutrient medium is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cell growth rate and by deteriorating the quality of spirulina biomass. It is established that at endogenous insertion of CrIII into the biocomplex of spirulina no change in the valence state of chromium in the nutrient medium is observed and the natural properties of the biomass do not change. On the basis of the obtained concentration dependences, the recommended doses of CrIII in the preparation 'Cr-Spirulina' within the ranges of 30-100 μg/g as a food addition, and 200-250 μg/g for a medical preventive treatment are determined. (author)

  13. Compostos fenólicos totais, atividade antioxidante e antifúngica demultimisturas enriquecidas com a microalga Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bierhals, Vânia da Silva; Machado, Vanessa Goulart; Echevenguá, Walesca Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o conteúdo fenólico e as atividades antioxidantes e antifúngicas de multimisturas enriquecidas com Spirulina platensis, foram formuladas quatro multimisturas com farelo de arroz ou trigo, duas contendo Spirulina platensis e duas com sementes de girassol. Os compostos fenólicos foram estimados pela técnica de Folin-Ciocalteau. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada por meio de inibição do radical livre DPPH e a atividade antifúngica foi analisada por meio de ensaio de ...

  14. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  15. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muliterno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fonte orgânica de carbono (glicose em modo bateladaalimentada. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³ para o cultivo e as variáveis de estudo foram a concentração de glicose (0,5 gL-1 e 1,0 gL-1, a diluição do meio Zarrouk (50% e 75% e a iluminância (1800 lux e 3000 lux. A concentração celular máxima obtida foi de 5,38 gL-1 com uma velocidade específica máxima de crescimento de 0,0063 h-1, nas condições de 0,5 gL-1 de glicose, diluição do meio de 75% e iluminância de 3000 lux.The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied due to its high content (~65% of highly digestible protein as well as significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals and phycocyanin which could be useful in the human nutrition. The use of nutrients of low costs in the cyanobacterium growth could reduce the costs of production. We studied the fed-batch mixotrophic growth of the S. platensis in Zarrouk's medium with glucose (0.5 gL-1 and 1.0 gL-1 as carbon source and also investigated the effects of dilution (50% and 75%, with water and illumination (1,800 lux and 3,000 lux using a 2³ factorial design. The maximum celular concentration of 5.38 gL-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.0063 h-1 were obtained with a glucose concentration of 0.5 gL-1, 50% dilution and 1800 lux of illuminance.

  16. Application of an Ultrafine Shearing Method for the Extraction of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption method, including soaking, ultrasonication, freezing-thawing, soaking-ultrafine shearing and soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication were applied to break the cell walls of S. platensis. The effectiveness of cell breaking was evaluated based on the yield of the C-phycocyanin. The results show that the maximum C-phycocyanin yield was 9.02%, achieved by the soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method, followed by soaking (8.43%, soaking-ultrafine shearing (8.89%, freezing and thawing (8.34%, and soaking-ultrasonication (8.62%. The soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method is a novel technique for breaking the cell walls of S. platensis for the extraction of C-phycocyanin.

  17. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM, collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks with 100 litres of culture medium and an initial biomass concentration of 0.5 g/L. The culture media were prepared to test the effect of unsupplemented DCM, DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U, and/or 40 mg/L of sodium bicarbonate (DCM+U+B or DCM+B. The best cellular growth and highest protein production were observed for S. platensis in the biomass harvested from the culture medium containing DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

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    Nur Maulida Safitri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51 was identified and synthetized, which exhibited 45.98 ± 1.7% at concentration 128.15 µg/mL. Therefore, S. platensis is indicated as a potential therapeutic source for combating oxidative stress.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Maulida Safitri; Endang Yuli Herawati; Jue Liang Hsu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51) was identified and synthetized, w...

  20. Phyocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis assisted by ultrasound irradiation: effect of time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina platensis using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was conducted by using variable of extraction time, temperature and ultrasound frequency, while ethanol was used as solvent. The results show that the yield of phycocyanin extract was 15.97% at constant frequency of 42 kHz and 11.24% at constant frequency of 28 kHz, while the soxhlet extraction method obtained yield at 11.13%. The ultrasound could reduce the extraction time from 4 hrs (conventional to 20 minutes, while the optimum temperature of extraction was found at 55°C.

  1. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13; Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis com isótopo estável Carbono-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: luiz_cnst@hotmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CIE/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Isótopos Estáveis Prof. Dr. Carlos Ducatti

    2017-07-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ({sup 13}C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of {sup 13}C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure {sup 13}C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard.

  2. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Lim, Yen-Wei; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2010-09-21

    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  3. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníčková, R.; Vaňková, K.; Vaníková, J.; Váňová, K.; Muchová, L.; Subhanová, I.; Zadinová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, S.; Ruml, T.; Wong, R.J.; Vítek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 1665-2681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : bilirubin * chlorophyll * heme oxygenase * phycocyanin * phycocyanobilin * Spirulina platensis * tetrapyrroles Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2014

  4. Species-specific differences of the spectroscopic properties of P700 - Analysis of the influence of non-conserved amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, H.; Bordignon, E.; Carbonera, D.; Dekker, J.P.; Karapetyan, N.; Teutloff, C.; Webber, A.; Lubitz, W.; Schlodder, E.

    2003-01-01

    We applied optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance techniques, and redox titrations to investigate the properties of the primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I (PS I) core complexes from cyanobacteria (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Spirulina platensis, and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), algae

  5. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is the production of biomass of S. platensis using different rates of stirring, nitrogen source, amount of micronutrients, and luminosity. A 2(4 experimental design with the following factors: stirring (120 and 140 RPM, amount of nitrogen (1.5 and 2.5 g/L, amount of micronutrients (0,25 and 0,75 mL/L (11 and 15 W, and luminosity was used. Fermentation was performed in a 500 mL conical flask with 250 mL of culture medium and 10% inoculum in an incubator with controlled stirring and luminosity. Fermentation was monitored using a spectrophotometer (560 nm, and each fermentation lasted 15 days. Of the parameters studied, luminosity is the one with the highest significance, followed by the amount of nitrogen and the interaction between stirring and micronutrients. Maximum production of biomass for 15 days was 2.70 g/L under the following conditions: luminosity15W; stirring, 120 RPM; source of nitrogen, 1.5 g/L; and micronutrients, 0.75 mL/L.A Spirulina platensis é uma cianobactéria mesofílica, fotoautotrófica, que utiliza como nutrientes os nitratos, ureia e sais de amônio. O cultivo necessita de controle de temperatura, intensidade de luz e do teor de nutrientes utilizados. Esta microalga tem sido estuda pelo seu potencial nutricional, antioxidante, terapêutico e adjuvante em tratamento de obesidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de biomassa de S. platensis em diferentes níveis de agitação, fonte de nitrog

  6. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  7. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan SowriArvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  8. Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Spirulina Platensis Protein Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Sharif, M. K.; Butt, M. S.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein malnutrition and food insecurity represent serious obstructions to sustainable development, poverty reduction and food quality throughout the world. The present study has been designed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis (SP) as a protein alternative source for the utilization in food products. A protein isolate was prepared from S. platensis powder through extraction with 0.1N NaOH, precipitation at pH 3, neutralization of the dispersed precipitate to pH 6.8-7.0, and subsequent freeze drying. The S. platensis isolate amino acids compositions revealed that the total essential amino acids contribution was comparatively higher in SPI (31.16±1.43 g/100 g) as compared with SP (27.75±1.21 g/100 g). Moreover, oil and water absorption capacities, foaming and emulsifying properties, surface hydrophobicity and nitrogen solubility index were found better functional properties under laboratory conditions except emulsion properties. Conclusively, SP and its isolates might be used in various food products to curtail protein energy malnutrition. (author)

  9. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  10. Optimization of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina Growth: From Laboratory Scale to Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delrue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina is the most cultivated microalga worldwide. Improving its cultivation in terms of biomass productivity, quality, or production cost could significantly impact the Spirulina industry. The objectives of this paper were defined as to contribute to this goal. Spirulina biomass productivity was investigated through medium choice. A modified Zarrouk’s medium was selected as it gave higher final dry weights and longer sustained growth than Hiri’s and Jourdan’s media. Then, in order to reduce Spirulina production cost, modified Zarrouk’s medium was rationalized by testing different dilutions. It was found that modified Zarrouk’s medium could be diluted up to five times without impacting the growth rates in a 28-days batch cultivation. Higher dry weights were even observed after 21 days of batch cultivation (1.21 g/L for 20%-modified Zarrouk’s medium in comparison to 0.84 g/L for modified Zarrouk’s medium. Iron uptake was then investigated as one of the major contributors to Spirulina nutritional quality. An increase in iron content was obtained by replacing iron sulfate by iron EDTA at a concentration of 10 mgFe/L (2.11 ± 0.13 mgFe/gbiomass for EDTA-FeNa, 3 H2O at 10 mgFe/L compared to 0.18 ± 0.13 for FeSO4,6H2O at 2 mgFe/L. Impact of light intensity on Spirulina biomass productivity was also investigated in a 2 L Photobioreactor (PBR. Specific growth rates were calculated for Photosynthetically Photon Flux Densities (PPFD from 85 to 430 µmol/m2/s. At 430 µmol/m2/s, photoinhibition was not observed and the specific growth rate was maximum (0.12/day. Finally, a 40-day cultivation experiment was conducted in a 1000 L PBR giving a maximum daily areal productivity of 58.4 g/m2/day. A techno-economic analysis gave production cost two to 20 times higher for PBR (from 18.71 to 74.29 €/kg than for open ponds (from 3.86 to 9.59 €/kg depending on Spirulina productivity.

  11. In vitro evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract incorporated skin cream with its wound healing and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Seda; Tamburaci, Sedef; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Deliloglu Gurhan, Ismet

    2017-12-01

    Algae have gained importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their beneficial effects on skin health and therapeutical value with bioactive compounds. Spirulina platensis Parachas (Phormidiaceae) is renowned as a potential source of high-value chemicals and recently used in skincare products. This study develops and evaluates skin creams incorporated with bioactive S. platensis extract. Spirulina platensis was cultivated, the aqueous crude extract was prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity of S. platensis extract in the range of 0.001-1% concentrations for 1, 3 and 7 d on HS2 keratinocyte cells was determined. Crude extracts were incorporated in skin cream formulation at 0.01% (w/w) concentration and in vitro wound healing and genotoxicity studies were performed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the collagen activity. 0.1% S. platensis extract exhibited higher proliferation activity compared with the control group with 198% of cell viability after 3 d. Skin cream including 1.125% S. platensis crude extract showed enhanced wound healing effect on HS2 keratinocyte cell line and the highest HS2 cell viability % was obtained with this concentration. The micronucleus (MN) assay results indicated that S. platensis extract incorporated creams had no genotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that collagen 1 immunoreactivity was improved by increased extract concentration and it was strongly positive in cells treated with 1.125% extract incorporated skin cream. The cell viability, wound healing activity and genotoxicity results showed that S. platensis incorporated skin cream could be of potential value in cosmeceutical and biomedical applications.

  12. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  13. Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V B; Madyastha, K M

    2001-07-13

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is known to inactivate important cellular targets and also mediate oxidative damage in DNA. The present study has demonstrated that phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina platensis and its chromophore, phycocyanobilin (PCB), efficiently scavenge ONOO(-), a potent physiological inorganic toxin. Scavenging of ONOO(-) by phycocyanin and PCB was established by studying their interaction with ONOO(-) and quantified by using competition kinetics of pyrogallol red bleaching assay. The relative antioxidant ratio and IC(50) value clearly indicate that phycocyanin is a more efficient ONOO(-) scavenger than PCB. The present study has also shown that PCB significantly inhibits the ONOO(-)-mediated single-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 2.9 +/- 0.6 microM. These results suggest that phycocyanin, has the ability to inhibit the ONOO(-)-mediated deleterious biological effects and hence has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Felipe da Silva; Crizel, Tainara de Morais; Silva, Camila Rubira; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de las Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha). Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães ...

  15. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  16. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Mingxiong; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumao

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis. A novel antioxidant peptide was obtained by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay used to measure the antioxidant activity, and the sequence was determined to be Pro-Asn-Asn (343.15 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This peptide was synthesized to confirm its antioxidant properties, and it exhibited 81.44 ± 0.43% DPPH scavenging activity at 100 µg/ml, which was similar to that of glutathione (82.63 ± 0.56%). Furthermore, the superoxide anion and hydroxyl free-radical scavenging activities and the SOD activity of the peptide were 47.84 ± 0.49%, 54.01 ± 0.82%, and 12.55 ± 0.75%, respectively, at 10 mg/ml. These results indicate that S. platensis is a good source of antioxidant peptides, and that its hydrolysate may have important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cell-Free Extract of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the cell-free extract of Spirulina platensis. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis and finally evaluated for antibacterial activity. Extracellular synthesis using aqueous extract of S. platensis showed the formation of well scattered, highly stable, spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30–50 nm. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that biomolecules, proteins and peptides, are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilisation of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised nanoparticles exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli, MTCC-9721; Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-7299; Klebsiella pneumoniae, MTCC-9751, and Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-9542; S. epidermidis, MTCC-2639; Bacillus cereus, MTCC-9017, bacteria. The AgNPs had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI that is 31.3±1.11 in P. vulgaris. Use of such a microalgal system provides a simple, cost-effective alternative template for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials of silver in a large scale that could be of great use in biomedical applications.

  18. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Señorans, F. Javier; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol andwater). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 ◦C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using m...

  19. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  20. Phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater by Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt Geiteler: pigment content, production variable cost and nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater by Spirulina platensis was carried out using kitchen wastewater. A complete randomised design (CRD was created for the experiment which was performed on modified Zarrouk’s medium (Zm, 100% kitchen wastewater (100%Kw and 90% kitchen wastewater (90%Kw. Water quality, biomass production, pigment content and nutritional value of Spirulina platensis were determined from cultures harvested every 5 days for a period of 15 days. The physico-chemical properties of cultivated wastewater were: water temperature 27-28 oC, pH 8.73-9.77 and DO 0.20-7.20 mg L-1. The 100%Kw and 90%Kw produced lower BOD, COD, TP, NH3-N, ON, TKN, NO3-N, NO2-N, TON and TN compared to Zm with p< 0.05. After cultivation, the treated kitchen wastewater met the standards for safe discharge in Thailand. The highest level of -carotene of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.29 mg g-1 and 100%Kw (0.29 mg g – 1 while the highest levels of C-phycocyanin were obtained in 100%Kw (17.95 mg g -1 and 90%Kw (16.31 mg g-1. The highest production variable cost for dry weight of S. platensis was in Zm (310.6 Baht kg -1 and 90%Kw (303.6 Baht kg -1 as compared to 100%Kw (276.6 Baht kg -1, with p<0.05. The highest biomass production of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.84 g L-1 and 100%Kw (0.82 g L-1, with protein content of 54.44% and 35.86%, respectively. Implications for the use of S. platensis for phytoremediation and C-phycocyanin production using of 100%Kw and 90% Kw are discussed.

  1. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  2. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  3. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis evaluated with broilers Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis avaliada com frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis, the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metabolic cages for 10 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions with five birds each. Diets consisted on a reference-ration based on corn and soybean meal and two test diets, one containing spirulina (30% and the other one with soybean meal (30%. Spiruline was superior to soybean meal for contents of dry matter (DM, gross energy (9.60%, crude protein (26.56%, ether extract (54.45%, mineral matter (42.77%, calcium (100% and total phosphorus (130.77% and also for most amino acids, except lysine, glutamate, histidine and proline. Nevertheless, spiruline presented lower values of gross fiber (83.95%, acid detergent fiber (85.12% and neutral detergent fiber (6.15. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg of DM were, respectively, 2,906 and 2,502 for the spirulina and 2,646 and 2,340 for the soybean meal and AMEn of spirulina was 6.92% higher than soybean meal.Objetivou-se determinar a composição química e energética da espirulina (Spirulina platensis, os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn em frangos de corte. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas com 90 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com peso inicial de 256 ± 5 g aos 11 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo durante dez dias, distribuídas em delineamento

  4. Spirulina platensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... techniques for cultivation of useful microalgae ... cheaper nutritional sources such as ammonia and urea. (Bezerra et al., 2008; .... The analysis was conducted with .... tion effect was less marked with urea due to enzymatic.

  5. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3% had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7% had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12 and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22 by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group

  6. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-04-01

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  7. Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huili

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis (ASP is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328. The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport, translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and

  8. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

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    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  9. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis. The algal dry weight (DW was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g DW was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

  10. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  11. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  12. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  13. Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis) avaliada com frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Cantarelli, Vinícius de Souza; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Silva Júnior, José Walter da; Silva, Leonardo Rafael da; Santos, Luziane Moreira dos; Pereira, Luciano José

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis), the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metab...

  14. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  15. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  16. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheevadhanarak Supapon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation.

  17. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  18. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. E. Bashandy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO, and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication.

  19. Investigation of the Structure and Element Composition of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from the Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism.

  20. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  1. Sequence of the gamma-subunit of Spirulina platensis : a new principle of thiol modulation of F0F1 ATP synthase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinemann, D.; Lill, H

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the gamma subunit of Spirulina platensis F0F1, the relative of the chloroplast F1 subunit responsible for thiol activation, has been cloned and sequenced. As in other cyanobacteria, a specific couple of cysteines like those involved in thiol modulation of the chloroplast enzyme was

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Composition and functional property of photosynthetic pigments under circadian rhythm in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Richa; Pathak, Jainendra; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2018-05-01

    Circadian rhythm is an important endogenous biological signal for sustainable growth and development of cyanobacteria in natural ecosystems. Circadian effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations on pigment composition have been studied in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under light (L)/dark (D) oscillation with a combination of 4/20, 8/16, 12/12, 16/8, 20/4 and 24/24 h time duration. Circadian exposure of PAR + UV-A (PA) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B (PAB) showed more than twofold decline in Chl a, total protein and phycocyanin (PC) in light phase and significant recovery was achieved in dark phase. The fluorescence emission wavelength of PC was shifted towards lower wavelengths in the light phase of PAB in comparison to P and PA whereas the same wavelength was retrieved in the dark phase. The production of free radicals was accelerated twofold in the light phase (24 h L) whereas the same was retrieved to the level of control during the dark phase. Oxidatively induced damage was alleviated by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the light phase (0-24-h L) whereas the dark phase showed significant inhibition of the same enzymes. Similar characteristic inhibition of free radicals and recovery of PC was observed inside cellular filament after circadian rhythm of 24/24 h (L/D). Circadian exposure of P, PA and PAB significantly altered the synthesis and recovery of pigments that could be crucial for optimization and sustainable production of photosynthetic products for human welfare.

  4. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  5. The effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis (Oscillatoriales: Cyanobacteria on the experimental breeding of Pseudosuccinea columella (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Prepelitchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae, as Pseudosuccinea columella, are the intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis in human and livestock all over the world. A thorough knowledge of snail biology is essential for describing the transmission dynamics and for controlling this disease. Since food quality has had a significant effect on snail growth, fecundity and fertility, in this study we evaluated the use of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis as a food resource for the artificial breeding of P. columella, an invasive snail and the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Northeastern Argentina. The main purpose was to measure the effect of spirulina on fitness parameters such as survival rate, growth rate, size at first reproduction, lifetime fecundity and viable offspring. A total of 20 676 newly-laid F2 eggs were used; half of them were fed with lettuce (treatment L and the other half with lettuce plus spirulina (treatment L+S. In comparison with P. columella snails fed only with lettuce, we found that P. columella fed with lettuce plus spirulina: 1 showed higher survival rates, 2 grew faster and showed higher growth increments, 3 attained sexual maturity earlier in time (L+S:60 days vs. L:120 days and at a smaller size (L+S:4.8mm vs. L:8.2mm, 4 had a longer reproductive period (L+S:150 days vs. L:90 days, 5 produced a higher number of eggs/snail (L+S:29.6 vs. L:13.3, and 6 showed a higher offspring hatching rate (L+S:70% vs. L:40%. The supplementation of P. columella diet with commercial spirulina enhances it fitness and improved the artificial breeding of this species. Spirulina may have a direct positive effect on P. columella development by consuming it, along with an indirect positive effect by improving the water quality. This rearing technique provided large number of reproducing adults and a continuous production of offspring, which are essential for developing future experimental studies in order to

  6. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  7. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  8. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  9. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  10. In vitro and in vivo preliminary results on Spirulina platensis for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... platensis for treatment of impetigo: Topical cream application .... 7.5 g; liquid paraffin 3.75 ml; and aqueous phase: deionized water,. 35 ml; sodium ..... macroalgae from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Int. Microbiol.

  11. Electric field effects on red chlorophylls, b-carotenes and P700 in cyanobacterial photosystem I complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Palacios, M.A.; Azzizi, A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Kruip, J.; Rögner, M.; Karapetyan, N.V.; Schlodder, E.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have probed the absorption changes due to an externally applied electric field (Stark effect) of Photosystem I (PSI) core complexes from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis. The results reveal that the so-called C719 chlorophylls in S.

  12. Separation, identification and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls in dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynstova, Veronika; Sterbova, Dagmar; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech

    2018-01-30

    In this study, 14 commercial products (dietary supplements) containing alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, originated from China and Japan, were analysed. UV-vis spectrophotometric method was applied for rapid determination of chlorophylls, carotenoids and pheophytins; as degradation products of chlorophylls. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used for effective separation of these compounds, and also Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of heavy metals as indicator of environmental pollution. Based on the results obtained from UV-vis spectrophotometric determination of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), it was confirmed that Chlorella vulgaris contains more of all these pigments compared to the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. The fastest mobility compound identified in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using HPTLC method was β-carotene. Spectral analysis and standard calibration curve method were used for identification and quantification of separated substances on Thin-Layer Chromatographic plate. Quantification of copper (Cu 2+ , at 324.7 nm) and zinc (Zn 2+ , at 213.9nm) was performed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with air-acetylene flame atomization. Quantification of cadmium (Cd 2+ , at 228.8 nm), nickel (Ni 2+ , at 232.0nm) and lead (Pb 2+ , at 283.3nm) by Electrothermal Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; and quantification of mercury (Hg 2+ , at 254nm) by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  14. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  15. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Sherif, N.H

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  16. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sommella; Giulio Maria Conte; Emanuela Salviati; Giacomo Pepe; Alessia Bertamino; Carmine Ostacolo; Francesca Sansone; Francesco Del Prete; Rita Patrizia Aquino; Pietro Campiglia

    2018-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary sup...

  17. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Señoráns, Javier

    2004-08-27

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

  18. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Wong, Ka-Hing; Yang, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Wenjie; Wu, Hualian; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC) and allophycocyanin (Te-APC), two organic tellurium (Te) species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 μg g(-1) protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  19. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2008-06-25

    Both selenium and phycocyanin have been reported to show potent cancer chemopreventive activities. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) purified from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis. The antioxidant activity of Se-PC was evaluated by using four different free radical scavenging assays, namely, the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, and erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The results indicated that Se-PC exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than phycocyanin by scavenging ABTS, DPPH, superoxide anion, and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride free radicals. Se-PC also showed dose-dependent protective effects on erythrocytes against H 2O 2-induced oxidative DNA damage as evaluated by the Comet assay. Moreover, Se-PC was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against human melanoma A375 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Induction of apoptosis in both A375 and MCF-7 cells by Se-PC was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and nuclear condensation. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms indicated that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi m) was involved in Se-PC-induced cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that Se-PC is a promising organic Se species with potential applications in cancer chemoprevention.

  20. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  1. Selection and protein sds-page identification of a new high-producing polysaccharide strain of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Liu Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between anti-radiation capacity and polysaccharide contents of ten Spirulina platensis strains were studied. The results showed that the correlation coefficient between 60 Co γ-ray half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) and polysaccharide contents of the 10 strains was 0.9873. After the single cells or spheroplasts of Sp-08 were treated by 0.6%EMS and 2.4 kGy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, four morphological mutant named Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, which could endure about 7.0 kGy γ-ray irradiation, were obtained. The polysaccharide contents of Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, were 32.8%, 17.3%, 3.4% and 42.3% higher than that of their parent Sp-08, respectively. The results of protein SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heredity of Sp-08A, Sp-08C and Sp-08D were mutated. Therefore, Sp-08A was a perfect high-producing polysaccharide strain with excellent characteristics of morphology and growth. Now, Sp-08A is applied in mass cultivation and industrialization. (authors)

  2. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  3. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions on Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seker, Ayseguel [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysegulseker@iyte.edu.tr; Shahwan, Talal [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: talalshahwan@iyte.edu.tr; Eroglu, Ahmet E. [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmeteroglu@iyte.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Sinan [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: sinanyilmaz@iyte.edu.tr; Demirel, Zeliha [Department of Biology, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: zelihademirel@gmail.com; Dalay, Meltem Conk [Department of Bioengineering, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: meltemconkdalay@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    The biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution by Spirulina platensis was studied as a function of time, concentration, temperature, repetitive reactivity, and ionic competition. The kinetic results obeyed well the pseudo second-order model. Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models were applied in describing the equilibrium partition of the ions. Freundlich isotherm was applied to describe the design of a single-stage batch sorption system. According to the thermodynamic parameters such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}and {delta}S{sup o} calculated, the sorption process was endothermic and largely driven towards the products. Sorption activities in a three metal ion system were studied which indicated that there is a relative selectivity of the biosorbent towards Pb{sup 2+} ions. The measurements of the repetitive reusability of S. platensis indicated a large capacity towards the three metal ions.

  4. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  5. Aplicación de estrategias nutricionales y su efecto en el crecimiento en el cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas,Elizabet; Ávila,Marcela; Parada,Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) durante 78 días en un fotobiorreactor tubular de 300 L de volumen. Durante este periodo se registró el crecimiento en biomasa y la respuesta del cultivo a la estrategia de adición del medio nutritivo. Utilizando como base el medio Zarrouk modificado, se elaboraron tres medios: medio inicial (MI), medio crecimiento (SA1+SA2) y medio mantenimiento (SB1+SB2) para las distintas etapas del cultivo. La entrega de los medios se efec...

  6. Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Daria; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-08-03

    Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds. In the conducted research, we showed that in vitro application of Spirulina platensis contributes to the restoration of ASCs' and IECs' morphology and function through the reduction of cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhanced viability, suppressed senescence, and improved proliferation of ASCs and IECs isolated from metabolic syndrome-affected individuals were evident following exposition to Spirulina. A protective effect of the investigated extract against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration was also observed. Moreover, our data demonstrate that Spirulina extract effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vivo studies showed that horses fed with a diet based on Spirulina platensis supplementation lost weight and their insulin sensitivity improved. Thus, our results indicate the engagement of Spirulina platensis nourishing as an interesting alternative approach for supporting the conventional treatment of equine metabolic syndrome.

  7. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang,1 Ka-Hing Wong,2 Yufeng Yang,3 Xiaoling Li,1 Jie Jiang,1 Wenjie Zheng,1 Hualian Wu,1 Tianfeng Chen1 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Hydrobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC and allophycocyanin (Te-APC, two organic tellurium (Te species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 µg g-1 protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropanedihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress. Keywords: tellurium, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, purification, antioxidant activity

  8. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  10. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan Ammu; Lim Yen-Wei; Chu Wan-Loy; Lim Phaik-Eem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protectiv...

  11. Rapid mutation of Spirulina platensis by a new mutagenesis system of atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP and generation of a mutant library with diverse phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Fang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to improve the carbohydrate productivity of Spirulina platensis by generating mutants with increased carbohydrate content and growth rate. ARTP was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant library of S. platensis with diverse phenotypes. Protocol for rapid mutation of S. platensis by 60 s treatment with helium driven ARTP and high throughput screening method of the mutants using the 96-well microplate and microplate reader was established. A mutant library of 62 mutants was then constructed and ideal mutants were selected out. The characteristics of the mutants after the mutagenesis inclined to be stable after around 9(th subculture, where the total mutation frequency and positive mutation frequency in terms of specific growth rate reached 45% and 25%, respectively. The mutants in mutant library showed diverse phenotypes in terms of cell growth rate, carbohydrate content and flocculation intensity. The positive mutation frequency in terms of cellular carbohydrate content with the increase by more than 20% percent than the wild strain was 32.3%. Compared with the wild strain, the representative mutants 3-A10 and 3-B2 showed 40.3% and 78.0% increase in carbohydrate content, respectively, while the mutant 4-B3 showed 10.5% increase in specific growth rate. The carbohydrate contents of the representative mutants were stable during different subcultures, indicating high genetic stability. ARTP was demonstrated to be an effective and non-GMO mutagenesis tool to generate the mutant library for multicellular microalgae.

  12. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  13. The effects of pH in profile of lipid and ester accumulation of arthrospira platensis (spirulina) as a potential source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Patrick A.; Ybañez, Manolito G. Jr.; Avilla, Ruel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to produce biodiesel (ester-based fuel) using the extracts of microalgae Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina). Specifically, the research focused in determining effect of pH in culturing the Spirulina and its lipid accumulation; determining the constituents present in the lipid extracts; and determining the methyl esters in the transesterified lipids. The best pH condition in culturing the algal sample was found to be at pH 10 to 11. Analysis of the extracted lipid samples revealed that pH condition in culturing medium has a significant effect on the lipid accumulation in Spirulina. Perkin Elmer Claurus 500 GC-MS system elucidated that the constituents present in the experimental samples were esterified lipids. The esters were derived from butanoic, hexadeanoic and octadecanoic acid. About 19 free fatty acids out of 23 determined compounds present were from the controlled sample which suggests that these were main precursors of the esters found in the sample were butyl, allyl nonyl, propyl tetradecyl, methylpropyl, allyl dodecyl, hexyl pentadecyl, dodecyl propyl, heptyl esters with the parent chain of fatty acids enumerated above. These showed that pH manipulations could be used as a direct transesterification of fatty acids in producing biodiesels. (author)

  14. The Effect of Temperature on Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Hızarcı Uslu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sıcaklığın Spirulina platensis’in protein ve amino asit kompozisyonu üzerine etkisi. Bu çalışma, mevsime bağlı iklim değişikliğinin yaz ve kış mevsimlerinde kültüre alınan Spirulina platensis’in protein içeriği ve amino asit kompozisyonuna etkilerini incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Çalışma boyunca ışık yoğunluğu, pH ve tuzluluk günlük olarak ölçülmüş, sıcaklık ve çözünmüş oksijen gün boyunca ve gece ölçülmüştür. Yaz ve kış mevsiminde ortalama gündüz sıcaklığı sırasıyla 33,9±0,4 ºC ve 18,6±0,5 ºC olarak belirlenirken, gece sıcaklığı 29,9±0,2 °C ve 14.4±0.2°C olarak belirlenmiştir. Ortalama ışık yoğunluğu yaz mevsiminde 848,3 µmol m-2s-1 iken kışın 506,26±48 µmol m-2s-1 olmuştur. Yaz büyüme döneminde protein miktarı (72,9±03 % ve amino asit konsantrasyonu kış dönemine göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Amino asitlerden Prolin, Sistin ve Arjinin sadece kış mevsiminde gözlenmiştir

  15. Produção, aspectos nutricionais e fisiológicos de alface sob adubação foliar com Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Samara Oliveira e Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de concentrações do fertilizante orgânico a base de Spirulina platensis sobre a produção, crescimento, teores de N, P, K e sódio e sobre as trocas gasosas de alface cv. Elba em condições de campo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, constituídos das concentrações do fertilizante (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5% com seis repetições. No ponto de colheita da cultura foram avaliadas variáveis de produção e crescimento, os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e sódio, bem como, as trocas gasosas das plantas com o medidor de gás infravermelho (IRGA. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as concentrações do fertilizante, não afetaram a produção, o crescimento, os teores de nutrientes avaliados, assim como não influenciaram as trocas gasosas das plantas.Production, mineral nutrition and physiological aspects of lettuce under foliar fertilization with Spirulina platensis Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of concentrations of organic fertilizer based on Spirulina platensis on yield, growth, in N, P, K and sodium contents and on gaseous changes of lettuce cv. Elba in field conditions. Use the design of randomized blocks, with six treatments consisting of different concentrations of fertilizer (0; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 and 7.5% with six replications. At the harvest point were evaluated the growth and production, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, as well as gas exchange plant with infrared gas meter (IRGA. The results showed that the fertilizer concentrations did not affect production, growth, levels of nutrients evaluated, and did not influence the gas exchange of plants.

  16. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  17. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Natali F.; Lima, Eder C.; Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V.; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A.; Calvete, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. ► The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. ► The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for SP and AC, respectively. ► Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. ► SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4–99.0% and 93.6–97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  18. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  19. Study on the effect of different concentration of Spirulina platensis paste added into dried noodle to its quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, T. W.; Ma'ruf, W. F.; Widayat; Wibowo, B. A.; Hadiyanto

    2017-02-01

    High nutritional content of microalgae S. platensis is very good for human health especially for its protein and β-carotene. These compounds can be used for improving quality of food from nutritional point of view. This study was designed to observe the effect of different concentration of S. platensis paste to dried noodle quality based on physical, chemical and sensory perspectives. Material used in this study was S. platensis powder obtained from CV Neoalgae, Sukoharjo. The best treatment observed from preliminary study was then used for further study and compared to control treatment (without added S. platensis paste). The dried noodle resulted was then analyzed for elasticity, chemical (β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate) and sensory (hedonic). Parametric data obtained were analyzed using t-Test while non-parametric data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Multiple Comparison test. The study showed that dried noodle added with 9% S. platensis paste give significant effect (P<0.05) on elasticity; β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate and also sensory (hedonic). Dried noodle without added S. platensis paste has lower in β-carotene and protein compared to that of added S. platensis paste with the value of 0.06 mg/100 gr and 17.51 mg/100gr (β-carotene) and 8.88% and 38.6% (protein), respectively. Those, chemical composition of dried noodle added with S. platensis comply with Indonesian National Standard in term of protein, water, and ash content with sensory of 7.26 ≤ μ ≤ 7.63. Addition of S. platensis can significantly increase the nutritional of dried noodle especially protein (by 4 times) and β-carotene.

  20. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C., E-mail: kdas@engr.uga.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo [Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-06-23

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  1. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  2. UTILIZAÇÃO DE Spirulina platensis COMO SUPLEMENTO ALIMENTAR DURANTE A REVERSÃO SEXUAL DA TILÁPIA-DO-NILO (VAR. CHITRALADA EM ÁGUA SALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lafaiete Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis influence as a food supplement in Nile tilapia post-larvae grown in saline water. The experiment consisted of two treatments with three replicates. In first one the animals were fed ration containing the androgen 17 α - methyltestosterone and S. platensis, and in the other only diet with the hormone. At the end of the reversal (28 days, tilapia that received S. platensis showed average weights of 1.17 ± 0.16 g, significantly superior to the animals fed only ration, which reached an average weight of 0.62 ± 0.38 g (P < 0.05; however, survival rates showed no significant difference (P < 0.05. At the end of the experiment (78 days, fish gonadal analysis showed indices of 47.5% of males for fish reared without microalgae and 59.09% for fish reared with S. platensis. It was conclude that Nile tilapia showed good growth and survival rate in the presence of S. platensis, compared to the fish fed only diet in saline water. However, it was not possible to obtain acceptable rates of sex reversal after the administration of masculinizing hormone through the diet.

  3. SpirPro: A Spirulina proteome database and web-based tools for the analysis of protein-protein interactions at the metabolic level in Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachak, Jittisak; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Hongsthong, Apiradee

    2015-07-29

    Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is the only cyanobacterium that in addition to being studied at the molecular level and subjected to gene manipulation, can also be mass cultivated in outdoor ponds for commercial use as a food supplement. Thus, encountering environmental changes, including temperature stresses, is common during the mass production of Spirulina. The use of cyanobacteria as an experimental platform, especially for photosynthetic gene manipulation in plants and bacteria, is becoming increasingly important. Understanding the mechanisms and protein-protein interaction networks that underlie low- and high-temperature responses is relevant to Spirulina mass production. To accomplish this goal, high-throughput techniques such as OMICs analyses are used. Thus, large datasets must be collected, managed and subjected to information extraction. Therefore, databases including (i) proteomic analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and (ii) domain/motif visualization tools are required for potential use in temperature response models for plant chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria. A web-based repository was developed including an embedded database, SpirPro, and tools for network visualization. Proteome data were analyzed integrated with protein-protein interactions and/or metabolic pathways from KEGG. The repository provides various information, ranging from raw data (2D-gel images) to associated results, such as data from interaction and/or pathway analyses. This integration allows in silico analyses of protein-protein interactions affected at the metabolic level and, particularly, analyses of interactions between and within the affected metabolic pathways under temperature stresses for comparative proteomic analysis. The developed tool, which is coded in HTML with CSS/JavaScript and depicted in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), is designed for interactive analysis and exploration of the constructed network. SpirPro is publicly available on the web

  4. Fed-batch strategy for enhancing cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under phototrophic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youping; Jin, Yiwen; Zeng, Xianhai; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yinghua; Jing, Keju

    2015-03-01

    The C-phycocyanin generated in blue-green algae Arthrospira platensis is gaining commercial interest due to its nutrition and healthcare value. In this study, the light intensity and initial biomass concentration were manipulated to improve cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis in batch cultivation. The results show that low light intensity and high initial biomass concentration led to increased C-phycocyanin accumulation. The best C-phycocyanin productivity occurred when light intensity and initial biomass concentration were 300μmol/m(2)/s and 0.24g/L, respectively. The fed-batch cultivation proved to be an effective strategy to further enhance C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis. The results indicate that C-phycocyanin accumulation not only requires nitrogen-sufficient condition, but also needs other nutrients. The highest C-phycocyanin content (16.1%), production (1034mg/L) and productivity (94.8mg/L/d) were obtained when using fed-batch strategy with 5mM medium feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sommella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  6. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Conte, Giulio Maria; Salviati, Emanuela; Pepe, Giacomo; Bertamino, Alessia; Ostacolo, Carmine; Sansone, Francesca; Prete, Francesco Del; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Campiglia, Pietro

    2018-05-11

    Arthrospira platensis , better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS) and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min) and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm) tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  7. Capacidade antioxidante da microalga Spirulina platensis em células da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae submetidas ao estressor paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Guarienti, Cíntia; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Em virtude de várias publicações terem mostrado a alta associação entre a geração de radicais livres e as doenças crônico-degenerativas, tem havido grande interesse por alimentos funcionais antioxidantes. O excesso de espécies reativas no organismo resulta em estresse oxidativo que provoca danos celulares e teciduais. A microalga Spirulina tem sido pesquisada em função de suas propriedades nutricionais e antioxidantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar a atividade antioxidante da mi...

  8. Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis Assisted by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agregán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW and total phenolic compounds (TPC (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE/100 g DW yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be

  9. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  11. Changes of the delayed fluorescence characteristics in Spirulina, Anabaena and Chlorella in response to chromatic adaptation and irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znak, N.Y.; Morgun, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiency of the energy transformation for CO2 fixation (E), and kinetics of the initial O-2-mediated electron transport of Spirulina platensis (Gem. ) Geitl, and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells were measured after adaptation to various growth irradiances (I) by means of the delayed fluorescence (DF) induction curves. Maxima of the membrane potential expenses during induction period were observed at I half saturating oxygen evolution; they were shifted according to growth I remaining higher in Spirulina than in Chlorella. The alterations of absorbance and fluorescence spectra at 25 degrees C after adaptation to I demonstrated changes in composition of pigments of algae, created to compensate for the imbalance in radiation absorption between the two photosystems. For Spirulina cells, the value of E was higher after growing under low I, or under blue radiation absorbed mainly by photosystem (PS) 1 (400-500 nm) with excitation by yellow (570 nm) radiation. For Chlorella cells, it was also higher after growing under low I. Under such conditions the half-rise time for DP-phase of DF induction curve decreased, which reflected an acceleration of kinetics of the initial electron transport between photosystems. An opposite situation was observed with Spirulina cells grown under high I or yellow radiation, and Chlorella cells from high I. Enhancement of effective PS2/PS1 ratio associated with decrease of reaction centre (RC) 2/RC1 stoichiometry may because of the increase of E and high membrane energization under saturating I in algae adapted to low I

  12. Isolation and characterization of oxygen-evolving photosystem II particles and photosystem II core complex from the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šetlíková, Eva; Sofrová, D.; Kovář, V.; Budáč, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2013), s. 517-530 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1683; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : antibodies * fluorescence spectra * IMAC chromatography Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.007, year: 2013

  13. UTILIZAÇÃO DE Spirulina platensis COMO SUPLEMENTO ALIMENTAR DURANTE A REVERSÃO SEXUAL DE TILÁPIA DO NILO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO LAFAIETE MOREIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of S. platensis as a food supplement for Nile tilapia post-larvae. Two trials was running. In the first, was used two treatments, one offered freshwater microalgae (green water and other offered microalga S. platensis. In the second trial, were evaluated the effect of without copepods, administration of copepods alone and copepods enriched with S. platensis. Throughout the study, all animals were fed diets with masculinizing hormone 17-K-methyl-testosterone. It was evaluated the growth in weight and length, the survival rate and the rate of sex reversal of tilapia (mean +,- SD. In the first trial, the fish that received the S. platensis and receiving freshwater microalgae showed as result, 0.21 +,- 0.042 g; 2.50 +,- 0.091 cm; 97.5 ± 1,00% and 0.11 +,- 0.022 g; 1.91 +,- 0.419 cm; 98.33 +,- 0.70%, respectively. In the second trial, when the copepods were utilized, with and without S. platensis, the post-larvae as result, 0.221 ± 0.008 g; 2.70 ± 0.070 cm; 86.67 +,- 1.03% and 0.211 +,- 0.014 g; 2.56 ± 0.121 cm; 77.50 +,- 1.33%, respectively. The animals that received only commercial had as result, 0.190 +,- 0.008 g; 2.22 +,- 0.215 cm and 79.17 +,-0.21%. Using S. platensis resulted in better growth in weight and length, but did not affect survival and rates of sex reversal Nile tilapia post-larvae of exposed to natural food.

  14. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  15. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  16. GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis IN A TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR USING AMMONIUM NITRATE AS THE NITROGEN SOURCE IN A FED-BATCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNH4NO3 simultaneously provides a readily assimilable nitrogen source (ammonia and a reserve of nitrogen (nitrate, allowing for an increase in Arthrospira platensis biomass production while reducing the cost of the cultivation medium. In this study, a 22plus star central composite experimental design combined with response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of light intensity (I and the total amount of added NH4NO3 (Mt on a bench-scale tubular photobioreactor for fed-batch cultures. The maximum cell concentration (Xm, cell productivity (PX and biomass yield on nitrogen (YX/N were evaluated, as were the protein and lipid contents. Under optimized conditions (I = 148 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 9.7 mM NH4NO3, Xm = 4710 ±34.4 mg·L-1, PX = 478.9 ±3.8 mg·L-1·d-1 and YX/N = 15.87 ±0.13 mg·mg-1 were obtained. The best conditions for protein content in the biomass (63.2% were not the same as those that maximized cell growth (I = 180 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 22.5 mM NH4NO3. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that ammonium nitrate is an interesting alternate nitrogen source for the cultivation of A. platensisin a fed-batch process and could be used for other photosynthetic microorganisms.

  17. Análisis microscópico de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1996-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophytu), expendidas en el mercado como suplementos dietéticos y adelgazantes. Fueron observadas al microscopio fotónico y al microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), previo tratamiento por "freeze drying". Los resultados indican que todas contienen Spirulina platensis. En algunas de ellas esta especie se presenta pura, mientras que en otras se halla mezclada con otras Cyanophyta (Oscillatoria y Phormidium) debido probablemente...

  18. İki Farklı Spirulina platensis Suşunun Büyüme Özelliklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenker Kılıç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikroalgal biyoteknoloji kapsamında sıklıkla kullanılan türlerden Spirulina platensis’in üretimi son yıllarda ülkemizde de başarıyla gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, düz ve spiral formda olan iki farklı Spirulina suşunun büyüme karakteristikleri incelendi. Ayrıca, klorofil ve kuru ağırlık ölçümlerinde pratiklik sağlayacak spektrofotometrik ölçümler çalışıldı. Deneme süresince, hücre sayıları haricinde tüm parametrelerin birbirine benzerlik gösterdiği saptandı. Denemenin başında spiral/düz form oranı 2.43 iken bu oran deneme sonunda 5.53’e yükseldi. Spektrofotometrik ölçümler, kültürlerde büyümenin izlenmesinde pratiklik sağlaması bakımından önemlidir. Bu kapsamda, 680 nm’de ölçülen absorbans değeri ile kuru ağırlık ve klorofil a miktarları arasında önemli bir ilişki olduğu saptandı (p

  19. Acoustic, electrochemical and microscopic characterization of interaction of Arthrospira platensis biofilm and heavy metal ions

    OpenAIRE

    Tekaya , Nadèje; Gammoudi , Ibtissèm; Braiek , Mohamed; Tarbague , Hakim; Morote , Fabien; Raimbault , Vincent; Sakly , Nawfel; Rebière , Dominique; Ben Ouada , Hatem; Lagarde , Florence; Ben Ouada , Hafedh; Cohen-Bouhacina , Touria; Déjous , Corinne; Jaffrezic-Renault , Nicole

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study examines a biofilm of Arthrospira platensis and its interactions with cadmium and mercury, using electrochemical admittance spectroscopy technique combined with highly sensitive Love wave platform for the real-time detection in liquid medium. Spirulina cells were immobilized via multilayers of polyelectrolyte (PEM) on Si/SiO2 surface of both transducers and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cell images reve...

  20. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina®, a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Balachandran, Premalatha; Christensen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Immulina®, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a potent activator of THP-1 monocytes and CD4+ T cells IN VITRO and enhances several immunological functions in mice. We further characterized Immulina® by determining that Braun-type lipoproteins are responsible for a major...

  1. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A(H1N1) virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that Immulina, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is a potent activator of innate immune cells and that Braun-type lipoproteins (a principal toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand) are the main active components within this product. In the present study, ...

  2. Evaluation of the cosmetic potential of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Alessandra Cristine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Toiletry, Perfumery and Cosmetics Sector (TPCS) occupies a prominent place in modern society. The search for beauty and wellness, combined with increased life expectancy of the population, causes the intensive search to products that improve appearance, hygiene and health. Thus, the development of cosmetics is very stimulated. Another important feature is the continuously pressure from consumers and companies to this development of new and innovative products, raising competitivenes...

  3. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... consumption of carbohydrates for respiration and this resulted in a decrease ... crease of cell took place in the type II nutrition due to the rates of urea and .... the best cellular increase and the best protein ratio. In this case, we ...

  4. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  6. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with Recovered Phosphorus from Wastewater by Means of Zeolite Sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Depraetere, Orily; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P) source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15–1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%–20% (control). Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control. PMID:25690037

  7. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with Recovered Phosphorus from Wastewater by Means of Zeolite Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Markou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15–1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%–20% (control. Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control.

  8. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  9. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  10. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  11. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  12. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, Willem Onno

    2006-01-01

    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  13. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  14. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen-Haur Hwang

    Full Text Available Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC, the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.

  15. Phycocyanin extraction in Spirulina produced using agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, N.; Religia, P.; Mulyani, G.; Suryana, D.; Ichsan; Tanjung, F. A.; Arifin, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex synthesized by blue-green microalgae such as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. This pigment is used mainly as natural colouring in food industry. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of this natural pigment. The price of phycocyanin is a vital factor that dictates its marketability. The cost of culturing the algae, particularly from the substrate used for growth, is one of the main factors that determine the price of phycocyanin. Another important factor is the growth yield of the algae. In our research, agricultural waste such as charcoal produced from rice husk was utilized for the algae cultivation to replace the synthetic chemicals such as urea and triple superphosphate used the mineral medium. The use of this low cost substrate increases the cell concentration by 60 % during 8 days’ cultivation to reach 0.39 g/l. The phycocyanin extraction was performed using water at the different biomass-to-solvent ratio and shaking rates. The phycocyanin concentration and purity (A615/A280) obtained were 1.2 g/l and 0.3. These values are 40 % and 20 % lower than the value obtained from the algae produced using the synthetic chemicals. Further purification produced the extract purity required for food grade. The biomass-solvent ratio does not significantly affect the extract purity; however, the higher shaking rate during extraction reduces the purity. This finding demonstrates the potential of using rice husk as an alternative substrate to cultivate algae for phycocyanin extraction.

  16. Light harvesting in photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, H.; Croce, R.

    2013-01-01

    Water oxidation in photosynthesis takes place in photosystem II (PSII). This photosystem is built around a reaction center (RC) where sunlight-induced charge separation occurs. This RC consists of various polypeptides that bind only a few chromophores or pigments, next to several other cofactors. It

  17. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  18. Unraveling photosystems. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Each of the three cyanobacteria examined contains two or more genes for the B protein of photosystem II of photosynthesis. One of these genes from the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon has been sequenced. Synthetic oliogopeptides were used to raise antibodies to two ten amino acid-long sequences of the 32 kilodalton B protein. To examine whether chloroplast promoter sequences (and hence possibly chloroplast genes) can function in cyanobacteria, we have used a series of plasmids containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene minus its bacterial promoter. It appears that chloroplast promoters are recognized in cyanobacteria and act efficiently

  19. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  20. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  1. Construction of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 and Metabolic Design for Cyanobacterial Bioproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yoshikawa

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis is a promising feedstock and host strain for bioproduction because of its high accumulation of glycogen and superior characteristics for industrial production. Metabolic simulation using a genome-scale metabolic model and flux balance analysis is a powerful method that can be used to design metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of target molecule production. In this study, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of A. platensis NIES-39 including 746 metabolic reactions and 673 metabolites, and developed novel strategies to improve the production of valuable metabolites, such as glycogen and ethanol. The simulation results obtained using the metabolic model showed high consistency with experimental results for growth rates under several trophic conditions and growth capabilities on various organic substrates. The metabolic model was further applied to design a metabolic network to improve the autotrophic production of glycogen and ethanol. Decreased flux of reactions related to the TCA cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate reaction were found to improve glycogen production. Furthermore, in silico knockout simulation indicated that deletion of genes related to the respiratory chain, such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c oxidase, could enhance ethanol production by using ammonium as a nitrogen source.

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity assessment on alcoholic extract of cyanobacteria cultures from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran Jagadeesh J, Jaiganesh K, Somasundaram G

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant supplementation such as vitamin C, E, A and beta carotene etc, has proven to prevent the process of ageing caused by free radicals. Antioxidants either prevent free radical production or counteract the impeding damage by doing so they are involved in the protection and prevention of cellular damage which is the common pathway for cancer, aging and much disease. The cyanobacteria is a blue green micro algae believed to be a rich antioxidant source, found in abundance in Spiruli...

  3. Photodynamic effect and mechanism study of selenium-enriched phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis against liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Fu, Xiang; Huang, Wei; Li, Chunxia; Wang, Xinyan; Huang, Bei

    2018-03-01

    Selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) has been proved to have many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects of Se-PC against liver tumour in vitro and in vivo experiment. Our results demonstrated that the half lethal dose of Se-PC PDT on HepG2 cells was 100μg/ml PC containing 20% selenium. Se-PC location migration from lysosomes to mitochondria was time dependent. In in vivo experiments, the tumour inhibition rate was 75.4% in the Se-PC PDT group, compared to 52.6% in PC PDT group. Histological observations revealed that the tumour cells outside the tissue showed cellular necrosis, and those inside the tissue exhibited apoptotic nuclei and digested vacuoles in the cytoplasm after Se-PC PDT treatment. Antioxidant enzyme analysis indicated that GSH-Px activity was linked to the selenium content of Se-PC, and SOD activity was affected by PC PDT. Therefore, Se-PC PDT could induce cell death through free radical production of PDT in tumours and enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes with selenium in vivo. The mechanism of Se-PC PDT against liver tumour involves hematocyte damage and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis accompanied with autophagy inhibition during early stage of tumour development, which displayed new prospect and offered relatively safe way for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C). Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS) yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars) with higher rates, while...... the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used...

  5. First description of a cyanophage infecting the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacquet, S.; Zhong, X.; Parvathi, A.; Ram, A.S.P.

    Cyanobacteria constitute a versatile group of photosynthetic bacteria of immense commercial and ecological importance. Some species of this group are cultivated and sold as food because of their high nutritional value. This is typically the case...

  6. Kandungan Minyak Botryococcus Braunii, Nannochloropsis sp., dan Spirulina Platensis pada Umur yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Amini

    2011-06-01

    cell density was reached by S. platensiswith 8.46 log cell/mL on day 13, while the highest growth rate was shown by S. platensiswith growth rate (k = 9.40 on day 3. The highest yield of oil was obtained from B. brauniion day 9 which was 14.90%.

  7. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  8. Isolation, characterization and localization of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, M.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wijnholds, A.; Stal, L.J.; Hasnain, S.

    2014-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium known for its nutritional value and secondary metabolites. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are an important trait of most cyanobacteria, including A. platensis. Here, we extracted and analysed different fractions of EPS from a locally isolated

  9. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  10. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Possible role of Arthrospira platensis in reversing oxidative stress-mediated liver damage in rats exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Elhady, Walaa M; Elewa, Yaser H A; Abd El-Hameed, Noura E; Ali, Sozan A

    2018-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, particularly metallic elements, mobilized and released into the environment, eventually accumulate in the food chain and thus pose a serious threat to human and animal health. In the present study, the role of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis; SP) as a protector against oxidative stress-mediated liver damage induced by an exposure to lead acetate (LA; as a metallic pollutant) was assessed. To achieve this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw SP for 15 days, before and concurrently with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw LA (6 injections throughout 15 days). As a result, co-administration of SP with LA reduced the amount of lead that accumulated in both blood and liver tissue of the exposed rats and minimized the increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA oxidative damage, and liver enzyme endpoints. In addition, because of SP administration, the levels of depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and total antioxidant capacity in LA-exposed rats improved. Moreover, SP protected the liver tissue against the changes caused by LA exposure and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that SP has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals such as lead. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Antenna complexes protect Photosystem I from Photoinhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboresi, Alessandro; Ballottari, Matteo; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosystems are composed of two moieties, a reaction center and a peripheral antenna system. In photosynthetic eukaryotes the latter system is composed of proteins belonging to Lhc family. An increasing set of evidences demonstrated how these polypeptides play a relevant physiological function in both light harvesting and photoprotection. Despite the sequence similarity between antenna proteins associated with the two Photosystems, present knowledge on their physiological role is mostly limited to complexes associated to Photosystem II. Results In this work we analyzed the physiological role of Photosystem I antenna system in Arabidopsis thaliana both in vivo and in vitro. Plants depleted in individual antenna polypeptides showed a reduced capacity for photoprotection and an increased production of reactive oxygen species upon high light exposure. In vitro experiments on isolated complexes confirmed that depletion of antenna proteins reduced the resistance of isolated Photosystem I particles to high light and that the antenna is effective in photoprotection only upon the interaction with the core complex. Conclusion We show that antenna proteins play a dual role in Arabidopsis thaliana Photosystem I photoprotection: first, a Photosystem I with an intact antenna system is more resistant to high light because of a reduced production of reactive oxygen species and, second, antenna chlorophyll-proteins are the first target of high light damages. When photoprotection mechanisms become insufficient, the antenna chlorophyll proteins act as fuses: LHCI chlorophylls are degraded while the reaction center photochemical activity is maintained. Differences with respect to photoprotection strategy in Photosystem II, where the reaction center is the first target of photoinhibition, are discussed. PMID:19508723

  13. Quantitative Isotope-Dilution High-Resolution-Mass-Spectrometry Analysis of Multiple Intracellular Metabolites in Clostridium autoethanogenum with Uniformly 13C-Labeled Standards Derived from Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Abdelrazig, Salah; Safo, Laudina; Henstra, Anne M; Millat, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P; Barrett, David A

    2018-04-03

    We have investigated the applicability of commercially available lyophilized spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis), a microorganism uniformly labeled with 13 C, as a readily accessible source of multiple 13 C-labeled metabolites suitable as internal standards for the quantitative determination of intracellular bacterial metabolites. Metabolites of interest were analyzed by hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple internal standards obtained from uniformly (U)- 13 C-labeled extracts from spirulina were used to enable isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in the identification and quantification of intracellular metabolites. Extraction of the intracellular metabolites of Clostridium autoethanogenum using 2:1:1 chloroform/methanol/water was found to be the optimal method in comparison with freeze-thaw, homogenization, and sonication methods. The limits of quantification were ≤1 μM with excellent linearity for all of the calibration curves ( R 2 ≥ 0.99) for 74 metabolites. The precision and accuracy were found to be within relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 15% for 49 of the metabolites and within RSDs of 20% for all of the metabolites. The method was applied to study the effects of feeding different levels of carbon monoxide (as a carbon source) on the central metabolism and Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of C. autoethanogenum grown in continuous culture over 35 days. Using LC-IDMS with U- 13 C spirulina allowed the successful quantification of 52 metabolites in the samples, including amino acids, carboxylic acids, sugar phosphates, purines, and pyrimidines. The method provided absolute quantitative data on intracellular metabolites that was suitable for computational modeling to understand and optimize the C. autoethanogenum metabolic pathways active in gas fermentation.

  14. Lipids in the Structure of Photosystem I, Photosystem II and the Cytochrome b6f Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Jan; Zouni, Athina; Guskov, Albert; Krauss, Norbert; Wada, Hajime; Murata, Norio

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes the data accumulated in the last decade regarding the specific function of lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis, based on crystal structures of at least 3.0 Å resolution of the main photosynthetic membrane protein—pigment complexes, photosystem I, photosystem II and cytochrome

  15. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  17. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  18. Acute phase and transport protein synthesis in simulated infection in undernourished men using uniformly labelled Spirulina Platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeds, P.J.; Opekun, A.; Jahoor, F.; Wong, W.W.; Klein, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that injury and infection lead to body nitrogen loss, the reason has remained obscure. In this paper, we develop the argument that the processes that are activated during infection demand the provision of specific amino acids which have to be supplied from body protein. In particular, we show that the positive acute phase proteins are very rich in the aromatic amino acids and the exaggerated use of these amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) in acute phase protein synthesis lead to an endogenous ''amino acid imbalance'' which restricts the use of other amino acids for tissue protein synthesis. Minimally invasive protocols, involving the administration of 15 N and 13 C-labelled amino acids for studying whole body nitrogen turnover, amino acid oxidation and plasma protein synthesis are described. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tianfeng; Yang,Fang; Wong,Ka-Hing; Yang,Yufeng; Li,Xiaoling; Jiang,Jie; Wu,Hualian; Zheng,Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Fang Yang,1 Ka-Hing Wong,2 Yufeng Yang,3 Xiaoling Li,1 Jie Jiang,1 Wenjie Zheng,1 Hualian Wu,1 Tianfeng Chen1 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Hydrobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tellu...

  20. Photosystem I electron donor or fluorescence quencher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.E.; Croce, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light energy harvested by the pigments in Photosystem I (PSI) is used for charge separation in the reaction center (RC), after which the positive charge resides on a special chlorophyll dimer called P700. In studies on the PSI trapping kinetics, P700

  1. Functional architecture of photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, S.; Kouril, R.; Kereiche, S.; Boekema, E.J.; Croce, R.

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it

  2. Biomass composition of Arthrospira platensis during cultivation on industrial process water and harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubic, Anita; Safafar, Hamed; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    2018-01-01

    by optical microscopy showed that microfiltration caused cell rupture at the moderate level while centrifugation had more severe effect on A. platensis. Effect of centrifugal forces and shear stress on A. platensis cells was confirmed by detecting lower lipid content in samples after applying both...... microfiltration and centrifugation due to cell content leakage....

  3. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  4. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  5. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  6. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  7. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  8. The radioactivity of spirulina and its heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantariandraintsoa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is one of the three classes of algae that have the ability to accumulate contaminants from the environment in which they live. The main aim of this work is to study the radioactive contamination of Spirulina using gamma spectrometry and to determine its content of heavy elements using the technique of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Use of detector and Gamma Vision software, in the laboratory of nuclear analysis of the I nstitut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires -Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar), allowed us to find some amount of radioactive elements such as potassium, lead, thallium and bismuth. The elements found in the laboratory of X-ray fluorescence analysis, of the same institute, using the conventional method along with the XRF AXIL software are calcium, iron, magnesium, bromine, rubidium and strontium as well as heavy elements zinc and copper. Spirulina is rich in potassium, its activity is 98±56 Bq.Kg -1 and the average concentration of the radioactive element is 16.2 g.Kg -1 . Analysis results leads us to say that it is best to consume spirulina from well secured against pollution (greenhouse) culture and we can say that we need to improve crops in natural environments. [fr

  9. Characterization of phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Darojatun, K.; Gumilar, G. G.; Aisyah, S.; Wulandari, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Microalgae have some pigments which are potential to be used as functional colorant for foods and cosmetics industries. Here, Spirulina fusiformis is one of the major sources of a blue pigment phycocyanin which has commercial and biotechnological value for biomedical research, as well as a natural colorant for food and cosmetic industries. This study aims at investigating the characteristic of isolated C-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its stability under different temperature. A food grade phycocyanin with purity of 2.0 (A620/A280) was obtained successfully from Spirulina fusiformis cultured in seawater-based modified medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. No significant changes were observed in the spectrum absorbance of C-phycocyanin at temperature up to 60°C over 30 minutes of incubation, and was observed to significantly denaturation at 70°C and higher temperature. Incubation of the pigment at relatively high temperature resulted in a decrease in the spectrum intensities of the C-phycocyanin in a temperature-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that the optimal condition for preserving the stability of food grade phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina fusiformis is taking it at low temperature.

  10. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Birot, Raphaëlle; Jouvencel, Diane de; Raginel, Laetitia; Rouillé, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  11. Antiviral activity of exopolysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis against koi herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, M; Bergmann, S M; Hwang, J; Buchholz, R; Lindenberger, C

    2017-10-01

    Although koi herpesvirus (KHV) has a history of causing severe economic losses in common carp and koi farms, there are still no treatments available on the market. Thus, the aim of this study was to test exopolysaccharides (EPS) for its antiviral activity against KHV, by monitoring inhibition and cytotoxic effects in common carp brain cells. These substances can be easily extracted from extracellular algae supernatant and were identified as groups of sulphated polysaccharides. In order to reach this aim, Arthrospira platensis, which is well known for its antiviral activity of intra- and extracellular compounds towards mammalian herpesviruses, was investigated as standard organism and compared to commercial antiviral drug, ganciclovir, which inhibits the viral DNA polymerization. The antiviral activity of polysaccharides of A. platensis against KHV was confirmed in vitro using qualitative assessment of KHV life cycle genes, and it was found by RT-PCR that EPS, applied at a concentration of >18 μg mL -1 and a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.45 of KHV, suppressed the viral replication in common carp brain (CCB) cells even after 22 days post-infection, entirely. Further, this study presents first data indicating an enormous potential using polysaccharides as an additive for aquacultures to lower or hinder the spread of the KHV and koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A lithium-sensitive and sodium-tolerant 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase encoded by halA from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is closely related to its counterparts from yeasts and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yuan; Zou, Jie; Bao, Qiyu; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to the PAPases of yeasts and plants, was identified from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Phylogenic analysis indicated that proteins related to PAPases from several cyanobacteria were found in different clades, suggesting multiple origins of PAPases in cyanobacteria. The HalA polypeptide from A. platensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and used for the characterization of its biochemical properties. HalA was dependent on Mg2+ for its activity and could use PAP or 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as a substrate. HalA is sensitive to Li+ (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.6 mM) but only slightly sensitive to Na+ (IC50 = 600 mM). The salt sensitivity of HalA was thus different from that of most of its eukaryotic counterparts, which are much more sensitive to both Li+ and Na+, but was comparable to the PAPase AtAHL (Hal2p-like protein) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The properties of HalA could help us to understand the structure-function relationship underlying the salt sensitivity of PAPases. The expression of halA improved the Li+ tolerance of E. coli, suggesting that the sulfur-assimilating pathway is a likely target of salt toxicity in bacteria as well.

  13. Material science lesson from the biological photosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Lee, Jun Ho; Ha, Heonjin; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by photosynthesis, artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply are being designed. Each sequential energy conversion process from light to biomass in natural photosynthesis is a valuable model for an energy collection, transport and conversion system. Notwithstanding the numerous lessons of nature that provide inspiration for new developments, the features of natural photosynthesis need to be reengineered to meet man's demands. This review describes recent strategies toward adapting key lessons from natural photosynthesis to artificial systems. We focus on the underlying material science in photosynthesis that combines photosystems as pivotal functional materials and a range of materials into an integrated system. Finally, a perspective on the future development of photosynthesis mimetic energy systems is proposed.

  14. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  15. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ambrosi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Arthrospira platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Arthrospira platensis 名詞 一般 * * *... * スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Arthrospira platensis

  17. Organisation on Photosystem I and Photosystem II in red alga Cyanidium caldarium: encounter of cyanobacterial and higher plant concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gardian, Zdenko; Bumba, Ladislav; Schrofel, A.; Herbstová, Miroslava; Nebesářová, Jana; Vácha, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1767, č. 6 (2007), s. 725-731 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170603; GA ČR GP310/07/P115; GA ČR GA206/06/0364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Photosystem I * Photosystem II Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.835, year: 2007

  18. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S; Busheva, Mira C; Stoitchkova, Katerina V; Tzonova, Iren K, E-mail: katys@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ss-carotene (ss-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ss-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  19. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  20. The relative absorption cross-sections of photosystem I and photosystem II in chloroplasts from three types of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, A; Thielen, A P

    1980-02-08

    In the present study we used three types of Nicotiana tabacum, cv John William's Broad Leaf (the wild type and two mutants, the yellow-green Su/su and the yellow Su/su var. Aurea) in order to correlat functional properties of Photosystem II and Photosystem I with the structural organization of their chloroplasts. The effective absorption cross-section of Photosystem II and Photosystem I centers was measured by means of the rate constant of their photoconversion under light-limiting conditions. In agreement with earlier results (Okabe, K., Schmid, G.H. and Straub, J. (1977) Plant Physiol. 60, 150--156) the photosynthetic unit size for both System II and System I in the two mutants was considerably smaller as compared to the wild type. We observed biphasic kinetics in the photoconversion of System II in all three types of N. tabacum. However, the photoconversion of System I occurred with monophasic and exponential kinetics. Under our experimental conditions, the effective cross-section of Photosystem I was comparable to that of the fast System II component (alpha centers). The relative amplitude of the slow System II component (beta centers) varied between 30% in the wild type to 70% in the Su/su var. Aurea mutant. The increased fraction of beta centers is correlated with the decreased fraction of appressed photosynthetic membranes in the chloroplasts of the two mutants. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that beta centers are located on photosynthetic membranes directly exposed to the stroma medium.

  1. Carotenoids assist in cyanobacterial Photosystem II assembly and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eZakar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. They are protective agents against oxidative stresses and serve as modulators of membrane microviscosity. As antioxidants they can protect photosynthetic organisms from free radicals like reactive oxygen species that originate from water splitting, the first step of photosynthesis. We summarize the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in connection with cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Although carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, their complexes with proteins also allow cytoplasmic localization. In cyanobacterial cells such complexes are called orange carotenoid proteins, and they protect Photosystem II and Photosystem I by preventing their overexcitation through phycobilisomes. Recently it has been observed that carotenoids are not only required for the proper functioning, but also for the structural stability of phycobilisomes.

  2. Production of the α and β Subunits of Spirulina Allophycocyanin and C-Phycocyanin in Escherichia coli : A Comparative Study of Their Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdkiatikul, Thiti; Suwanwong, Yaneenart

    2014-07-01

    Allophycocyanin and c-phycocyanin have been reported to be potent antioxidants. In this work, the genes encoding the apo-proteins of allophycocyanin α (ApcA), allophycocyanin β (ApcB), c-phycocyanin α (CpcA), and c-phycocyanin β (CpcB) from Spirulina platensis were cloned, and the recombinant proteins were produced in Escherichia coli to study their antioxidant effects. All four recombinant phycocyanins could be produced in the soluble form and purified to more than 97% purity. The results of radical scavenging assays showed that the Trolox equivalent values for peroxyl radical scavenging by the ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, and CpcB proteins were 1.81 ± 0.2 µM, 1.98 ± 0.22 µM, 0.95 ± 0.15 µM, and 1.49 ± 0.15 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for hydroxyl radical scavenging of ApcA, ApcB, CpcA, CpcB, and Trolox were 269 ± 9 µg/mL, 190 ± 5 µg/mL, 129 ± 8 µg/mL, 108 ± 4 µg/mL, and 195 ± 12 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicated that allophycocyanin exhibited higher activity than c-phycocyanin in scavenging peroxyl radicals, whereas c-phycocyanin exhibited higher activity than allophycocyanin in scavenging hydroxyl radicals. All of the apo-phycocyanin subunits possessed strong antioxidant activities and can be further developed and applied to the food and drug industries. However, the selection of the most useful antioxidant should depend on the type of targeted free radical to obtain the highest efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Non-intrusive Assessment of Photosystem II and Photosystem I in Whole Coral Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milán Szabó

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reef building corals (phylum Cnidaria harbor endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium that generate photosynthetic products to fuel their host's metabolism. Non-invasive techniques such as chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence analyses of Photosystem II (PSII have been widely used to estimate the photosynthetic performance of Symbiodinium in hospite. However, since the spatial origin of PSII chlorophyll fluorescence in coral tissues is uncertain, such signals give limited information on depth-integrated photosynthetic performance of the whole tissue. In contrast, detection of absorbance changes in the near infrared (NIR region integrates signals from deeper tissue layers due to weak absorption and multiple scattering of NIR light. While extensively utilized in higher plants, NIR bio-optical techniques are seldom applied to corals. We have developed a non-intrusive measurement method to examine photochemistry of intact corals, based on redox kinetics of the primary electron donor in Photosystem I (P700 and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (Fast-Repetition Rate fluorometry, FRRf. Since the redox state of P700 depends on the operation of both PSI and PSII, important information can be obtained on the PSII-PSI intersystem electron transfer kinetics. Under moderate, sub-lethal heat stress treatments (33°C for ~20 min, the coral Pavona decussata exhibited down-regulation of PSII electron transfer kinetics, indicated by slower rates of electron transport from QA to plastoquinone (PQ pool, and smaller relative size of oxidized PQ with concomitant decrease of a specifically-defined P700 kinetics area, which represents the active pool of PSII. The maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and functional absorption cross-section of PSII (σPSII remained unchanged. Based on the coordinated response of P700 parameters and PSII-PSI electron transport properties, we propose that simple P700 kinetics parameters as employed here serve as indicators of

  4. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  5. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi eYamamoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/ light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II.

  6. Proteome-wide analysis and diel proteomic profiling of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Matallana-Surget

    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation.

  7. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  8. Use of rotifers for the maintenance of monoalgal mass cultures of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Richmond, A.

    1987-01-01

    Zooplankton was successfully used for the biological control of unicellular algal contaminants in Spirulina mass cultures even under conditions adverse to the growth of Spirulina (maximal winter daily temperature of approximately 10 degrees C and very low bicarbonate concentration). Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) was the most successful species of zooplankton used. The interrelationships between Spirulina, green unicellular contaminant, and B. plicatilis were studied under various conditions. Two species of unicellular contaminant were used; Monoraphidium minutum was isolated from local cultures and Chlorella vulgaris, obtained from contaminated Spirulina cultures in Israel. The rotifer B. plicatilis successfully controlled the population size of both contaminants whether they were introduced in a single addition or as a daily dose. The biological control of the unicellular contaminants allows Spirulina to be cultured in a medium low in bicarbonate, thereby reducing the cost of the medium and increasing the quantity of CO2 that may be freely absorbed from the atmosphere at the optimal pH for Spirulina cultivation. (Refs. 9).

  9. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  10. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  11. The structure of spinach Photosystem I studied by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Wynn, R. Max; Malkin, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The structure of three types of Photosystem I (PS I) complex isolated from spinach chloroplasts was studied by electron microscopy and computer image analysis. Molecular projections (top views and side views) of a native PS I complex (PSI-200), an antenna-depleted PS I complex (PSI-100) and the PS I

  12. Photosystem I-​based Biophotovoltaics on Nanostructured Hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocakoglu, K.; Krupnik, T.; van den Bosch, B.; Harputlu, E.; Gullo, M.P.; Olmos, J.D.J.; Yildirimcan, S.; Gupta, R.K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.; Barbieri, A.; Reek, J.N.H.; Kargul, J.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic coupling between a robust red algal photosystem I (PSI) associated with its light harvesting antenna (LHCI) and nanocrystalline n-​type semiconductors, TiO2 and hematite (α-​Fe2O3) is utilized for fabrication of the biohybrid dye-​sensitized solar cells (DSSC)​. PSI-​LHCI is

  13. Structure and membrane organization of photosystem II in green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Barber, J; Boekema, EJ

    1997-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the pigment protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that uses solar energy to drive the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. This chapter reviews the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of PSII as

  14. PMS : Photosystem I electron donor or fluorescence quencher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta

    Light energy harvested by the pigments in Photosystem I (PSI) is used for charge separation in the reaction center (RC), after which the positive charge resides on a special chlorophyll dimer called P700. In studies on the PSI trapping kinetics, P700(+) is usually chemically reduced to re-open the

  15. Structure, function and regulation of plant photosystem I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Poul Erik; Bassi, Roberto; Boekema, Egbert J.; Dekker, Jan P.; Jansson, Stefan; Leister, Dario; Robinson, Colin; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a multisubunit protein complex located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants and algae, where it initiates one of the first steps of solar energy conversion by light-driven electron transport. In this review, we discuss recent progress on several topics related to the

  16. Structure, function and regulation of plant photosystem I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, P.E.; Bassi, R.; Boekema, E.J.; Dekker, J.P.; Jansson, S.; Leister, D.; Robinson, C.; Scheller, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a multisubunit protein complex located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants and algae, where it initiates one of the first steps of solar energy conversion by light-driven electron transport. In this review, we discuss recent progress on several topics related to the

  17. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereiche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta; Kereïche, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II ( PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it

  18. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  19. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [es

  20. Nutritional comparison of Spirulina sp powder by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Amalia, U.

    2018-01-01

    The Spirulina sp powder contains high levels of protein and Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) improved protein level. The aims of the study was to find the proximate contents in Spirulina sp’s powder fermentation. The experiments were conducted by SSF of Spirulina sp’s powder using fungi Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127). SSF was carried out for 10 days at 35% moisture level. The protein contents of Spirulina sp’s powder fermented by L. plantarum were consistently lower (p fermentation. The Spirulina sp fermented products contained the highest level of protein after 6 days.

  1. Consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis is associated with reduction of chronic pain: results from two human clinical pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Victoria L Attridge,1 Steve G Carter,1 Jesse Guthrie,2 Axel Ehmann,2 Kathleen F Benson1 1NIS Labs, 2Cerule LLC, Klamath Falls, OR, USA Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE from Arthrospira platensis on chronic pain in humans, in two clinical pilot studies. Design and interventions: The two pilot studies each involved 12 subjects experiencing chronic pain. The initial study followed an open-label 4-week study design involving consumption of 1 g ACE per day. A subsequent placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover study involved consumption of 500 mg ACE, 250 mg ACE, or 0 mg ACE (placebo per day for 1-week duration, separated by 1-week washout period. Subjects: Adult subjects of both sexes, with chronic joint-related pain for at least 6 months prior to enrollment, were recruited after obtaining written informed consent. Outcome measures: Visual analog scales were used to score pain at rest and during physical activity for each person's primary and secondary areas of chronic pain. An activities of daily living questionnaire was used to collect data on physical functioning. Results: The data showed rapid reduction of chronic pain in people consuming ACE, where the reduction in pain scores for each person's primary pain area reached a high level of statistical significance after 2 weeks of consumption (P<0.01, both when at rest and when being physically active. Secondary pain areas when physically active showed highly significant improvements within 1 week of consumption of 1 g/d (P<0.001 and borderline significant improvements within 1 week of consuming 500 mg/d (P<0.065 and 250 mg/d (P<0.05. This was accompanied by an increased ability to perform daily activities (P<0.05. A small but significant weight loss was observed during the 4-week study, as the average body mass index dropped from 31.4 to 29.4 (P<0.01. Conclusion: Consumption of ACE was associated

  2. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-08-31

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  3. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  4. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  5. Effect of humic acids on the growth and the biochemical composition of Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massiel Vanessa Rivera Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of humic acids (HA 1, 10, 100 mg/L against a concentration of indole acetic acid (IAA on production of biomass, pigments, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids of A. platensis.  Cultures discontinuous in Zarrouk 25% medium supplemented with HA and IAA under conditions of aeration constant and photoperiod from 12:12 hours, during 30 days were made. It was found that the maximum biomass production was higher in the culture supplemented with 10 mg / L of AH, compared to the control and cultures supplemented with AIA. In the same way the highest production of pigments, proteins and carbohydrates were observed in this treatment. Therefore, the growth and production of metabolites of A. platensis was increased, which makes it possible to observe the potential use of these substances as organic biological stimulants.

  6. Large photovoltages generated by plant photosystem I crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toporik, Hila; Carmeli, Chanoch; Nelson, Nathan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Carmeli, Itai [School of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Volotsenko, Irina; Molotskii, Michel; Rosenwaks, Yossi [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-06-12

    Micrometer-thick plant photosystem I crystals made of up to 1000 layers of serially arranged protein complexes generate unprecedented high photovoltages when placed on a conducting solid surface and measured using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The successive layers form serially photoinduced dipoles in the crystal that give rise to electric fields as large as 100 kV cm{sup -1}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Ch...

  8. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identi...

  9. Nutritional control of antibiotic production by Streptomyces platensis MA7327: importance of L-aspartic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Falzone, Maria; Crespo, Emmanuel; Jones, Klarissa; Khan, Gulaba; Korn, Victoria L; Patel, Amreen; Patel, Mira; Patel, Krishnaben; Perkins, Carrie; Siddiqui, Sana; Stenger, Drew; Yu, Eileen; Gelber, Michael; Scheffler, Robert; Nayda, Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces platensis MA7327 is a bacterium producing interesting antibiotics, which act by the novel mechanism of inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis. The antibiotics produced by this actinomycete are platensimycin and platencin plus some minor related antibiotics. Platensimycin and platencin have activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; they also lack toxicity in animal models. Platensimycin als...

  10. Deodorization of Arthrospira platensis biomass for further scale-up food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Barba-Davila, Bertha; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, José; Morales-Davila, Sandra; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Chuck-Hernández, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Given the importance of A. platensis as a potential food protein source, we describe an affordable deodorization process that does not significantly affect the nutritional value of algae biomass. Ethanol, acetone or hexane were used to deodorize algae biomass and then to identify the profile of volatile compounds associated with its distinctive odor. Sensorial characteristics were improved in the biomass cake after the proposed solvent extraction. Panelists identified the ethanolic extract with the most pronounced algae-related odor. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that a mixture of 20 different compounds derived from fatty acids and amino acids contributed to the characteristic smell of A. platensis biomass. The results of the present study show that the ethanol solvent-free A. platensis biomass contained > 600 g kg -1 protein,  65% in vitro protein digestibility, similar to the original biomass. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy secondary protein structure was comparable among samples, indicating that the only change after ethanol extraction was a reduction of the algae smell. The various extraction procedures investigated in the present study were effective in deodorizing the algae biomass. The most effective protocol was the removal of odoriferous compounds with ethanol. This particular procedure yielded an algae biomass with an improved sensorial traits. The results of the present study should help with the identification of odoriferous compounds derived from fatty acids, pigments and proteins associated with A. platensis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Performance of the mixed LED light quality on the growth and energy efficiency of Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ruixin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2018-06-01

    The effect of mixed light quality with red, blue, and green LED lamps on the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied, so as to lay the theoretical and technical basis for establishing a photo-bioreactor lighting system for application in space. Meanwhile, indexes, like morphology, growth rate, photosynthetic pigment compositions, energy efficiency, and main nutritional components, were measured respectively. The results showed that the blue light combined with red light could decrease the tightness of filament, and the effect of green light was opposite. The combination of blue light or green light with red light induced the filaments to get shorter in length. The 8R2B treatment could promote the growth of Arthrospira platensis significantly, and its dry weight reached 1.36 g L -1 , which was 25.93% higher than the control. What's more, 8R2B treatment had the highest contents of carbohydrate and lipid, while 8R2G was rich in protein. 8R0.5G1.5B had the highest efficiency of biomass production, which was 161.53 mg L -1  kW -1  h -1 . Therefore, the combination of red and blue light is more conducive to the growth of Arthrospira platensis, and a higher biomass production and energy utilization efficiency can be achieved simultaneously under the mixed light quality with the ratio of 8R0.5G1.5B.

  12. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  13. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  14. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  16. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M. Neyrinck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

  17. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  18. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  19. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  20. C-phycocyanin extraction assisted by pulsed electric field from Artrosphira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Manuel; Luengo, Elisa; Saldaña, Guillermo; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2017-09-01

    This paper assesses the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to the fresh biomass of Artrhospira platensis in order to enhance the extraction of C-phycocyanin into aqueous media. Electroporation of A. platensis depended on both electric field strength and treatment duration. The minimum electric field intensity for detecting C-phycocyanin in the extraction medium was 15kV/cm after the application of a treatment time 150μs (50 pulses of 3μs). However higher electric field strength were required when shorter treatment times were applied. Response surface methodology was used in order to investigate the influence of electric field strength (15-25kV/cm), treatment time (60-150μs), and temperature of application of PEF (10-40°C) on C-phycocyanin extraction yield (PEY). The increment of the temperature PEF treatment reduced the electric field strength and the treatment time required to obtain a given PEY and, consequently decreased the total specific energy delivered by the treatment. For example, the increment of temperature from 10°C to 40°C permitted to reduce the electric field strength required to extract 100mg/g d w of C-phycocyanin from 25 to 18kV/cm, and the specific energy input from 106.7 to 67.5kJ/Kg. Results obtained in this investigation demonstrated PEF's potential for selectively extraction C-phycocyanin from fresh A. platensis biomass. The purity of the C-phycocyanin extract obtained from the electroporated cells was higher than that obtained using other techniques based on the cell complete destruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  2. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-01-01

    : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure bu...

  3. Antioxidative effect of Arthrospira platensis biomass on the lipid oxidation| Efeito antioxidante da biomassa de Arthrospira platensis sobre a oxidação lipídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Meireles de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyanobacteria are promising natural sources of antioxidants. Environmental conditions that influence synthesis of substances in cultures of cyanobacteria have been studied. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the antioxidative effect of Arthrospira platensis biomass on the process of lipid oxidation in bulk oil and oil/water emulsion. Method: Arthrospira platensis growth potential for antioxidant production under different cultivation conditions using an experimental design. The antioxidative effect of the methanolic extracts and the biomass on preventing lipid oxidation was measured by peroxide value (PV. Results: The results showed that the growing conditions to obtain the biomass promoted change in the protective ability of different biomass extracts. Extracts obtained from the cultivated biomass grown under 150 μmol photons/m2s-1, 1.875 g.L-1 NaNO3; 13.5 g.L-1 NaHCO3 (assay14 and 50 μmol photons/m2s-1, 2.5 g.L-1 NaNO3; 18.0 g.L-1 NaHCO3 (standard showed the most antioxidative effect on preventing lipid oxidation, therefore used in the formulation of mayonnaise. The mayonnaise made with soybean oil and 0.5% biomass was preserved against lipid photodegradation during seven days of storage, but the peroxide value related to control varied from 2.9 to 3.1 mEqO2.Kg-1, with no significant difference in the preservation afforded by tert-butilhydroquinone, in the same period of storage. In mayonnaise made with sunflower oil, biomass, independent of concentration, was unable to protect the product against photooxidation. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the protective ability on preventing lipid oxidation of Arthrospira platensis biomass and its potential for use in food lipid-based of soybean oil. ============================================== Introdução: Cianobactérias são promissoras fontes naturais de antioxidantes. Condições ambientais que influenciam síntese de substâncias em cultivos de cianobact

  4. Effects of light, food availability and temperature stress on the function of photosystem II and photosystem I of coral symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia O Hoogenboom

    Full Text Available Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to "bleach," lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate.This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress.Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host.

  5. New evidences on the presence of Stegomastodon platensis Ameghino, 1888, Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae, in the Late Pleistocene of Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarca, R.; Alberdi, M.T.; Prado, J.L.; Mansilla, P.; Mourgues, F.A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper contextualizes, describes and taxonomically assigned cranial and dental Gomphotheriidae materials from the El Trebal 1, late Pleistocene form central Chile. Starting from metric and morphological variables fossils are included in Stegomastodon platensis. Taxonomic implications of this finding as well as some regional paleoenvironmental history are discussed. (Author)

  6. Bacterias halotolerantes/alcalofilas productoras de acido indol acético (AIA asociadas a Arthrospira platensis (Cyanophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cecilia Gómez Gómez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Halotolerant alkalophilic and indolacetic acid producing acid producing bacteria associated with Arthrospira platensis (Cyanophyceae Resumen: Este trabajo tuvo como propósito contribuir al conocimiento de la interacción entre la cianobacteria alcalófila Arthrospira platensis y las bacterias que crecen asociadas a su mucilago. Se desarrolló un  medio de cultivo heterotrófico en el cual se aislaron cinco cepas bacterianas asociadas a un monocultivo de A. platensis. Se determinó la capacidad de estas cinco cepas para producir ácido 3- indol acético (AIA. La tipificación molecular de los aislamientos bacterianos permitió identificarlos como Exiguobacterium aurantiacum str. DSM 20416, Xanthomonas sp. ML-122, Halomonas sp. Ap-5, Bacillus okhensis str.  Kh10-101, Indibacter alkaliphilus, type str. LW1T; todas las cepas bacterianas obtenidas  son halotolerantes, alcalófilas y productoras de AIA. Los resultados aportan evidencia para sugerir una interacción benéfica entre A. platensis y sus bacterias asociadas,  quizá como estrategia evolutiva  de cooperación para desarrollarse en  un ambiente hipersalino.    Palabras claves: Bacillus okhensis, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, Halomonas sp., Indibacter alkaliphilus. Xanthomonas sp. Abstract: The aim of this study was contribute to knowledge over alkalophilic cianobacteryum  Arthrospira platensis  and their  interaction with some associated bacteria growing in their mucilage. Heterotrophic culture medium was designed, in this medium were isolated five bacterial strains associated to single culture of A. platensis. It was measured the 3-indol acetic acid (IAA production by these bacterial strains. Molecular typing allowed identify these bacterial strains like Exiguobacterium aurantiacum str. DSM 20416, Xanthomonas sp. ML-122, Halomonas sp. Ap-5, Bacillus okhensis str. Kh10-101, Indibacter alkaliphilus, type str. LW1T; all these bacteria are halotolerant

  7. Consequences of Modification of Photosystem Stoichiometry and Amount in Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Willem [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The proposed research seeks to address two interconnected, important questions that impact photosynthetic processes and that reflect key differences between the photosynthetic systems of cyanobacteria and plants or algae. The first question is what are the reasons and consequences of the high photosystem I / photosystem II (PS I/PS II) ratio in many cyanobacteria, vs. a ratio that is close to unity in many plants and algae. The corresponding hypothesis is that most of PS I functions in cyclic electron transport, and that reduction in PS I will result primarily in a shortage of ATP rather than reducing power. This hypothesis will be tested by reducing the amount of PS I by changing the promoter region of the psaAB operon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and generating a range of mutants with different PS I content and thereby different PS I/PS II ratios, with some of the mutants having a PS II/PS I ratio closer to that in plants. The resulting mutants will be probed in terms of their growth rates, electron transfer rates, and P700 redox kinetics. A second question relates to a Mehler-type reaction catalyzed by two flavoproteins, Flv1 and Flv3, that accept electrons from PS I and that potentially function as an electron safety valve leading to no useful purpose of the photosynthesis-generated electrons. The hypothesis to be tested is that Flv1 and Flv3 use the electrons for useful purposes such as cyclic electron flow around PS I. This hypothesis will be tested by analysis of a mutant strain lacking flv3, the gene for one of the flavoproteins. This research is important for a more detailed understanding of the consequences of photosystem stoichiometry and amounts in a living system. Such an understanding is critical for not only insights in the regulatory systems of the organism but also to guide the development of biological or bio-hybrid systems for solar energy conversion into fuels.

  8. Isolation and antibacterial activity of anabaena phycocyanin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... (Yoshida et al., 1996) due to their antioxidant and anti- inflammatory ... studies indicated that phycocyanin from spirulina have obvious curative effect on .... phycocyanin from spirulina platensis using expanded bed adsorption.

  9. Subunit stoichiometry of the chloroplast photosystem I complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, B.D.; Malkin, R.

    1988-01-01

    A native photosystem I (PS I) complex and a PS I core complex depleted of antenna subunits has been isolated from the uniformly 14 C-labeled aquatic higher plant, Lemna. These complexes have been analyzed for their subunit stoichiometry by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. The results for both preparations indicate that one copy of each high molecular mass subunit is present per PS I complex and that a single copy of most low molecular mass subunits is also present. These results suggest that iron-sulfur center X, an early PS I electron acceptor proposed to bind to the high molecular mass subunits, contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster which is bound to a dimeric structure of high molecular mass subunits, each providing 2 cysteine residues to coordinate this cluster

  10. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Halodule uninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows

  11. Differential Roles of Carotenes and Xanthophylls in Photosystem I Photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bressan, Mauro; Carbonera, Donatella; Agostini, Alessandro; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2016-07-05

    Carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives, xanthophylls, are structural elements of the photosynthetic apparatus and contribute to increasing both the light-harvesting and photoprotective capacity of the photosystems. β-Carotene is present in both the core complexes and light-harvesting system (LHCI) of Photosystem (PS) I, while xanthophylls lutein and violaxanthin bind exclusively to its antenna moiety; another xanthophyll, zeaxanthin, which protects chloroplasts against photooxidative damage, binds to the LHCI complexes under conditions of excess light. We functionally dissected various components of the xanthophyll- and carotene-dependent photoprotection mechanism of PSI by analyzing two Arabidopsis mutants: szl1 plants, with a carotene content lower than that of the wild type, and npq1, with suppressed zeaxanthin formation. When exposed to excess light, the szl1 genotype displayed PSI photoinhibition stronger than that of wild-type plants, while removing zeaxanthin had no such effect. The PSI-LHCI complex purified from szl1 was more photosensitive than the corresponding wild-type and npq1 complexes, as is evident from its faster photobleaching and increased rate of singlet oxygen release, suggesting that β-carotene is crucial in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Accordingly, fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed an increase in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets in β-carotene-depleted complexes. When PSI was fractioned into its functional moieties, it was revealed that the boost in the rate of singlet oxygen release caused by β-carotene depletion was greater in LHCI than in the core complex. We conclude that PSI-LHCI complex-bound β-carotene elicits a protective response, consisting of a reduction in the yield of harmful triplet excited states, while accumulation of zeaxanthin plays a minor role in restoring phototolerance.

  12. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m '), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm ) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  13. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50 over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ', indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect

  14. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima . The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % ( P  maxima -is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements.

  15. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  16. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  17. Antenna entropy in plant photosystems does not reduce the free energy for primary charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the concept of the so-called "antenna entropy" of higher plant photosystems. Several interesting points emerge: 1. In the case of a photosystemwhich harbours an excited state, the “antenna entropy” is equivalent to the configurational (mixing) entropy of a thermodynamic canonical ensemble. The energy associated with this parameter has been calculated for a hypothetical isoenergetic photosystem, photosystem I and photosystem II, and comes out in the range of 3.5 - 8% of the photon energy considering 680 nm. 2. The “antenna entropy” seems to be a rather unique thermodynamic phenomenon, in as much as it does not modify the free energy available for primary photochemistry, as has been previously suggested. 3. It is underlined that this configurational (mixing) entropy, unlike heat dispersal in a thermal system, does not involve energy dilution. This points out an important difference between thermal and electronic energy dispersal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resonance assignment of PsbP: an extrinsic protein from photosystem II of Spinacia oleracea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rathner, A.; Chandra, K.; Rathner, P.; Horničáková, M.; Schlagnitweit, J.; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Müller, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2015), s. 341-346 ISSN 1874-2718 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : PsbP * Photosystem II * Oxygen evolving complex Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2015

  19. Accelerated degradation of the D2 protein of photosystem II under ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Edelman, M.; Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.

    1996-01-01

    The D2 protein of photosystem II is relatively stable in vivo under photosynthetic active radiation, but its degradation accelerates under UVB radiation. Little is known about accelerated D2 protein degradation. We characterized wavelength dependence and sensitivity toward photosystem II inhibitors. The in vivo D2 degradation spectrum resembles the pattern for the rapidly turning over D1 protein of photosystem II, with rates being maximal in the UVB region. We propose that D2 degradation, like D1 degradation, is activated by distinct photosensitizers in the UVB and visible regions of the spectrum. In both wavelength regions, photosystem II inhibitors that are known to be targeted to the D1 protein affect D2 degradation. This suggests that degradation of the two proteins is coupled, D2 degradation being influenced by events occurring at the Q B niche on the D1 protein. (Author)

  20. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  1. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  3. Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  4. Quality control of photosystem II: lipid peroxidation accelerates photoinhibition under excessive illumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Chan

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100-1,000 µmol photons m(-1 s(-1 for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits.

  5. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  6. Experimental and modelling of Arthrospira platensis cultivation in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Amal, J C; Savithri, S; Haridas, Ajith

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied in an open raceway pond. Furthermore, dynamic model for algae growth and CFD modelling of hydrodynamics in open raceway pond were developed. The dynamic behaviour of the algal system was developed by solving mass balance equations of various components, considering light intensity and gas-liquid mass transfer. A CFD modelling of the hydrodynamics of open raceway pond was developed by solving mass and momentum balance equations of the liquid medium. The prediction of algae concentration from the dynamic model was compared with the experimental data. The hydrodynamic behaviour of the open raceway pond was compared with the literature data for model validation. The model predictions match the experimental findings. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic behaviour and residence time distribution in our small raceway pond were predicted. These models can serve as a tool to assess the pond performance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  8. Isolation and biochemical characterisation of monomeric and dimeric photosystem II complexes from spinach and their relevance to the organisation of photosystem II in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Nield, J; Zheleva, D; Boekema, E; Jansson, S; Barber, J

    1997-01-01

    Membranes enriched in photosystem II were isolated from spinach and further solubilised using n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (OctGlc) and n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (DodGlc(2)). The OctGlc preparation had high rates of oxygen evolution and when subjected to size-exclusion HPLC and sucrose density

  9. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-10-07

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C(2)S(2)M(2) at 12 A resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching.

  10. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  11. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  12. Inspiration fuels space research in Congo. Combating malnutrition with Spirulina, the green protein source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Congo, around 43% of all children under the age of five suffer from chronic malnutrition. The result is a high infant mortality rate./ Researchers from the Belgian Nuclear research Center SCK•CEN started working on the cultivation of spirulina, a type of algae rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for combating chronic malnutrition in children. This Inspiration project is the first in a series and signals the ambition of SCK•CEN to contribute towards a balanced and sustainable world.

  13. The effects of nitrogen deficiencies on the lipid and protein contents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen deficiencies were studied in Spirulina platensis (Cyanophyceae) with the aim of determining the effects of the 50 and 100% deficient nitrogen on the lipid and protein contents of the cell under laboratory conditions. S. platensis cultures were grown in Spirulina medium and kept at the constant room temperature of ...

  14. Studies on the water quality and biota of a tidal eutrophic creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... E.monodon, Navicula gracilis, N. mutica, Ulnariaulna, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba, Microcystis aeruginosa and Spirulina platensis. Of the 15 mudflat algae Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba and Spirulina platensis were environmentally important species. The population of the benthic fauna was ...

  15. Influence of desalinator wastewater for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis. Fatty acids profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmann, Harriet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a desalination processes in northeastern Brazil is due to the salinity of its water sources. However, these processes produce residues with high saline concentrations and a significant environmental impact. These wastewaters can be used for Arthrospira platensis cultivation. This work aimed to cultivate Arthrospira platensis in three different media: Paoletti Synthetic Medium (PSM, Salinated Water Medium (SWM and Desalinator Wastewater Médium (DWWM. Microalgae were cultivated under controlled conditions, in 4 L photobioreactors, 30±1°C, 12 hours of light/dark photoperiod provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 μmol• m–2•s–1 and constant bubbling of air (0.5 L•L–1 •min–1. The effect of different media on cell concentration, productivity, total content of lipids and fatty acids profile was verified. Higher cell concentration, as well as higher productivity was observed in DWWM: 4.954 (±0.554 g•L–1 and 0.225 (±0.042 g•L–1 •day–1, respectively. Concerning total lipids, the contents of 4.54% and 4.69% were observed in DWWM and SWM, respectively. High levels of saturated fatty acids were observed in both treatments. Concerning γ-linolenic acid, the contents of 13.09% (DWWM and 11.95% (SWM were found.En la región nordeste de Brasil, debido a la elevada salinidad de los acuíferos, existe la necesidad de utilizar procesos de desalación. Sin embargo, estos procesos generan residuos con alta concentración salina, con significativo impacto ambiental. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el cultivo de Arthrospira platensis en tres medios de cultivo diferentes: medio de Paoletti, medio de agua salinizada y medio de agua de desecho obtenida en el proceso de desalación de acuíferos. Las microalgas fueron cultivadas en laboratorio, con condiciones controladas, en fotobiorreactores de 4 L, a 30±1°C y periodos de 12 horas de claridad/oscuridad con iluminación de 140 μmol•m–2•s–1 e

  16. SOILS, FERTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gómez G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibith better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  17. Is There Excitation Energy Transfer between Different Layers of Stacked Photosystem-II-Containing Thylakoid Membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shazia; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Valkunas, Leonas; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-04-07

    We have compared picosecond fluorescence decay kinetics for stacked and unstacked photosystem II membranes in order to evaluate the efficiency of excitation energy transfer between the neighboring layers. The measured kinetics were analyzed in terms of a recently developed fluctuating antenna model that provides information about the dimensionality of the studied system. Independently of the stacking state, all preparations exhibited virtually the same value of the apparent dimensionality, d = 1.6. Thus, we conclude that membrane stacking does not affect the efficiency of the delivery of excitation energy toward the reaction centers but ensures a more compact organization of the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplast and separation of photosystems I and II.

  18. Stoichiometry of photosystem I, photosystem II, and phycobilisomes in the red alga Porphyridium cruentum as a function of growth irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, F.X. Jr.; Mustardy, L.; Gantt, E. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA)); Dennenberg, R.J.; Jursinic, P.A. (Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Cells of the red alga Porphyridium cruentum (ATCC 50161) exposed to increasing growth irradiance exhibited up to a three-fold reduction in photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) and phycobilisomes but little change in the relative numbers of these components. Batch cultures of P. cruentum were grown under four photon flux densities of continuous white light; 6 (low light LL), 35 (medium light, ML), 180 (high light, HL), and 280 (very high light, VHL) microeinsteins per square meter per second and sampled in the exponential phase of growth. Ratios of PSII to PSI ranged between 0.43 and 0.54. About three PSII centers per phycobilisome were found, regardless of growth irradiance. The phycoerythrin content of phycobilisomes decreased by about 25% for HL and VHL compared to LL and ML cultures. The unit sizes of PSI (chlorophyll/P{sub 700}) and PSII (chlorophyll/Q{sub A}) decreased by about 20% with increase in photon flux density from 6 to 280 microeinsteins per square meter per second. A threefold reduction in cell content of chlorophyll at the higher photon flux densities was accompanied by a twofold reduction in {beta}-carotene, and a drastic reduction in thylakoid membrane area. Cell content of zeaxanthin, the major carotenoid in P. cruentum, did not vary with growth irradiance, suggesting a role other than light-harvesting. HL cultures had a growth rate twice that of ML, eight times that of LL, and slightly greater than that of VHL cultures. Cell volume increased threefold from LL to VHL, but volume of the single chloroplast did not change. From this study it is evident that a relatively fixed stoichiometry of PSI, PSII, and phycobilisomes is maintained in the photosynthetic apparatus of this red alga over a wide range of growth irradiance.

  19. Induction of ovarian growth in Aegla platensis (Crustacea, Aeglidae by means of neuroregulators incorporated to food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V Cahansky

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater crab Aegla platensis was used as a model to induce ovarian growth by adding different neuroregulators to a pellet food formulation. Added compounds were the dopaminergic inhibitor spiperone or the enkephalinergic inhibitor naloxone, both of them at a dose of 10-8 mol/animal. Animals were fed on the enriched pellets twice a week. After 7 wk, the gonadosomatic index (GI was calculated as (gonad fresh weight / body fresh weight x 100. GI significantly increased only for those females fed on spiperone pellets, compared to a control group receiving pellets with no compound added. During the assayed period, spiperone would be reverting the arrest exerted by dopamine on the neuroendocrine stimulation of ovarian growth. On the other hand, for both spiperone and naloxone a higher GI was correlated to a higher lipid content of both gonads and/or hepatopancreas, suggesting an increased energetic demand in accordance with an active investment in reproduction. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1201-1207. Epub 2008 September 30.Se utilizó al anomuro de agua dulce Aegla platensis como modelo para inducir el crecimiento ovárico mediante el agregado de diferentes neuroreguladores a una formulación de alimento pelleteado. Los compuestos agregados fueron el inhibidor dopaminergico spiperona ó el inhibidor encefalinérgico naloxone, ambos a una dosis de 10-8 moles/animal. Los animales fueron alimentados dos veces a la semana con pellets enriquecidos con alguno de los neuroreguladores. Luego de 7 semanas, se calculó el índice gonadomático (IG como (peso gonadal fresco/ peso corporal fresco x 100. El IG mostró un incremento significativamente sólo en aquellas hembras alimentadas con pellets enriquecidos con spiperona, en comparación con un grupo control que recibió pellets sin agregado alguno. Durante el período ensayado, la spiperona estaría revirtiendo el arresto ejercido por la dopamina sobre la estimulación neuroendocrina del crecimiento ov

  20. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  2. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  3. Structure of photosystem II and substrate binding at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Iris D; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Koroidov, Sergey; Brewster, Aaron S; Tran, Rosalie; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kroll, Thomas; Michels-Clark, Tara; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G; Stan, Claudiu A; Hussein, Rana; Zhang, Miao; Douthit, Lacey; Kubin, Markus; de Lichtenberg, Casper; Long Vo, Pham; Nilsson, Håkan; Cheah, Mun Hon; Shevela, Dmitriy; Saracini, Claudio; Bean, Mackenzie A; Seuffert, Ina; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Pastor, Ernest; Weninger, Clemens; Fransson, Thomas; Lassalle, Louise; Bräuer, Philipp; Aller, Pierre; Docker, Peter T; Andi, Babak; Orville, Allen M; Glownia, James M; Nelson, Silke; Sikorski, Marcin; Zhu, Diling; Hunter, Mark S; Lane, Thomas J; Aquila, Andy; Koglin, Jason E; Robinson, Joseph; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sébastien; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Moriarty, Nigel W; Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V; Waterman, David G; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wernet, Philippe; Dobbek, Holger; Weis, William I; Brunger, Axel T; Zwart, Petrus H; Adams, Paul D; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Sauter, Nicholas K; Kern, Jan; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko

    2016-12-15

    Light-induced oxidation of water by photosystem II (PS II) in plants, algae and cyanobacteria has generated most of the dioxygen in the atmosphere. PS II, a membrane-bound multi-subunit pigment protein complex, couples the one-electron photochemistry at the reaction centre with the four-electron redox chemistry of water oxidation at the Mn 4 CaO 5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Under illumination, the OEC cycles through five intermediate S-states (S 0 to S 4 ), in which S 1 is the dark-stable state and S 3 is the last semi-stable state before O-O bond formation and O 2 evolution. A detailed understanding of the O-O bond formation mechanism remains a challenge, and will require elucidation of both the structures of the OEC in the different S-states and the binding of the two substrate waters to the catalytic site. Here we report the use of femtosecond pulses from an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) to obtain damage-free, room temperature structures of dark-adapted (S 1 ), two-flash illuminated (2F; S 3 -enriched), and ammonia-bound two-flash illuminated (2F-NH 3 ; S 3 -enriched) PS II. Although the recent 1.95 Å resolution structure of PS II at cryogenic temperature using an XFEL provided a damage-free view of the S 1 state, measurements at room temperature are required to study the structural landscape of proteins under functional conditions, and also for in situ advancement of the S-states. To investigate the water-binding site(s), ammonia, a water analogue, has been used as a marker, as it binds to the Mn 4 CaO 5 cluster in the S 2 and S 3 states. Since the ammonia-bound OEC is active, the ammonia-binding Mn site is not a substrate water site. This approach, together with a comparison of the native dark and 2F states, is used to discriminate between proposed O-O bond formation mechanisms.

  4. Development of a chemically defined medium for the production of the antibiotic platensimycin by Streptomyces platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Maria; Martens, Evan; Tynan, Heather; Maggio, Christian; Golden, Samantha; Nayda, Vasyl; Crespo, Emmanuel; Inamine, Gregory; Gelber, Michael; Lemence, Ryan; Chiappini, Nicholas; Friedman, Emily; Shen, Ben; Gullo, Vincent; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-11-01

    The actinomycete Streptomyces platensis produces two compounds that display antibacterial activity: platensimycin and platencin. These compounds were discovered by the Merck Research Laboratories, and a complex insoluble production medium was reported. We have used this medium as our starting point in our studies. In a previous study, we developed a semi-defined production medium, i.e., PM5. In the present studies, by varying the concentration of the components of PM5, we were able to develop a superior semi-defined medium, i.e., PM6, which contains a higher concentration of lactose. Versions of PM6, containing lower concentrations of all components, were also found to be superior to PM5. The new semi-defined production media contain dextrin, lactose, MOPS buffer, and ammonium sulfate in different concentrations. We determined antibiotic production capabilities using agar diffusion assays and chemical assays via thin-layer silica chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. We reduced crude nutrient carryover from the seed medium by washing the cells with distilled water. Using these semi-defined media, we determined that addition of the semi-defined component soluble starch stimulated antibiotic production and that it and dextrin could both be replaced with glucose, resulting in the chemically defined medium, PM7.

  5. Theoretical investigation of biomass productivities achievable in solar rectangular photobioreactors for the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Jeremy; Cornet, J F; Goetz, Vincent; Legrand, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Modeling was done to simulate whole-year running of solar rectangular photobioreactors (PBRs). Introducing the concept of ideal reactor, the maximal biomass productivity that could be achieved on Earth on nitrate as N-source was calculated. Two additional factors were also analyzed with respect to dynamic calculations over the whole year: the effect of PBR location and the effects of given operating conditions on the resulting decrease in productivity compared with the ideal one. Simulations were conducted for the cyanobacterium Arthospira platensis, giving an ideal productivity (upper limit) in the range 55-60 tX ha(-1) year(-1) for a sun tracking system (and around 35-40 tX ha(-1) year(-1) for a fixed horizontal PBR). For an implantation in France (Nantes, west coast), the modification in irradiation conditions resulted in a decrease in biomass productivity of 40%. Various parameters were investigated, with special emphasis on the influence of the incident angle of solar illumination on resulting productivities, affecting both light capture and light transfer inside the bulk culture. It was also found that with appropriate optimization of the residence time as permitted by the model, productivities close to maximal could be achieved for a given location. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  6. Nutritional control of antibiotic production by Streptomyces platensis MA7327: importance of l-aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Maria; Crespo, Emmanuel; Jones, Klarissa; Khan, Gulaba; Korn, Victoria L; Patel, Amreen; Patel, Mira; Patel, Krishnaben; Perkins, Carrie; Siddiqui, Sana; Stenger, Drew; Yu, Eileen; Gelber, Michael; Scheffler, Robert; Nayda, Vasyl; Ravin, Ariela; Komal, Ronica; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Shen, Ben; Gullo, Vincent; Demain, Arnold L

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces platensis MA7327 is a bacterium producing interesting antibiotics, which act by the novel mechanism of inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis. The antibiotics produced by this actinomycete are platensimycin and platencin plus some minor related antibiotics. Platensimycin and platencin have activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; they also lack toxicity in animal models. Platensimycin also has activity against diabetes in a mouse model. We have been interested in studying the effects of primary metabolites on production of these antibiotics in our chemically defined production medium. In the present work, we tested 32 primary metabolites for their effect. They included 20 amino acids, 7 vitamins and 5 nucleic acid derivatives. Of these, only l-aspartic acid showed stimulation of antibiotic production. We conclude that the stimulatory effect of aspartic acid is due to its role as a precursor involved in the biosynthesis of aspartate-4-semialdehyde, which is the starting point for the biosynthesis of the 3-amino-2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid portion of the platensimycin molecule.

  7. PHOTOINHIBITION AND RECOVERY IN RELATION TO HETEROGENEITY OF PHOTOSYSTEM-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWIJK, KJ; SCHNETTGER, B; GRAF, M; KRAUSE, GH

    1993-01-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) heterogeneity during photoinhibition at 4-degrees-C and subsequent recovery at 20-degrees-C was investigated in spinach leaves and chloroplasts. The population of inactive, Q(B)-nonreducing centers was estimated by means of fluorescence induction in the presence of

  8. Photosystem II solubilizes as a monomer by mild detergent treatment of unstacked thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jan P.; Germano, Marta; Roon, Henny van; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the aggregation state of Photosystem II in stacked and unstacked thylakoid membranes from spinach after a quick andmild solubilization with the non-ionic detergent n-dodecyl-α,D-maltoside, followed by analysis by diode-array-assisted gel filtration chromatography and electron microscopy.

  9. Functional and structural analysis of photosystem II core complexes from spinach with high oxygen evolution capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Elisabeth; Irrgang, Klaus-D.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Renger, Gernot

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen-evolving photo system II core complexes were prepared from spinach by solubilizing photosystem II membrane fragments with dodecyl-β-D-maltoside. The core complexes consist of the intrinsic 47-kDa, 43-kDa, D1 and D2 polypeptides, the two subunits of cytochrome b559 and the extrinsic 33-kDa

  10. A CK2 site is reversibly phosphorylated in the photosystem II subunit CP29

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testi, Maria Grazia; Croce, Roberta; Polverino-De Laureto, Patrizia; Bassi, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of protein function. In chloroplast thylakoids several photosystem II subunits, including the major antenna light-harvesting complex II and several core complex components, are reversibly phosphorylated depending on the redox state of

  11. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, A.V.; Wentworth, M.; Yakushevska, A.E.; Andersson, J.; Lee, P.J.; Keegstra, W.; Dekker, J.P.; Boekema, E.J.; Jansson, S.; Horton, P.

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  12. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  13. The effects of light-induced reduction of the photosystem II reaction center

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutý, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 15 (2009), s. 923-933 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Photosystem II * Reaction center * Pheophytin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.336, year: 2009

  14. Pigment binding sites occupancy and functional architecture of the Photosystem II antenna complex Lhcb5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballottari, M.; Mozzo, M.; Croce, R.; Morosinotto, T.; Bassi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lhcb5 is an antenna protein that is highly conserved in plants and green algae. It is part of the inner layer of photosystem II antenna system retained in high light acclimated plants. To study the structure-function relation and the role of individual pigments in this complex, we (i) "knocked out"

  15. Room temperature photooxidation of beta-carotene and peripheral chlorophyll in photosystem II reaction centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2008), s. 179-187 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : photosystem II Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2008

  16. Ergodicity, configurational entropy and free energy in pigment solutions and plant photosystems: influence of excited state lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine ergodicity and configurational entropy for a dilute pigment solution and for a suspension of plant photosystem particles in which both ground and excited state pigments are present. It is concluded that the pigment solution, due to the extreme brevity of the excited state lifetime, is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. Conversely, due to the rapid energy transfer among pigments, each photosystem is ergodic and the configurational entropy is positive. This decreases the free energy of the single photosystem pigment array by a small amount. On the other hand, the suspension of photosystems is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. The overall configurational entropy which, in principle, includes contributions from both the single excited photosystems and the suspension which contains excited photosystems, also approaches zero. Thus the configurational entropy upon photon absorption by either a pigment solution or a suspension of photosystem particles is approximately zero. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diurnal changes of photosynthesis and growth of Arthrospira platensis cultured in a thin-layer cascade and an open pond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benavides, A.M.S.; Ranglová, Karolína; Malapascua, José R.; Masojídek, Jiří; Torzillo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, DEC (2017), s. 48-56 ISSN 2211-9264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-29 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arthrospira platensis * Pond * Thin-layer cascade Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016

  18. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Walsted, Anette; Larsen, Rune

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus...

  19. PRODUKSI DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI Spirulina fusiformis YANG DIKULTUR DENGAN PENCAHAYAAN MONOKROMATIS LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-06-01

    yang bersumber dari LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah (M, biru (B, dan biru-merah (BM, serta cahaya dari lampu fluoresens sebagai kontrol (K. Puncak kepadatan sel terjadi pada hari ke-18 dengan kepadatan masing-masing sebanyak 5,56 x 104 sel/mL (M; 1,65 x 104 sel/mL (B; 4,15 x 104 sel/mL (BM; dan 4,56 x 104 sel/mL (K. Perlakuan pencahayaan LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah mencapai biomassa panen tertinggi sebesar 3,91 mg/mL dengan kandungan protein 49,77%; lemak 19,61%; karbohidrat 6,15%; serat kasar 0,00%; dan abu 24,48%. Pencahayaan dengan LED merah berpotensi diaplikasikan sebagai sumber cahaya dalam produksi Spirulina.

  20. Characteristic of resistant ionization-radiation and its relationship with polysaccharide contents in spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Xu Bujin

    2001-01-01

    The anti-radiation capacities of intact filaments, no-sheath filaments and cells of 4 kinds of Spiralina strains (Ss-V, Sp-F, Sp-Z and Sp-D) treated by "6"0Co γ-rays were studied. The relationship between polysaccharide contents and anti-radiation capacity of 4 strains were also detected. The results showed that Spirulina is highly resistant toγ-radiation, however there were significant differences with various strains. The order of anti-radiation capacity is Ss-V > Sp-F > Sp-Z > Sp-D. Moreover, the anti-radiation capacity were remarkably related with polysaccharide contents in the 4 strains. This showed that polysaccharide is very important for raising and maintain-ing super anti-radiation capacity in Spiralina. (authors)

  1. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  4. The Vitamin B12-Dependent Photoreceptor AerR Relieves Photosystem Gene Repression by Extending the Interaction of CrtJ with Photosystem Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purple nonsulfur bacteria adapt their physiology to a wide variety of environmental conditions often through the control of transcription. One of the main transcription factors involved in controlling expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus photosystem is CrtJ, which functions as an aerobic repressor of photosystem genes. Recently, we reported that a vitamin B12 binding antirepressor of CrtJ called AerR is required for anaerobic expression of the photosystem. However, the mechanism whereby AerR regulates CrtJ activity is unclear. In this study, we used a combination of next-generation sequencing and biochemical methods to globally identify genes under control of CrtJ and the role of AerR in controlling this regulation. Our results indicate that CrtJ has a much larger regulon than previously known, with a surprising regulatory function under both aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic growth conditions. A combination of in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation-DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq and ChIP-seq and exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo studies and in vitro biochemical studies demonstrate that AerR forms a 1:2 complex with CrtJ (AerR-CrtJ2 and that this complex binds to many promoters under photosynthetic conditions. The results of in vitro and in vivo DNA binding studies indicate that AerR-CrtJ2 anaerobically forms an extended interaction with the bacteriochlorophyll bchC promoter to relieve repression by CrtJ. This is contrasted by aerobic growth conditions where CrtJ alone functions as an aerobic repressor of bchC expression. These results indicate that the DNA binding activity of CrtJ is modified by interacting with AerR in a redox-regulated manner and that this interaction alters CrtJ’s function.

  5. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  6. Influência do consumo de diferentes níveis de Spirulina no desenvolvimento e perfil lipídico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Moreira Chiattoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina é uma cianobactéria que vem sendo produzida e estudada por suas propriedades nutricionais e por seus benefícios à saúde. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a influência de dietas acrescidas de diferentes concentrações de Spirulina sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e o perfil lipídico de ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, alimentados, durante 40 dias, com quatro dietas isoproteicas (10% distintas, sendo seis animais por grupo: 1 Dieta controle (AIN93G adaptada; 2 Dieta S1 (8,8% de Spirulina; 3 Dieta S2 (17,6% de Spirulina; 4 Dieta S3 (26,4% de Spirulina. Foram avaliados parâmetros nutricionais e o perfil lipídico dos animais, cujos dados foram analisados estatisticamente por Análise de Variância, seguida do teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância (p ≤ 0,05. O tratamento com 8,8% de Spirulina mostrou-se equivalente ao controle, apresentando respostas mais adequadas de CEA, medidas de crescimento e lipídios séricos. Já o S2 não foi capaz de promover um bom desenvolvimento corporal, comparado com o do controle, além de elevar os níveis de colesterol total e LDL-c. O tratamento S3 apresentou somente valores estatisticamente diferentes de HDL-c, quando comparado com os do controle (p ≤ 0,05. Conclui-se que, no tempo e condições do estudo, o tratamento S3, único com Spirulina como fonte exclusiva de proteína, foi capaz de substituir a fonte proteica padrão (caseína na dieta para roedores, promovendo o adequado desenvolvimento corporal e lipídico dos animais.

  7. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  8. Determination of antioxidant and chelating activity of protein hydrolysates from spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) obtained by simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Palma, N.; Martínez-Ayala, A.; Dávila-Ortíz, G.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  9. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  10. Magnetic field action on outdoor and indoor cultures of Spirulina: Evaluation of growth, medium consumption and protein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether a magnetic field (MF) affects the growth of Spirulina sp. when applied to it at different exposure times in indoor and outdoor culture systems. The effects of MF on chlorophyll content, medium consumption and protein profile were also investigated. In raceway tanks, a 25 mT MF was applied for 24 h or for 1 h d -1 . MF for 24 h to outdoor assays increased biomass concentration and chlorophyll-a content besides altering the protein profile. Outdoor Spirulina growth was higher (∼3.65 g L -1 ) than the growth found in indoor assays (∼1.80 g L -1 ), while nitrogen and phosphorus consumption was not enhanced by the application of MF. This is the first study that investigated the influence of MF on outdoor microalga assays, and the results showed that MF affected the metabolism of Spirulina cultured in raceways, especially when it was grown outdoors in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin of Spirulina powder treated with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Dejsungkranont

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The functionality and activity of proteins can be modified by supercritical fluid CO2 (SCFCO2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of enhanced antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC proteins from light-harvested Spirulina maxima powder using the SCFCO2 pretreatment and to optimize the SCFCO2 pretreatment conditions enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the SCFCO2 pretreatment. The experimental factors were the pretreatment temperature, pressure, pretreatment mode (static, dynamic and conjugated and duration. The optimal conditions of SCFCO2 pretreatment were: 60 °C, 24.13 MPa and 60 min in static batch mode. Using these pretreatment conditions, the maximum antioxidant activity of C-PC from the treated residual biomass was 410.1 μmole trolox/mg, which was 1.7-fold higher than the untreated biomass (control. The factor that most affected the antioxidant activity of C-PC was temperature (59%. A high pretreatment temperature could damage C-PC, but promoted antioxidant activity. Of note is that this work was the first to explore SCFCO2 treatment enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC in Spirulina sp. powder. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C-phycocyanin, Spirulina sp., Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide pretreatment, Taguchi method

  12. Backbone assignment and secondary structure of the PsbQ protein from Photosystem II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horničáková, M.; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Schlagnitweit, J.; Wohlschlager, Ch.; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Fiala, R.; Schoefberger, W.; Müller, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2011), s. 169-175 ISSN 1874-2718 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Photosystem II * PsbQ * Missing link * NMR resonance assignment * Protein-protein interaction Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/3n38075w5h1l1082/fulltext.pdf

  13. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII)(2) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes(3)-which together form PSII supercomplexes(4-6). The antenna comple...

  14. Assembling and maintaining the Photosystem II complex in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Josef; Sobotka, Roman; Nixon, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2012), s. 245-2051 ISSN 1369-5266 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1000; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/0377; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA AV ČR IAA400200801 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alga * cyanobacteria * Photosystem II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 8.455, year: 2012

  15. Different roles of alpha- and beta-branch xanthophylls in photosystem assembly and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Fiore, Alessia; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Giuliano, Giovanni; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-11-30

    Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) are essential components of the plant photosynthetic apparatus, where they act in photosystem assembly, light harvesting, and photoprotection. Nevertheless, the specific function of individual xanthophyll species awaits complete elucidation. In this work, we analyze the photosynthetic phenotypes of two newly isolated Arabidopsis mutants in carotenoid biosynthesis containing exclusively alpha-branch (chy1chy2lut5) or beta-branch (chy1chy2lut2) xanthophylls. Both mutants show complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of nonphotochemical quenching, and high levels of photoinhibition and lipid peroxidation under photooxidative stress. Both mutants are much more photosensitive than npq1lut2, which contains high levels of viola- and neoxanthin and a higher stoichiometry of light-harvesting proteins with respect to photosystem II core complexes, suggesting that the content in light-harvesting complexes plays an important role in photoprotection. In addition, chy1chy2lut5, which has lutein as the only xanthophyll, shows unprecedented photosensitivity even in low light conditions, reduced electron transport rate, enhanced photobleaching of isolated LHCII complexes, and a selective loss of CP26 with respect to chy1chy2lut2, highlighting a specific role of beta-branch xanthophylls in photoprotection and in qE mechanism. The stronger photosystem II photoinhibition of both mutants correlates with the higher rate of singlet oxygen production from thylakoids and isolated light-harvesting complexes, whereas carotenoid composition of photosystem II core complex was not influential. In depth analysis of the mutant phenotypes suggests that alpha-branch (lutein) and beta-branch (zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin) xanthophylls have distinct and complementary roles in antenna protein assembly and in the mechanisms of photoprotection.

  16. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  17. Editorial: Assembly of the Photosystem II Membrane-Protein Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eaton-Rye, J.J.; Sobotka, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 26 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 884. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/19.0392 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Photosystem II * photosynthetic electron transport * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  18. Light-harvesting features revealed by the structure of plant Photosystem I

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Shem, A; Nelson, N; 10.1023/B:PRES.0000036881.23512.42

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven by two multi-subunit membrane protein complexes, Photosystem I and Photosystem II. In plants and green algae, both complexes are composed of two moieties: a reaction center (RC), where light-induced charge translocation occurs, and a peripheral antenna that absorbs light and funnels its energy to the reaction center. The peripheral antenna of PS I (LHC I) is composed of four gene products (Lhca 1-4) that are unique among the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in their pronounced long-wavelength absorbance and in their assembly into dimers. The recently determined structure of plant Photosystem I provides the first relatively high- resolution structural model of a super-complex containing a reaction center and its peripheral antenna. We describe some of the structural features responsible for the unique properties of LHC I and discuss the advantages of the particular LHC I dimerization mode over monomeric or trimeric forms. In addition, we delineate some of the interactions betw...

  19. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  20. Determination of uranium in Toxodon Platensis' teeth from Alto Ribeira region in Sao Paulo State for isotope dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Saiki, Mitiko; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Karmann, Ivo

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, the concentration of uranium in dentine and dental enamel of a pre-molar of Toxodon platensis (kind of herbivorous) from South America Quaternary, present in the region of Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo, was determined, in order to date this fossil by using the ESR method (Electron Spin Resonance). The analytical techniques Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis and High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry were employed. The results obtained by using the two cited analytical techniques were in good agreement. These results, together with the data of total dose of deposed ionizing radiation and of the rate dose, allowed to find a ESR age of (6,7 +/- 1,3) Ka for the dentine, and of (5,0 +/- 1,6 Ka) for the dental enamel. Considering an average age of 6 Ka, this date corresponds to the Low to Medium Holocene, which is an unprecedented datum for this species in the southeastern region of Brazil. (author)

  1. Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Laura M. Ferman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assemble data on the summer feeding ecology of the Great Pampa-finch, Embernagra platensis at the Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to explore the differences related to the dietary patterns for each sex between winter and summer when possible. The stomach contents of 43 birds were analyzed. The animal fraction was composed of Hymenoptera (45.1%, Coleoptera (32.4%, Lepidoptera (6.0%, Araneae (5% and Orthoptera (3.2%. The application of the index of relative importance (IRI resulted in 1490.4 for Coleoptera, 428.5 for Hymenoptera and 162.5 for Lepidoptera caterpillars. The vegetal fraction consisted of Triticum aestivum (26.9%, Cyperaceous (25%, Poaceae (Gramineae (19.3% and Panicum sp. (11.2%. The IRI values were 893.8 for Triticum aestivum, 174.5 for Gramineae, 126.5 for Panicum sp. and 112.8 for Scirpus sp. The food niche width was 0.33 for both sexes; the diversity index resulted in 1.06 for females and 1.33 for males and specific diversity ranged from 1.87 to 2.84. A canonical component analysis (CCA was performed on environmental and morphometric variables, and a Monte Carlo test confirmed the canonical correlations. A t-test showed that some birds harmonized with a logarithmic model and some with a geometric curve. During the summer, Embernagra platensis ingests Hymenoptera and Coleoptera more often than seeds, suggesting that two biological mechanisms could be taking place in this bird.O objetivo deste estudo foi reunir dados referentes à ecologia alimentar do Sabiá-do-banhado, Embernagra platensis, na laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, e explorar as diferenças relacionadas aos padrões dietéticos para cada sexo entre inverno e verão, quando possível. O conteúdo estomacal de 43 pássaros foi analisado. A fração animal foi composta por Hymenoptera (45,1%, Coleoptera (32,4%, Lepidoptera(6,0%, Araneae (5% e Orthoptera (3,2%. A aplicação do índice de importância relativa (IRI

  2. Outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 in different geographic locations for evaluating its growth and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Cristiane Santos; da Silva Uebel, Lívia; Costa, Samantha Serra; Miranda, Andréa Lobo; de Morais, Etiele Greque; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Nunes, Itaciara Larroza; de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated whether outdoor cultivation of Spirulina sp. in different geographical locations affected its growth and biomass quality, with respect to the chemical composition, volatile compound and heavy metal content, and thermal stability. The positive effect of solar radiation and temperature on biomass productivity in Spirulina sp. cultivated in the northeast was directly related to its improved nutritional characteristics, which occurred with an increase in protein, phycocyanin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (mainly γ-linolenic) content. The biomass produced in Northeast and South Brazil showed high thermal stability and had volatile compounds that could be used as biomarkers of Spirulina, and their parameters were within the limits of internationally recognized standards for food additives; hence, they have been considered safe foods. However, the growth of crops in south Brazil occurred at lower rates due to low temperatures and luminous intensities, indicative of the robustness of microalgae in relation to these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dampak Intervensi Sumber Iodium Alami Spirulina sp terhadap Kadar T4 Bebas (FT4 dan Tiroglobulin (TG pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Kalibawang Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSRACT Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Salt iodization was one of IDD prevention programme to prevent IDD, however the national coverage for iodized salt is still less than 90%. Alternative solution to solve IDD elimination is needed to find a better iodine sources. One of nutrient rich source from the sea that was developed to improve the nutritional status is Spirulina sp. Spirulina has high bioavailability due to the simple structure of the cell wall, so that the nutrients contained iodine will be more easily absorbed by the body. The aim of this research was to describe the effect of Spirulina sp to free T4 and thyroglobulin level in women of child bearing age in Kalibawang Kulon Progo regency. This is an experimental study using double blind randomized control trial (RCT. Subjects are euthyroid child bearing woman (18-40 years old, with TSH levels of 3 to 6.2 μIU/L. They were divided into 2 groups with subjects in control group were given placebo while the treatment group were given Spirulina sp (1 gr/day for 3 months. Serum for free T4 and thyroglobulin was analysed using ELISA. The results showed that there were significant changes in free T4 level in both groups after intervention (P <0.05, but there were no significant differences between the two groups at the beginning and end of treatment (P> 0.05 in thyroglobulin. The intervention using Spirulina sp has potential effect to increase free T4 level, however it did not effect thyroglobulin level. Keywords: FreeT4, RCT, Spirulina sp, Thyroglobulin   ABSTRAK   Masalah kekurangan asupan iodium dan gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium (GAKI masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. Program iodisasi garam merupakan salah satu program yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah Indonesia untuk menanggulangi GAKI, namun sampai saat ini cakupan angka nasional untuk garam beriodium belum mencapai 90%. Dibutuhkan metode baru yang efektif dalam membantu program

  4. Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Parameters on the Biological Activities and Metabolites Present in Extracts from Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Hernández, Diego A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; García-Pérez, J Saúl; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Núñez-Echevarría, Jade E; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena; García-García, Rebeca M; Torres, J Antonio; Chen, Wei Ning; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2017-06-12

    Arthrospira platensis was used to obtain functional extracts through supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE-CO₂). Pressure (P), temperature (T), co-solvent (CX), static extraction (SX), dispersant (Di) and dynamic extraction (DX) were evaluated as process parameters through a Plackett-Burman design. The maximum extract yield obtained was 7.48 ± 0.15% w/w. The maximum contents of bioactive metabolites in extracts were 0.69 ± 0.09 µg/g of riboflavin, 5.49 ± 0.10 µg/g of α-tocopherol, 524.46 ± 0.10 µg/g of β-carotene, 1.44 ± 0.10 µg/g of lutein and 32.11 ± 0.12 mg/g of fatty acids with 39.38% of palmitic acid, 20.63% of linoleic acid and 30.27% of γ-linolenic acid. A. platensis extracts had an antioxidant activity of 76.47 ± 0.71 µg GAE/g by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, 0.52 ± 0.02, 0.40 ± 0.01 and 1.47 ± 0.02 µmol TE/g by DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, respectively. These extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Overall, co-solvent was the most significant factor for all measured effects ( p extraction parameters P: 450 bar, CX: 11 g/min, SX: 15 min, DX: 25 min, T: 60 °C and Di: 35 g.

  5. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  6. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina: Toxicity assessment and minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Schideman, Lance C.; Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Yan; Nair, Ken; Qian, Wanyi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient reuse and energy recovery of HTL-WW are realized. • Anaerobic digestion of HTL-WW is vital to the sustainability of algal biocrude. • An anaerobic toxicity assay was conducted to evaluate HTL-WW toxicity. • The presence of adsorbents and biofilms effectively minimized inhibition. • A portion of the toxic compounds could be removed after anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTL-WW) is significant to the sustainability of algal biofuel development for nutrient reuse and residual energy recovery. HTL-WW contains substantial amounts of residual energy but is toxic to anaerobes. With 6% HTL-WW converted from cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina), anaerobes were 50% inhibited. In this study, zeolite, granular activated carbon (GAC), and polyurethane matrices (PM) were used during a two-round anaerobic batch test with HTL-WW, and in the presence of each material, the total methane yields were 136 mL/g COD, 169 mL/g COD, and 168 mL/g COD, respectively, being 11%, 37% and 36% higher than the control. GAC was considered promising due to its highest methane yield of 124 mL/g COD at the second feeding, indicating a good recovery of adsorption capacity. The observed low methane production rates indicated the necessity for anaerobic process optimization. The physicochemical analysis of the digestates demonstrated that most of the compounds identified in the HTL-WW were degraded.

  8. Phosphonate degradation by Spirulina strains: cyanobacterial biofilters for the removal of anticorrosive polyphosphonates from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Prearo, Valentina; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2011-03-07

    The ability of Spirulina spp. to metabolize the recalcitrant xenobiotic Dequest 2054(®) [hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid)], a CaSO(4) inhibitor used for boiler treatment and reverse osmosis desalination, was investigated. The compound served as sole source of phosphorus, but not of nitrogen, for cyanobacterial growth. In vivo utilization was followed by (31)P NMR analysis. The disappearance of the polyphosphonate proceeded only with actively dividing cells, and no release of inorganic phosphate was evident. However, no difference was found between P-starved and P-fed cultures. Maximal utilization reached 1.0 ± 0.2 mmoll(-1), corresponding to 0.56 ± 0.11 mmol g(-1) dry biomass, thus residual amounts were still present in the exhausted medium when the compound was supplied at higher initial concentrations. At low substrate levels metabolism rates were lower, suggesting that a concentration-driven uptake may represent a limiting step during the biodegradation process. The compound was not retained by biocolumns made with immobilized cyanobacterial cells, either alive or dead. A lab-scale pilot plant, consisting of a series of sequentially connected vessels containing an actively proliferating algal culture, was built and tested for wastewater treatment. Results showed 50% removal of the polyphosphonate added to an initial concentration of 2.5mM. Although further optimization will be required, data strengthen the possibility of using cyanobacterial strains for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  11. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pmaxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  12. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  13. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  14. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadiyanto,; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur; Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae

  15. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Synthesis by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Using Biopolymer Extraction Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleber Klasener; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2018-01-20

    The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis. Concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (v/v) of biopolymer extraction waste were tested. For comparison, two assays were used without addition of waste, Zarrouk (SZ) and modified Zarrouk (ZM), with reduction of nitrogen. The assays were carried out in triplicate and evaluated for the production of microalgal biomass and PHB. The tests with addition of waste presented a biomass production statistically equal to ZM (0.79 g L -1 ) (p PHB in the assay containing 25% of waste was higher when compared to the other cultivations, obtaining 10.6% (w/w) of biopolymer. From the results obtained, it is affirmed that the use of PHB extraction waste in the microalgal cultivation, aiming at the synthesis of biopolymers, can occur in a cyclic process, reducing process costs and the deposition of waste, thus favoring the preservation of the environment.

  16. Effect of operating conditions on hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina over Ni/TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenying; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Wenjia; Yin, Zhaosen; Yi, Xuewen

    2018-05-04

    In this study, the effects of reaction temperature, holding time, algae/water ratio and catalyst dosage on the yield and quality of bio-oil produced via the HTL of Spirulina were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield (43.05 wt%) and energy recovery (ER) value (64.62%) were obtained at 260 °C for 30 min, with an algae/water ratio of 1/4 and a catalyst dosage of 5 wt%. The bio-oil samples were characterized by elemental analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FI-IR), and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results indicated that higher heating values (HHVs) of bio-oils were in the range of 27.28-36.01 MJ/kg, and main compounds of bio-oil were amides, esters, nitriles, hydroperoxide and alkanes. Adding of the Ni/TiO 2 catalyst can decrease the contents of oxygenated and nitrogenous compounds and promote the formation of desirable components such as esters and alkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioprocess Engineering Aspects of Biopolymer Production by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina Strain LEB 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guimarães Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biopolymers can replace environmentally damaging plastics derived from petrochemicals. We investigated biopolymer synthesis by the cyanobacterium Spirulina strain LEB 18. Autotrophic culture used unmodified Zarrouk medium or modified Zarrouk medium in which the NaNO3 content was reduced to 0.25 g L−1 and the NaHCO3 content reduced to 8.4 g L−1 or increased to 25.2 g L−1. Heterotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 with the NaHCO3 replaced by 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose (C6H12O6 or sodium acetate (CH3COONa. Mixotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 plus 16.8 g L−1 NaHCO3 with the addition of 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose or sodium acetate. The highest biopolymer yield was 44% when LEB 18 was growing autotrophically in media containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 and 8.4 g L−1 NaHCO3.

  18. Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez G. Liliana Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibit better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  19. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James, E-mail: j.barber@imperial.ac.uk [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  20. Vulnerability of photosynthesis and photosystem I in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exposed to waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Zhao, Shijie; Cui, Mingxing; Han, Guangxuan; Wen, Pei

    2018-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging. After 7 days of severe waterlogging, PSII and PSI photoinhibition arose, indicated by significant decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and PSI (△MR/MR 0 ), and PSI seemed more vulnerable because of greater decrease in △MR/MR 0 than Fv/Fm. In line with decreased △MR/MR 0 and unchanged Fv/Fm after 9 days of moderate waterlogging, the amount of PSI reaction center protein rather than PSII reaction center protein was lowered, confirming greater PSI vulnerability. According to positive correlation between △MR/MR 0 and efficiency that an electron moves beyond primary quinone and negative correlation between △MR/MR 0 and PSII excitation pressure, PSI inactivation elevated PSII excitation pressure by depressing electron transport at PSII acceptor side. Thus, PSI vulnerability induced PSII photoinhibition and endangered the stability of whole photosynthetic apparatus under waterlogging. In agreement with photosystems photoinhibition, elevated H 2 O 2 concentration and lipid peroxidation in the leaves corroborated waterlogging-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, Jerusalem artichoke is a waterlogging sensitive species in terms of photosynthesis and PSI vulnerability. Consistently, tuber yield was tremendously reduced by waterlogging, confirming waterlogging sensitivity of Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fusarium solani Infection Depressed Photosystem Performance by Inducing Foliage Wilting in Apple Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium fungi are soil-borne pathogens, and the pathological effects on plant photosystems remain unclear. This study aimed to deeply reveal pathological characterization in apple seedlings infected with Fusarium solani by investigating photosystems performance and interaction. Roots were immersed in conidial suspension for inoculation. Thereafter, prompt and delayed chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection were simultaneously detected. After 30 days of infection, leaf relative water content and dry weight were remarkably decreased by 55.7 and 47.1%, suggesting that the infected seedlings were subjected to Fusarium-induced water deficit stress. PSI reaction center was more susceptible than PSII reaction center in infected seedlings due to greater decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSI than that of PSII, but PSI reaction center injury was aggravated slowly, as PSII injury could partly protect PSI by restricting electron donation. PSII donor and acceptor sides were also damaged after 20 days of infection, and the restricted electron donation induced PSII and PSI disconnection by blocking PSI re-reduction. In accordance with greater damage of PSI reaction center, PSI oxidation was also suppressed. Notably, significantly increased efficiency of electron transport from plastoquinone (PQ to PSI acceptors (REo/ETo after 20 days of infection suggested greater inhibition on PQ reduction than re-oxidation, and the protection for PSI acceptors might alleviate the reduction of electron transport efficiency beyond PQ upon damaged PSI reaction center. Lowered delayed fluorescence in microsecond domain verified PSII damage in infected seedlings, and elevated delayed fluorescence in sub-millisecond domain during PQ reduction process conformed to increased REo/ETo. In conclusion, F. solani infection depressed PSII and PSI performance and destroyed their coordination by inducing pathological wilting in apple seedlings. It may

  2. The chloroplasts membrane phospholipids of Chlamydomonas reinhardii mutant not forming the Photosystem 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusova, V.M.; Ladygin, V.G.; Mezentsev, V.V.; Molchanov, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Study on a component composition and physical state of photosynthetic membranes of Chlamydomonas chloroplasts of the wild type and mutant A-110 with disturbance of electron transfer chain in the photosystem 2 region permitted to conclude that 170 A diameter particles localized on the internal hydrophobic surface of membrane chips are deleted with respect to phosphatidylglycerin. The results obtained permit to suggest that the formation of protein-lipid complexes containing phosphatidylglycerins is suppressed in mutant A-110 which is not capable of the lamellar system differentation in

  3. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  4. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

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    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  5. Nitrogen limitation in natural populations of cyanobacteria (Spirulina and Oscillatoria spp.) and its effect on macromolecular synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; Shilo, M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural populations of the cyanobacteria Spirulina species and Oscillatoria species obtained from Israeli fish ponds were limited in growth by nitrogen availability in summer. Physiological indicators for nitrogen limitation, such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carbohydrate content, did not show clear evidence for nitrogen limited growth, since these organisms are capable of vertical migration from and to the nitrogen-rich bottom. By means of 14 C labeling of the cells under simulated pond conditions followed by cell fractionation into macromolecular compounds, it was found that carbohydrates synthesized at the lighted surface were partially utilized for dark protein synthesis at the bottom of these ponds

  6. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  7. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, K.; Zouni, A.; Müh, F.; Mroginski, M.A.; Maultzsch, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry A g in the C 2h group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν 66 and ν 67 . Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue

  8. Comparison of the Light-Harvesting Networks of Plant and Cyanobacterial Photosystem I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Melih K.; Jolley, Craig; Ben-Shem, Adam; Fromme, Petra; Nelson, Nathan; Croce, Roberta; Schulten, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    With the availability of structural models for photosystem I (PSI) in cyanobacteria and plants it is possible to compare the excitation transfer networks in this ubiquitous photosystem from two domains of life separated by over one billion years of divergent evolution, thus providing an insight into the physical constraints that shape the networks' evolution. Structure-based modeling methods are used to examine the excitation transfer kinetics of the plant PSI-LHCI supercomplex. For this purpose an effective Hamiltonian is constructed that combines an existing cyanobacterial model for structurally conserved chlorophylls with spectral information for chlorophylls in the Lhca subunits. The plant PSI excitation migration network thus characterized is compared to its cyanobacterial counterpart investigated earlier. In agreement with observations, an average excitation transfer lifetime of ∼49 ps is computed for the plant PSI-LHCI supercomplex with a corresponding quantum yield of 95%. The sensitivity of the results to chlorophyll site energy assignments is discussed. Lhca subunits are efficiently coupled to the PSI core via gap chlorophylls. In contrast to the chlorophylls in the vicinity of the reaction center, previously shown to optimize the quantum yield of the excitation transfer process, the orientational ordering of peripheral chlorophylls does not show such optimality. The finding suggests that after close packing of chlorophylls was achieved, constraints other than efficiency of the overall excitation transfer process precluded further evolution of pigment ordering. PMID:15994896

  9. Isolated photosystem I reaction centers on a functionalized gated high electron mobility transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, Sazia A; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, M Nance; Islam, Syed K

    2011-09-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale (~6 nm) reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs. © 2011 IEEE

  10. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brose, K., E-mail: katharina.brose@gmx.net [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Zouni, A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Müh, F. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Mroginski, M.A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Maultzsch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-03

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry A{sub g} in the C{sub 2h} group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν{sub 66} and ν{sub 67}. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue.

  11. Isolated Photosystem I Reaction Centers on a Functionalized Gated High Electron Mobility Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliza, Sazia A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lee, Ida [ORNL; Tulip, Fahmida S [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mostafa, Salwa [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale nm reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs.

  12. Molecular Cloning of cpcU and Heterodimeric Bilin Lyase Activity Analysis of CpcU and CpcS for Attachment of Phycocyanobilin to Cys-82 on the β-Subunit of Phycocyanin in Arthrospira platensis FACHB314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB producing genes (hoxI and pcyA, while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the β-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314.

  13. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  14. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (L-AsnA is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2 showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU, total protein (405 mg/g, specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein, and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima.

  15. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon.

  16. Functional Lycopene Cyclase (CruA) in Cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis NIES-39, and its Role in Carotenoid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kenjiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Nagashima, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2017-04-01

    The genus Arthrospira is filamentous, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria that is commercially important. We identified the molecular structures of carotenoids in Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. The major carotenoid identified was β-carotene. In addition, the hydroxyl derivatives of β-cryptoxanthin and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin were also found to be present. The carotenoid glycosides were identified as (3R,2'S)-myxol 2'-methylpentoside and oscillol 2,2'-dimethylpentoside. The methylpentoside moiety was a mixture of fucoside and chinovoside in an approximate ratio of 1 : 4. Trace amounts of the ketocarotenoid 3'-hydroxyechinenone were also found. Three types of lycopene cyclases have been functionally confirmed in carotenogenesis organisms. In cyanobacteria, the functional lycopene cyclases (CrtL, CruA and CruP) have only been found in four species. In this study, we found that CruA exhibited lycopene cyclase activity in transformed Escherichia coli, which contains lycopene, but CruP exhibited no lycopene cyclase activity and crtL was absent. This is the third cyanobacterial species in which CruA activity has been confirmed. Neurosporene was not a substrate of CruA in E. coli, whereas lycopene cyclases of CrtY (bacteria), CrtL (plants) and CrtYB (fungi) have been reported to convert neurosporene to 7,8-dihydro-β-carotene. β-Carotene hydroxylase (CrtR) was found to convert β-carotene to zeaxanthin in transformed E. coli, which contains β-carotene. Among the β-carotene hydroxylases, bacterial CrtZ and eukaryotic CrtR and BCH have similarities, whereas cyanobacterial CrtR appears to belong to another clade. Based on the identification of the carotenoids and the completion of the entire nucleotide sequence of the A. platensis NIES-39 genome, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for the carotenoids as well as the corresponding genes and enzymes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved

  17. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-08-17

    Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  19. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  1. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Logan, Alan C; Giddings, Sabrina D; Quilliam, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications.

  3. The interaction of quinones, herbicides and bicarbonate with their binding environment at the acceptor side of photosystem II in photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, W.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis experiments are described which are directed towards a further characterization of the interaction of the native bound plastoquinone Q B , artificial quinones, herbicides and bicarbonate with their binding environment at the acceptor side of Photosystem II in

  4. Purification and spectroscopic characterization of photosystem II reaction center complexes isolated with or without Triton X-100.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijckelhoff, C.; van Roon, H.; Groot, M.L.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The pigment composition of the isolated photosystem II reaction center complex in its most stable and pure form currently is a matter of considerable debate. In this contribution, we present a new method based on a combination of gel filtration chromatography and diode array detection to analyze the

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Brynda, Jiří; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Revuelta, J. L.; Arellano, J.B.; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    F65, č. 2 (2009), s. 111-115 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : photosystem protein * crystallization * X-ray analysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  6. Determination of the excitation migration time in Photosystem II consequences for the membrane organization and charge separation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, K.; Trinkunas, G.; Hoek, van A.; Croce, R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of Photosystem II (PSII) membranes from spinach with open reaction centers (RCs), were compared after exciting at 420 and 484 nm. These wavelengths lead to preferential excitation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, respectively, which causes different initial

  7. Determination of the excitation migration time in Photosystem II - Consequences for the membrane organization and charge separation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, Koen; Trinkunas, Gediminas; van Hoek, Arie; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of Photosystem II (PSII) membranes from spinach with open reaction centers (RCs), were compared after exciting at 420 and 484 nm. These wavelengths lead to preferential excitation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, respectively, which causes different initial

  8. Determination of the excitation migration time in Photosystem II. Consequences for the membrane organization and charge separation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, Koen; Trinkunas, Gediminas; van Hoek, Arie; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of Photosystem II (PSII) membranes from spinach with open reaction centers (RCs), were compared after exciting at 420 and 484 nm. These wavelengths lead to preferential excitation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, respectively, which causes different initial

  9. Photosystem II Assembly Steps Take Place in the Thylakoid Membrane of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC6803

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sealo, T.T.; Zhang, L.; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Norling, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2016), s. 95-104 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aqueous two-phase partitioning * Cyanobacteria * Photosystem II biogenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.760, year: 2016

  10. Characterization of the alterations of the chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve after addition of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiraki, M.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (diuron), atrazine and two novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazine compounds, on photosynthetic oxygen evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction were measured in thylakoids isolated from Chenopodium

  11. A modified fluorometric method to quantify the concentration effect (pI50) of photosystem II-inhibiting herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiraki, M.; Vredenberg, W.J.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves of isolated thylakoids were measured in the absence and in the presence of various concentrations of photosystem II-inhibiting herbicides. A mathematical program was applied to simulate the curves. Based on these simulated curves a new method is developed to

  12. Consequences of state transitions on the structural and functional organization of Photosystem I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drop, Bartlomiej; Yadav K.N., Sathish; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta

    State transitions represent a photoacclimation process that regulates the light-driven photosynthetic reactions in response to changes in light quality/quantity. It balances the excitation between photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII) by shuttling LHCII, the main light-harvesting complex of green algae

  13. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating photosystem II (PSII) thermostabilty of apple tree rootstock leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brestic, M.; Shao, H. B.; Ferus, P.; Malbeck, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 71 (2011), s. 15891-15900 ISSN 1684-5315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Photosystem II thermostability * antioxidant activity * phytohormones Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.573, year: 2010

  14. Strain of Synechocystis PCC 6803 with Aberrant Assembly of Photosystem NN Contains Tandem Duplication of a Large Chromosomal Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Martin; Bečková, Martina; Kopečná, Jana; Noda, J.; Sobotka, Roman; Komenda, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, May 12 (2016), s. 648 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Synechocystis 6803 * chlorophyll * photosystem I Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  15. Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 2.9-A resolution and the role of quinones, lipids, channels and chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guskov, Albert; Kern, Jan; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Broser, Matthias; Zouni, Athina; Saenger, Wolfram

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large homodimeric protein-cofactor complex located in the photosynthetic thylakoid membrane that acts as light-driven water:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. The crystal structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 2.9-A resolution allowed the unambiguous assignment

  16. Degradation and Movement in Soil of the Herbicide Isoproturon Analyzed by a Photosystem II-Based Biosensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malý, Jan; Klem, K.; Lukavská, Alena; Masojídek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2005), s. 1780-1788 ISSN 0047-2425 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0659; GA MPO FT-TA/089 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Photosystem II * Herbicide-detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2005

  17. Quality control of Photosystem II: the mechanisms for avoidance and tolerance of light and heat stresses are closely linked to membrane fluidity of the thylakoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi Yamamoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are exposed to excessive light and/or heat, Photosystem II is damaged and electron transport is blocked. In these events, reactive oxygen species, endogenous radicals and lipid peroxidation products generated by photochemical reaction and/or heat cause the damage. Regarding light stress, plants first dissipate excessive light energy captured by light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes as heat to avoid the hazards, but once light stress is unavoidable, they tolerate the stress by concentrating damage in a particular protein in photosystem II, i.e. the reaction-center binding D1 protein of Photosystem II. The damaged D1 is removed by specific proteases and replaced with a new copy produced through de novo synthesis (reversible photoinhibition. When light intensity becomes extremely high, irreversible aggregation of D1 occurs and thereby D1 turnover is prevented. Once the aggregated products accumulate in Photosystem II complexes, removal of them by proteases is difficult, and irreversible inhibition of Photosystem II takes place (irreversible photoinhibition. Important is that various aspects of both the reversible and irreversible photoinhibition are highly dependent on the membrane fluidity of the thylakoids. Heat stress-induced inactivation of photosystem II is an irreversible process, which may be also affected by the fluidity of the thylakoid membranes. Here I describe why the membrane fluidity is a key to regulate the avoidance and tolerance of Photosystem II on environmental stresses.

  18. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaëlle Birot; Diane de Jouvencel; Laetitia Raginel; Geneviève Rouillé

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  19. Protein sequences and redox titrations indicate that the electron acceptors in reaction centers from heliobacteria are similar to Photosystem I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, J. T.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers isolated from Heliobacillus mobilis exhibit a single major protein on SDS-PAGE of 47 000 Mr. Attempts to sequence the reaction center polypeptide indicated that the N-terminus is blocked. After enzymatic and chemical cleavage, four peptide fragments were sequenced from the Heliobacillus mobilis apoprotein. Only one of these sequences showed significant specific similarity to any of the protein and deduced protein sequences in the GenBank data base. This fragment is identical with 56% of the residues, including both cysteines, found in highly conserved region that is proposed to bind iron-sulfur center Fx in the Photosystem I reaction center peptide that is the psaB gene product. The similarity to the psaA gene product in this region is 48%. Redox titrations of laser-flash-induced photobleaching with millisecond decay kinetics on isolated reaction centers from Heliobacterium gestii indicate a midpoint potential of -414 mV with n = 2 titration behavior. In membranes, the behavior is intermediate between n = 1 and n = 2, and the apparent midpoint potential is -444 mV. This is compared to the behavior in Photosystem I, where the intermediate electron acceptor A1, thought to be a phylloquinone molecule, has been proposed to undergo a double reduction at low redox potentials in the presence of viologen redox mediators. These results strongly suggest that the acceptor side electron transfer system in reaction centers from heliobacteria is indeed analogous to that found in Photosystem I. The sequence similarities indicate that the divergence of the heliobacteria from the Photosystem I line occurred before the gene duplication and subsequent divergence that lead to the heterodimeric protein core of the Photosystem I reaction center.

  20. Acute toxicity of excess mercury on the photosynthetic performance of cyanobacterium, S. platensis--assessment by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C M; Chau, C W; Zhang, J H

    2000-07-01

    Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be a rapid, non-invasive, and reliable method to assess photosynthetic performance in a changing environment. In this study, acute toxicity of excess Hg on the photosynthetic performance of the cyanobacterium S. platensis, was investigated by use of chlorophyll fluorescence analysis after cells were exposed to excess Hg (up to 20 microM) for 2 h. The results determined from the fast fluorescence kinetics showed that Hg induced a significant increase in the proportion of the Q(B)-non-reducing PSII reaction centers. The fluorescence parameters measured under the steady state of photosynthesis demonstrated that the increase of Hg concentration led to a decrease in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry, the efficiency of excitation energy capture by the open PSII reaction centers, and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport. Mercury also resulted in a decrease in the coefficients of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. Mercury may have an acute toxicity on cyanobacteria by inhibiting the quantum yield of photosynthesis sensitively and rapidly. Such changes occurred before any other visible damages that may be evaluated by other conventional measurements. Our results also demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can be used as a useful physiological tool to assess early stages of change in photosynthetic performance of algae in response to heavy metal pollution.

  1. Chlorophyll concentration assays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heaven

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... compounds, seven algal species belonging to cyanobacteria such as Spirulina platensis, ... Key words: Algae isolation, scanning electron microscope, ..... Antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic fresh.

  2. 1750-IJBCS-Article-Henri Gautier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    2012-01-02

    Jan 2, 2012 ... Effects of spirulina supplementation on selected anthropometric, biochemical, and ... up periods will be necessary to test these assumptions. ... platensis), an edible microalgae, is naturally ..... biliprotein with antioxidant, anti- ...

  3. [Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(CH3COO)2] on growth, biomass and proline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Spirulina platensis growth parameters [chlorophyll a (chl a) and dry-wet weight] effects on proline ... between lead accumulation in the test algae and low pH which ... vitamins, antioxidants and immunositimulants for both.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... rats were accidentally divided into the control, sham and test group ... cadmium chloride due to abundant antioxidant property. ..... Karadeniz A, Cemek M, Simsek N. The effects of Panax ginseng and Spirulina platensis on.

  5. Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of physico-chemical parameters on the physiological growth of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis) exogenous strain UTEXLB2340. Yahia Mustafa A Fagiri, Aisha Salleh, Saifeldin Ahmed F El-Nagerabi ...

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 14 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and urea into chicken manure medium · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hilal Kargin Yilmaz, Ozlem Sezgin ...

  7. Molecular electronics of a single photosystem I reaction center: Studies with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I.; Lee, J.W.; Warmack, R.J.; Allison, D.P.; Greenbaum, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-14

    Thylakoids and photosystem I (PSI) reaction centers were imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy. The thylakoids were isolated from spinach chloroplasts, and PSI reaction centers were extracted from thylakoid membranes. Because thylakoids are relatively thick nonconductors, they were sputter-coated with Pd/Au before imaging. PSI photosynthetic centers and chemically platinized PSI were investigated without sputter-coating. They were mounted on flat gold substrates that had been treated with mercaptoacetic acid to help bind the proteins. With tunneling spectroscopy, the PSI centers displayed a semiconductor-like response with a band gap of 1.8 eV. Lightly platinized (platinized for 1 hr) centers displayed diode-like conduction that resulted in dramatic contrast changes between images taken with opposite bias voltages. The electronic properties of this system were stable under long-term storage. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Solar Photo Catalytic Hydrogen Production from water using a dual bed photosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florida Solar Energy Center

    2003-03-30

    A body of work was performed in which the feasibility of photocatalytically decomposing water into its constituent elements using a dual bed, or modular photosystem, under solar radiation was investigated. The system envisioned consists of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which microscopic photocatalytic particles are immobilized. The photocatalysts absorb light, generating free electrons and lattice vacancy holes, which are capable of performing reductive and oxidative chemistry, respectively. The photocatalysts would be chosen as to whether they specifically promote H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} evolution in their respective containers. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers in order to transfer electron equivalents from one reaction to the other.

  9. Contribution of vitamin K1 to the electron spin polarization in spinach photosystem I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustandi, R.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Feezel, L.L.; Michalski, T.J.; Norris, J.R.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Biggins, J.

    1990-01-01

    The electron spin polarized (ESP) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal observed in spinach photosystem I (PSI) particles was examined in preparations depleted of vitamin K1 by solvent extraction and following biological reconstitution by the quinone. The ESP EPR signal was not detected in the solvent-extracted PSI sample but was restored upon reconstitution with either protonated or deuterated vitamin K1 under conditions that also restored electron transfer to the terminal PSI acceptors. Reconstitution using deuterated vitamin K1 resulted in a line narrowing of the ESP EPR signal, supporting the conclusion that the ESP EPR signals in the reconstituted samples arise from a radical pair consisting of the oxidized PSI primary donor, P700+, and reduced vitamin K1

  10. Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy and Diffraction of Photosystem II at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Gildea, Richard J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Koroidov, Sergey; Lampe, Alyssa; Han, Guangye; Gul, Sheraz; DiFiore, Dörte; Milathianaki, Despina; Fry, Alan R.; Miahnahri, Alan; Schafer, Donald W.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Koglin, Jason E.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sellberg, Jonas; Latimer, Matthew J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Glatzel, Pieter; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Intense femtosecond X-ray pulses produced at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) were used for simultaneous X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of microcrystals of Photosystem II (PS II) at room temperature. This method probes the overall protein structure and the electronic structure of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of PS II. XRD data are presented from both the dark state (S1) and the first illuminated state (S2) of PS II. Our simultaneous XRD/XES study shows that the PS II crystals are intact during our measurements at the LCLS, not only with respect to the structure of PS II, but also with regard to the electronic structure of the highly radiation sensitive Mn4CaO5 cluster, opening new directions for future dynamics studies. PMID:23413188

  11. The optoelectronic properties of a photosystem I-carbon nanotube hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniber, Simone M; Holleitner, Alexander W; Simmel, Friedrich C; Carmeli, Itai

    2009-01-01

    The photoconductance properties of photosystem I (PSI) covalently bound to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are measured. We demonstrate that the PSI forms active electronic junctions with the CNTs, enabling control of the CNTs' photoconductance by the PSI. In order to electrically contact the photoactive proteins, a cysteine mutant is generated at one end of the PSI by genetic engineering. The CNTs are covalently bound to this reactive group using carbodiimide chemistry. We detect an enhanced photoconductance signal of the hybrid material at photon wavelengths resonant to the absorption maxima of the PSI compared to non-resonant wavelengths. The measurements prove that it is feasible to integrate photosynthetic proteins into optoelectronic circuits at the nanoscale.

  12. The optoelectronic properties of a photosystem I-carbon nanotube hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniber, Simone M; Holleitner, Alexander W [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Simmel, Friedrich C [LMU Munich, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany); Carmeli, Itai, E-mail: holleitner@wsi.tum.d, E-mail: itai@post.tau.ac.i [Chemistry Department and NIBN, Ben Gurion University, 84105 Be' er Sheva (Israel)

    2009-08-26

    The photoconductance properties of photosystem I (PSI) covalently bound to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are measured. We demonstrate that the PSI forms active electronic junctions with the CNTs, enabling control of the CNTs' photoconductance by the PSI. In order to electrically contact the photoactive proteins, a cysteine mutant is generated at one end of the PSI by genetic engineering. The CNTs are covalently bound to this reactive group using carbodiimide chemistry. We detect an enhanced photoconductance signal of the hybrid material at photon wavelengths resonant to the absorption maxima of the PSI compared to non-resonant wavelengths. The measurements prove that it is feasible to integrate photosynthetic proteins into optoelectronic circuits at the nanoscale.

  13. How exciton-vibrational coherences control charge separation in the photosystem II reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Romero, Elisabet; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2015-12-14

    In photosynthesis absorbed sun light produces collective excitations (excitons) that form a coherent superposition of electronic and vibrational states of the individual pigments. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy allows a visualization of how these coherences are involved in the primary processes of energy and charge transfer. Based on quantitative modeling we identify the exciton-vibrational coherences observed in 2D photon echo of the photosystem II reaction center (PSII-RC). We find that the vibrations resonant with the exciton splittings can modify the delocalization of the exciton states and produce additional states, thus promoting directed energy transfer and allowing a switch between the two charge separation pathways. We conclude that the coincidence of the frequencies of the most intense vibrations with the splittings within the manifold of exciton and charge-transfer states in the PSII-RC is not occurring by chance, but reflects a fundamental principle of how energy conversion in photosynthesis was optimized.

  14. A CK2 site is reversibly phosphorylated in the photosystem II subunit CP29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, M G; Croce, R; Polverino-De Laureto, P; Bassi, R

    1996-12-16

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of protein function. In chloroplast thylakoids several photosystem II subunits, including the major antenna light-harvesting complex II and several core complex components, are reversibly phosphorylated depending on the redox state of the electron carriers. A previously unknown reversible phosphorylation event has recently been described on the CP29 subunit which leads to conformational changes and protection from cold stress (Bergantino, E., Dainese, P., Cerovic, Z. Sechi, S. and Bassi, R. (1995) J. Biol Chem. 270, 8474-8481). In this study, we have identified the phosphorylation site on the N-terminal, stroma-exposed domain, showing that it is located in a sequence not homologous to the other members of the Lhc family. The phosphorylated sequence is unique in chloroplast membranes since it meets the requirements for CK2 (casein kinase II) kinases. The possibility that this phosphorylation is involved in a signal transduction pathway is discussed.

  15. Does Parmelina tiliacea lichen photosystem II survive at liquid nitrogen temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Gharous, Mohamed; Strasser, Reto J

    2017-02-01

    Parmelina tiliacea lichens kept in the wet and dry state were stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week and the subsequent recovery of their photosynthetic apparatus was followed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence rise and the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry φ Po (F V /F M ) were analysed for this purpose. Storage of wet thalli for 1 week in liquid nitrogen led to an impairment of photosystem II and probably the photosynthetic apparatus as a whole, from which the thalli did not recover over time. Thalli exposed in the dry state thalli were far less affected by the treatment and recovered well. These results indicate that the thalli are extremely tolerant to liquid nitrogen temperatures only in the dry state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-08-22

    The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-μm thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores.

  17. Effects of Irregular Bimetallic Nanostructures on the Optical Properties of Photosystem I from Thermosynechococcus elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ashraf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence of photosystem I (PSI trimers in proximity to bimetallic plasmonic nanostructures have been explored by single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS at cryogenic temperature (1.6 K. PSI serves as a model for biological multichromophore-coupled systems with high potential for biotechnological applications. Plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by thermal annealing of thin metallic films. The fluorescence of PSI has been intensified due to the coupling with plasmonic nanostructures. Enhancement factors up to 22.9 and 5.1 are observed for individual PSI complexes coupled to Au/Au and Ag/Au samples, respectively. Additionally, a wavelength dependence of fluorescence enhancement is observed, which can be explained by the multichromophoric composition of PSI.

  18. Manganese Loading and Photosystem II Stability are Key Components of Manganese Efficiency in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency constitutes a major plant nutritional problem in commercial crop production of winter cereals. In plants, Mn has an indispensable role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Hence, the consequences of Mn deficiency are reduced plant growth......, and eventually substantial yield losses. It is well known, that genotypes within plant species differ considerably in tolerance to growth under Mn limiting conditions, a phenomenon designated as Mn efficiency. However, the physiological responses reflecting the underlying mechanisms of Mn efficiency are still...... not fully understood. In this PhD study, a new method for determination and characterization of metal binding in size-fractionated photosynthetic protein complexes from barley thylakoids was established. The applicability of the method was shown by quantification of Mn binding in PSII from thylakoids of two...

  19. Excitation energy transfer between Light-harvesting complex II and Photosystem I in reconstituted membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Parveen; Lingvay, Mónika; Kiss, Teréz; Deák, Róbert; Bóta, Attila; Ughy, Bettina; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H

    2016-04-01

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the major peripheral antenna of Photosystem II in plants, participates in several concerted mechanisms for regulation of the excitation energy and electron fluxes in thylakoid membranes. In part, these include interaction of LHCII with Photosystem I (PSI) enhancing the latter's absorption cross-section - for example in the well-known state 1 - state 2 transitions or as a long-term acclimation to high light. In this work we examined the capability of LHCII to deliver excitations to PSI in reconstituted membranes in vitro. Proteoliposomes with native plant thylakoid membrane lipids and different stoichiometric ratios of LHCII:PSI were reconstituted and studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence emission from LHCII was strongly decreased in PSI-LHCII membranes due to trapping of excitations by PSI. Kinetic modelling of the time-resolved fluorescence data revealed the existence of separate pools of LHCII distinguished by the time scale of energy transfer. A strongly coupled pool, equivalent to one LHCII trimer per PSI, transferred excitations to PSI with near-unity efficiency on a time scale of less than 10ps but extra LHCIIs also contributed significantly to the effective antenna size of PSI, which could be increased by up to 47% in membranes containing 3 LHCII trimers per PSI. The results demonstrate a remarkable competence of LHCII to increase the absorption cross-section of PSI, given the opportunity that the two types of complexes interact in the membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A miniature bioassay for testing the acute phytotoxicity of photosystem II herbicides on seagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Photosystem II (PSII herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/F(m' was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/F(m' by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes, indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m(-2 s(-1. High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future.

  1. A Miniature Bioassay for Testing the Acute Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II Herbicides on Seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Mercurio, Phil; O’Brien, Jake; Ralph, Peter J.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides have been detected in nearshore tropical waters such as those of the Great Barrier Reef and may add to the pressure posed by runoff containing sediments and nutrients to threatened seagrass habitats. There is a growing number of studies into the potential effects of herbicides on seagrass, generally using large experimental setups with potted plants. Here we describe the successful development of an acute 12-well plate phytotoxicity assay for the PSII herbicide Diuron using isolated Halophila ovalis leaves. Fluorescence images demonstrated Diuron affected the entire leaf surface evenly and responses were not influenced by isolating leaves from the plant. The optimum exposure duration was 24 h, by which time the inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII (∆F/Fm’) was highest and no deterioration of photosystems was evident in control leaves. The inhibition of ∆F/Fm’ by Diuron in isolated H. ovalis leaves was identical to both potted and hydroponically grown plants (with leaves remaining attached to rhizomes), indicating similar reductions in photosynthetic activity in these acute well-plate assays. The sensitivity of the assay was not influenced by irradiance (range tested 40 to 400 μmol photons m-2 s-1). High irradiance, however, caused photo-oxidative stress in H. ovalis and this generally impacted in an additive or sub-additive way with Diuron to damage PSII. The bioassay using isolated leaves is more rapid, uses far less biological material and does not rely on specialised aquarium facilities in comparison with assays using potted plants. The development and validation of this sensitive bioassay will be useful to reliably screen and monitor the phytotoxicity of existing and emerging PSII herbicides and contribute to risk assessments and water quality guideline development in the future. PMID:25674791

  2. Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Mariangela; Stahl, Andreas D; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie-Louise

    2011-02-01

    Photosystem I is one of the key players in the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. While the chlorophyll dimer P(700) has long been identified as the primary electron donor, the components involved in the primary charge separation process in PSI remain undetermined. Here, we have studied the charge separation dynamics in Photosystem I trimers from Synechococcus elongatus by femtosecond vis-pump/mid-infrared-probe spectroscopy upon excitation at 700, 710, and 715 nm. Because of the high specificity of the infrared region for the redox state and small differences in the molecular structure of pigments, we were able to clearly identify specific marker bands indicating chlorophyll (Chl) oxidation. Magnitudes of chlorophyll cation signals are observed to increase faster than the time resolution of the experiment (~0.2 ps) upon both excitation conditions: 700 nm and selective red excitation. Two models, involving either ultrafast charge separation or charge transfer character of the red pigments in PSI, are discussed to explain this observation. A further increase in the magnitudes of cation signals on a subpicosecond time scale (0.8-1 ps) indicates the formation of the primary radical pair. Evolution in the cation region with time constants of 7 and 40 ps reveals the formation of the secondary radical pair, involving a secondary electron donor. Modeling of the data allows us to extract the spectra of the two radical pairs, which have IR signatures consistent with A+A₀- and P₇₀₀+A₁-. We conclude that the cofactor chlorophyll A acts as the primary donor in PSI. The existence of an equilibrium between the two radical pairs we interpret as concerted hole/electron transfer between the pairs of electron donors and acceptors, until after 40 ps, relaxation leads to a full population of the P₇₀₀+A₁. radical pair.

  3. Excitation transfer and trapping kinetics in plant photosystem I probed by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Parveen; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Zhengtang; Tan, Howe-Siang; Lambrev, Petar H

    2018-03-01

    Photosystem I is a robust and highly efficient biological solar engine. Its capacity to utilize virtually every absorbed photon's energy in a photochemical reaction generates great interest in the kinetics and mechanisms of excitation energy transfer and charge separation. In this work, we have employed room-temperature coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to follow exciton equilibration and excitation trapping in intact Photosystem I complexes as well as core complexes isolated from Pisum sativum. We performed two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements with low excitation pulse energies to record excited-state kinetics free from singlet-singlet annihilation. Global lifetime analysis resolved energy transfer and trapping lifetimes closely matches the time-correlated single-photon counting data. Exciton energy equilibration in the core antenna occurred on a timescale of 0.5 ps. We further observed spectral equilibration component in the core complex with a 3-4 ps lifetime between the bulk Chl states and a state absorbing at 700 nm. Trapping in the core complex occurred with a 20 ps lifetime, which in the supercomplex split into two lifetimes, 16 ps and 67-75 ps. The experimental data could be modelled with two alternative models resulting in equally good fits-a transfer-to-trap-limited model and a trap-limited model. However, the former model is only possible if the 3-4 ps component is ascribed to equilibration with a "red" core antenna pool absorbing at 700 nm. Conversely, if these low-energy states are identified with the P 700 reaction centre, the transfer-to-trap-model is ruled out in favour of a trap-limited model.

  4. Mechanism of interaction of Al3+ with the proteins composition of photosystem II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Hasni

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of Al3+on photosystem II (PSII electron transport was investigated using several biophysical and biochemical techniques such as oxygen evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence induction and emission, SDS-polyacrylamide and native green gel electrophoresis, and FTIR spectroscopy. In order to understand the mechanism of its inhibitory action, we have analyzed the interaction of this toxic cation with proteins subunits of PSII submembrane fractions isolated from spinach. Our results show that Al 3+, especially above 3 mM, strongly inhibits oxygen evolution and affects the advancement of the S states of the Mn4O5Ca cluster. This inhibition was due to the release of the extrinsic polypeptides and the disorganization of the Mn4O5Ca cluster associated with the oxygen evolving complex (OEC of PSII. This fact was accompanied by a significant decline of maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm together with a strong damping of the chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. The energy transfer from light harvesting antenna to reaction centers of PSII was impaired following the alteration of the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII. The latter result was revealed by the drop of chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra at low temperature (77 K, increase of F0 and confirmed by the native green gel electrophoresis. FTIR measurements indicated that the interaction of Al 3+ with the intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of PSII induces major alterations of the protein secondary structure leading to conformational changes. This was reflected by a major reduction of α-helix with an increase of β-sheet and random coil structures in Al 3+-PSII complexes. These structural changes are closely related with the functional alteration of PSII activity revealed by the inhibition of the electron transport chain of PSII.

  5. Novel Concept for LSS Based on Advanced Microalgal Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Karakis, S.; Karpov, L.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    levels, as well as improved antioxidant defense and pyruvate levels, compared to untreated animals. Experimental anemia in rats was corrected by feeding Spirulina platensis strains 198B and 27G, (with an enhanced content of methionine, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids). Spirulina was recently shown by Ananyev et al, 2005, to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of photosystem II activity (O2 production). We propose therefore to develop a design for membrane-based photoreactors for Lunar and Mars exploration habitat LSS, for the cultivation of genetically modified strains of Spirulina to scrub CO2 and supply astronauts with O2, protein, vitamins, and immunostimulators.

  6. In vivo photosystem I reduction in thermophilic and mesophilic cyanobacteria: The thermal resistance of the process is limited by factors other than the unfolding of the partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Raul V.; Hervas, Manuel; Rosa, Miguel A. de la; Navarro, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    Photosystem I reduction by plastocyanin and cytochrome c 6 in cyanobacteria has been extensively studied in vitro, but much less information is provided on this process inside the cell. Here, we report an analysis of the electron transfer from both plastocyanin and cytochrome c 6 to photosystem I in intact cells of several cyanobacterial species, including a comparative study of the temperature effect in mesophilic and thermophilic organisms. Our data show that cytochrome c 6 reduces photosystem I by following a reaction mechanism involving complex formation, whereas the copper-protein follows a simpler collisional mechanism. These results contrast with previous kinetic studies in vitro. The effect of temperature on photosystem I reduction leads us to conclude that the thermal resistance of this process is determined by factors other than the proper stability of the protein partners

  7. Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem I Promotes ATP Synthesis Possibly Helping the Rapid Repair of Photodamaged Photosystem II at Low Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, moderate photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII leads to a stimulation of cyclic electron flow (CEF at low light, which is accompanied by an increase in the P700 oxidation ratio. However, the specific role of CEF stimulation at low light is not well known. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying this increase in P700 oxidation ratio at low light is unclear. To address these questions, intact leaves of the shade-adapted plant Panax notoginseng were treated at 2258 μmol photons m-2 s-1 for 30 min to induce PSII photoinhibition. Before and after this high-light treatment, PSI and PSII activity, the energy quenching in PSII, the redox state of PSI and proton motive force (pmf at a low light of 54 μmol photons m-2 s-1 were determined at the steady state. After high-light treatment, electron flow through PSII (ETRII significantly decreased but CEF was remarkably stimulated. The P700 oxidation ratio significantly increased but non-photochemical quenching changed negligibly. Concomitantly, the total pmf decreased significantly and the proton gradient (ΔpH across the thylakoid membrane remained stable. Furthermore, the P700 oxidation ratio was negatively correlated with the value of ETRII. These results suggest that upon PSII photoinhibition, CEF is stimulated to increase the ATP synthesis, facilitating the rapid repair of photodamaged PSII. The increase in P700 oxidation ratio at low light cannot be explained by the change in pmf, but is primarily controlled by electron transfer from PSII.

  8. Influência da ingestão de espirulina sobre o metabolismo de ratos exercitados Influencia de ingestión de Spirulina sobre el metabolismo de ratones exercitados Influence of spirulina intake on metabolism of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Puggina Rogatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram comparadas as respostas metabólicas agudas ao exercício em ratos alimentados com dieta padrão e à base de espirulina. Ratos Wistar jovens foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a dieta: controle (C (dieta padrão e espirulina (S (dieta à base de espirulina. Ao final do período experimental (cinco semanas os animais foram submetidos a uma sessão aguda de exercício de natação (20 minutos, suportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% do peso corporal para avaliação do lactato sanguíneo, glicose, insulina, proteínas, albumina e ácidos graxos livres (AGL séricos. Amostras do músculo gastrocnêmio e fígado foram utilizadas para determinação dos teores de glicogênio e lipídeos. Ambos os grupos C e S apresentaram aumento da glicemia e dos AGL, queda da insulinemia e redução dos teores de glicogênio muscular e hepático pós-exercício. A lactacidemia durante o exercício foi superior no grupo S em relação ao C. Conclui-se que o padrão de respostas ao exercício agudo dos grupos C e S foi semelhante. Contudo, a proteína da dieta pareceu influenciar aspectos do metabolismo glicídico.En el presente estudio fueron comparadas las respuestas metabólicas agudas al ejercicio en ratones alimentados con dieta padrón y a base de Spirulina. Ratones Wistar jovenes fueron divididos en dos grupos de acuerdo con la dieta: control (C (dieta padrón y Spirulina (S (dieta a base de Spirulina. Al final del período experimental (5 semanas los animales fueron sometidos a una sesión aguda de ejercício de natación (20 minutos, soportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% de su peso corporal para evaluación del lactato sanguíneo, glucosa, insulina, proteínas, albumina y ácidos grasos libres (AGL séricos. Las muestras del músculo gastrocnemio y fígado fueron utilizadas para la determinación de los tenores de glicogeno y de lípidos. Ambos grupos C e S presentaron un aumento de la glicemia y de los AGL, mantenimiento

  9. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  11. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbate (Asc plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo, which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII. Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0, which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study.

  12. Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Maria C; Piccardi, Raffaella; Ventura, Stefano; Viti, Carlo; Giovannetti, Luciana

    2003-05-01

    Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters, belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was well delineated.

  13. Characterization and pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis: potential of bio-oil and chemical production by Py-GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hanna N; Calixto, Guilherme Q; Chagas, Bruna M E; Melo, Dulce M A; Resende, Fabio M; Melo, Marcus A F; Braga, Renata Martins

    2017-06-01

    Biofuels have been seen as potential sources to meet future energy demand as a renewable and sustainable energy source. Despite the fact that the production technology of first-generation biofuels is consolidated, these biofuels are produced from foods crops such as grains, sugar cane, and vegetable oils competing with food for crop use and agricultural land. In recent years, it was found that microalgae have the potential to provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels as source of biofuels without compromising food supplies or arable land. On this scenario, this paper aims to demonstrate the energetic potential to produce bio-oil and chemicals from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis. The potential of these biomasses was evaluated in terms of physical-chemical characterization, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis interfaced with gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The results show that C. vulgaris and A. platensis are biomasses with a high heating value (24.60 and 22.43 MJ/kg) and low ash content, showing a high percentage of volatile matter (72.49 and 79.42%). These characteristics confirm their energetic potential for conversion process through pyrolysis, whereby some important aromatic compounds such as toluene, styrene, and phenol were identified as pyrolysis products, which could turn these microalgae a potential for biofuels and bioproduct production through the pyrolysis.

  14. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  15. The Effect of a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on macrophage, PMN, and lymphocyte cell expressions in post extraction wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijantini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is the ultimate treatment option for defective teeth followed by the need for dentures. Inflammation is one phase of the healing process that should be minimized in order to preserve alveolar bone for denture support. Macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells are indicators of acute inflammation. Spirulina and chitosan are natural compounds with the potential to be anti-inflammatory agents. Purpose: This research aimed to determine macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells of animal models treated with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd post-extraction day. Methods: Animal models were randomly divided into control (K and treatment (P groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (KI, KII, KIII and PI, PII, PIII. The post-extraction sockets of the control group animals were then filled with CMC Na 3%. Meanwhile, the post-extraction sockets of the treatment group members were filled with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan. Subsequently, the number of PMN, macrophage and lymphocyte cells was analyzed by means of HE analysis on the 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. days. Statistical analysis was then performed using a T-test. Results: There was a decrease in PMN cells and an increase in macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can not only decrease PMN cells, but can also increase macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2 and 3 after tooth extraction.

  16. Amorphous manganese-calcium oxides as a possible evolutionary origin for the CaMn₄ cluster in photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2011-06-01

    In this paper a few calcium-manganese oxides and calcium-manganese minerals are studied as catalysts for water oxidation. The natural mineral marokite is also studied as a catalyst for water oxidation for the first time. Marokite is made up of edge-sharing Mn(3+) in a distorted octahedral environment and eight-coordinate Ca(2+) centered polyhedral layers. The structure is similar to recent models of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II. Thus, the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II does not have an unusual structure and could be synthesized hydrothermally. Also in this paper, oxygen evolution is studied with marokite (CaMn₂O₄), pyrolusite (MnO₂) and compared with hollandite (Ba(0.2)Ca(0.15)K(0.3)Mn(6.9)Al(0.2)Si(0.3)O(16)), hausmannite (Mn₃O₄), Mn₂O₃.H₂O, Ca Mn₃O₆.H₂O, CaMn₄O₈.H₂O, CaMn₂O₄.H₂O and synthetic marokite (CaMn₂O₄). I propose that the origin of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II resulted from absorption of calcium and manganese ions that were precipitated together in the archean oceans by protocyanobacteria because of changing pH from ~5 to ~8-10. As reported in this paper, amorphous calcium-manganese oxides with different ratios of manganese and calcium are effective catalysts for water oxidation. The bond types and lengths of the calcium and manganese ions in the calcium-manganese oxides are directly comparable to those in the OEC. This primitive structure of these amorphous calcium-manganese compounds could be changed and modified by environmental groups (amino acids) to form the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II.

  17. Resistance to the photosystem II herbicide diuron is dominant to sensitivity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942

    OpenAIRE

    Brusslan, Judy; Haselkorn, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The transformable cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, was used to study the genetics of resistance to the herbicide diuron. In wild-type cells, diuron binds to one of the core proteins, called D1, of photosystem II reaction centres. This binding prevents the transfer of electrons from QA, the primary quinone acceptor, to QB, which is necessary to create the charge separation that drives ATP synthesis. A single amino acid substitution in the D1 protein reduces diuron binding and confers...

  18. Subunit Organization of a Synechocystis Hetero-Oligomeric Thylakoid FtsH Complex Involved in Photosystem II Repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boehm, M.; Yu, J.; Krynická, Vendula; Barker, M.; Tichý, Martin; Komenda, Josef; Nixon, P. J.; Nield, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 9 (2012), s. 3669-3683 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : photosystem II * FtsH metalloproteases * subunit Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.251, year: 2012

  19. FdC1 and Leaf-Type Ferredoxins Channel Electrons From Photosystem I to Different Downstream Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoqian; Chen, Shuai; Voon, Chia Pao; Wong, Kam-Bo; Tikkanen, Mikko; Lim, Boon L

    2018-01-01

    Plant-type ferredoxins in Arabidopsis transfer electrons from the photosystem I to multiple redox-driven enzymes involved in the assimilation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Leaf-type ferredoxins also modulate the switch between the linear and cyclic electron routes of the photosystems. Recently, two novel ferredoxin homologs with extra C-termini were identified in the Arabidopsis genome (AtFdC1, AT4G14890; AtFdC2, AT1G32550). FdC1 was considered as an alternative electron acceptor of PSI under extreme ferredoxin-deficient conditions. Here, we showed that FdC1 could interact with some, but not all, electron acceptors of leaf-type Fds, including the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR), sulfite reductase (SiR), and nitrite reductase (NiR). Photoreduction assay on cytochrome c and enzyme assays confirmed its capability to receive electrons from PSI and donate electrons to the Fd-dependent SiR and NiR but not to the ferredoxin-NADP + oxidoreductase (FNR). Hence, FdC1 and leaf-type Fds may play differential roles by channeling electrons from photosystem I to different downstream electron acceptors in photosynthetic tissues. In addition, the median redox potential of FdC1 may allow it to receive electrons from FNR in non-photosynthetic plastids.

  20. The Arabidopsis nox mutant lacking carotene hydroxylase activity reveals a critical role for xanthophylls in photosystem I biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Piques, Maria; Ronzani, Michela; Molesini, Barbara; Alboresi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Carotenes, and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls, are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus. They contribute to the assembly of photosynthetic complexes and participate in light absorption and chloroplast photoprotection. Here, we studied the role of xanthophylls, as distinct from that of carotenes, by characterizing a no xanthophylls (nox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which was obtained by combining mutations targeting the four carotenoid hydroxylase genes. nox plants retained α- and β-carotenes but were devoid in xanthophylls. The phenotype included depletion of light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits and impairment of nonphotochemical quenching, two effects consistent with the location of xanthophylls in photosystem II antenna, but also a decreased efficiency of photosynthetic electron transfer, photosensitivity, and lethality in soil. Biochemical analysis revealed that the nox mutant was specifically depleted in photosystem I function due to a severe deficiency in PsaA/B subunits. While the stationary level of psaA/B transcripts showed no major differences between genotypes, the stability of newly synthesized PsaA/B proteins was decreased and translation of psaA/B mRNA was impaired in nox with respect to wild-type plants. We conclude that xanthophylls, besides their role in photoprotection and LHC assembly, are also needed for photosystem I core translation and stability, thus making these compounds indispensable for autotrophic growth.

  1. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  2. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  3. Spectroscopic properties of reaction center pigments in photosystem II core complexes: revision of the multimer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszewski, Grzegorz; Diner, Bruce A; Schlodder, Eberhard; Renger, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Absorbance difference spectra associated with the light-induced formation of functional states in photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (e.g., P(+)Pheo(-),P(+)Q(A)(-),(3)P) are described quantitatively in the framework of exciton theory. In addition, effects are analyzed of site-directed mutations of D1-His(198), the axial ligand of the special-pair chlorophyll P(D1), and D1-Thr(179), an amino-acid residue nearest to the accessory chlorophyll Chl(D1), on the spectral properties of the reaction center pigments. Using pigment transition energies (site energies) determined previously from independent experiments on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes, good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is obtained. The only difference in site energies of the reaction center pigments in D1-D2-cytb559 and photosystem II core complexes concerns Chl(D1). Compared to isolated reaction centers, the site energy of Chl(D1) is red-shifted by 4 nm and less inhomogeneously distributed in core complexes. The site energies cause primary electron transfer at cryogenic temperatures to be initiated by an excited state that is strongly localized on Chl(D1) rather than from a delocalized state as assumed in the previously described multimer model. This result is consistent with earlier experimental data on special-pair mutants and with our previous calculations on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes. The calculations show that at 5 K the lowest excited state of the reaction center is lower by approximately 10 nm than the low-energy exciton state of the two special-pair chlorophylls P(D1) and P(D2) which form an excitonic dimer. The experimental temperature dependence of the wild-type difference spectra can only be understood in this model if temperature-dependent site energies are assumed for Chl(D1) and P(D1), reducing the above energy gap from 10 to 6 nm upon increasing the temperature from 5 to 300 K. At physiological temperature, there are

  4. 2716-IJBCS-Article-Laurencia Toulsoumde SONGRE-OUATTARA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Use of the moringa, spirulina, orange-fleshed sweet potato and a multivitamin complex in the manufacture ... spiruline (Spirulina platensis) et la patate douce à chair .... utilisant le test d'acceptabilité avec l'épreuve ...... Antioxidant properties of ...

  5. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  6. Photosystem II heterogeneity of in hospite zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals exposed to bleaching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ross; PeterJ, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Increased ocean temperatures are thought to be triggering mass coral bleaching events around the world. The intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (genus Symbiodinium) are expelled from the coral host, which is believed to be a response to photosynthetic damage within these symbionts. Several sites of impact have been proposed, and here we probe the functional heterogeneity of Photosystem II (PSII) in three coral species exposed to bleaching conditions. As length of exposure to bleaching conditions (32 degrees C and 350 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) increased, the QA- reoxidation kinetics showed a rise in the proportion of inactive PSII centers (PSIIx), where QB was unable to accept electrons. PSIIx contributed up to 20% of the total PSII centers in Pocillopora damicornis, 35% in Acropora nobilis and 14% in Cyphastrea serailia. Changes in Fv/Fm and amplitude of the J step along fast induction curves were found to be highly dependent upon the proportion of PSIIx centers within the total pool of PSII reaction centers. Determination of PSII antenna size revealed that under control conditions in the three coral species up to 60% of PSII centers were lacking peripheral light-harvesting complexes (PSIIbeta). In P. damicornis, the proportion of PSIIbeta increased under bleaching conditions and this could be a photoprotective mechanism in response to excess light. The rapid increases in PSIIx and PSIIbeta observed in these corals under bleaching conditions indicates these physiological processes are involved in the initial photochemical damage to zooxanthellae.

  7. Analysis of Light-Induced Transmembrane Ion Gradients and Membrane Potential in Photosystem I Proteoliposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennisi, Cristian P.; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.

  8. Low-energy absorption and luminescence of higher plant photosystem II core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Joseph L.; Smith, Paul J.; Pace, Ron J.; Krausz, Elmars

    2007-01-01

    The charge-separating state of PSII has been recently assigned as a homogeneously broadened band peaking at 705 nm. The possibility of observing emission due to luminescence from the charge-separating state was investigated. Emission from the charge-separating state is predicted to be both broad and substantially Stokes shifted. Our PSII cores show an easily observable and broad emission peaking near 735 nm when excited at 707 nm and beyond for temperatures below 100 K as well as the well-known F685 and F695 nm emission when excited at 633 nm. However, the 735 nm emission bears a close correspondence to that previously reported for the light harvesting pigment of photosystem I (PSI), LHCI-730, and we attribute our observed emission to a minor contamination of our sample with this protein. High sensitivity circular dichroism (CD) spectra establish that LHCI and/or PSI contamination of our samples does not contribute significantly to the absorption seen in the 700-730 nm region. Furthermore, systematic illumination-induced absorption changes seen in this region are shown to quantitatively track with charge separation and the subsequent secondary acceptor plastoquinone (Q A ) acceptor anion formation. These results confirm that absorption in the 700-730 nm region is associated with the reaction centre of active PSII

  9. Engineered Photosystem II reaction centers optimize photochemistry versus photoprotection at different solar intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyard, David J; Gimpel, Javier; Ananyev, Gennady M; Mayfield, Stephen P; Dismukes, G Charles

    2014-03-12

    The D1 protein of Photosystem II (PSII) provides most of the ligating amino acid residues for the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) and half of the reaction center cofactors, and it is present as two isoforms in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. These isoforms, D1:1 and D1:2, confer functional advantages for photosynthetic growth at low and high light intensities, respectively. D1:1, D1:2, and seven point mutations in the D1:2 background that are native to D1:1 were expressed in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We used these nine strains to show that those strains that confer a higher yield of PSII charge separation under light-limiting conditions (where charge recombination is significant) have less efficient photochemical turnover, measured in terms of both a lower WOC turnover probability and a longer WOC cycle period. Conversely, these same strains under light saturation (where charge recombination does not compete) confer a correspondingly faster O2 evolution rate and greater protection against photoinhibition. Taken together, the data clearly establish that PSII primary charge separation is a trade-off between photochemical productivity (water oxidation and plastoquinone reduction) and charge recombination (photoprotection). These trade-offs add up to a significant growth advantage for the two natural isoforms. These insights provide fundamental design principles for engineering of PSII reaction centers with optimal photochemical efficiencies for growth at low versus high light intensities.

  10. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, A V; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, A E; Andersson, J; Lee, P J; Keegstra, W; Dekker, J P; Boekema, E J; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-02-06

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes-which together form PSII supercomplexes. The antenna complexes are essential for collecting sunlight and regulating photosynthesis, but the relationship between these functions and their molecular architecture is unresolved. Here we report that antisense Arabidopsis plants lacking the proteins that form LHCII trimers have PSII supercomplexes with almost identical abundance and structure to those found in wild-type plants. The place of LHCII is taken by a normally minor and monomeric complex, CP26, which is synthesized in large amounts and organized into trimers. Trimerization is clearly not a specific attribute of LHCII. Our results highlight the importance of the PSII macrostructure: in the absence of one of its main components, another protein is recruited to allow it to assemble and function.

  11. Artificial Photosystem I and II: Highly Selective solar fuels and tandem photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuchen; Castellanos, Ignacio; Cerkovnik, Logan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, or generation of solar fuels from CO2/H2O, can provide an important alternative for rising CO2 emission and renewable energy generation. In our recent work, composite photocatalysts (CPCs) made from widebandgap nanotubes and different QDs were used to mimic Photosystem II (PS680) and I (PS700), respectively. By tuning the redox potentials using the size, composition and energy band alignment of QDs, we demonstrate highly selective (>90%) and efficient production of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde as solar fuels with different wavelengths of light. We also show that this selectivity is a result of precise energy band alignments (using cationic/anionic doping of nanotubes, QD size etc.), confirmed using measurements of electronic density of states, and alignment of higher redox potentials with hot-carriers can also lead to hot-carrier photocatalysis. This wavelength-selective CPCs can have important implications for inexpensive production of solar fuels including alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrogen, and making tandem structures (red, green, blue) with three CPCs, allowing almost full visible spectrum (410 ~ 730nm) utilization with different fuels produced simultaneously.

  12. Protein kinase that phosphorylates light-harvesting complex is autophosphorylated and is associated with photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1987-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes were phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP and extracted with octyl glucoside and cholate. Among the radiolabeled phosphoproteins in the extract was a previously characterized protein kinase of 64-kDa apparent mass. The ability of this enzyme to undergo autophosphorylation in situ was used to monitor its distribution in the membrane. Fractionation studies showed that the kinase is confined to granal regions of the thylakoid, where it appears to be associated with the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of photosystem II. The kinetics of kinase autophosphorylation were investigated both in situ and in extracted, purified enzyme. In the membrane, autophosphorylation saturated within 20-30 min and was reversed with a half-time of 7-8 min upon removal of ATP or oxidative inactivation of the kinase; the accompanying dephosphorylation of light-harvesting complex was slower and kinetically complex. Fluoride (10 mM) inhibited these dephosphorylations. Autophosphorylation of the isolated kinase was independent of enzyme concentration, indicative of an intramolecular mechanism. A maximum of one serine residue per mole of kinase was esterified. Autophosphorylation was more rapid in the presence of histone IIIs, an exogenous substrate. Dephosphorylation of the isolated enzyme was not observed

  13. Improvements in serial femtosecond crystallography of photosystem II by optimizing crystal uniformity using microseeding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Hellmich, Julia; Tran, Rosalie; Bommer, Martin; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Zouni, Athina

    In photosynthesis, photosystem II (PSII) is the multi-subunit membrane protein complex that catalyzes photo-oxidation of water into dioxygen through the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). To understand the water oxidation reaction, it is important to get structural information about the transient and intermediate states of the OEC in the dimeric PSII core complex (dPSIIcc). In recent times, femtosecond X-ray pulses from the free electron laser (XFEL) are being used to obtain X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of dPSIIcc microcrystals at room temperature that are free of radiation damage. In our experiments at the XFEL, we used an electrospun liquid microjet setup that requires microcrystals less than 40 μ m in size. In this study, we explored various microseeding techniques to get a high yield of monodisperse uniform-sized microcrystals. Monodisperse microcrystals of dPSIIcc of uniform size were a key to improve the stability of the jet and the quality of XRD data obtained at the XFEL. This was evident by an improvement of the quality of the datasets obtained, from 6.5Å, using crystals grown without the micro seeding approach, to 4.5Å using crystals generated with the new method.

  14. Comparative kinetic and energetic modelling of phyllosemiquinone oxidation in Photosystem I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santabarbara, Stefano; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2016-04-14

    The oxidation kinetics of phyllo(semi)quinone (PhQ), which acts as an electron transfer (ET) intermediate in the Photosystem I reaction centre, are described by a minimum of two exponential phases, characterised by lifetimes in the 10-30 ns and 150-300 ns ranges. The fastest phase is considered to be dominated by the oxidation of the PhQ molecule coordinated by the PsaB reaction centre subunit (PhQB), and the slowest phase is dominated by the oxidation of the PsaA coordinated PhQ (PhQA). Testing different energetic schemes within a unified theory-based kinetic modelling approach provides reliable limit-values for some of the physical-chemical parameters controlling these ET reactions: (i) the value of ΔG(0) associated with PhQA oxidation is smaller than ∼+30 meV; (ii) the value of the total reorganisation energy (λt) likely exceeds 0.7 eV; (iii) different mean nuclear modes are coupled to PhQB and PhQA oxidation, the former being larger, and both being ≥100 cm(-1).

  15. Improvements in serial femtosecond crystallography of photosystem II by optimizing crystal uniformity using microseeding procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Zouni, Athina; Technische Univ. Berlin

    2015-01-01

    In photosynthesis, photosystem II (PSII) is the multi-subunit membrane protein complex that catalyzes photo-oxidation of water into dioxygen through the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). To understand the water oxidation reaction, it is important to get structural information about the transient and intermediate states of the OEC in the dimeric PSII core complex (dPSIIcc). In recent times, femtosecond X-ray pulses from the free electron laser (XFEL) are being used to obtain X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of dPSIIcc microcrystals at room temperature that are free of radiation damage. In our experiments at the XFEL, we used an electrospun liquid microjet setup that requires microcrystals less than 40 μm in size. In this study, we explored various microseeding techniques to get a high yield of monodisperse uniform-sized microcrystals. Monodisperse microcrystals of dPSIIcc of uniform size were a key to improve the stability of the jet and the quality of XRD data obtained at the XFEL. This was evident by an improvement of the quality of the datasets obtained, from 6.5 Å, using crystals grown without the micro seeding approach, to 4.5 Å using crystals generated with the new method

  16. Formation of singlet oxygen by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in photosystem II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pathak

    Full Text Available Singlet oxygen (1O2 is formed by triplet-triplet energy transfer from triplet chlorophyll to O2 via Type II photosensitization reaction in photosystem II (PSII. Formation of triplet chlorophyll is associated with the change in spin state of the excited electron and recombination of triplet radical pair in the PSII antenna complex and reaction center, respectively. Here, we have provided evidence for the formation of 1O2 by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex. Protein hydroperoxide is formed by protein oxidation initiated by highly oxidizing chlorophyll cation radical and hydroxyl radical formed by Type I photosensitization reaction. Under highly oxidizing conditions, protein hydroperoxide is oxidized to protein peroxyl radical which either cyclizes to dioxetane or recombines with another protein peroxyl radical to tetroxide. These highly unstable intermediates decompose to triplet carbonyls which transfer energy to O2 forming 1O2. Data presented in this study show for the first time that 1O2 is formed by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex.

  17. Probing the conformational dynamics of photosystem I in unconfined and confined spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gaurav; Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Nandi, Somen; Mondal, Prasenjit; Saha, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Kankan; Ghosh, Surajit

    2017-12-20

    The fluorescence dynamics of Photosystem I (PSI) in bulk water and inside a confined environment like a liposome have been investigated using time resolved confocal microscopy. In bulk water, PSI exhibits a major emission peak at ∼680 nm, while in the liposome it exhibits a markedly blue shifted emission maximum at ∼485 nm. This is indicative of conformational changes due to entrapment and emergence of a stressed conformation of PSI inside the liposome. The observed time constants for the fluorescence lifetime of PSI inside the liposome are significantly high as opposed to PSI in bulk water. More interestingly, the fluorescence intensity of PSI in bulk water exhibits strong fluctuations with many high intensity jumps and these are anti-correlated with the fluorescence lifetime of PSI. In contrast, inside the liposome, no such anti-correlated behaviour is observed. We further demonstrated that PSI exhibits at least two conformational states in bulk water, whereas a single conformation is observed inside the liposome, indicating the conformational rigidity and locking of the PSI complex inside a liposome.

  18. Heat-induced reorganization of the structure of photosystem II membranes: role of oxygen evolving complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busheva, Mira; Tzonova, Iren; Stoitchkova, Katerina; Andreeva, Atanaska

    2012-12-05

    The sensitivity of the green plants' photosystem II (PSII) to high temperatures is investigated in PSII enriched membranes and in membranes, from which the oxygen evolving complex is removed. Using steady-state 77 K fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopy we analyze the interdependency between the temperature-driven changes in structure and energy distribution in the PSII supercomplex. The results show that the heat treatment induces different reduction of the 77 K fluorescence emission in both types of investigated membranes: (i) an additional considerable decrease of the overall fluorescence emission in Tris-washed membranes as compared to the native membranes; (ii) a transition point at 42°C(,) observed only in native membranes; (iii) a sharp reduction of the PSII core fluorescence in Tris-washed membranes at temperatures higher than 50°C; (iv) a 3 nm red-shift of F700 band's maximum in Tris-washed membranes already at 20°C and its further shift by 1 nm at temperature increase. Both treatments intensified their action by increasing the aggregation and dissociation of the peripheral light harvesting complexes. The oxygen-evolving complex, in addition to its main function to produce O(2), increases the thermal stability of PSII core by strengthening the connection between the core and the peripheral antenna proteins and by keeping their structural integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solar photocatalytic H{sub 2} production from water using a dual bed photosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The authors are developing a dual stage, direct photoconversion scheme for water splitting. The overall system consists of an aqueous solution circulated through two modules, or beds, each of which contains a photochemically active surface layer below the solution. The idea is to divide the energy requirement for water decomposition between the two photosystems, so that more abundant, lower energy photons in the solar spectrum can be utilized, and that the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} products can be evolved separately from each other. Catalyst-modified semiconductor powders, immobilized within a polymer binder are currently being employed as the photoactive layers. TiO{sub 2} and platinized-InP have been employed for the O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution tasks, respectively. A major effort over the last year was identification of a suitable redox mediator that is responsible for transferring electron equivalents from one unit to the other. After testing more than a dozen candidates, spanning a wide range of electropotentials, under a variety of conditions, it was found that the bromide/bromate (Br{sup {minus}}/BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) and iodide/iodate (I{sup {minus}}/IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) redox systems could function in both modules, necessary for closed cycle operation.

  20. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D; Collier, Catherine J; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-11-30

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/F(m)') by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l(-1) (ametryn) to 132 μg l(-1) (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/F(m)'.

  1. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  2. Photosystem II excitation pressure and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitch, L.V.; Maxwell, D.P.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris grown at 5 degrees C/150 micromoles m -2 s -1 mimics cells grown under high irradiance (27 degrees C/2200 micromoles m -2 s -1 ). This has been rationalized through the suggestion that both populations of cells were exposed to comparable photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressures measured as the chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameter, 1 - qP (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694). To assess the possible role(s) of feedback mechanisms on PSII excitation pressure, stromal and cytosolic carbon metabolism were examined. Sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities as well as the ratios of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate/fructose-6 phosphate and sucrose/starch indicated that cells grown at 27 degrees C/2200 micromoles m -2 s -1 appeared to exhibit a restriction in starch metabolism. In contrast, cells grown at 5 degrees C/150 micromoles-1 m -2 s -1 appeared to exhibit a restriction in the sucrose metabolism based on decreased cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities as well as a low sucrose/starch ratio. These metabolic restrictions may feedback on photosynthetic electron transport and, thus, contribute to the observed PSII excitation pressure. We conclude that, although PSII excitation pressure may reflect redox regulation of photosynthetic acclimation to light and temperature in C. vulgaris, it cannot be considered the primary redox signal. Alternative metabolic sensing/signaling mechanisms are discussed

  3. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp Mecanismo de inibição de Fusarium graminearum por compostos fenólicos extraídos de Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.A aplicação de substâncias naturais com efeito antifúngico é motivada pela necessidade de alternativas aos métodos existentes que nem sempre são aplicáveis, eficientes ou sem risco de danos ao consumidor ou meio ambiente. Além disso, estudos para elucidar o comportamento de espécies toxigênicas mediante fungicidas naturais tornam-se necessárias, contribuindo dessa forma com a segurança alimentar. Neste trabalho, extrato fenólico de Spirulina foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antifúngica sobre 12 cepas toxigênicas de Fusarium graminearum, isoladas de cevada e trigo. As rotas metabólicas que poderiam ser afetadas foram avaliadas através da determinação de compostos estruturais (glicosamina e ergosterol e da atividade de enzimas do metabolismo primário dos micro-organismos. Os resultados indicaram que os

  4. Perfil metabólico de Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Aeglidae, Anomura submetida a dietas ricas em carboidratos ou proteínas Metabolic profile of Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Anomura submitted to carbohydrate-rich or high-protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Della P. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidratos e uma dieta rica em proteínas sobre o metabolismo de Aegla platensis, um caranguejo anomuro de água doce. Os animais foram coletados no Arroio do Mineiro, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, em agosto/2002 e janeiro/2003, e foram alimentados durante 15 dias com carne bovina crua e arroz branco, em aquários aerados. O fotoperíodo foi controlado: 12 horas claro - 12 horas escuro. Glicose, proteínas, lipídios e triglicerídios foram dosados na hemolinfa; glicogênio e lipídios foram dosados no hepatopâncreas, brânquias e músculo. Em Aegla platensis, mantida em condições de laboratório, em todos os tecidos estudados pode ser observado que o aporte regular de alimento, bem como o tipo de dieta administrada determinaram um perfil diferenciado de resposta metabólica entre os sexos e o período de realização dos experimentos (inverno e verão.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a carbohydrate-rich and a high-protein diets on metabolism of Aegla platensis, a freshwater anomuram crab. The animals were collected in Mineiro Creek, Taquara city, Rio Grande do Sul, at august/2002 and january/2003, and were feed during 15 days with crude bovine meat and white rice, in an aerated aquarium. The photoperiod was controlled: 12 hours day - 12 hours night. Glucose, proteins, lipids and triglycerides were dosed in haemolymph; glycogen and lipids were dosed in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle tissues. In Aegla platensis, maintained in laboratory conditions, in all studied tissues can be seen that the regular food intake, as well as the kind of administered diet determinated a differential profile of metabolic response between sexes and the period of the experiments performance (winter and summer.

  5. Calcium-manganese oxides as structural and functional models for active site in oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II: lessons from simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    The oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II which induces the oxidation of water to dioxygen in plants, algae and certain bacteria contains a cluster of one calcium and four manganese ions. It serves as a model to split water by sunlight. Reports on the mechanism and structure of photosystem II provide a more detailed architecture of the oxygen evolving complex and the surrounding amino acids. One challenge in this field is the development of artificial model compounds to study oxygen evolution reaction outside the complicated environment of the enzyme. Calcium-manganese oxides as structural and functional models for the active site of photosystem II are explained and reviewed in this paper. Because of related structures of these calcium-manganese oxides and the catalytic centers of active site of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II, the study may help to understand more about mechanism of oxygen evolution by the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust photosystem I activity by Cyanothece sp. (Cyanobacteria) and its role in prolonged bloom persistence in lake St Lucia, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plooy, Schalk J; Anandraj, Akash; White, Sarah; Perissinotto, Renzo; du Preez, Derek R

    2018-04-12

    Worldwide, cyanobacterial blooms are becoming more frequent, exacerbated by eutrophication, anthropogenic effects, and global climate change. Environmental factors play a direct role in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria and subsequent cellular changes, growth, and bloom dynamics. This study investigated the photosynthetic functioning of a persistent bloom-forming (18 months) cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp., isolated from Lake St Lucia, South Africa. DUAL-PAM fluorometric methods were used to observe physiological responses in Cyanothece sp. photosystems I and II. Results show that photosystem I activity was maintained under all environmental conditions tested, while photosystem II activity was not observed at all. Out of the environmental factors tested (temperature, salinity, and nitrogen presence), only temperature significantly influenced photosystem I activity. In particular, high temperature (40 °C) facilitated faster electron transport rates, while effects of salinity and nitrogen were variable. Cyanothece sp. has shown to sustain bloom status for long periods largely because of the essential role of photosystem I activity during highly dynamic and even extreme (e.g., salinities higher than 200) environmental conditions. This ensures the continual supply of cellular energy (e.g. ATP) to important processes such as nitrogen assimilation, which is essential for protein synthesis, cell growth and, therefore, bloom maintenance.

  7. The role of calcium in the oxygen evolving center of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latimer, Matthew John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The photosynthetic oxygen evolving complex (OEC) contains a cluster of four manganese atoms and requires both Ca and Cl for activity. Ca can be replaced by Sr with retention of activity. The role of Ca in the OEC has been investigated by performing Mn X-ray absorption experiments on Ca-depleted samples of photosystem II (PS II) and on PS II samples depleted of Ca and reconstituted by either Ca or Sr. Mn X-ray K-edge spectra exhibit no significant differences in oxidation state or symmetry between Ca- and Sr-reactivated preparations, but differences are observed in the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The amplitude of a Fourier transform peak arising from scatterers at distances greater than 3 A is larger for samples reactivated with strontium relative to calcium. Curve-fitting analyses of the EXAFS data using FEFF 5-calculated parameters favor a model where both manganese and calcium (or strontium) scatterers contribute to the ~3 Å Fourier peak (Mn-Mn at 3.3Å and Mn-Ca(Sr) at 3.4--3.5 Å). Possible structural arrangements for a calcium binding site are discussed. Analysis of Mn K-edge spectra from Ca-depleted samples in the S1, S2, and S3 states shows an edge shift on the S1-S2 transition, but no edge shift on the S2-S3 transition, supporting a model where the oxidizing equivalent from the S2 to S3 transition is stored on a ligand or nearby protein residue rather than on the Mn cluster. Parallels between Ca-depleted and native samples are discussed.

  8. On the ultrafast kinetics of the energy and electron transfer reactions in photosystem I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavov, Chavdar Lyubomirov

    2009-07-09

    The subject of the current work is one of the main participants in the light-dependent phase of oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosystem I (PS I). This complex carries an immense number of cofactors: chlorophylls (Chl), carotenoids, quinones, etc, which together with the protein entity exhibit several exceptional properties. First, PS I has an ultrafast light energy trapping kinetics with a nearly 100% quantum efficiency. Secondly, both of the electron transfer branches in the reaction center are suggested to be active. Thirdly, there are some so called 'red' Chls in the antenna system of PS I, absorbing light with longer wavelengths than the reaction center. These 'red' Chls significantly modify the trapping kinetics of PS I. The purpose of this thesis is to obtain better understanding of the above-mentioned, specific features of PS I. This will not merely cast more light on the mechanisms of energy and electron transfer in the complex, but also will contribute to the future developments of optimized artificial light-harvesting systems. In the current work, a number of PS I complexes isolated from different organisms (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Arabidopsis thaliana) and possessing distinctive features (different macroorganisation, monomers, trimers, monomers with a semibelt of peripheral antenna attached; presence of 'red' Chls) is investigated. The studies are primarily focused on the electron transfer kinetics in each of the cofactor branches in the PS I reaction center, as well as on the effect of the antenna size and the presence of 'red' Chls on the trapping kinetics of PS I. These aspects are explored with the help of several ultrafast optical spectroscopy methods: (i) time-resolved fluorescence ? single photon counting and synchroscan streak camera; and (ii) ultrafast transient absorption. Physically meaningful information about the molecular mechanisms of the energy trapping in PS I is

  9. Room temperature femtosecond X-ray diffraction of photosystem II microcrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Hellmich, Julia; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Glöckner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Sellberg, Jonas; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Gildea, Richard J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; McQueen, Trevor A.; DiFiore, Dörte; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Miahnahri, Alan; Schafer, Donald W.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Zouni, Athina; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the dioxygen on earth is generated by the oxidation of water by photosystem II (PS II) using light from the sun. This light-driven, four-photon reaction is catalyzed by the Mn4CaO5 cluster located at the lumenal side of PS II. Various X-ray studies have been carried out at cryogenic temperatures to understand the intermediate steps involved in the water oxidation mechanism. However, the necessity for collecting data at room temperature, especially for studying the transient steps during the O–O bond formation, requires the development of new methodologies. In this paper we report room temperature X-ray diffraction data of PS II microcrystals obtained using ultrashort (< 50 fs) 9 keV X-ray pulses from a hard X-ray free electron laser, namely the Linac Coherent Light Source. The results presented here demonstrate that the ”probe before destroy” approach using an X-ray free electron laser works even for the highly-sensitive Mn4CaO5 cluster in PS II at room temperature. We show that these data are comparable to those obtained in synchrotron radiation studies as seen by the similarities in the overall structure of the helices, the protein subunits and the location of the various cofactors. This work is, therefore, an important step toward future studies for resolving the structure of the Mn4CaO5 cluster without any damage at room temperature, and of the reaction intermediates of PS II during O–O bond formation. PMID:22665786

  10. Growing green electricity: progress and strategies for use of photosystem I for sustainable photovoltaic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Bruce, Barry D

    2014-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven via sequential action of Photosystem II (PSII) and (PSI)reaction centers via the Z-scheme. Both of these pigment-membrane protein complexes are found in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Unlike PSII, PSI is remarkably stable and does not undergo limiting photo-damage. This stability, as well as other fundamental structural differences, makes PSI the most attractive reaction centers for applied photosynthetic applications. These applied applications exploit the efficient light harvesting and high quantum yield of PSI where the isolated PSI particles are redeployed providing electrons directly as a photocurrent or, via a coupled catalyst to yield H₂. Recent advances in molecular genetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology have merged to allow PSI to be integrated into a myriad of biohybrid devices. In photocurrent producing devices, PSI has been immobilized onto various electrode substrates with a continuously evolving toolkit of strategies and novel reagents. However, these innovative yet highly variable designs make it difficult to identify the rate-limiting steps and/or components that function as bottlenecks in PSI-biohybrid devices. In this study we aim to highlight these recent advances with a focus on identifying the similarities and differences in electrode surfaces, immobilization/orientation strategies, and artificial redox mediators. Collectively this work has been able to maintain an annual increase in photocurrent density (Acm⁻²) of ~10-fold over the past decade. The potential drawbacks and attractive features of some of these schemes are also discussed with their feasibility on a large-scale. As an environmentally benign and renewable resource, PSI may provide a new sustainable source of bioenergy. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Photosystem II functionality in barley responds dynamically to changes in leaf manganese status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A catalytic manganese (Mn cluster is required for the oxidation of water in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC of photosystem II (PSII in plants. Despite this essential role of Mn in generating the electrons driving photosynthesis, limited information is available on how Mn deficiency affects PSII functionality. We have here used parameters derived from measurements of fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP transients, non-photochemical quenching and PSII subunit composition to investigate how latent Mn deficiency changes the photochemistry in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency. Mn deficiency caused dramatic reductions in the quantum yield of PSII and led to the appearance of two new inflection points, the K step and the D dip, in the OJIP fluorescence transients, indicating severe damage to the OEC. In addition, Mn deficiency decreased the ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in the light, rendering the plants incapable of dissipating excess energy in a controlled way. Thus, the Mn deficient plants became severely affected in their ability to recover from high light-induced photoinhibition, especially under strong Mn deficiency. Interestingly, the Mn-efficient genotype was able to maintain a higher non-photochemical quenching than the Mn-inefficient genotype when exposed to mild Mn deficiency. However, during severe Mn deficiency, there were no differences between the two genotypes, suggesting a general loss of the ability to disassemble and repair PSII. The pronounced defects of PSII activity were supported by a dramatic decrease in the abundance of the OEC protein subunits, PsbP and PsbQ in response to Mn deficiency for both genotypes. We conclude that regulation of photosynthetic performance by means of maintaining and inducing NPQ mechanisms contribute to genotypic differences in the Mn efficiency of barley genotypes growing under conditions with mild Mn deficiency.

  12. Self-assembling peptide detergents stabilize isolated photosystem ion a dry surface for an extended time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We used a class of designed peptide detergents to stabilize photosystem I (PS-I upon extended drying under N2 on a gold-coated-Ni-NTA glass surface. PS-I is a chlorophyll-containing membrane protein complex that is the primary reducer of ferredoxin and the electron acceptor of plastocyanin. We isolated the complex from the thylakoids of spinach chloroplasts using a chemical detergent. The chlorophyll molecules associated with the PS-I complex provide an intrinsic steady-state emission spectrum between 650 and 800 nm at -196.15 degrees C that reflects the organization of the pigment-protein interactions. In the absence of detergents, a large blue shift of the fluorescence maxima from approximately 735 nm to approximately 685 nm indicates a disruption in light-harvesting subunit organization, thus revealing chlorophyll-protein interactions. The commonly used membrane protein-stabilizing detergents, N-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside and N-octyl-beta-D-glucoside, only partially stabilized the approximately 735-nm complex with approximately 685-nm spectroscopic shift. However, prior to drying, addition of the peptide detergent acetyl-AAAAAAK at increasing concentration significantly stabilized the PS-I complex. Moreover, in the presence of acetyl-AAAAAAK, the PS-I complex is stable in a dried form at room temperature for at least 3 wk. Another peptide detergent, acetyl-VVVVVVD, also stabilized the complex but to a lesser extent. These observations suggest that the peptide detergents may effectively stabilize membrane proteins in the solid-state. These designed peptide detergents may facilitate the study of diverse types of membrane proteins.

  13. Requirements for construction of a functional hybrid complex of photosystem I and [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Alexander; Kopczak, Marta J; Rögner, Matthias; Lenz, Oliver

    2010-04-01

    The development of cellular systems in which the enzyme hydrogenase is efficiently coupled to the oxygenic photosynthesis apparatus represents an attractive avenue to produce H(2) sustainably from light and water. Here we describe the molecular design of the individual components required for the direct coupling of the O(2)-tolerant membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 to the acceptor site of photosystem I (PS I) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By genetic engineering, the peripheral subunit PsaE of PS I was fused to the MBH, and the resulting hybrid protein was purified from R. eutropha to apparent homogeneity via two independent affinity chromatographical steps. The catalytically active MBH-PsaE (MBH(PsaE)) hybrid protein could be isolated only from the cytoplasmic fraction. This was surprising, since the MBH is a substrate of the twin-arginine translocation system and was expected to reside in the periplasm. We conclude that the attachment of the additional PsaE domain to the small, electron-transferring subunit of the MBH completely abolished the export competence of the protein. Activity measurements revealed that the H(2) production capacity of the purified MBH(PsaE) fusion protein was very similar to that of wild-type MBH. In order to analyze the specific interaction of MBH(PsaE) with PS I, His-tagged PS I lacking the PsaE subunit was purified via Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity and subsequent hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Formation of PS I-hydrogenase supercomplexes was demonstrated by blue native gel electrophoresis. The results indicate a vital prerequisite for the quantitative analysis of the MBH(PsaE)-PS I complex formation and its light-driven H(2) production capacity by means of spectroelectrochemistry.

  14. Alleviation of cold damage to photosystem II and metabolisms by melatonin in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao eFan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a typical warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.Pers.] is widely applied in turf systems and animal husbandry. However, cold temperature is a key factor limiting resource utilization for Bermudagrass. Therefore, it is relevant to study the mechanisms by which Burmudagrass responds to cold. Melatonin is a crucial animal and plant hormone that is responsible for plant abiotic stress responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of melatonin in cold stress response of Bermudagrass. Wild Bermudagrass pre-treated with 100 μM melatonin was subjected to different cold stress treatments (-5 °C for 8 h with or without cold acclimation. The results showed lower malondialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage (EL values, higher levels of chlorophyll, and greater superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities after melatonin treatment than those in non-melatonin treatment under cold stress. Analysis of chlorophyll a revealed that the chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP curves were higher after treatment with melatonin than that of non-melatonin treated plants under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters increased after treatment with melatonin under cold stress. The analysis of metabolism showed alterations in 46 metabolites in cold-stressed plants after melatonin treatment. Among the measured metabolites, five sugars (arabinose, mannose, glucopyranose, maltose, turanose and one organic acid (propanoic acid were significantly increased. However, valine and threonic acid contents were reduced in melatonin-treated plants. In summary, melatonin maintained cell membrane stability, increased antioxidant enzymes activities, improved the process of photosystem II, and induced alterations in Bermudagrass metabolism under cold stress.

  15. Induction of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I during heat stress in grape leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjiang; Geng, Qingwei; Du, Yuanpeng; Yang, Xinghong; Zhai, Heng

    2017-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) in plants is susceptible to high temperatures. The cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI is thought to protect both PSII and PSI from photodamage. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms of the photosynthetic electron transport process and the role of CEF in grape at high temperatures remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we examined the responses of PSII energy distribution, the P700 redox state and CEF to high temperatures in grape leaves. After exposing 'Cabernet Sauvignon' leaves to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C) in the light (600μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) for 4h, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) significantly decreased at high temperatures (40 and 45°C), while the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) was not affected. As the temperature increased, higher initial rates of increase in post-illumination Chl fluorescence were detected, which were accompanied by an increase in high energy state quenching (qE). The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-dependent CEF (NDH-dependent CEF) activities were different among grape cultivators. 'Gold Finger' with greater susceptibility to photoinhibition, exhibited lower NDH-dependent CEF activities under acute heat stress than a more heat tolerant 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. These results suggest that overclosure of PSII reaction centers at high temperature resulted in the photoinhibition of PSII, while the stimulation of CEF in grape played an important role in the photoprotection of PSII and PSI at high temperatures through contributing to the generation of a proton gradient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flash photolysis ESR study of photosystem II signal II/sub vf/, the physiological donor to P-680/sup +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden, J T [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY; Blankenship, R E; Sauer, K

    1976-01-01

    In flash-illuminated, oxygen-evolving spinach chloroplasts and green algae, a free radical transient has been observed with spectral parameters similar to those of Signal II (g approx. = 2.0045, ..delta..H/sub pp/ approx. = 19 G). However, in contrast with ESR Signal II, the transient radical does not readily saturate even at microwave power levels of 200 mW. This species is formed most efficiently with ''red'' illumination (lambda < 680 nm) and occurs stoichiometrically in a 1:1 ratio with P-700/sup +/. The Photosystem II transient is formed in less than 100 ..mu..s and decays via first-order kinetics with a halftime of 400-900 ..mu..s. Additionally, the t/sub /sup 1///sub 2// for radical decay is temperature independent between 20 and 4/sup 0/C; however, below 4/sup 0/C the transient signal exhibits Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy of approx. 10 kcal . mol/sup -1/. Inhibition of electron transport through Photosystem II by o-phenanthroline, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or reduced 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone suppresses the formation of the light-induced transient. At low concentrations (0.2 mM), 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone partially inhibits the free radical formation, however, the decay kinetics are unaltered. High concentrations of 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (1-5 mM) restore both the transient signal and electron flow through Photosystem II. These findings suggest that this ''quinoidal'' type ESR transient functions as the physiological donor to the oxidized reaction center chlorophyll, P-680/sup +/.

  17. Variations in constitutive and inducible UV-B tolerance; dissecting photosystem II protection in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marcel A K; Martret, Bénedicte Le; Koornneef, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The rise in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) (280-315 nm) radiation levels, that is a consequence of stratospheric ozone layer depletion, has triggered extensive research on the effects of UV-B on plants. Plants raised under natural sunlight conditions are generally well protected from the potentially harmful effects of UV-B radiation. However, it is mostly unknown to which extent UV protection is constitutive and/or induced. In this study, we have analysed the role of constitutive and inducible protection responses in avoiding UV-B damage to photosystem II of photosynthesis. We have assayed the UV susceptibility of photosystem II in 224 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions from across the Northern hemisphere, and found a continuum of constitutive UV-protection levels, with some accessions being UV sensitive and others UV tolerant. Statistical analysis showed only very weak associations between constitutive UV tolerance and the geographic origin of accessions. Instead, most of the variance in constitutive UV-B protection of photosynthesis is present at the level of local Arabidopsis populations originating in the same geographic and climatic area. The variance in constitutive UV protection is, however, small compared to the amplitude of environmentally induced changes in UV protection. Thus, our data emphasise the importance of inducible responses for the protection of photosystem II against UV-B. Remarkably, the conditions that induce UV-protective responses vary; accessions from lower latitudes were found to switch-on UV defences more readily than those of higher latitudes. Such altered regulation of induction may comprise a suitable adaptation response when levels of a stressor are fluctuating in the short term, but predictable over longer periods.

  18. Two photon absorption energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) modified with organic boron dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Rui; Feng, Jiao; Wang, Shuangqing; Li, Shayu; Yang, Chunhong; Yang, Guoqiang

    2014-07-01

    The plant light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC-II) play important roles in collecting solar energy and transferring the energy to the reaction centers of photosystems I and II. A two photon absorption compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-N-(4-(dimesitylboryl)phenyl)-N-phenylaniline (DMDP-CH2Br), was synthesized and covalently linked to the LHC-II in formation of a LHC-II-dye complex, which still maintained the biological activity of LHC-II system. Under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at 754 nm, the LHC-II-dye complex can absorb two photons of the laser light effectively compared with the wild type LHC-II. The absorbed excitation energy is then transferred to chlorophyll a with an obvious fluorescence enhancement. The results may be interesting and give potentials for developing hybrid photosystems.

  19. The evolutionary pathway from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis examined by comparison of the properties of photosystem II and bacterial reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J P; Williams, J C

    2011-01-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, such as purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants, light is captured and converted into energy to create energy-rich compounds. The primary process of energy conversion involves the transfer of electrons from an excited donor molecule to a series of electron acceptors in pigment-protein complexes. Two of these complexes, the bacterial reaction center and photosystem II, are evolutionarily related and structurally similar. However, only photosystem II is capable of performing the unique reaction of water oxidation. An understanding of the evolutionary process that lead to the development of oxygenic photosynthesis can be found by comparison of these two complexes. In this review, we summarize how insight is being gained by examination of the differences in critical functional properties of these complexes and by experimental efforts to alter pigment-protein interactions of the bacterial reaction center in order to enable it to perform reactions, such as amino acid and metal oxidation, observable in photosystem II.

  20. Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Effect of Polyphenol Free Spirulina maxima and Its Hydrolyzed Protein Content: Investigation on Azoxymethane Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Palma, Nikte Y; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela

    2017-07-01

    Spirulina maxima (Sm) is known to have nutritive value as well as a number of potentially useful biomedical properties. The initial purpose of this report was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the alga (without its polyphenol content), on the induction of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypts (AC) in mouse. Besides, we hydrolyzed the protein content of such mixture. Our second aim was to determine the inhibitory potential of this last plant mixture on the AOM-induced colon AC in mouse. Moreover, we also determined the effect of the two indicated Sm samples on the oxidative damage caused by AOM in the colon and liver of treated mice. The experiment lasted 5 weeks. At the end, we registered the level of AC, nitric oxide, and the lipid and protein oxidation. Our results showed the following: (1) the carcinogen increased more than 18 times the amount of the AC found in the control group. (2) On the contrary, the two tested mixtures of Sm produced a significant reduction over this damage (about 45%). (3) The two tested Sm mixtures were generally able to reduce the oxidative stress markers although with variable effects which go from 59% to 100% with respect to the control mice. Therefore, the present report established that the tested Sm fractions have mouse colon anticarcinogenic potential, partially related with their antioxidant capacity. Our report also suggested the need to further evaluate specific Sm chemicals as chemopreventive agents.

  1. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  2. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  3. Development and characterization of bioactive edible films from spider crab (Maja crispata) chitosan incorporated with Spirulina extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Mansour, Mohamed Ben; Sayari, Nadhem; Yacoubi, Lamia; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Brodu, Nicolas; Massé, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Active food packaging films based on crab chitosan and Spirulina extract (SE) were developed. The effects of the SE incorporation at different levels on physical (color, opacity water vapor and oxygen permeability) and mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) properties of chitosan films were investigated. FTIR was carried out to observe the potential modifications of the chitosan films when incorporated with SE. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of SE into chitosan films improved mechanical and barrier properties. The antioxidant activity of the chitosan/SE films was characterized by means of three different analytical assays (DPPH, FRAP and FIC). Crab chitosan edible films containing SE showed higher antioxidant activity, regardless concentrations and methods assayed. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of chitosan edible films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The chitosan/SE films were more effective (pchitosan edible films incorporated with SE showed great potential to be used for active food packaging due to its excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of a Chllorophyll Binding Protein Complex Involved in the Early Steps of Photosystem II Assembly in Synechocystis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knoppová, Jana; Sobotka, Roman; Tichý, Martin; Jianfeng, Yu; Koník, P.; Halada, Petr; Nixon, P. J.; Komenda, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2014), s. 1200-1212 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR P501/11/0377; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Grant - others:UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(GB) BB/F020554/1; UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(GB) BB/L003260/1; Magistrát hl. m. Prahy(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Synechocystis * photosystem II * assembly * proteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.338, year: 2014

  5. Tight-binding model of the photosystem II reaction center: application to two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelzinis, Andrius; Valkunas, Leonas; Abramavicius, Darius; Fuller, Franklin D; Ogilvie, Jennifer P; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    We propose an optimized tight-binding electron–hole model of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC). Our model incorporates two charge separation pathways and spatial correlations of both static disorder and fast fluctuations of energy levels. It captures the main experimental features observed in time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) optical spectra at 77 K: peak pattern, lineshapes and time traces. Analysis of 2D spectra kinetics reveals that specific regions of the 2D spectra of the PSII RC are sensitive to the charge transfer states. We find that the energy disorder of two peripheral chlorophylls is four times larger than the other RC pigments. (paper)

  6. Tight-binding model of the photosystem II reaction center: application to two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzinis, Andrius; Valkunas, Leonas; Fuller, Franklin D.; Ogilvie, Jennifer P.; Mukamel, Shaul; Abramavicius, Darius

    2013-07-01

    We propose an optimized tight-binding electron-hole model of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC). Our model incorporates two charge separation pathways and spatial correlations of both static disorder and fast fluctuations of energy levels. It captures the main experimental features observed in time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) optical spectra at 77 K: peak pattern, lineshapes and time traces. Analysis of 2D spectra kinetics reveals that specific regions of the 2D spectra of the PSII RC are sensitive to the charge transfer states. We find that the energy disorder of two peripheral chlorophylls is four times larger than the other RC pigments.

  7. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k ) of this algal species was less than 115  μ mol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200  μ mol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increas...

  8. Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-11-13

    Spirulina maxima , a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ 1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ 1-42 -induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutová, J.; Kutá Smatanová, I.; Brynda, J.; Lapkouski, M.; Revuelta, J. L.; Arellano, J. B.; Ettrich, R.

    2009-01-01

    Degradation-free crystalization of thrombin-digested recombinant His-tagged PsbP protein of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea resulting in crystals diffracting to 2.06 Å. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was performed using N-terminally His-tagged recombinant PsbP protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PsbP protein (thrombin-digested recombinant His-tagged PsbP) stored in bis-Tris buffer pH 6.00 was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 550 MME as a precipitant and zinc sulfate as an additive. SDS–PAGE analysis of a dissolved crystal showed that the crystals did not contain the degradation products of recombinant PsbP protein. PsbP crystals diffracted to 2.06 Å resolution in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.68, b = 46.73, c = 88.9 Å

  10. Photosystem II function and dynamics in three widely used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yin

    Full Text Available Columbia-0 (Col-0, Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4, and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0 are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL. The photosystem II (PSII complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis

  11. Field-acclimated Gossypium hirsutum cultivars exhibit genotypic and seasonal differences in photosystem II thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Collins, Guy D; Pilon, Cristiane; Fitzsimons, Toby R

    2013-03-15

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that photosystem II (PSII) thermostability acclimates to prior exposure to heat and drought, but contrasting results have been reported for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We hypothesized that PSII thermotolerance in G. hirsutum would acclimate to environmental conditions during the growing season and that there would be differences in PSII thermotolerance between commercially-available U.S. cultivars. To this end, three cotton cultivars were grown under dryland conditions in Tifton Georgia, and two under irrigated conditions in Marianna Arkansas. At Tifton, measurements included PSII thermotolerance (T15, the temperature causing a 15% decline in maximum quantum yield), leaf temperatures, air temperatures, midday (1200 to 1400h) leaf water potentials (ΨMD), leaf-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD), actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and electron transport rate through PSII (ETR) on three sample dates. At Marianna, T15 was measured on two sample dates. Optimal air and leaf temperatures were observed on all sample dates in Tifton, but PSII thermotolerance increased with water deficit conditions (ΨMD=-3.1MPa), and ETR was either unaffected or increased under water-stress. Additionally, T15 for PHY 499 was ∼5°C higher than for the other cultivars examined (DP 0912 and DP 1050). The Marianna site experienced more extreme high temperature conditions (20-30 days Tmax≥35°C), and showed an increase in T15 with higher average Tmax. When average T15 values for each location and sample date were plotted versus average daily Tmax, strong, positive relationships (r(2) from .954 to .714) were observed between Tmax and T15. For all locations T15 was substantially higher than actual field temperature conditions. We conclude that PSII thermostability in G. hirsutum acclimates to pre-existing environmental conditions; PSII is extremely tolerant to high temperature and water-deficit stress; and differences in PSII thermotolerance exist between

  12. Freezing cytorrhysis and critical temperature thresholds for photosystem II in the peat moss Sphagnum capillifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Neuner, Gilbert

    2010-07-01

    Leaflets of Sphagnum capillifolium were exposed to temperatures from -5 degrees C to +60 degrees C under controlled conditions while mounted on a microscope stage. The resultant cytological response to these temperature treatments was successfully monitored using a light and fluorescence microscope. In addition to the observable cytological changes during freezing cytorrhysis and heat exposure on the leaflets, the concomitant critical temperature thresholds for inactivation of photosystem II (PS II) were studied using a micro fibre optic and a chlorophyll fluorometer mounted to the microscope stage. Chlorophyllous cells of S. capillifolium showed extended freezing cytorrhysis immediately after ice nucleation at -1.1 degrees C in the water in which the leaflets were submersed during the measurement. The occurrence of freezing cytorrhysis, which was visually manifested by cell shrinkage, was highly dynamic and was completed within 2 s. A total reduction of the mean projected diameter of the chloroplast containing area during freezing cytorrhysis from 8.9 to 3.8 microm indicates a cell volume reduction of approximately -82%. Simultaneous measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence of PS II was possible even through the frozen water in which the leaf samples were submersed. Freezing cytorrhysis was accompanied by a sudden rise of basic chlorophyll fluorescence. The critical freezing temperature threshold of PS II was identical to the ice nucleation temperature (-1.1 degrees C). This is significantly above the temperature threshold at which frost damage to S. capillifolium leaflets occurs (-16.1 degrees C; LT(50)) which is higher than observed in most higher plants from the European Alps during summer. High temperature thresholds of PS II were 44.5 degrees C which is significantly below the heat tolerance of chlorophyllous cells (49.9 degrees C; LT(50)). It is demonstrated that light and fluorescence microscopic techniques combined with simultaneous chlorophyll fluorescence

  13. Growth inhibition and effect on photosystem by three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids in rice seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huijun, E-mail: lhj@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Shuxian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The three ILs have phytotoxic on rice growth. • The antioxidant enzyme activities increased first and then declined with ILs concentration increased. • The Hill reaction activity decreased and the PS II of leaves was damaged by ILs. • The toxicity of ILs increased as the alkyl chain length increased as the order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. - Abstract: The effects of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([OMIM]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([DMIM]Cl) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([C{sub 12}MIM]Cl) were studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. The growth inhibition rate increased and the Hill reaction activity of isolated rice chloroplasts decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The IC{sub 50,5d} for stem length was 0.70 mg/L of [OMIM]Cl, 0.15 mg/L of [DMIM]Cl, and 0.055 mg/L of [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl, respectively. The SOD, POD and CAT activities of chloroplast exhibited initial increases followed by decreases in activity with increasing ILs concentrations. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub m}), the potential activity of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub 0}), the yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the relative electron transport ratio (rETR) were affected, showing that ILs will damage the PSII. The results demonstrated that imidazolium chloride ILs are phytotoxic to rice growth and their photosystem, the toxicity increased as the alkyl chain length increased with the following order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. The results will help to better understand the possible role of the defense mechanism in rice caused by ILs exposure.

  14. Structural oxidation state studies of the manganese cluster in the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Wenchuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed on Photosystem II (PSII)-enriched membranes prepared from spinach to explore: (1) the correlation between structure and magnetic spin state of the Mn cluster in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in the S2 state; and (2) the oxidation state changes of the Mn cluster in the flash-induced S-states. The structure of the Mn cluster in the S2 state with the g~4 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal (S2-g4 state) was compared with that in the S2 state with multiline signal (S2-MLS state) and the S1 state. The S2-g4 state has a higher XAS inflection point energy than that of the S1 state, indicating the oxidation of Mn in the advance from the S1 to the S2-g4 state. Differences in the edge shape and in the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) show that the structure of the Mn cluster in the S2-g4 state is different from that in the S2-MLS or the S1 state. In the S2-g4 state, the second shell of backscatterers from the Mn absorber contains two Mn-Mn distances of 2.73 Å and 2.85 Å. Very little distance disorder exists in the second shell of the S1 or S2-MLS states. The third shell of the S2-g4 state at about 3.3 Å also contains increased heterogeneity relative to that of the S2-MLS or the S1 state. Various S-states were prepared at room-temperature by saturating, single-turnover flashes. The flash-dependent oscillation in the amplitude of the MLS was used to characterize the S-state composition and to construct "pure" S-state Mn K-edge spectra. The edge position shifts to higher energy by 1.8 eV upon the S1 → S2 transition.

  15. 'Photosystem II: the water splitting enzyme of photosynthesis and the origin of oxygen in our atmosphere'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James

    2016-01-01

    About 3 billion years ago an enzyme emerged which would dramatically change the chemical composition of our planet and set in motion an unprecedented explosion in biological activity. This enzyme used solar energy to power the thermodynamically and chemically demanding reaction of water splitting. In so doing it provided biology with an unlimited supply of reducing equivalents needed to convert carbon dioxide into the organic molecules of life while at the same time produced oxygen to transform our planetary atmosphere from an anaerobic to an aerobic state. The enzyme which facilitates this reaction and therefore underpins virtually all life on our planet is known as Photosystem II (PSII). It is a pigment-binding, multisubunit protein complex embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Today we have detailed understanding of the structure and functioning of this key and unique enzyme. The journey to this level of knowledge can be traced back to the discovery of oxygen itself in the 18th-century. Since then there has been a sequence of mile stone discoveries which makes a fascinating story, stretching over 200 years. But it is the last few years that have provided the level of detail necessary to reveal the chemistry of water oxidation and O-O bond formation. In particular, the crystal structure of the isolated PSII enzyme has been reported with ever increasing improvement in resolution. Thus the organisational and structural details of its many subunits and cofactors are now well understood. The water splitting site was revealed as a cluster of four Mn ions and a Ca ion surrounded by amino-acid side chains, of which seven provide direct ligands to the metals. The metal cluster is organised as a cubane structure composed of three Mn ions and a Ca2+ linked by oxo-bonds with the fourth Mn ion attached to the cubane. This structure has now been synthesised in a non-protein environment suggesting that it is a totally

  16. The light-harvesting complexes of higher plant Photosystem I: Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.E.; Croce, R.

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) a1-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge

  17. The light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant Photosystem I : Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) al-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge

  18. Femtosecond visible/visible and visible/mid-IR pump-probe study of the photosystem II core antenna complex CP47

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.L.; Breton, J.; van Wilderen, L.; Dekker, J.P.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    CP47 is one of the two core antenna proteins of Photosystem II involved in the transfer of solar energy toward the photochemically active reaction center, the D1D2cytb559 complex. We have performed vis/vis and vis/mid-IR pump-probe experiments at room temperature as a first step in linking the

  19. Photoprotection in Plants Involves a Change in Lutein 1 Binding Domain in the Major Light-harvesting Complex of Photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilioaia, C.; Johnson, M.P.; Liao, P.N.; Pascal, A.A.; van Grondelle, R.; Walla, P.J.; Ruban, A.V.; Robert, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is the fundamental process by which plants exposed to high light intensities dissipate the potentially harmful excess energy as heat. Recently, it has been shown that efficient energy dissipation can be induced in the major light-harvesting complexes of photosystem

  20. Induction of Efficient Energy Dissipation in the Isolated Light-harvesting Complex of Photosystem II in the Absence of Protein Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilioaia, C.; Johnson, M.P.; Horton, P.; Ruban, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Under excess illumination, the Photosystem II light-harvesting antenna of higher plants has the ability to switch into an efficient photoprotective mode, allowing safe dissipation of excitation energy into heat. In this study, we show induction of the energy dissipation state, monitored by