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Sample records for spirulina maxima biomass

  1. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  2. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  3. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md-Abu Affan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19 after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout, A2 (25% cover, and A3 (no cover. Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3 and C (C1, C2, and C3, respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  4. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  5. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  6. Hydrogen production employing Spirulina maxima 2342: A chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juantorena, A.U.; Santoyo, E.; Gamboa, S.A.; Lastres, O.D. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Sanchez-Escamilla, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Bustos, A. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Ave. Universidad, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Investigacion y Desarrollo en Agroindustria, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    The biomass of the cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima 2342, was autotrophically obtained in a 20 l bioreactor under illumination and air bubbling and analyzed for its photobiological hydrogen production capability. A volume of 250 ml of Spirulina sp. taken from the reactor was used as culture sample for performing the experiments. An illumination-agitation process was employed to induce the hydrogen photoproduction reaction. The hydrogen produced in this process was quantified by gas chromatography technique using Molesieve 5 A(16ft x (1)/(8)in) column and a thermal conductivity detector (with a detector temperature of 110{sup o}C and a column temperature of 60{sup o}C). The culture samples were finally observed in an electron microscope to evaluate the effect of vacuum on the Spirulina sp. cells. (author)

  7. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  8. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of Spirulina biomass in closed photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Bocci, F.; Balloni, W.; Materassi, R.; Florenzano, G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of six years investigation on the outdoor mass culture of Spirulina platensis and S. maxima in closed tubular photobioreactors are reported. On average, under the climatic conditions of central Italy, the annual yield of biomass obtained from the closed culture units was equivalent to 33 t dry weight/ha per year. In the same climatic conditions the yield of the same organisms grown in open ponds was about 18 t/ha per year. This considerable difference is due primarily to better temperature conditions in the closed culture system. The main problems encountered relate to the control of temperature and oxygen concentration in the culture suspension. This will require an appropriate design and management of the photobioreactor as well as the selection of strains specifically adapted to grow at high temperature and high oxygen concentration. 8 references.

  10. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the allophycocyanin genes from Spirulina maxima (Cyanophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Hiroyuki, Kojima; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    The genes coding for the α-and β-subunit of allophycocyanin ( apcA and apcB) from the cyanophyte Spirulina maxima were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed 44.4% of nucleotide sequence similarity and 30.4% of similarity of deduced amino acid sequence between them. The amino acid sequence identities between S. maxima and S. platensis are 99.4% for α subunit and 100% for β subunit.

  12. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  13. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Suliburska, J.; Szuli?ska, M.; Tinkov, A. A.; Bogda?ski, P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2?g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3?months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3?months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in t...

  14. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α f...

  15. Lead removal by Spirulina platensis biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homaidan, Ali A; Al-Abbad, Aljawharah F; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Al-Ghanayem, Abdullah A; Alabdullatif, Jamila A

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, we report on the biosorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions by the nonliving biomass of the micro-alga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis. Propagation of the micro-alga was carried out in outside oblong raceway ponds. The biomass was cleaned, dried and used for the investigation. The effects of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, initial concentration of Pb (II), and contact time on the adsorption of lead by the dry biomass were studied. The experiments were carried out in 250 ml conical flasks containing 100 ml of test solutions using an orbital incubator at 150 rpm. Concentrations of the metal before and after the experiments were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Very high levels of Pb (II) removal (>91%) were obtained. The optimum conditions for maximal adsorption by S. platensis were found to be pH 3; 2 g of adsorbent dose; incubation at 26°C; 100 mg/l of lead initial concentration and 60 minutes of contact time. The experimental data fitted well with Freundlich isotherm equation with R(2) values greater than 0.97. Based on our results, we recommend the utilization of S. platensis biomass for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions.

  16. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  17. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  18. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.

    1993-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima as a biogenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for the space craft crew in a CELSS, was evaluated in an effort to increase the growth rate, biomass, yield, and chemical analysis in continuous cultures. The cell characteristics were determined for cultures maintained at steady state with respect to the substrate concentration. The productivity increased in experiments exposed to low light (30 uE m(exp -2)s(exp -1). Oxygen evolved and protein production were higher in cultures exposed to low light intensity. There was a relationship between nitrate concentration and the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of nitrate in the growth medium up to 20 mM was enough to produce a culture having the same chemical composition as that of complete medium. High light was inhibiting the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of phosphate beyond 1 mM did not improve the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of sodium chloride in the growth medium did not affect the growth of the alga up to 0.1 M but beyond that the culture started to be stressed. The response to stress appeared in high production of total carbohydrate on the expense of protein production. The oxygen production was also higher in cultures stressed with sodium chloride.

  19. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  20. Biofunctionalized nanofibers using Arthrospira (Spirulina) biomass and biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Stillings, Christopher; Dersch, Roland; Rudisile, Markus; Pranke, Patrícia; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Wendorff, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  1. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

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    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  2. Enhancement of immune activation activities of Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-06-06

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth.

  3. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Yong Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW, were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL. Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth.

  4. The effect of ultrasonificated extracts of Spirulina maxima on the anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung-Ho; Ahn, Juhee; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2011-04-01

    The effect of ultrasonic extraction on extraction yields, cytotoxicity, and anticancer activity of Spirulina maxima was investigated in this study. Optimal extraction conditions were determined as 60 kHz frequency at 60°C for 30 min with 120 W intensity, which resulted in 19.3% of extraction yields and 19.1% of cytotoxicity on normal human cells. Yields from conventional water and ethanol extraction were 15.8% at 100°C and 8.3% at 80°C, respectively. It was found that the extracts obtained by ultrasonic extraction process selectively inhibited the digestive-related cancer cell lines, such as human stomach cancer cells, having 89% of the highest inhibition ratio and 4.5 of the highest selectivity. In adding 0.5 mg/mL of the extract, human promyelocytic leukemia cells' cell differentiation was increased 1.72 times over that of the control. Expression level of B cell lymphoma-2 from Hep3B cell was also effectively suppressed by the extract obtained at 60 kHz and 60°C, leading to the inhibition of the early step of carcinogenesis. This work suggests that anticancer activity of the extracts is due to water-soluble polysaccharides rather than proteins and is further supported by the result that the ultrasonification extraction process can efficiently extract relatively intact polysaccharides rather than digesting the proteins in S. maxima by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and high performance size exclusion chromatography chromatogram analyses. Therefore, ultrasonic extraction increases both extraction yield and the biological activity of S. maxima extracts, which might be useful as an alternative natural anticancer agent in the medical and food industries.

  5. C-phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis wet biomass

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    C. C. Moraes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C-Phycocyanin is a natural blue dye used in food and pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, a simple and efficient method to extract C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis wet biomass is reported. The extractions were carried out using six different methods, including chemical (organic and inorganic acid treatment, physical (freezing and thawing, sonication, homogenization and enzymatic (lysozyme treatment methods. The extraction using ultrasonic bath in the presence of glass pearls in the biomass proved to be the most efficient method, 56% higher than using freezing and thawing (the method most frequently used, and presented a extraction yield of 43.75 mg.g-1 and a C-phycocyanin concentration of 0.21 mg.mL-1.

  6. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  8. Promotive effect of se on the growth and antioxidation of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Gang, Zhou; Zhi-Li, Liu

    1998-12-01

    Cultures of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gard.) Geitler with various concentrations of Se in Zarrouk's medium showed that not higher than 40 mg/L Se could promote its growth. The present experiments showed that S. maxima grown under normal conditions, has an oxidant stress defence system for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, which is the Halliwell-Asada pathway. When 4 to 20 mg/L Se was added to the algal medium, this pathway was replaced by a so-called Sestressed pathway containing GSH peroxidase (GSH-POD). As a result of the occurrence of both higher activity of GSH-POD and lower levels of hydroxyl radical (OH·), the Se-stressed pathway scavenged H2O2 so effectively that the growth of S. maxima was promoted by 4 to 20 mg/L Se. While GSH-POD activity of the alga disappeared at 40 mg/L Se, the recovery of ascorbate peroxidase was observed. The lower levels of ascorbic acid and GSH made the Halliwell-Asada pathway for scavenging H2O2 less effective, while the highest activity of catalase might be responsible in part for the H2O2 removal, causing the level of OH· in S. maxima grown at 40 mg/L Se to be much higher than the OH· level in this alga grown at 4 to 20 mg/L Se, but lower than that in the control. The OH· level changes caused the growth of S. maxima cultured at 40 mg/L Se to increase slightly to close to that of the control.

  9. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  10. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  11. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  12. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  13. A method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina platensis cultivated on a solid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizer, Lúcia Helena; Moraes, Iracema de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth.

  14. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  16. Pretreatment of brewery effluent to cultivate Spirulina sp. for nutrients removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhong, Yuming; Ming, Caibing; Qian, Wei; Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianliang

    2017-10-01

    Due to the low concentration of nitrate and high contents of organics, brewery effluent was not suitable for the cultivation of Spirulina sp. This work changed the nutrient profile of brewery effluent effectively by dilution, addition of nitrate, and anaerobic digestion. The result showed that the optimum dilution rate and NaNO 3 addition for brewery effluent were 20% and 0.5 g/L, respectively. Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent produced 1.562 mg/L biomass and reduced concentrations of nutrients to reach the permissible dischargeable limits. In addition, Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent had much higher protein content and oil content. So the appropriate treatment converted brewery effluent into a nutrient balanced medium for algae cultivation and alleviated the potential environmental problems. Pretreatment procedure developed in this work is an effective way to realize the sustainable utilization of brewery effluent and produce algal biomass with valuable nutrients.

  17. The protective effect of dietary Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima against mutagenicity induced by benzo[alpha]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Pages, Nicole; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[α]P) was used to test the possible antimutagenic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima (SP) on male and female mice. SP was orally administered at 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of body weight to animals of both sexes for 2 weeks before starting the B[α]P (intraperitoneal injection) at 125 mg/kg of body weight for 5 consecutive days. For the male dominant lethal test, each male was caged with two untreated females per week for 3 weeks. For the female dominant lethal test, each female was caged for 1 week with one untreated male. All the females were evaluated 13-15 days after mating for incidence of pregnancy, total corpora lutea, total implants and pre- and postimplant losses. SP protected from B[α]P-induced pre- and postimplant losses in the male dominant lethal test, and from B[α]P-induced postimplantation losses in treated females. Moreover, SP treatment significantly reduced the detrimental effect of B[α]P on the quality of mouse semen. Our results illustrate the protective effects of SP in relation to B[α]P-induced genetic damage to germ cells. We conclude that SP, owing mainly to the presence of phycocyanin, could be of potential clinical interest in cancer treatment or prevention of relapse.

  18. Enhancement of Chlorophyll a Production from Marine Spirulina maxima by an Optimized Ultrasonic Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Yong Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the optimal ultrasonification extraction conditions of 20.52 kHz for the frequency, 32.59 °C for the temperature, and 4.91 h for the process time, 17.98 mg/g of chlorophyll a was obtained. It was much higher than 13.81 mg/g from conventional 70% ethanol extraction and even higher than other data from Spirulina. This yield was close to the predicted value of 18.21 mg/g from the second-order polynomial model with a regression coefficient of 0.969. This model showed the greatest significance with the ultrasonic frequency and process time and the least significance with the temperature. The extracts also showed high α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activities as 69.38%, compared to 58.25% for the extracts from the 70% ethanol extraction. It was first shown that the optimal extraction was effective at enhancing the neuroprotective activities possibly due to the synergistic effects of higher amounts of chlorophyll a and other bioactive substances in the extract, revealing a 90% protection of the growth of mouse neuronal cells and a great reduction in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production.

  19. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  20. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection. PMID:25157367

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE NITROGÊNIO NO CULTIVO DE Spirulina maxima EM DOIS NÍVEIS DE TEMPERATURA: Parte II: PRODUÇÃO DE LIPÍDIOS INFLUENCE OF THE NITROGEN LEVEL IN THE CULTIVATION OF Spirulina maxima IN TWO LEVELS OF TEMPERATURES: PART II: "PRODUCTION OF LIPIDS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Verthein Tavares de MACEDO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina maxima foi cultivada em meios com 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposto por PAOLETTI et al [10] e considerado meio padrão, em meios com 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N e em ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N nas temperaturas de 25°C e 35°C. A composição da biomassa celular seca apresentou a 35°C um aumento médio dos lipídios totais, de 2,8 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 2,9 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A 25°C apresentou um aumento médio de 3,1 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 3,2 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A biomassa em forma de gel de cada tratamento foi recolhida e feita a extração dos lipídios totais, os quais foram pesados em base seca. As análises estatísticas dos resultados, em estimativa não linear com superfície de resposta e regressão múltipla com análise de resíduos, mostraram para o aumento dos lipídios totais uma função linear com a temperatura (T e não linear com o nitrogênio (N, ajustando-se a um modelo onde o coeficiente de regressão R=0,99459 e a equação LIPT = A+B²T+CN ².The micraolgae Spirulina maxima was cultivated in medium with 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposed by Paoletti et al [10] and considered standard medium, in media with 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N and in absence of nitrogen (0,0N in temperatures of 25°C and 35°C. The composition of the dry cellular biomass presented to 35°C a medium increase of the total lipids, of 2,8 times of the middle with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 2,9 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. To 25°C it presented a medium increase of 3,1 times of the medium with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 3,2 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. The biomass in form of gel of each treatment was picked up and made the extraction of the total lipids, which were heavy in base evaporate. The statistical analyses of the results, in estimate non lineal with answer surface and

  2. Selenium uptake and assessment of the biochemical changes in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass during the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicovscaia, I; Chiriac, T; Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Culicov, O; Frontasyeva, M; Rudic, V

    2017-01-01

    The process of selenium uptake by biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was investigated by neutron activation analysis at different selenium concentrations in solution and at different contact times. Experimental data showed good fit with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a regression coefficient value of 0.99. In terms of absorption dependence on time, the maximal selenium content was adsorbed in the first 5 min of interaction without significant further changes. It was also found that A. platensis biomass forms spherical selenium nanoparticles. Biochemical analysis was used to assess the changes in the main components of spirulina biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation.

  3. Aminopyridine modified Spirulina platensis biomass for chromium(VI) adsorption in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    Chemical modification of Spirulina platensis biomass was realized by sequential treatment of algal surface with epichlorohydrin and aminopyridine. Adsorptive properties of Cr(VI) ions on native and aminopyridine modified algal biomass were investigated by varying pH, contact time, ionic strength, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and temperature. FTIR and analytical analysis indicated that carboxyl and amino groups were the major functional groups for Cr(VI) ions adsorption. The optimum adsorption was observed at pH 3.0 for native and modified algal biomasses. The adsorption capacity was found to be 79.6 and 158.7 mg g(-1), for native and modified algal biomasses, respectively. For continuous system studies, the experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as flow rate and initial concentration of metal ions, and the maximum sorption capacity was observed at a flow rate of 50 mL h(-1), and Cr(VI) ions concentration 200 mg L(-1) with modified biomass. Experimental data fitted a pseudo-second-order equation. The regeneration performance was observed to be 89.6% and 94.3% for native and modified algal biomass, respectively.

  4. Biosorption of copper ions from aqueous solutions by Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Al-Homaidan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the economically important micro-alga (cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was used as biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solutions. The cyanobacterium was exposed to various concentrations of copper and adsorption of copper by the biomass was evaluated under different conditions that included pH, contact time, temperature, concentration of adsorbate and the concentration of dry biomass. Increased adsorption of copper by the non-living biomass was recorded with gradually increasing pH, and a maximal uptake by the biomass was observed at pH 7. The adsorption of copper was found to increase gradually along with decrease in biomass concentration. Biosorption was found to be at a maximum (90.6%, in a solution containing 100 mg copper/L, at pH 7, with 0.050 g dry biomass and at 37 °C with 90 min of contact time. Analysis of the spectrum obtained with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS, indicated that the adsorbent has a great potential to remove copper from aqueous media contributing to an eco-friendly technology for efficient bioremediation in the natural environment.

  5. Scaffolds Containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass: Development, Characterization and Evaluation of In Vitro Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Daiane Angelica; Uebel, Livia Da Silva; Kuntzler, Suelen Goettems; Dora, Cristiana Lima; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers are nanomaterials that can be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate the in vitro degradation of a biomaterial consisting of nanofibers produced from biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with potential applications as a scaffold for tissue regeneration and containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass as the bioactive compound. The polymers used were poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and polycaprolactone. The polymeric solutions exhibited sufficiently high viscosity to produce uniform nanofibers with diameters between 335 and 617 nm. The applied conditions were as follows: a voltage of 25 kV, a distance from the capillary to the collector of 120 mm, a capillary diameter of 0.80 mm, and 12% polycaprolactone and a blend of 5% polycaprolactone and 10% poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The biomass was incorporated into the nanofibers at a concentration of 3%, and the incorporation was confirmed using confocal microscopy. The nanofibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which showed that the addition of biomass did not alter the thermal properties of the biomaterial. The addition of biomass improved the tensile strength and elongation of the scaffolds compared with those produced with polymers alone. A biodegradation assay showed enzymatic action toward the biomaterial, simulating the behavior of natural tissue. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the scaffolds that were produced have the potential to be applied in the field of tissue regeneration as biomaterials with pharmacological properties.

  6. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent compositions, and various other fields and can be extracted from plants and algae. To extract, separate and purify chlorophyll a from associated pigments such as xanthophylls, carotenes, and pheophytins, very costly processes are reported. The present approach is perfectly adequate for use in Chemistry experiments for undergraduate students.

  7. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  8. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  9. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zhu; K. Kawamura; B. Kunwar

    2015-01-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, on subtropical Okinawa Island, from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation ...

  10. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zhu; K. Kawamura

    2014-01-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, subtropical Okinawa Island from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positiv...

  11. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is the production of biomass of S. platensis using different rates of stirring, nitrogen source, amount of micronutrients, and luminosity. A 2(4 experimental design with the following factors: stirring (120 and 140 RPM, amount of nitrogen (1.5 and 2.5 g/L, amount of micronutrients (0,25 and 0,75 mL/L (11 and 15 W, and luminosity was used. Fermentation was performed in a 500 mL conical flask with 250 mL of culture medium and 10% inoculum in an incubator with controlled stirring and luminosity. Fermentation was monitored using a spectrophotometer (560 nm, and each fermentation lasted 15 days. Of the parameters studied, luminosity is the one with the highest significance, followed by the amount of nitrogen and the interaction between stirring and micronutrients. Maximum production of biomass for 15 days was 2.70 g/L under the following conditions: luminosity15W; stirring, 120 RPM; source of nitrogen, 1.5 g/L; and micronutrients, 0.75 mL/L.A Spirulina platensis é uma cianobactéria mesofílica, fotoautotrófica, que utiliza como nutrientes os nitratos, ureia e sais de amônio. O cultivo necessita de controle de temperatura, intensidade de luz e do teor de nutrientes utilizados. Esta microalga tem sido estuda pelo seu potencial nutricional, antioxidante, terapêutico e adjuvante em tratamento de obesidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de biomassa de S. platensis em diferentes níveis de agitação, fonte de nitrog

  12. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  13. A Multivariate Approach to Evaluate Biomass Production, Biochemical Composition and Stress Compounds of Spirulina platensis Cultivated in Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Topyürek, Ali; Markou, Giorgos; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2016-10-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects of using cow effluent for the cultivation of Spirulina platensis on its biomass production and cell physiology. S. platensis was cultivated in three different cow effluents (CE) used as cultivation medium during 15 days. CE was prepared using dry cow manures, and it was further modified with supplement of NaNO 3 (CEN) and NaNO 3  + NaCl (CENS). High nitrate value stimulated chlorophyll-a and total protein content of the cyanobacterium and also biomass production in standards medium (SM) and CEN media. Total carbohydrate content of S. platensis grown in CE media was found to be higher (p < 0.05) than that of SM. Productions of biomass and biochemical compounds by the cyanobacterium grown on the CE and SM media were evaluated by using multivariate approach. Conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), salinity, pH, and TDS played important role (p < 0.01) in the biochemical composition. As an effective explanatory factor, ORP had a significant positive correlation with H 2 O 2 , whereas negatively correlated with chlorophyll-α, biomass production, filament length, and proline. Canonical correspondence analysis proposed that biochemical compounds of S. platensis were not only affected by salinity and nutrition of media but also by pH and ORP. The present study indicated that CEN as a low cost model medium had high potential for the production of biomass by S. platensis with high protein content.

  14. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, on subtropical Okinawa Island, from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrosugars are caused by long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in northern and northeastern China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly winds. The monthly averaged levoglucosan / mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in northern China, Korea and southwestern Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agricultural waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  15. UTILIZAÇÃO DA CIANOBACTÉRIA Spirulina maxima E DA LEVEDURA Saccharomyces cerevisiae COMO DIETAS COMPLEMENTARES NO CULTIVO DE Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Surini de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes combinações da cianobactéria S. maxima e da levedura S. cerevisiae foram utilizadas no cultivo de A. franciscana, com o objetivo de avaliar dietas de baixo custo e fácil manuseio, e que mantivessem as larvas desse microcrustáceo em laboratório, de modo a propiciar estudos de sua ecologia, biologia e uso na aquicultura. Para isso, 12 cones de Imhoff contendo 1 L de água do mar filtrada foram estocados com 100 náuplios e submetidos à aeração contínua, monitoramento do pH, temperatura, salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e luminosidade, além de renovação diária de 50 % do volume de água. Durante dez dias, os náuplios foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia com 25 mg de diferentes combinações de S. maxima e S. cerevisiae, nas seguintes proporções: 100/0; 75/25; 50/50; 25/75 e 0/100. Foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência, proporção sexual, proporção juvenis/adultos e performance reprodutiva. Os resultados indicaram um melhor desempenho zootécnico de A. franciscana nos tratamentos que associaram S. maxima à S. cerevisiae (75/25, 50/50 e 25/75, e desta maneira, demonstram que a referida mistura dietética, em tais proporções, é viável para manter as larvas em cultivo laboratorial.

  16. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  17. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgakakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4 were investigated. Each acid were used at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C. Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars with higher rates, while the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass was significantly affected by the acid concentration used for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively.

  18. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  19. Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  20. Experimental grounds for developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for production of the selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals was studied. The dependence of Se and I accumulation in Spirulina biomass during the cultivation in a nutrient medium loading of above elements was determined more precisely. The dynamics of Spirulina biomass growth was observed with nutrient medium loading of selenium. It is found that Spirulina platensis biomass quality may be used for pharmaceutical purposes

  1. Spirulina platensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... 1999). Cost and composition of media are challenging factors for viable and mass production of cyanobacteria. (Jitendra et al., 2012). Different media were used for cultivation of Spirulina such as Zarrouk media, CFTIR media, OFERR media, and Bangladesh media (Belay et al., 1993; Jitendra et al., 2012).

  2. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin of Spirulina powder treated with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Dejsungkranont

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The functionality and activity of proteins can be modified by supercritical fluid CO2 (SCFCO2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of enhanced antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC proteins from light-harvested Spirulina maxima powder using the SCFCO2 pretreatment and to optimize the SCFCO2 pretreatment conditions enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the SCFCO2 pretreatment. The experimental factors were the pretreatment temperature, pressure, pretreatment mode (static, dynamic and conjugated and duration. The optimal conditions of SCFCO2 pretreatment were: 60 °C, 24.13 MPa and 60 min in static batch mode. Using these pretreatment conditions, the maximum antioxidant activity of C-PC from the treated residual biomass was 410.1 μmole trolox/mg, which was 1.7-fold higher than the untreated biomass (control. The factor that most affected the antioxidant activity of C-PC was temperature (59%. A high pretreatment temperature could damage C-PC, but promoted antioxidant activity. Of note is that this work was the first to explore SCFCO2 treatment enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC in Spirulina sp. powder. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C-phycocyanin, Spirulina sp., Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide pretreatment, Taguchi method

  3. Polyurethane and alginate immobilized algal biomass for the removal of aqueous toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, I.V.; Mehlhorn, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the development of immobilized, processed algal biomass for use as an adsorptive filter in the removal of toxic metals from waste water. To fabricate an adsorptive filter from precessed biomass several crucial criteria must be met, including: (1) high metal binding capacity, (2) long term stability (both mechanical and chemical), (3) selectivity for metals of concern (with regard to ionic competition), (4) acceptable flow capacity (to handle large volumes in short time frames), (5) stripping/regeneration (to recycle the adsorptive filter and concentrate the toxic metals to manageable volumes). This report documents experiments with processed algal biomass (Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima) immobilized in either alginate gel or preformed polyurethane foam. The adsorptive characteristics of these filters were assessed with regard to the criteria listed above.

  4. Applications of Box–Behnken experimental design coupled with artificial neural networks for biosorption of low concentrations of cadmium using Spirulina (Arthrospira spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Siva Kiran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the application of artificial intelligence techniques coupled with Box–Behnken (BB design to model the process parameters for biosorption of cadmium using live Spirulina (Arthrospira spp. as adsorbent in open race way pond with Zarrouk medium. The biomass concentration of Spirulina spp. decreased to half at 4 ppm Cd (II after 8 days. Based on the LCt50 values, 3.69 ppm (8th day, Spirulina (Arthospira maxima showed maximum tolerance. Considerable growth and bioaccumulation of Spirulina spp. is observed below 1 ppm and tolerant up to 3 ppm. The cadmium adsorption on Spirulina spp. showed good correlation (R2 = 0.99 when applied to Freundlich equation and data fit into pseudo second order kinetics. A four factorial, three blocks and three level Box–Behnken design with initial concentration (1 ppb to 5 ppb, biosorbant dosage (0.1 gdw to 0.2 gdw, agitation speed (12 rpm to 16 rpm and pH (6 to 8 as independent variables and percentage adsorption as dependent variable were selected for study. The data were further processed using artificial neural network model and DIRECT algorithm for better optimization. The final Cd (II concentration of <0.5 ppb was achieved with 1 ppb initial concentration under optimal conditions. A continuous desorption process was also developed for removal of cadmium from Spirulina (Arthrospira sp.

  5. Culture characteristics of the atmospheric and room temperature plasma-mutated Spirulina platensis mutants in CO2 aeration culture system for biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yinyee; Fang, Mingyue; Jin, Lihua; Zhang, Chong; Li, He-Ping; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2015-10-01

    For biomass production of Spirulina platensis as feedstock of fermentation, the culture characteristics of three typical mutants of 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 generated by atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP) mutagenesis were systematically studied by using CO2 aeration culture system and compared with the wild strain. The specific growth rate of wild strain in the pure air aeration culture system exhibited a 76.2% increase compared with static culture, while the specific growth rates of the 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system were increased by 114.4%, 95.9% and 88.2% compared with their static cultures. Compared with static culture, the carbohydrate contents of wild strain, 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system dropped plainly by 51.0%, 79.3%, 85.5% and 26.1%. Increase of CO2 concentration enhanced carbohydrate content and productivity. Based on the carbohydrate productivity, the optimal inlet of CO2 concentration in aeration culture was determined to be 12% (v/v). Under this condition, 3-B2 exhibited the highest carbohydrate content (30.7%), CO2 fixation rate (0.120gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) and higher growth rate (0.093 g L(-1)·d(-1)), while 3-A10 showed the highest growth rate (0.118 g L(-1)·d(-1)) and higher CO2 fixation rate (0.117gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) but low carbohydrate content (24.5%), and 4-B3 showed the highest chlorophyll (Chl) content (3.82 mg·g(-1)). The most outstanding mutant by static culture in terms of growth rate and carbohydrate productivity (3-B2), was also demonstrated by CO2 aeration culture system. This study revealed that the ARTP mutagenesis could generate the S. platensis mutants suitable for CO2 aeration culture aiming at biomass production. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters Part 1: The microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters Part 1: The microbial ecology of tannery waste stabilisation ponds and the management of noxious odour emissions using microalgal capping. ... Photosynthetic productivity maxima of up to 9 000 mg∙m-2∙day-1 carbon fixation were measured in bloom conditions. Arthrospira ...

  7. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  8. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  9. 78 FR 68713 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    .... FDA-2011-C-0878] Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract; Confirmation... rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of spirulina extract made from the dried biomass of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis), as a color additive in...

  10. Degradation of Chlorpyrifos by an alkaline phosphatase from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengodkar, Rutwik Ravindra Mandakini; Sivakami, S

    2010-07-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped, multicellular, blue-green microalga. The two most important species are Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis. Spirulina is considered an excellent food, lacking toxicity and having corrective properties against viral attacks, anemia, tumor growth and malnutrition. We have observed that cultures of Spirulina platensis grow in media containing up to 80 ppm of the organophosphorous pesticide, Chlorpyrifos. It was found to be due to an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that was detected in cell free extracts of Spirulina platensis. This activity was purified from the cell free extracts using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration and shown to belong to the class of EC 3.1.3.1 ALP. The purified enzyme degrades 100 ppm Chlorpyrifos to 20 ppm in 1 h transforming it into its primary metabolite 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. This is the first report of degradation of Chlorpyrifos by Spirulina platensis whose enzymic mechanism has been clearly identified. These findings have immense potential for harnessing Spirulina platensis in bioremediation of polluted ecosystems.

  11. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies.

  12. Spirulina- small but a spectacular species

    OpenAIRE

    Hemamalini Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina is a marine blue green algae which is being extensively studied as the biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. Apart from being used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide, it shows therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. Spirulin...

  13. Effects of spirulina consumption on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function in overweight hypertensive Caucasians: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczke, A; Szulińska, M; Hansdorfer-Korzon, R; Kręgielska-Narożna, M; Suliburska, J; Walkowiak, J; Bogdański, P

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima) consumption on glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina maxima on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease were enrolled to receive daily either 2.0 g Hawaiian spirulina or placebo for three months. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and stiffness index (SI) using digital plethysmography were measured before and after the intervention. After three months, there was no change in body mass index (BMI) or weight in either the spirulina or the placebo group. However, a significant reduction in SBP and SI was observed. The patients in the spirulina group showed significant reductions in BMI (26.9 ± 3.1 vs. 25.0 ± 2.7 kg/m(2), p = 0.0032), weight (75.5 ± 11.8 vs. 70.5 ± 10.3 kg, p Spirulina maxima not only improves BMI and weight but also results in improvements in blood pressure and endothelial function spirulina in overweight patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  15. Nutritional and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bread Enriched with Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Ak; Ezgi Avşaroğlu; Oya Işık; Gülsün Özyurt; Ebru Kafkas; Miray Etyemez; Leyla Uslu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the nutrient content of bread prepared with white flour, using the valuable metabolites included in Spirulina platensis. In this study, conventional breads were added 10% of Spirulina. The nutrient composition, protein and lipid content were evaluated and microbiological and sensory analyses were conducted in the breads with microalgal biomass. The addition of microalgal biomass resulted in protein content increase, ranging from 7.40% to 11.63%. While Cal...

  16. Use of the effluent from biogas production for cultivation of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Lind, Olle; Birgersson, Göran; Asp, Håkan

    2017-04-01

    The effluent from the biogas process was tested as a nutrient source during cultivation of the protein-rich and edible microalgae Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and compared with conventional Spirulina medium. Equal biomass production was observed until late exponential phase and no significant differences could be observed between the treatments in protein amount, amino acid composition, and total lipid concentration. The concentration of the pigment phycocyanin differed significantly between Spirulina medium and the effluent-based medium (63.3 ± 11.7 and 86.2 ± 1.9 mg g -1 , respectively). Slightly higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic acid, were observed in the biomass produced in Spirulina medium than in that produced in the effluent-based medium. In the biomass produced in the effluent-based medium, the cadmium concentration was 0.07 ± 0.05 mg kg -1 of dry weight, whereas it was below the detection limit in the biomass produced in Spirulina medium. There is a need to identify new food and feed resources and a possible future scenario is to integrate Spirulina production into the biogas plant for protein production as it contains more than 60% of protein on dry weight basis. In that scenario, it is important to control heavy metal concentrations in the biogas slurry fed to Spirulina.

  17. Effect of Nickel on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.; Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Neria-Gonzalez, M. I.; Rios-Leal, E.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel is not produced in Mexico, but is a component widely used in the paper industry, fertilizers, iron foundry, and jewels fabrication among others. therefore it is founded in residual waters coming form domestic and industrial. It is known that such a heavy metal is essential to the life of some microorganisms including microalgae, however at relatively high concentrations it turns to be toxic inside some physiological processes (Jin et al., 1996). (Author)

  18. Effect of Cadmium on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Hernandez-Villagran, D.; Neria-Gonzalez, M. I.; Rios-Leal, E.; Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.

    2009-07-01

    The removal of heavy metal by microorganisms can occur through several mechanisms, such as simple adsorption, absorption, enzymatic synthesis or through the production of extracellular polymers. Cadmium (CD), a metal released in most mining and metallurgical processes, is one of the main agents responsible for water pollution. In spite of the increasing amount of research published on the interaction of microorganisms with heavy metals, few work describe this interaction with cyanobacteria. (Author)

  19. Effect of lead on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez- Villagran, D.; Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.

    2009-07-01

    The pollution of aquatic ecosystems caused by heavy metals from industrial and domestic sources leads to the bioaccumulation of these toxicants in cyanobacteria and microalgae with damage or inhibition of specific enzymes and transfer of metals through the food web (He et al., 1998). Moreover, even through ions of some metals, such as zinc, are involved in the metabolism of algae. (Author)

  20. Cultivo de Spirulina maxima ao ar livre - I. Inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacaz Ruiz

    1990-12-01

    e noturno indicaram que o melhor período de produção de biomassa durante o dia foi das 8 - 13 h e a produtividade atingiu valor máximo de 8,08 g/metro quadrado/dia. Durante todo o experimento foi necessário adicionar água ao sistema, devido à ausência de chuvas; e o total acrescentado equivaleu a 72,14 mm de chuva.

  1. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  2. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Oprea, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  3. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  4. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  5. Spirulina in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish J; Jarouliya, Urmila; Bhadauriya, Pratiksha; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2008-10-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped and multicellular edible microbe. It is the nature's richest and most complete source of nutrition. Spirulina has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can offer. The alga contains a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic nutrients that include B-complex vitamins, minerals, proteins, gamma-linolenic acid and the super anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, trace elements and a number of unexplored bioactive compounds. Because of its apparent ability to stimulate whole human physiology, Spirulina exhibits therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic and plethora of beneficial functions. Spirulina consumption appears to promote the growth of intestinal micro flora as well. The review discusses the potential of Spirulina in health care management.

  6. Evaluation of Carotenoids and Chlorophyll as Natural Resources for Food in Spirulina Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaeni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae can produce various natural products such as pigments, enzymes, unique fatty acids and vitamins that benefit humans. The objective of the study was evaluation of carotenoids (β-carotene, zeathanthin, lutein, lycopene and astaxanthin and chlorophyll a in spirulina microalgae. Spirulina powder has been produced by Jordan’s method in Iran. Carotenoids were extracted from Spirulina platensis by adopting a method described by Reboul; then the sample was prepared and injected into a HPLC instrument with triplicate injection. Chlorophyll`s biomass content was determined by spectrophotometer. After assaying the curves of HPLC, the amount of chlorophyll a, astaxanthin, beta carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein in spirulina was determined as 4.3±0.14, 0.21±0.02, 7393±2.76, 741±2.32, 6652±3.69 and 424±2.83 μg/ml respectively (p<0.05.

  7. Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass constitutes the energetic form more important and of greater potential after solar energy (source of origin), being consumed in direct form through the combustion, or indirectly through the fossil fuels (those which originates) or by means of different technical of thermochemical and of biochemistry for its conversion and utilization. The current document describes the origin and the energetic characteristics of biomass, its energetic and environmental importance for a developing Country as Colombia, its possibilities of production and the technologies developed for its utilization and transformation, mainly, of the residual biomass

  8. Mutation of Spirulina sp. by nuclear irradiation to improve growth rate under 15% carbon dioxide in flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Lu, Hongxiang; He, Xin; Yang, Weijuan; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-01

    Spirulina sp. was mutated by γ-rays from 60 Co nuclear irradiation to improve growth and CO 2 fixation rate under 15vol.% CO 2 (in flue gas from a power plant). Mutants with enhanced growth phenotype were obtained, with the best strain exhibiting 310% increment in biomass yield on day 4. The mutant was then domesticated with elevated CO 2 concentration, and the biomass yield increased by 500% after domestication under 15vol.% CO 2 , with stable inheritance. Ultrastructure of Spirulina sp. shows that the fractal dimension of Spirulina cells decreased by 23% after mutation. Pore size in the cell wall of Spirulina mutant increased by 33% after 15vol.% CO 2 domestication. This characteristic facilitated the direct penetration of CO 2 into cells, thus improving CO 2 biofixation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spirulina Extract Enhanced a Protective Effect in Type 1 Diabetes by Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-ROS Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeong; Park, Arum; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lim, Hee-Joung; Rha, Young-Ah

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis. However, the cytotoxicity of cytokines was significantly attenuated by Spirulina extract, which effectively prevented NO production by inhibiting the synthesis of cytokine-activated NO synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis was suppressed. These results suggest that Spirulina extract might be effective to preserve the viability and function of pancreatic β-cells against cytotoxic conditions. Moreover, diabetic mice orally administered Spirulina extract showed decreased glucose levels, increased insulin, and improvement in liver enzyme markers. The antioxidant effect of Spirulina extract may be helpful in treating type 1 diabetes by enhancing the survival, and reducing or delaying cytokine-mediated β-cells destruction. PMID:29244751

  10. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  11. Spirulina cultivation with a CO2 absorbent: Influence on growth parameters and macromolecule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriel Martins da; Moraes, Luiza; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select a concentration of CO2 absorbents to supplement Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultivation and to evaluate the effect of these compounds on the growth and production of macromolecules. Three initial biomass concentrations (X0), eight concentrations of monoethanolamine (MEA), and three NaOH concentrations were tested. The selected MEA concentrations did not inhibit the growth of Spirulina and doubled the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration in the assay medium in relation to the concentration of NaOH. The protein concentration in the biomass grown with MEA was, on average, 17% higher than that obtained with NaOH. Thus, it was found that MEA did not reduce the productivity of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, and its use can be further explored as a means for converting the carbon dissolved in the medium to biomolecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Phycocyanin Production from Spirulina platensis using Light Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachchhav, Manisha Bhanudas; Kulkarni, Mohan Vinayak; Ingale, Arun G.

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates the performance of different cultivation conditions using Light Emitting Diode (LED) as a light source for the production of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. With LEDs under autotrophic conditions, red LED produced maximum amount of biomass (8.95 g/l). As compared to autotrophic cultivation with fluorescent lamp (control), cultivations using LEDs under autotrophic and mixotrophic mode significantly enhanced the phycocyanin content. For autotrophic conditions (with LED) phycocyanin content was in the range of 103-242 mg/g of dry biomass, whereas for mixotrophic conditions (0.1% glucose and LED) it was in the range of 254-380 mg/g of dry biomass. Spirulina cultivated with yellow LED under mixotrophic conditions had 5.4-fold more phycocyanin (380 mg/g of dry biomass) than control (70 mg/g of dry biomass). The present study demonstrates that the LEDs under mixotrophic conditions gave sixfold (2497 mg/l) higher yields of phycocyanin as compared to autotrophic condition under white light (415 mg/l).

  13. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  14. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  15. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam; Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan Sowri Arvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nano...

  16. Spirulina as a functional ingredient in broiler chicken diets | Bonos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid after spirulina supplementation. Therefore, spirulina could be a promising functional ingredient in broiler chicken nutrition. Keywords: Poultry, microalgae, performance, meat ...

  17. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalabegishvili, T.; Kirkesali, E.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by one of the many popular microorganisms - blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was studied. The complex of optical and analytical methods was applied for investigation of experimental samples after exposure to chloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) solution at different doses and for different time intervals. To characterize formed gold nanoparticles UV-vis, TEM, SEM, EDAX, and XRD were used. It was shown that after 1.5-2 days of exposure the extracellular formation of nanoparticles of spherical form and the distribution peak within the interval of 20-30 nm took place. To determine gold concentrations in the Spirulina platensis biomass, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were applied. The results obtained evidence that the concentration of gold accumulated by Spirulina biomass is rapidly growing in the beginning, followed by some increase for the next few days. The obtained substance of Spirulina biomass with gold nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical, and technological purposes

  18. Effect of cobalt on the primary productivity of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.M.; Panigrahi, S.; Azeez, P.A.

    1987-10-01

    Cobalt, a micronutrient for biological organisms, is a metal of wide use. Main sources of Co to the environment are combustion of fossil fuels, smelters, cobalt processing facilities, sewage and industrial wastes. Atomic power plants and nuclear weapon detonations form an important source of radioisotopes of this metal to the environment. Cobalt has been included in the 14 toxic trace elements of critical importance from the point of view of environmental pollution and health hazards. Cobalt deficiency leads to diseases like stunted growth. At toxic level, Co inhibits heme biosynthesis and enzyme activities. The present study reports the effect of cobalt on biomass productivity of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.

  19. Response of Spirulina Platensis to Sulfamethazine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiankuan; Lu, Xiaohong; Ma, Xiangjuan; Xia, Huilong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between a positive important biological energy source algae Spirulina platensis and an antimicrobial drug sulfamethazine was studied by a panel of bioassays. The result demonstrated that the acute toxicity of sulfadimidine on Spirulina platensis gradually increased with the increasing of the concentration of sulfadimidine. During the exposure, the toxicity of sulfamethazine on Spirulina platensis enlarged at first and reduced thereafter, and the summit was at 48 h, showing a typical “bell” curve. The EC50 in 48 h was 6.06 mg/L. Spirulina platensis was able to accumulate and degrade sulfamethazine simultaneously. The amounts of sulfamethazine accumulated and degraded by Spirulina platensis were 1.40 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg (dry weight) at 24 h, respectively. After 96 h of exposure, the accumulation decreased to 0.47 mg/kg, however, the degradation of sulfamethazine increased to 6.57 mg/kg. Due to biological activity, the removal rate of sulfamethazine was 5.2 times in the nutrient solution with Spirulina platensis as that of without Spirulina platensis. The results of this study implied that Spirulina platensis had a potential to remove sulfamethazine in the sulfamethazine contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  1. Optimization of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina Growth: From Laboratory Scale to Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delrue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina is the most cultivated microalga worldwide. Improving its cultivation in terms of biomass productivity, quality, or production cost could significantly impact the Spirulina industry. The objectives of this paper were defined as to contribute to this goal. Spirulina biomass productivity was investigated through medium choice. A modified Zarrouk’s medium was selected as it gave higher final dry weights and longer sustained growth than Hiri’s and Jourdan’s media. Then, in order to reduce Spirulina production cost, modified Zarrouk’s medium was rationalized by testing different dilutions. It was found that modified Zarrouk’s medium could be diluted up to five times without impacting the growth rates in a 28-days batch cultivation. Higher dry weights were even observed after 21 days of batch cultivation (1.21 g/L for 20%-modified Zarrouk’s medium in comparison to 0.84 g/L for modified Zarrouk’s medium. Iron uptake was then investigated as one of the major contributors to Spirulina nutritional quality. An increase in iron content was obtained by replacing iron sulfate by iron EDTA at a concentration of 10 mgFe/L (2.11 ± 0.13 mgFe/gbiomass for EDTA-FeNa, 3 H2O at 10 mgFe/L compared to 0.18 ± 0.13 for FeSO4,6H2O at 2 mgFe/L. Impact of light intensity on Spirulina biomass productivity was also investigated in a 2 L Photobioreactor (PBR. Specific growth rates were calculated for Photosynthetically Photon Flux Densities (PPFD from 85 to 430 µmol/m2/s. At 430 µmol/m2/s, photoinhibition was not observed and the specific growth rate was maximum (0.12/day. Finally, a 40-day cultivation experiment was conducted in a 1000 L PBR giving a maximum daily areal productivity of 58.4 g/m2/day. A techno-economic analysis gave production cost two to 20 times higher for PBR (from 18.71 to 74.29 €/kg than for open ponds (from 3.86 to 9.59 €/kg depending on Spirulina productivity.

  2. Nitrate and phosphate removal by Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, A; Binaghi, L; Solisio, C; Converti, A; Del Borghi, M

    2003-11-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was used to verify the possibility of employing microalgal biomass to reduce the contents of nitrate and phosphate in wastewaters. Batch tests were carried out in 0.5 dm3 Erlenmeyer flasks under conditions of light limitation (40 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) at a starting biomass level of 0.50 g/dm3 and varying temperature in the range 23-40 degrees C. In this way, the best temperature for the growth of this microalga (30 degrees C) was determined and the related thermodynamic parameters were estimated. All removed nitrate was used for biomass growth (biotic removal), whereas phosphate appeared to be removed mainly by chemical precipitation (abiotic removal). The best results in terms of specific and volumetric growth rates (mu=0.044 day(-1), Qx=33.2 mg dm(-3) day(-1)) as well as volumetric rate and final yield of nitrogen removal (Q(N-NO3-)=3.26 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Y(N-NO3-)=0.739) were obtained at 30 degrees C, whereas phosphorus was more effectively removed at a lower temperature. In order to simulate full-scale studies, batch tests of nitrate and phosphate removal were also performed in 5.0 dm3 vessels (mini-ponds) at the optimum temperature (30 degrees C) but increasing the photon fluence rate to 80 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) and varying the initial biomass concentration from 0.25 to 0.86 g/dm3. These additional tests demonstrated that an increase in the inoculum level up to 0.75 g/dm3 enhanced both NO3- and PO4(3-) removal, confirming a strict dependence of these processes on biomass activity. In addition, the larger surface area of the ponds and the higher light intensity improved removal yields and kinetics compared to the flasks, particularly concerning phosphorus removal (mu=0.032-0.050 day(-1), Qx=34.7-42.4 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Q(N-NO3-)=3.24-4.06 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Y(N-NO3-)=0.750-0.879, Q(P-PO4(3-))=0.312-0.623 mg dm(-3) day(-1), and Y(P-PO4(3-))=0.224-0.440).

  3. Spirulina platensis is more efficient than Chlorella homosphaera in carbohydrate productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Volpato, Noany; Araújo, Elenara; Cardoso, Luana Garbin; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the production of biomass with high carbohydrate content by Spirulina platensis LEB 52 and Chlorella homosphaera microalgae. The cultivation of C. homosphaera and S. platensis LEB 52 was performed in standard medium diluted at 50%, and glucose was added as a source of organic carbon for mixotrophic metabolism. The sodium nitrate concentration was increased and the nitrogen components were reduced in the media to induce the synthesis of carbohydrates. C. homosphaera and S. platensis LEB 52 produced 16.32 and 116 mg L -1 of carbohydrates per day, respectively, when cultivated with 50% less nitrogen and 20% and 10% more sodium chloride, compared with the control. Glucose addition was an essential factor for microalgal growth, resulting in biomass increases of up to 2.79- and 3.45-fold for C. homosphaera and S. platensis LEB 52, respectively. Spirulina presented better characteristics than Chlorella with regard to the capacities of growth and carbohydrate synthesis.

  4. Outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 in different geographic locations for evaluating its growth and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Cristiane Santos; da Silva Uebel, Lívia; Costa, Samantha Serra; Miranda, Andréa Lobo; de Morais, Etiele Greque; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Nunes, Itaciara Larroza; de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated whether outdoor cultivation of Spirulina sp. in different geographical locations affected its growth and biomass quality, with respect to the chemical composition, volatile compound and heavy metal content, and thermal stability. The positive effect of solar radiation and temperature on biomass productivity in Spirulina sp. cultivated in the northeast was directly related to its improved nutritional characteristics, which occurred with an increase in protein, phycocyanin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (mainly γ-linolenic) content. The biomass produced in Northeast and South Brazil showed high thermal stability and had volatile compounds that could be used as biomarkers of Spirulina, and their parameters were within the limits of internationally recognized standards for food additives; hence, they have been considered safe foods. However, the growth of crops in south Brazil occurred at lower rates due to low temperatures and luminous intensities, indicative of the robustness of microalgae in relation to these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  6. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  7. Preclinical antitoxic properties of Spirulina (Arthrospira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galero, Elizdath; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Perez-Juarez, Angélica; Fabila-Castillo, Luis; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Chamorro, German

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira) exerts a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities which are mainly attributed to its antioxidant effect. However, Spirulina has also been reported (both in preclinical and in clinical scenarios) to exhibit other bioactive effects, including an antitoxic potential. We performed a systematic review of the literature, conducted in TOXNET, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Science Direct-Scopus; all available years were included. Searching criteria included the effects of Spirulina on experimental poisonings from arsenic, cadmium, carbon tetrachloride, deltamethrin, fluoride, hexachlorocyclohexane, iron, lead, lindane, and mercury. In all cases, it was established that the blue-green alga, and its isolated compounds, effectively counteracted these pollutants toxic effects on the exposed organisms. Some molecular mechanisms are proposed, although they have not been fully elucidated yet. Spirulina could be a useful coadjuvant agent within clinical practice for treatment of these or other pollutants poisonings.

  8. Biossorção passiva de cromo (VI através da microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinei Dal Magro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents containing toxic metals are dangerous and more economical, efficient and environmentally friendly treatments must be studied, with the biosorption process with microbial biomass constituting an efficient solution. Thus, the ability of Spirulina platensis biomass for removing chromium (VI using passive and active biosorption was evaluated. Inactive microalgae biomass and synthetic solution containing chromium (VI were used to evaluate important factors in the process and biomass biosorption ability. Results of the experiments showed that microalgae have potential for biosorption of chromium (VI, attaining removal of 100.39 mg g-1, and that pH was the variable with the greatest influence on the process.

  9. Antioxidant properties of Spirulina (Arthospira platensis cultivated under different temperatures and nitrogen regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to investigate the effects of temperature and nitrogen concentration on the antioxidant potential of extracts from Spirulina (Arthospira platensis biomass. S. platensis biomass obtained at 35ºC and with 1.875 g.L-1 or 2.5 g.L-1 of sodium nitrate in the culture medium presented higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of biomass on the enzymatic browning caused by peroxidase were 29 and 35%, respectively, being the reduction related to the amount of phenolic compounds present in this extract.A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido comercializada e estudada devido as suas propriedades nutricionais e terapêuticas no tratamento de doenças como o câncer, a hipercolesterolemia e a aterosclerose. Determinados compostos presentes na Spirulina, como os compostos fenólicos, a ficocianina e o tocoferol, podem apresentar atividade antioxidante. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de cultivo e da concentração de nitrogênio no meio de cultivo, sobre o potencial antioxidante da microalga Spirulina (Arthospira platensis. Quando a microalga foi cultivada a 35ºC e concentrações de nitrato de sódio de 1,875 g.L-1 ou 2,5 g.L-1, o potencial antioxidante dos extratos obtidos a partir da biomassa, sobre o escurecimento enzimático causado pela peroxidase, foi de 29% e 35%, respectivamente, sendo a redução no escurecimento relacionada com as quantidades de compostos fenólicos presentes nos extratos.

  10. Influence of aeration and lighting on biomass production and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence aeration and light intensity could have on biomass production and protein biosynthesis in a Spirulina sp. isolated from an oil-polluted brackish water marsh is examined. Biomass, proximal composition and amino acid composition obtained from aerated cultures of the organism were compared with ...

  11. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Dotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium experimental data (R²>0.99 and ARE<5.0% and the maximum biosorption capacities were 363.2 and 468.7 mg g-1 for tartrazine and allura red, respectively, obtained at 298 K. The negative values of ΔG and ΔH showed that the biosorption of both dyes was spontaneous, favorable and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS suggested that the system disorder increases during the biosorption process.

  12. An optical-density-based feedback feeding method for ammonium concentration control in Spirulina platensis cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yilu; Wen, Shumei; Cong, Wei; Wu, Xia; Ning, Zhengxiang

    2012-07-01

    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis using ammonium salts or wastewater containing ammonium as alternative nitrogen sources is considered as a commercial way to reduce the production cost. In this research, by analyzing the relationship between biomass production and ammonium- N consumption in the fed-batch culture of Spirulina platensis using ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen nutrient source, an online adaptive control strategy based on optical density (OD) measurements for controlling ammonium feeding was presented. The ammonium concentration was successfully controlled between the cell growth inhibitory and limiting concentrations using this OD-based feedback feeding method. As a result, the maximum biomass concentration (2.98 g/l), productivity (0.237 g/l·d), nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor (7.32 gX/gN), and contents of protein (64.1%) and chlorophyll (13.4 mg/g) obtained by using the OD-based feedback feeding method were higher than those using the constant and variable feeding methods. The OD-based feedback feeding method could be recognized as an applicable way to control ammonium feeding and a benefit for Spirulina platensis cultivations.

  13. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  14. Potential of Live Spirulina platensis on Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium and Its Conversion to Trivalent Chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Luciane Maria; Dal'Magro, Clinei; De Rossi, Andreia; Thomé, Antônio; Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalga biomass has been described worldwide according their capacity to realize biosorption of toxic metals. Chromium is one of the most toxic metals that could contaminate superficial and underground water. Considering the importance of Spirulina biomass in production of supplements for humans and for animal feed we assessed the biosorption of hexavalent chromium by living Spirulina platensis and its capacity to convert hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, less toxic, through its metabolism during growth. The active biomass was grown in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% with distilled water, keeping the experiments under controlled conditions of aeration, temperature of 30°C and lighting of 1,800 lux. Hexavalent chromium was added using a potassium dichromate solution in fed-batch mode with the aim of evaluate the effect of several additions contaminant in the kinetic parameters of the culture. Cell growth was affected by the presence of chromium added at the beginning of cultures, and the best growth rates were obtained at lower metal concentrations in the medium. The biomass removed until 65.2% of hexavalent chromium added to the media, being 90.4% converted into trivalent chromium in the media and 9.6% retained in the biomass as trivalent chromium (0.931 mg.g(-1)).

  15. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultivo da microalga spirulina platensis em fontes alternativas de nutrientes Culture of microalga Spirulina platensis in alternative sources of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele da Rosa Andrade

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil gera cerca de 18 milhões de toneladas de melaço por ano, com aproximadamente 50% de açúcares e carece de maior quantidade de alimentos que auxiliem no combate à desnutrição. Spirulina platensis é uma microalga que pode conter 74% de proteínas e, embora seja um microrganismo autotrófico, a complementação do meio de cultivo com carbono orgânico pode estimular seu crescimento. S. platensis foi cultivada em modo autotrófico com bicarbonato de sódio, e mixotrófico com 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 g.L-1 de melaço em pó (MEP ou melaço líquido (MEL. A presença de MEL ou MEP resultou em crescimento por, no mínimo 35 dias, e melhores parâmetros de crescimento que os cultivos autotróficos que cresceram durante 30 dias. Utilizando ME P 0,25 g.L-1 a maior concentração de biomassa foi 2,59 g.L-1 e produtividade 0,066 g.L-1.dia-1, enquanto cultivos autotróficos alcançaram 1,44 g.L-1 e 0,045 g.L-1.dia-1. A máxima concentração de biomassa (2,83 g.L-1 e produtividade (0,098 g.L-1.dia-1 foram obtidas em MEL 0,50 g.L-1. Os resultados demonstram que o potencial brasileiro de produção de melaço pode ser explorado também para obtenção de altas concentrações de biomassa no cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis.Brazil produces approximately 18,000,000 tons of molasses per year, containing 50% of sugars. This country needs more food help for the malnourishment disease. Spirulina platensis is a microalga that contains up to 74% proteins. It grows photoautotrophically, but the medium complementation with organic carbon may stimulate its growth. S. platensis was grown autotrophically and mixotrofically with 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 g.L-1 of powder molasses (MEP or liquid molasses (MEL. Cultures with MEL or MEP have grown for more long time (minimum 35 days and have reached higher biomass concentration and productivity than autotrophic one, that grew during 30 days. Cultures with MEP 0.25 g.L-1 have reached biomass concentration

  17. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given.

  18. NUTRITIONAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SPIRULINA (ARTHROSPIRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Fabila-Castillo, Luis; Chamorro-Cevallos, German

    2015-07-01

    Undernutrition constitutes a public health problem particularly in developing countries. The utilization of algae, particularly Spirulina, as a functional food was suggested decades ago due to the fact that it is not only a protein-dense food source, but because its amino acid profile is considered as of high biologic-value protein content. Spirulina provides essential fats (e.g., gamma-linolenic oleic acids), concomitant to low content nucleic acids. It also has an exceptionally high content of vitamin B12, is a good source of beta-carotene, iron, calcium and phosphorous. Moreover, Spirulina has also proven to have good acceptance as of its organoleptic properties (thus making it a possible prospect for food or a nutrition supplement) and it has not exhibited neither acute nor chronic toxicities, making it safe for human consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  20. Thermal and photo-stability of the antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, L M; Bertol, C D; Ferreira, D J; Bavaresco, J; Costa, J A V; Bertolin, T E

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the thermal and photo stability of the antioxidant potential (AP) of the Spirulina platensis biomass. Thermal stability was established at 25ºC, 40ºC and 50ºC for 60 days, in the dark, protected from light. Photo stability was evaluated using UV (15 W, λ = 265 nm) and fluorescent (20 W, 0.16 A, power factor FP > 0.5, 50/60 Hz, 60 lm/w, 1200 lm) light for 90 days in capsules, glass and Petri dishes, at room temperature. The AP of the biomass in these conditions was determined at intervals (every 7 and 30 days in the studies of thermal and photo stability, respectively) using the induction of the oxidation of a lipid system by heat and aeration. In this lipid system, the biomass submitted to degradation was used as an antioxidant. The kinetics of the reaction was determined by the Arrhenius method. Thermal degradation was found to follow zero order kinetics, whereas photo degradation followed first order kinetics. The AP decreased 50% after 50 days at 25°C. At 40°C and 50°C, the AP decreased more than 50% after 35 and 21 days of exposition, respectively. The decrease of the AP of Spirulina was more sensible to UV and fluorescence light. After 30 days of exposition, the AP decreased more than 50% in all storage conditions tested. The antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis is easily degraded when the biomass is exposed to heat and light, indicating the need for care to be taken in its storage.

  1. Biosorption of lead ions by cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinicovscaia Inga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of dry Spirulina platensis biomass to remove lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated. Effects of various parameters such as contact time, temperature, dosage of biosorbent, initial pH, and initial concentration of lead were investigated in the batch adsorption mode. The highest lead removal of 5.7 mg/g was obtained at pH 5, biomass dosage of 0.5 g, initial lead concentration of 60 mg/L. The Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the experimental data (R2 > 0.99, while the kinetic data was best described using the pseudo second-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.99. FTIR spectra indicated that the metal removal takes place through binding to OH, C=O and P=O groups. Lead was efficiently recovered from biomass by mineral acids, while using CH3COOH and NaOH as eluents the biomass maintained high biosorption capacity during three cycles. This study demonstrates the potential of using Spirulina platensis as biosorbent to remove lead from industrial wastewater.

  2. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) evaluated with broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga,Renata Ribeiro; Rodrigues,Paulo Borges; Cantarelli,Vinícius de Souza; Zangeronimo,Márcio Gilberto; Silva Júnior,José Walter da; Silva,Leonardo Rafael da; Santos,Luziane Moreira dos; Pereira,Luciano José

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis), the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metab...

  3. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  4. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  5. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  6. EQUILIBRIUM MODELLING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES FOR THE BIOSORPTION OF ZN+2 IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING IMMOBILIZED SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gaur ، R. Dehankhar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium of zinc ions to Spirulina platensis both in free and immobilized forms were studied in batch system with respect to pH, metal ion concentration, algal dosages and time. The maximum adsorption was observed at pH=8, optimum metal ion concentration and algal dose were 100 mg/L and 1g/100mL, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes. The maximum attainable biosorption was found to be 97.1% for Spirulina platensis. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of adsorbents used for zinc ions were measured and extrapolated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with experimental data. The maximum Langmuir constants Q◦ (mg/g and b were 92.93 and 0.0012, respectively for Spirulina platensis embedded in calcium alginate matrix. The immobilized Spirulina platensis in calcium of alginate matrix was the best biosorbent. 0.1 M EDTA was used as an eluant, which allowed the reuse of biomass in three biosorption-desorption cycles without considerable loss in biosorption capacity. 89-95 % zinc ions were desorbed with EDTA. The functional groups involved in zinc biosorption were identified by using Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of algae revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino, amide and imine groups, which were responsible for biosorption of zinc ions.

  7. Phycocyanin extraction in Spirulina produced using agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, N.; Religia, P.; Mulyani, G.; Suryana, D.; Ichsan; Tanjung, F. A.; Arifin, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex synthesized by blue-green microalgae such as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. This pigment is used mainly as natural colouring in food industry. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of this natural pigment. The price of phycocyanin is a vital factor that dictates its marketability. The cost of culturing the algae, particularly from the substrate used for growth, is one of the main factors that determine the price of phycocyanin. Another important factor is the growth yield of the algae. In our research, agricultural waste such as charcoal produced from rice husk was utilized for the algae cultivation to replace the synthetic chemicals such as urea and triple superphosphate used the mineral medium. The use of this low cost substrate increases the cell concentration by 60 % during 8 days’ cultivation to reach 0.39 g/l. The phycocyanin extraction was performed using water at the different biomass-to-solvent ratio and shaking rates. The phycocyanin concentration and purity (A615/A280) obtained were 1.2 g/l and 0.3. These values are 40 % and 20 % lower than the value obtained from the algae produced using the synthetic chemicals. Further purification produced the extract purity required for food grade. The biomass-solvent ratio does not significantly affect the extract purity; however, the higher shaking rate during extraction reduces the purity. This finding demonstrates the potential of using rice husk as an alternative substrate to cultivate algae for phycocyanin extraction.

  8. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  9. Spirulina protects against rosiglitazone induced osteoporosis in insulin resistance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Hrishikeshvan, H J; Sehajpal, Prabodh K

    2010-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis extract against Rosiglitazone induced osteoporosis and pharmacodynamic effects of Rosiglitazone with Spirulina in treating hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia of insulin resistance rat. For this aim, 30 Wistar albino rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetes mellitus+Rosiglitazone (DM+R), diabetes mellitus+Spirulina (DM+S), and diabetes mellitus+Rosiglitazone+Spirulina (DM+R+S). Serum glucose, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and insulin concentrations were estimated by routine standard methods in blood samples collected on 21th day. Integrity of the bone surface was examined by scanning electronic microscopy, and bone strength was measured by micro-hardness test on 45th day. A significant decrease in total bone mineral density was observed in group DM+R rats (pSpirulina administration. The intactness and integrity of the bone surface as well as the bone strength improved due to the high content of calcium and phosphorous in Spirulina. Besides, chromium and gamma-linoleic acid in Spirulina helped to decrease the fasting serum glucose, HDL, LDL and triglycerides levels in insulin resistance rats. These findings suggest that combination therapy of Rosiglitazone with Spirulina reduced the risk of osteoporosis in insulin resistance rats. Additionally, Spirulina complemented the antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic activity of Rosiglitazone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic fields as triggers of microalga growth: evaluation of its effect on Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the influence of magnetic field on the growth and biomass composition of Spirulina sp., cultivated in vertical tubular photobioreactors. Magnetic fields of 5, 30 and 60mT generated by electric current and ferrite magnets were applied at different lengths of time. The magnetic field of 30 and 60mT for 1hd(-1) stimulated the growth, thus leading to higher biomass concentration by comparison with the control culture. Increase in productivity, protein and carbohydrate contents were 105.1% (60mT for 1hd(-1)), 16.6% (60mT for 24hd(-1)) and 133.2% (30mT for 24hd(-1)), respectively. These values were higher than the ones of the control. Results showed that magnetic field may influence the growth of Spirulina sp., since it triggers a stimulating effect and can leads to twofold biomass concentration in equal cultivation time periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  12. Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartsch, Peter C

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes.

  13. Novel Food Supplements Formulated With Spirulina To Meet Athletes’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Fernandes de Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The food, training, and health are crucial for a good performance in sports. Intense physical activity takes the athlete to maintain a very unstable balance between energy demand and consumption of nutrients. Spirulina microalga has a nutritional profile that renders it an ideal food supplement, because has high protein content, also contains vitamins, minerals, and pigments. In this context, the study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the stability of foods enhanced with Spirulina, which are intended for athletes. In this study, six different supplements were developed (electrolyte replenisher, muscle enhancer, and recovery supplement, without and with Spirulina. The electrolyte replenisher with Spirulina compared to the product without the microalga, showed an increase of 0.35% (w/w in mineral content. The carbohydrates content of the developed recovery supplement with Spirulina was 2% (w/w higher than the muscle enhancer without Spirulina. It was not observed increased in the nutritional content of muscle recovery when added Spirulina. However, it is known that Spirulina presents active compounds with important functions for the body. Thus, the composition of the foods satisfied the nutritional needs of athletes. Regarding the stability of developed foods, the shelf life was estimated between 9 and 11 months.

  14. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  15. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  16. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  17. Potential application of microalga Spirulina platensis as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Anne Luize; Colla, Luciane Maria; Canan, Cristiane; Colla, Eliane

    2017-02-01

    The high protein level of various microalgal species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. Spirulina platensis stands out for being one of the richest protein sources of microbial origin (460-630 g kg -1 , dry matter basis), having similar protein levels when compared to meat and soybeans. The use of S. platensis in food can bring benefits to human health owing to its chemical composition, since it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids and pigments. Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. In this sense, extraction processes that allow maximum protein yield and total utilization of biomass is an urgent need, and ultrasonic waves have proven to be an effective extraction technique. The number of scientific papers related to protein fraction from S. platensis is still limited; thus further studies on its functional and technological properties are needed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. PHOTODEGRADATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLL a FROM SPIRULINA (Spirulina sp. POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Christiana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on chlorophyll a from Spirulina (Spirulina sp. powder has been done in order to determine chlorophyll a content, to compare degradation pattern and kinetics degradation of chlorophyll a and crude extract as well as to investigate the difference of antioxidant activity of chlorophyll a with or without irradiation. Chlorophyll a content in spirulina powder was calculated by using Porra's equation. Irradiation and recovery ability of chlorophyll a were measured by using volpi light (Intralux 6100 equipped with daylight filter. The antioxidant activity of chlorophyll a was determined by using DPPH method. The results showed that chlorophyll a content was 2.886 μg/g dry weight. Chlorophyll a has the higher stability than crude extract against 60 minutes irradiation at room temperature. Kinetics degradation of chlorophyll a was based on second order while crude extract based on first order. Chlorophyll a and crude extract have recovery ability. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of chlorophyll a was increased after 60 minutes of irradiation.   Keywords: antioxidant activity, chlorophyll a, photodegradation, spirulina powder

  19. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  20. Impact of natural light on growth and biopigment profile of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Manoj; Ali, Mohammad Irfan; Saran, Suman; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are economically important microorganisms and good source of natural pigments such as chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilliproteins. The present research work showed the optimum combination of photophase and scotophase of Spirulina platensis on biomass and chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, and phycoerythrin contents. The study revealed that among all six light conditions tested, the cultures placed at west facing window, receiving natural day light at temperature 30°C showed extremely significant higher biomass (O.D. 3.46 ± 0.17%) and biopigment accumulation Chlorophyll a 8.94 ± 0.43%, Carotenoid 1.62 ± 0.18%, phycocyanin 2.26 ± 0.14%, allophycocyanin 2.66 ± 0.18% and phycoerythrin 1.32 ± 0.31% as compared to the standard (Full day natural light), which might be beneficial for large scale production of biopigment.

  1. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  2. Biosynthesis of stable isotope 15N labeled spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zheng; Du Xiaoning; Hou Jinghua; Zhang Jingmei

    2010-01-01

    The spirulina is a phototrophic organism. It was considered as the best of nutritional health product. The nitrogen atoms of spirulina was replaced with 15 N stable isotope by the method of biosynthesis. So 15 N labeled spirulina is a nutritional health product and stable isotope tracer product. As a tracer, 15 N labeled spirulina plays an irreplaceable part in bioscience, medicine metabolism and pathology metabolism and so on. 15 N label spirulina is cultivated only in a small scale because of expensive 15 N material. The culture temperature, shine intensity, pH for spirulina were studied. Some feasible conditions were obtained such as 25℃, 3000-4000 lux, initial pH9.0 in the room. 15 N label spirulin prescription was obtained via orthogonal experiment. The optimize prescription of spirulina was that sodium bicarbonate was 13 g · L-1, 15 N-urea was 0.2 g · L -1 , potassium phosphate dibasic was 0.6 g · L -1 , and glucose was 2 g · L -1 . The cost of 15 N material has a significant reduction. The abundance was more than 98%. (authors)

  3. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  5. Spirulina is an effective dietary source of zeaxanthin to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bolan; Wang, Jie; Suter, Paolo M; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A; Wang, Yin; Wang, Zhixu; Yin, Shian; Tang, Guangwen

    2012-08-01

    Zeaxanthin is a predominant xanthophyll in human eyes and may reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Spirulina is an algal food that contains a high concentration of zeaxanthin. In order to determine the zeaxanthin bioavailability of spirulina for dietary supplementation in humans, spirulina was grown in nutrient solution with ²H₂O for carotenoid labelling. Single servings of ²H-labelled spirulina (4.0-5.0 g) containing 2.6-3.7 mg zeaxanthin were consumed by fourteen healthy male volunteers (four Americans and ten Chinese) with 12 g dietary fat. Blood samples were collected over a 45 d period. The serum concentrations of total zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC, and the enrichment of labelled zeaxanthin was determined using LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS (LC-APCI-MS). The results showed that intrinsically labelled spirulina zeaxanthin in the circulation was detected at levels as low as 10 % of the total zeaxanthin for up to 45 d after intake of the algae. A single dose of spirulina can increase mean serum zeaxanthin concentration in humans from 0.06 to 0.15 μmol/l, as shown in our study involving American and Chinese volunteers. The average 15 d area under the serum zeaxanthin response curve to the single dose of spirulina was 293 nmol × d/μmol (range 254-335) in American subjects, and 197 nmol × d/μmol (range 154-285) in Chinese subjects. It is concluded that the relative bioavailability of spirulina zeaxanthin can be studied with high sensitivity and specificity using ²H labelling and LC-APCI-MS methodology. Spirulina can serve as a rich source of dietary zeaxanthin in humans.

  6. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: mirela@infim.ro; Nemtanu, Monica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mazilu, Elena [Hofigal SA (Romania); Radulescu, Nora [Hofigal SA (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  7. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

    2005-10-01

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  8. Magnetic field action on outdoor and indoor cultures of Spirulina: Evaluation of growth, medium consumption and protein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether a magnetic field (MF) affects the growth of Spirulina sp. when applied to it at different exposure times in indoor and outdoor culture systems. The effects of MF on chlorophyll content, medium consumption and protein profile were also investigated. In raceway tanks, a 25 mT MF was applied for 24 h or for 1 h d -1 . MF for 24 h to outdoor assays increased biomass concentration and chlorophyll-a content besides altering the protein profile. Outdoor Spirulina growth was higher (∼3.65 g L -1 ) than the growth found in indoor assays (∼1.80 g L -1 ), while nitrogen and phosphorus consumption was not enhanced by the application of MF. This is the first study that investigated the influence of MF on outdoor microalga assays, and the results showed that MF affected the metabolism of Spirulina cultured in raceways, especially when it was grown outdoors in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  10. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  11. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vannitsem

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space.

    Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.. Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km for summer (winter for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  12. Volatiles and fatty oil of Cucurbita maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Veličković, Dragan T.; Ristić, Mihailo S.; Karabegović, Ivana T.; Stojičević, Saša S.; Nikolić, Nada Č.; Lazić, Miodrag L.

    2015-01-01

    The subjects of this study are volatile fractions from the fruit, leaf and seed of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), as well as the oil extracted from the seeds of the above plant, with its fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. The isolation of volatiles was performed by the hydrodistillation process with the Clevenger type apparatus. Seed oil was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor using petroleum ether. The preparation of fatty acid methyl esters was performed according to the AOAC me...

  13. Hypolipidemic, Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Activities of Microalgae Spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Ruitang; Chow, Te-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Spirulina is free-floating filamentous microalgae growing in alkaline water bodies. With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer a...

  14. Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Karkos, P. D.; Leong, S. C.; Karkos, C. D.; Sivaji, N.; Assimakopoulos, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and sy...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SPIRULINA ON THE PHENYTOIN INDUCED HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Thaakur, Santh Rani; Pushpakumari, B.

    2007-01-01

    Phenytoin is indicated for tonic clonic seizures and status epilepticus. Phenytoin is known to deplete vital nutrients such as calcium, folic acid, vitamin D, vitamin K, biotin, carnitine, copper, selenium and zinc. Depletion of nutrients is known to cause adverse effects such as ataxia, nystagmus, lethargy, slurred speech and hematological disturbances. Spirulina is a rich source of vital nutrients including iron. It is proposed to study the effect of spirulina on the hematological disturban...

  16. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  17. Formulation of a low-cost medium for mass production of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoof, Basirath [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kaushik, B.D. [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)]. E-mail: bdkaushik@hotmail.com; Prasanna, Radha [Centre for Conservation and Utilization of Blue-Green Algae, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012 (India)

    2006-06-15

    A new medium was formulated for mass production of Spirulina sp. by incorporating selected nutrients of the standard Zarrouk's medium (SM) and other cost-effective alternative chemicals. This newly formulated medium (RM{sub 6}) contains single super phosphate (1.25 g l{sup -1}), sodium nitrate (2.50 g l{sup -1}), muriate of potash (0.98 g l{sup -1}), sodium chloride (0.5 g l{sup -1}), magnesium sulphate (0.15 g l{sup -1}), calcium chloride (0.04 g l{sup -1}), and sodium bicarbonate (commercial grade) 8 g l{sup -1}. The alga was grown in an illuminated (50 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1} white light) growth room at 30{+-}1 {sup o}C. Maximum growth rate in terms of dry biomass, chlorophyll and proteins in SM was recorded between 6 and 9 days of growth and values were 0.114, 0.003 and 0.068 as compared to 0.112, 0.003 and 0.069 mg ml{sup -1} d{sup -1} in RM{sub 6},. No significant differences were observed in the protein profiles of Spirulina sp. grown in both the media. From the scale up point of view, the revised medium was found to be highly economical, since it is five times cheaper than Zarrouk's medium.

  18. [Analysis of Spirulina powder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and calculation of protein content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Qun; Li, An; Zhao, Yue-Liang; Ha, Yi-Ming; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-04-01

    Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard were analyzed and identified by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The main components, protein (1 657 and 1 537 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1 069 and 1054 cm(-1)), had distinct fingerprint characteristics of IR spectra. By comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard, the dominant nutrition in Spirulina powder was identified as protein and carbohydrate. The dominant accessory added in Spirulina powder was dextrin. Comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina powder from 28 different factories and figuring out the correlation provides the information about the amount of accessory. A standard curve of the ratio of absorption peak intensities to protein content was constructed to accurately determine the amount of protein in Spirulina powder.

  19. Spirulina platensis protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Ali; Yildirim, Abdulkadir; Simsek, Nejdet; Kalkan, Yildiray; Celebi, Fikret

    2008-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Spirulina platensis (SP) on gentamicin sulphate (GS)-induced changes in the levels of lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidants in the kidney of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated in separate groups as follows for 7 consecutive days: control (C), gentamicin sulphate (100 mg/kg i.p.) (GS), Spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg orally) (SP) and Spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg orally) plus gentamicin sulphate (100 mg/kg i.p.) (SP + GS). The degree of protection was evaluated by determining the effects of Spirulina platensis on malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and nitric oxide (NO), and plasma creatinine and urea levels were estimated in kidney homogenates to evaluate antioxidant activity, and the kidney was histologically examined as well. Spirulina platensis elicited significant nephroprotective activity by decreasing lipid peroxidation (MDA) and elevated the levels of GSH, SOD, GPX, NO, creatinine and urea. Furthermore, these biochemical observations were supplemented by histological examination of the rat kidneys. In conclusion, the present study indicates a very important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the relation to renal dysfunction and point to the therapeutic potential of Spirulina platensis in gentamicin sulphate induced nephrotoxicity.

  20. Influence of spirulina on the phenytoin induced haematological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaakur, Santh Rani; Pushpakumari, B

    2007-01-01

    Phenytoin is indicated for tonic clonic seizures and status epilepticus. Phenytoin is known to deplete vital nutrients such as calcium, folic acid, vitamin D, vitamin K, biotin, carnitine, copper, selenium and zinc. Depletion of nutrients is known to cause adverse effects such as ataxia, nystagmus, lethargy, slurred speech and hematological disturbances. Spirulina is a rich source of vital nutrients including iron. It is proposed to study the effect of spirulina on the hematological disturbances induced by phenytoin. Seven groups of male albino rats weighing 130-150g were used. Each group consisted of six animals. Phenytoin at a dose of 20mg/kg/day dissolved in water, spirulina 50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day suspended in 1% tween 80 alone or in combination with phenytoin was administered for 30 days. Hemoglobin content, total leucocyte and erythrocyte count were determined on 30(th) day. Phenytoin significantly decreased the hemoglobin content, total erythrocyte and leukocyte count. Spirulina did not show any effect at the lower dose of 50 and 100mg/kg and higher dose of 200mg/ kg significantly elevated hemoglobin content. Spirulina at a dose of 200mg/kg/day in combination with phenytoin reversed the phenytoin induced decrease in hemoglobin content, total erythrocyte and leukocyte count. The results of this study indicates that supplementation of phenytoin with spirulina may reverse the hematological disturbances induced by phenytoin.

  1. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An advective mechanism for deep chlorophyll maxima formation in southern Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Zachary K.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Cassar, Nicolas; Sprintall, Janet; Mazloff, Matthew R.

    2016-10-01

    We observe surface and subsurface fluorescence-derived chlorophyll maxima in southern Drake Passage during austral summer. Backscatter measurements indicate that the deep chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are also deep biomass maxima, and euphotic depth estimates show that they lie below the euphotic layer. Subsurface, offshore and near-surface, onshore features lie along the same isopycnal, suggesting advective generation of DCMs. Temperature measurements indicate a warming of surface waters throughout austral summer, capping the winter water (WW) layer and increasing off-shelf stratification in this isopycnal layer. The outcrop position of the WW isopycnal layer shifts onshore, into a surface phytoplankton bloom. A lateral potential vorticity (PV) gradient develops, such that a down-gradient PV flux is consistent with offshore, along-isopycnal tracer transport. Model results are consistent with this mechanism. Subduction of chlorophyll and biomass along isopycnals represents a biological term not observed by surface satellite measurements which may contribute significantly to the strength of the biological pump in this region.

  3. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  4. Pengaruh Media Budidaya Menggunakan Air Laut dan Air Tawar terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Fungsional Biomassa Kering (Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitri Ekantari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a microalgae, easily cultivated and grows well in a low to high-level of salinity. Chemical contents in Spirulina can be influenced by the conditions of cultivation. Spirulina platensis sold in Indonesia is largerly cultured in marine water or fresh water medium. S. platensis can be used as a source of calcium because it has 700-1000 mg/100 g of dry biomass. This study aimed to determine the effect of sea water and fresh water cultivation medium on the chemical composition of S. platensis. Samples were determined the chemical composition included proximate analysis, mineral content of Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Phosphor (P, total glucose, starch, and dietary fiber. Functional properties were also determined i.e: solubility, water and oil binding capacities, emulsion and foam abilities. The results showed that  the content of ash and minerals (Ca, Mg, P of S. platensis cultivated in marine water was higher that of S. platensis cultivated in freshwater. This results suggested that S. platensis cultured in the sea water medium was potential as an alternative source of calcium (512,53 mg Ca/100 g with a ratio Ca-P = 1:1.79. The carbohydrate content was at least 28,41 %db (total sugars almost 0,09 %db, starch 6,9 %db and total dietary fiber 24,81 %db. The dietary fiber was dominated by insoluble dietary fiber (24,81 %db. Functional properties were affected by cultured medium. Spirulina platensis cultivated in marine water exhibited high capacity on Water and Oil Holding Capacities (WHC and OHC that were 4,46 ml/g and 2,35 ml/g, respectively. Water Solubility Index (WSI, foaming capacity, emulsion capacity were not affected by cultured media.   ABSTRAK Spirulina merupakan mikroalga, mudah dibudidayakan dan dapat hidup dalam tingkat salinitas yang rendah hingga tinggi. Kandungan kimia dalam Spirulina dapat dipengaruhi oleh media budidayanya. Di Indonesia Spirulina platensis yang beredar sebagian merupakan hasil budidaya dari berbagai

  5. Modeling of chromium (VI) biosorption by immobilized Spirulina platensis in packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Jyoti, K K; Lele, S S

    2009-10-30

    This study describes biosorption of chromium (VI) by immobilized Spirulina platensis, in calcium alginate beads. Three aspects viz. optimization of bead parameters, equilibrium conditions and packed column operation were studied and subsequently modeled. Under optimized bead diameter (2.6mm), calcium alginate concentration (2%, w/v) and biomass loading (2.6%, w/v) maximum biosorption was achieved. 140 g l(-1) loading of optimized beads resulted in 99% adsorption of chromium (VI) ions from an aqueous solution containing 100 mg l(-1) of chromium (VI). The quantitative chromium (VI) uptake was effectively described by Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The immobilized S. platensis beads were further used in a packed bed column wherein the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, inlet chromium (VI) ion concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough time. The performance data were tested for various models fitting in order to predict scale up-design parameters such as breakthrough time and column height. Results were encouraging.

  6. Influence of carbon-dioxide on the growth of Spirulina sp. (MCRC-A0003) isolated from Muttukadu backwaters, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M; Ranjith Kumar, R; Shashirekha, V; Seshadri, S

    2014-10-01

    Growth of Spirulina sp. (MCRC-A0003), a cyanobacterium, was evaluated under different concentrations of carbon-dioxide (CO2) (4-50 %) in a closed glass photobioreactor. Although significant CO2 utilization by the cyanobacterial strain was observed up to 50 % concentration, complete utilization was observed only at 4, 10 and 20 % concentrations on 3rd, 6th and 8th day respectively. However, considerable reduction was witnessed in reactors containing 30-50 % CO2 only between 6th and 9th day. A corresponding increase in the biomass and primary metabolites like chlorophyll-a, carbohydrate and protein were observed. Biomass productivity of Spirulina in reactors sparged with 4, 10 and 20 % CO2 were 13.7, 43 and 44 % more than that in control reactor without CO2. While CO2 increased the levels of primary metabolites in the cyanobacterial cells, it was quite prominent in 10 % CO2 concentration with the chlorophyll-a, carbohydrate and protein contents were 64, 183 and 626 mg g(-1) respectively. While 10 and 6.6 % increase were noticed in chlorophyll-a and protein, 17 % increase in carbohydrate levels was observed in Spirulina cells, which could be attributed to the conversion of CO2 to carbohydrate by the cyanobacterium.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Extraction on Production and Structural Changes of C-Phycocyanin from Marine Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Yong Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work first showed that very high amounts of phycocyanins, such as 11.3 mg/mL C-phycocyanin (C-PC, 3.1 mg/mL allophycocyanin (APC, and 0.8 mg/mL phycoerythrin (PE, can be obtained using an ultrasonic extraction process (UE with a 60 kHz frequency and 3 h of process time at 25 °C, without any other pretreatments. These yields were higher than those from most conventional water extractions at 4 °C for 24 h (Control condition or at 25 °C for 24 h (WE, namely, 9.8 and 5.7 mg/mL C-PC, 2.3 and 1.2 mg/mL APC, and 0.7 and 0.3 mg/mL PE, respectively. These yields were also shown to be even higher than yields from other reported data. Structural changes in C-PC in the extracts were also found for the first time, according to extraction conditions, showing that the total concentration of C-PC and of the α-subunit of C-PC in the UE were much higher than in the WE, with little difference in the amount of β-subunit of C-PC in the UE or WE. It was also shown that the structural changes in C-PC in the WE decreased both antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities—29.83% vs. 32.09% of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity and 8.21 vs. 7.25 µM of NO production for the WE and UE, respectively—while the UE, with similar patterns to standard C-PC, showed very high biological effects, which may suggest that the biologically active part is the α-subunit of C-PC, not the β-subunit.

  8. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  9. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  10. Donepezil-induced response of Spirulina supplemented rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullahoglu-Atalik, K E; Okudan, N; Gokbel, H; Nurullahoglu, Z U

    2013-01-01

    At present, very little is known about the effects of donepezil on vascular reactivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the responses of rat urinary bladder to donepezil (10-10-3x10-4 M) and the role of Spirulina supplementation in these effects. Animals were divided into the two groups of six animals in each group. The first group received only distilled water daily as vehicle for six weeks and served as the control. The second group received Spirulina 750 mg kg -1 orally, daily for six weeks and served as the spirulina group. Preparations of rat urinary bladder were used from both groups. Donepezil produced concentration dependent relaxation of rat urinary bladder preparations pre-contracted with KCl.The pIC50 value, but not the maximal response of donepezil, was significantly lower (pSpirulina supplemented group. These results demonstrated for the first time that spirulina treatment can affect urinary bladder activity (Fig. 1, Ref. 20).

  11. Nanoencapsulation of the Bioactive Compounds of Spirulina with a Microalgal Biopolymer Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greque de Morais, Michele; Greque de Morais, Etiele; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; Gonçalves, Carolina Ferrer; Lisboa, Cristiane; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have been studied in biotechnological processes due to the various biocompounds that can be obtained from their biomasses, including pigments, proteins, antioxidants, biopeptides, fatty acids and biopolymers. Microalgae biopolymers are biodegradable materials that present similar characteristics to traditional polymers, with the advantage of being rapidly degraded when discarded. In addition, nanoencapsulation is capable of increasing the availability of bioactive compounds by allowing the release of these biocompounds to occur slowly over time. The use of polymers in the nanoencapsulation of active ingredients can mask the undesired physicochemical properties of the compounds to be encapsulated, thereby enhancing consumer acceptability. This covering also acts as a barrier against several foreign substances that can react with bioactive compounds and reduce their activity. Studies of the development of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanocapsules from microbial sources are little explored; this review addresses the use of nanotechnology to obtain bioactive compounds coated with biopolymer nanocapsules, both obtained from Spirulina biomasses. These microalgae are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) certified, which guarantees that the biomass can be used to obtain high added value biocompounds, which can be used in human and animal supplementation.

  12. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  13. Effect of germanium dioxide on growth of Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang

    1996-12-01

    This study on the effect of different concentrations of germanium dioxide (GeO2) on the specific growth rate (SGR), pigment contents, protein content and amino acid composition of Spirulina platensis showed that Ge was not the essential element of this alga; that GeO2 could speed up growth and raise protein content of S. platensis, and could possibly influence the photosynthesis system. The concentration range of GeO2 beneficial to growth of S. platensis is from 5 100mg/l. GeO2 is proposed to be utilized to remove contamination by Chlorella spp. usually occurring in the cultivation of Spirulina.

  14. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  15. Spirulina platensis effects on atherogenesis in mouse model of atherosclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a single cell blue-green algae of Cyanobacteria strain. Spirulina belongs among foodstuffs with the highest protein content and contains all essential amino-acids. It is also a source of some non essential amino-acids, important nutrients as for example gamma linol acid, a lot of vitamins (B1, B2, B6, biotin, etc.) and trace elements (e.g. selenium, chrome, iron, calcium). Moreover it contains natural pigments carotenoids, chlorophyll and phycocyanin. The aim of this th...

  16. Maxima krabab uute supermarketite abil turgu / Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 18. juuli lk. 5. 2007. aasta esimese kuue kuu ligi 60 protsendiline käibe kasv annab Leedu poekett Maxima tegevjuhile lootust 4-5 aasta pärast tõusta Eesti kaubandusturu liidripositsioonile. Diagramm: Maxima sai tuule tiibadesse. Lisa: Number

  17. The role of reproduction in Glyceria maxima invasion | Mugwedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glyceria maxima (Poaceae) is regarded as one of the most invasive grasses worldwide, but has only recently become naturalised in South Africa after its intentional introduction as a fodder crop in the 1940s. It invades seasonally inundated habitats. The primary reproduction mode of G. maxima within established ...

  18. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  19. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Bermejo, V.; Muntifering, R.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.; Gimeno, B.S.; Elvira, S.; Alonso, R.

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O 3 and three N levels. Increased O 3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O 3 -induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: → Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. → The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. → Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O 3 -induced increase in senescence biomass. → Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  20. SINTEZA ORIENTATĂ A POLIZAHARIDELOR ACIDE LA CIANOBACTERIA SPIRULINA PLATENSIS CNM CB-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BULIMAGA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available  Cultivarea cianobacteriei Spirulina platensis CNM CB-02 în două etape cu adaos de NaCl (0,25 şi 0,50 M la a 2-a etapă de cultivare, fără a varia regimul de iluminare, sporeşte conţinutul de polizaharide sulfatate în biomasă cu 29 şi, respectiv, 31,3%, comparativ cu proba de referinţă (fără NaCl. În acest caz n-a fost observat un efect evident al acestei sări asupra conţinutului total de polizaharide acide. Majorarea intensităţii de iluminare (până la 5500 lx şi supli­men­tarea cu NaCl (0,25 M la a 2-a etapă de cultivare a asigurat un spor cu 23,45% al conţinutului total de polizaharide acide, com­parativ cu conţinutul acestora în proba de referinţă (cultivată la 3500 lx. Adăugarea CuSO4·5H2O (1-4 mg/l nu a exer­citat un efect semnificativ asupra conţinutului de polizaharide acide şi sulfatate în biomasa de spirulină, însă a stimulat considerabil producerea de exopolizaharide acide (până la 238,3 g/kg la 5500 lx.ACIDIC POLYSACCHARIDES DIRECTED SYNTHESIS AT CYANOBACTERIA SPIRULINA PLATENSIS CNM CB-02Two-stage cultivation of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis CNM CB-02 with NaCl (0,25 and 0,50 M supple­men­tation on the second stage of cultivation, without varying of the lighting regime ensured an increasing of the content of sulfated polysaccharides in biomass by 29 and 31,3%, respectively, compared to the reference sample (without NaCl. It wasn’t found an evident effect of NaCl on the total content of acidic polysaccharides in this case. Light intensity increasing (up to 5500 lx with NaCl (0,25 M supplementation ensured the increasing of the acidic polysaccharides content with 23,45%, compared to the reference sample (cultivated at 3500lx. CuSO4·5H2O (1-4 mg/l hadn’t a significant effect on the content of acidic and sulfated polysaccharides in spirulina biomass, but considerably stimulated acidic exopoly­saccharides production (up to238,3 g / kg at 5500 lx.

  1. Factors affecting the output rate of Spirulina platensis with reference to mass cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, A.; Grobbelaar, J.U.

    1986-01-01

    The disappointingly low yields of Spirulina cultivated in large commercial-scale reactors prompted our attempt to elucidate some of the reasons for this phenomenon. The results show the importance of maintaining the pH as high as possible, at a point, however, where it does not yet limit growth. To check the growth of contaminating algae, such as Chlorella spp., the pH was elevated to a point higher than the optimal for Spirulina. Close to pH 11.0, signs of deterioration became evident, but the culture recuperated readily when the pH was lowered back to the optimum (pH 10.5). The depth of the culture had no effect on the maximal areal output of dry biomass, but exerted a very marked effect on the optimal population density. At slow stirring speeds (58 cm s per day) there was a substantial reduction in the output rate at high population densities. Similar results were obtained at high stirring rates, but the effect was much reduced and was only observed at the highest cell densities. The chlorophyll:phaeophytin ratio altered significantly throughout the year, being highest in mid-winter and declining in summer. A practical conclusion was that there is a clear advantage in operating the slow flowing cultures in large reactors at as shallow a culture depth as practically possible. This increases the optimal cell density to a level that may be easier to harvest and maintain in large-scale reactors. The inefficiency of harvesting large volumes of low cell densities has led to the general practice of allowing cell densities to increase far above the optimum.

  2. The radioactivity of spirulina and its heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantariandraintsoa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is one of the three classes of algae that have the ability to accumulate contaminants from the environment in which they live. The main aim of this work is to study the radioactive contamination of Spirulina using gamma spectrometry and to determine its content of heavy elements using the technique of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Use of detector and Gamma Vision software, in the laboratory of nuclear analysis of the I nstitut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires -Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar), allowed us to find some amount of radioactive elements such as potassium, lead, thallium and bismuth. The elements found in the laboratory of X-ray fluorescence analysis, of the same institute, using the conventional method along with the XRF AXIL software are calcium, iron, magnesium, bromine, rubidium and strontium as well as heavy elements zinc and copper. Spirulina is rich in potassium, its activity is 98±56 Bq.Kg -1 and the average concentration of the radioactive element is 16.2 g.Kg -1 . Analysis results leads us to say that it is best to consume spirulina from well secured against pollution (greenhouse) culture and we can say that we need to improve crops in natural environments. [fr

  3. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  4. Spirulina (Arthrospira): An Important Source of Nutritional and Medicinal Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhu, Abdulmumin A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. While many species, such as Anabaena sp., produce hepatotoxins (e.g., microcystins and nodularins) and neurotoxins (such as anatoxin a), Spirulina (Arthrospira) displays anticancer and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral) activities via the production of phycocyanin, phycocyanobilin, allophycocyanin,...

  5. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  6. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis, a blue green microalga, has been used since ancient times as a source of food because of its high protein content (65%) and nutritional value. Lipids isolated from S. platensis have been shown to contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linolenic acid which is a precursor of ...

  7. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  8. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and urea into chicken manure medium. Hilal Kargin Yilmaz1* and Özlem Sezgin2. 1Faculty of Fisheries, University of Mersin, Mersin, Turkey ...

  9. Protective effects of Spirulina on the liver function and hyperlipidemia of rats and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheekh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of Spirulina on subchronic treatments (two weeks of hyperlipidemia and liver function of the rats and humans were investigated. The hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats using 25% of soya bean oil and 25% butter. The butter induced more hyperlipidemia than soya bean oil. Spirulina was used at the concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % of diet weight of the rats. The decrease in hyperlipidemia by Spirulina was dependent on its concentration in the diet. In case of human studies, about four g/day of Spirulina was taken via oral administration by Egyptian volunteers patients with hyperlipidemia. Spirulina decreased the levels of hyperlipidemia in these patients. The effects were dependent on the amount and number of administered dose of Sprirulina. The results suggested that the Spirulina treatment could induce marked reduction of aminotransferase through correcting lipid profile and increasing high density lipoprotein.

  10. Evaluation of antiplasmodial properties of a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Diah Anggraini; Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Setyaningsih, Iriani; Marbun, Jonathan Marshall; Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji Budi Setia

    2017-08-02

    The rapid emergence of antimalarial drug resistance necessitates a continual effort on novel drug discovery. A cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis, is a potential antimalarial agent that has been widely consumed as food supplement in the form of crude extract. It is known to possess antiviral, antibacterial and antifungi activities. This study examined the antimalarial activities of several Spirulina formulas against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, in vitro. The tested Spirulina formulas included commercially available capsule, crude extract and alkaloid fraction. Results showed that all tested formula possessed antimalarial activities with the Spirulina capsule exhibited the highest activities (IC 50  = 2.16 μg/mL). Light and electron microscopies revealed interference of the Spirulina with the parasite hemozoin formation. In conclusion, all tested Spirulina formulas and fraction exhibited moderate to high antimalarial activities.

  11. Sensory, Physico-Chemical and Water Sorption Properties of Corn Extrudates Enriched with Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona; Ruszkowska, Millena

    2017-09-01

    This study compares the quality of extrudates made from corn grits with the addition of up to 8% of spirulina powder. The sensory properties (shape, color, aroma, taste and crispness), chemicals (content of water, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll and phycocyanin) and physical properties (color, water absorption index, expansion indices, texture and water sorption properties) were determined. It has been found that spirulina-enriched extrudates had slightly lower sensory scores, but the addition of spirulina improved their nutritional value. The contents of protein, ash, fiber and β-carotene increased in extrudates with 8% of spirulina by 34, 36, 140 and 1,260%, respectively. The increasing addition of spirulina caused a decrease in extrudates lightness, an increase in their greenness and yellowness accompanied by a decrease of expansion indices and an increase of softness. Only small differences were found in water sorption properties, suggesting a similar behavior of spirulina-enriched extrudates during storage.

  12. Metabolic networks of Cucurbita maxima phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    Metabolomic analysis aims at a comprehensive characterization of biological samples. Yet, biologically meaningful interpretations are often limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of the acquired data sets. One way to remedy this is to limit the complexity of the cell types being studied. Cucurbita maxima Duch. vascular exudates provide an excellent material for metabolomics in this regard. Using automated mass spectral deconvolution, over 400 components have been detected in these exudates, but only 90 of them were tentatively identified. Many amino compounds were found in vascular exudates from leaf petioles at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in tissue disks from the same leaves, whereas hexoses and sucrose were found in far lower amounts. In order to find the expected impact of assimilation rates on sugar levels, total phloem composition of eight leaves from four plants was followed over 4.5 days. Surprisingly, no diurnal rhythm was found for any of the phloem metabolites that was statistically valid for all eight leaves. Instead, each leaf had its own distinct vascular exudate profile similar to leaves from the same plant, but clearly different from leaves harvested from plants at the same developmental stage. Thirty to forty per cent of all metabolite levels of individual leaves were different from the average of all metabolite profiles. Using metabolic co-regulation analysis, similarities and differences between the exudate profiles were more accurately characterized through network computation, specifically with respect to nitrogen metabolism.

  13. Characterization of Various Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Biomass represents the renewable energy source and their use reduces the consumption of fossil fuels and limits the emission of CO2. In this work, various biomass feedstocks were assessed for assessing their suitability as energy production sources using thermochemical conversion routes especially...... hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. The methods used to analyze involved performing proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetry analysis. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetry analysis, the dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS), corn silage, chlorella vulgaris, spirulina platensis...... for energy generation and provide necessary input to equipment and process designers....

  14. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Birot, Raphaëlle; Jouvencel, Diane de; Raginel, Laetitia; Rouillé, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  15. Co2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ accumulation by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannela, Raveender; Verma, Sanjay Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The Spirulina platensis biomass was characterized for its metal accumulation as a function of pH, external metal concentration, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, effect of co-ions under free (living cells, lyophilized, and oven-dried) and immobilized (Ca-alginate and polyacrylamide gel) conditions. The maximum metal biosorption by S. platensis biomass was observed at pH 6.0 with free and immobilized biomass. The studies on equilibrium isotherm experiments showed highest maximum metal loading by living cells (181.0 +/- 13.1 mg Co(2+)/g, 272.1 +/- 29.4 mg Cu(2+)/g and 250.3 +/- 26.4 mg Zn(2+)/g) followed by lyophilized (79.7 +/- 9.6 mg Co(2+)/g, 250.0 +/- 22.4 mg Cu(2+)/g and 111.2 +/- 9.8 mg Zn(2+)/g) and oven-dried (25.9 +/- 1.9 mg Co(2+)/g, 160.0 +/- 14.2 mg Cu(2+)/g and 35.1 +/- 2.7 mg Zn(2+)/g) biomass of S. platensis on a dry weight basis. The polyacrylamide gel (PAG) immobilization of lyophilized biomass found to be superior over Ca-alginate (Ca-Alg) and did not interfere with the S. platensis biomass biosorption capacity, yielding 25% of metal loading after PAG entrapment. The time-dependent metal biosorption in both the free and immobilized form revealed existence of two phases involving an initial rapid phase (which lasted for 1-2 min) contributing 63-77% of total biosorption, followed by a slower phase that continued for 2 h. The metal elution studies conducted using various reagents showed more than 90% elution with mineral acids, calcium salts, and Na(2)EDTA with free (lyophilized or oven-dried) as well as immobilized biomass. The experiments conducted to examine the suitability of PAG-immobilized S. platensis biomass over multiple cycles of Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) sorption and elution showed that the same PAG cubes can be reused for at least seven cycles with high efficiency.

  16. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Synthesis by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Using Biopolymer Extraction Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleber Klasener; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2018-01-20

    The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis. Concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (v/v) of biopolymer extraction waste were tested. For comparison, two assays were used without addition of waste, Zarrouk (SZ) and modified Zarrouk (ZM), with reduction of nitrogen. The assays were carried out in triplicate and evaluated for the production of microalgal biomass and PHB. The tests with addition of waste presented a biomass production statistically equal to ZM (0.79 g L -1 ) (p < 0.1). The production of PHB in the assay containing 25% of waste was higher when compared to the other cultivations, obtaining 10.6% (w/w) of biopolymer. From the results obtained, it is affirmed that the use of PHB extraction waste in the microalgal cultivation, aiming at the synthesis of biopolymers, can occur in a cyclic process, reducing process costs and the deposition of waste, thus favoring the preservation of the environment.

  17. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  18. Protective effect of Spirulina platensis enriched in phenolic compounds against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepekçi, Remziye Aysun; Polat, Sait; Çelik, Ahmet; Bayat, Nuray; Saygideger, Saadet Demirörs

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic compounds make up the major secondary metabolites with high pharmaceutical potential. Microalgae were reported to contain low amounts of phenolic compounds. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of biomass of Spirulina platensis enriched in phenolic compounds. The protective effects of the biomass of S. platensis with low amounts of phenolics (SP1) and with high amounts of phenolics (SP2) against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity were evaluated in rats. The increased levels of ALT, AST and MDA along with decreased activities of SOD and CAT were significantly (p<0.01) ameliorated by SP2. Histological examinations revealed that SP2 was more potent than SP1 in protecting the liver from toxic injury of CCl4 and preserving the hepatocyte ultrastructure. The lesions including necrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, ballooning degeneration and hepatocyte injury as irregular lamellar organisation, dilations in endoplasmic reticulums and the presence of great number of cytoplasmic vacuolization were healed by SP2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Finamore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes’ proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future.

  1. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Alberto; Bensehaila, Sarra

    2017-01-01

    The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes' proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future. PMID:28182098

  2. Primary Production and Photophysiology of Phytoplankton Forming Subsurface Chlorophyll Maxima in a UK Summer Stratified Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M.; Kemp, A. E. S.; Hickman, A. E.; Purdie, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    In seasonally stratified temperate coastal and shelf seas, a subsurface chlorophyll maximum is often detectable with associated increased abundances of phytoplankton cells. These subsurface peaks in chlorophyll are generally closely associated with the seasonal thermocline, commonly occurring within or just below this density interface. UK coast and shelf sea research has often featured study of chlorophyll maxima present in summer months, yet the relative importance of primary production in these chlorophyll layers has rarely been investigated. Phytoplankton production rates and size-fractionated photophysiological measurements (>50 µm, >20 10 5 samples collected from subsurface chlorophyll maxima in stratified waters of the western English Channel during the summer of 2015. Carbon fixation rates were measured using 13C-bicarbonate incubations, and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) instrument was used to determine photophysiological characteristics of the various phytoplankton size fractions in vivo. Sampled chlorophyll maxima ranged between 2.4 - 19.0 µg L-1, varied in thickness from less than 1 m to approximately 9 m, and phytoplankton biomass was consistently dominated by cells larger than 50 µm, e.g. Ceratium fusus. Rates of water column primary production in the western English Channel will be presented, and the significant contribution by the subsurface chlorophyll maximum will be highlighted. The photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton population that formed the sampled chlorophyll maxima will also be reported.

  3. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  5. Proteomic Analysis and qRT-PCR Verification of Temperature Response to Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huili, Wang; Xiaokai, Zhao; Meili, Lin; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Wei, Chen; Jaiopeng, Zhou; Chengyang, Xu; Chunlei, Jin; Yi, Xu; Xuedong, Wang; Li, Ding; Qiyu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (ASP) is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C) using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones), energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport), translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis) and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and translation levels. The

  6. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  7. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  8. Spirulina in clinical practice: evidence-based human applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkos, P D; Leong, S C; Karkos, C D; Sivaji, N; Assimakopoulos, D A

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms and may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed.

  9. Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Karkos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms and may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed.

  10. Outdoor and indoor cultivation of Spirulina platensis in the extreme south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Michele R; Costa, Jorge A V

    2008-01-01

    Water supplemented with 10% or 20% (v/v) of Zarrouk medium was used to cultivate Spirulina platensis in closed and open bioreactors under controlled conditions (30 degrees C, 32.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1), 12 h light/dark photoperiod) and in a greenhouse (9.4 to 46 degrees C, up to 2800 micromol m(-2) s(-1), variable day length photoperiod) using different initial biomass concentrations (X0) in the extreme south of Brazil (32.05 degrees S, 52.11 degrees W). Under controlled conditions the maximum specific growth rate (micromax) was 0.102 d(-1), the biomass doubling time (t(d)) was 6.8 d, the maximum dry biomass concentration (Xmax) was 1.94 g L(-1) and the maximum productivity (Pmax) was 0.059 g L(-)1 d(-1), while the corresponding values in the greenhouse experiments were micromax = 0.322 d(-1), t(d) = 2.2 d, Xmax = 1.73 g L(-1) and Pmax = 0.112 g L(-1) d(-1). Under controlled conditions the highest values for these parameters occurred when X0 = 0.15 g L(-1), while in the greenhouse X0 = 0.4 g L(-1) produced the highest values. These results show that the cultivation of S. platensis in greenhouses in the extreme south of Brazil is technically viable and that the S. platensis inoculum and the concentration of Zarrouk medium can be combined in such a way as to obtain growth and productivity parameters comparable, or superior, to those occurring in bioreactors under controlled conditions of temperature, illuminance and photoperiod.

  11. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  12. Cultivation of Spirulina platensis by continuous process using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassano, C.E.N.; Gioielli, L.A.; Almeida, K.A.; Sato, S.; Carvalho, J.C.M. [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 16, 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Perego, P.; Converti, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    This work is focused on the influence of dilution rate (0.08{<=}D{<=}0.32 d{sup -1}) on the kinetics of continuous cultivation of Spirulina platensis at two different concentrations of ammonium chloride (N{sub 0}=1.0 and 10 mM) as nitrogen source. Cell productivity increased in both series of runs up to D{approx_equal}0.12-0.16 d{sup -1}, and then decreased. While at N{sub 0}=1.0 mM biomass washing was certainly the cause of progressive cell concentration decrease, a combination of this phenomenon with the toxic effect of excess ammonia was responsible, at N{sub 0}=10 mM and D{>=}0.20 d{sup -1}, for quick stop of cell growth just beyond the achievement of maximum cell productivity (92.4 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Similar profile was observed for protein productivity, that achieved a maximum value of 67.0 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}, because of the very high protein content (72.5%) of biomass produced under these conditions. The yield of nitrogen-to-biomass was much higher at the lower N{sub 0}, because of the low protein content, and reached a maximum value of 9.7 g g{sup -1} at D=0.08-0.12 d{sup -1}. The yield of nitrogen-to-protein showed less marked difference, being most of the nitrogen present in the cell as proteins or free amino-acids. (author)

  13. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  14. Food Chemistry and Microbiology of Cyanobacter Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    KARGIN YILMAZ, Hilal; DURU, Mahitap Duygu

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are important organisms because of their different chemical structure and production capability of biological compounds. S. platensis is a planktonic organism which is intensely cultured and easily harvested in water bodies that characterised with high pH levels. In addition, S. platensis is a microalga has commercial importance because of its high protein, gammalinolenic acid, B12 and low fat ratio. Spirulina is an interest focus for reason of pharmacological properties besides fo...

  15. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... déterminer les effets biostimulants de Jatropha curcas et Spirulina platensis sur la croissance et le développement de la tomate. ... determining the biostimulant effects of Jatropha curcas and Spirulina platensis on the growth and development of tomato. ...... concentrate on the wheat culms. Journal of.

  16. Transposable genetic elements in Spirulina and potential applications for genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroyuki, Kojima; Qin, Song; Thankappan, Ajith Kumar; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano

    1998-03-01

    Transposable elements in cyanobacteria are briefly reviewed. Evidence is presented to show that transposable elements in Spirulina platensis is actually reflected on the phenotype change, i e., helical to straight filaments. Transposition intermediates of DNA were isolated from the extrachromosome and the transposition was related to helical variations in Spirulina. Uses of transposable elements for microalgal recombination are discussed based on the transposition mechanism.

  17. Aplicación de estrategias nutricionales y su efecto en el crecimiento en el cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis Application of nutritional strategies and their effect in continuous culture of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis durante 78 días en un fotobiorreactor tubular de 300 L de volumen. Durante este periodo se registró el crecimiento en biomasa y la respuesta del cultivo a la estrategia de adición del medio nutritivo. Utilizando como base el medio Zarrouk modificado, se elaboraron tres medios: medio inicial (MI, medio crecimiento (SA1+SA2 y medio mantenimiento (SB1+SB2 para las distintas etapas del cultivo. La entrega de los medios se efectuó paulatinamente y de acuerdo a los requerimientos del crecimiento en biomasa (en peso seco diario del cultivo. La biomasa inicial del cultivo fue de 2,0 g L-1, al día 20 se efectuó la primera cosecha parcial (50% dando inicio a una nueva etapa del cultivo con una biomasa inicial de 1,7 g L-1, 20 días después se realizó una segunda cosecha parcial del cultivo, iniciando una tercera etapa de cultivo con una biomasa de 1,6 g L-1. Los resultados obtenidos al cabo de las cosechas fueron, en promedio, de 3,7; 4,1 y 9,7 g L-1, respectivamente. El análisis proximal efectuado al final del cultivo continuo indicó un 71,6% de proteína.A continuous culture of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis was performed for 78 in a tubular photobioreactor of 300 L volume. During this period there was growth in biomass and crop response to the strategy of adding the nutrient medium. Using as a basis the modified Zarrouk medium, three nutritive combinations were elaborated: initial medium (MI, growth medium (SA1+SA2 and maintenance medium (SB1+SB2 for different crop stages. The media delivery is affected gradually and in accordance with requirements of growing biomass (dry weight daily cultivation. The initial crop biomass was 2.0 g L-1, on day 20 of culture was made the first partial harvest (50% starting a new stage of the crop with an initial biomass of 1.7 g L-1' 20 days after a second crop was partially culture initiating a third culture step with a biomass of 1.6 g L-1

  18. Maxima: tarbimine elavneb alles kahe aasta pärast / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Maxima grupi laienemine on peatatud, sh. ka Eestis. Maxima kaupluste arv vähenes Leedus kümne võrra, Eestis lisandus üks Maxima kauplus, Lätis jäi nende arv samaks. Prisma Peremarketi juhi Janne Tapio Lihavaineni hinnangul on Maxima poed liiga väikesed, et majanduskriisi ajal konkureerida

  19. Phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater by Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt Geiteler: pigment content, production variable cost and nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater by Spirulina platensis was carried out using kitchen wastewater. A complete randomised design (CRD was created for the experiment which was performed on modified Zarrouk’s medium (Zm, 100% kitchen wastewater (100%Kw and 90% kitchen wastewater (90%Kw. Water quality, biomass production, pigment content and nutritional value of Spirulina platensis were determined from cultures harvested every 5 days for a period of 15 days. The physico-chemical properties of cultivated wastewater were: water temperature 27-28 oC, pH 8.73-9.77 and DO 0.20-7.20 mg L-1. The 100%Kw and 90%Kw produced lower BOD, COD, TP, NH3-N, ON, TKN, NO3-N, NO2-N, TON and TN compared to Zm with p< 0.05. After cultivation, the treated kitchen wastewater met the standards for safe discharge in Thailand. The highest level of -carotene of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.29 mg g-1 and 100%Kw (0.29 mg g – 1 while the highest levels of C-phycocyanin were obtained in 100%Kw (17.95 mg g -1 and 90%Kw (16.31 mg g-1. The highest production variable cost for dry weight of S. platensis was in Zm (310.6 Baht kg -1 and 90%Kw (303.6 Baht kg -1 as compared to 100%Kw (276.6 Baht kg -1, with p<0.05. The highest biomass production of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.84 g L-1 and 100%Kw (0.82 g L-1, with protein content of 54.44% and 35.86%, respectively. Implications for the use of S. platensis for phytoremediation and C-phycocyanin production using of 100%Kw and 90% Kw are discussed.

  20. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  1. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  2. Structural characteristics and biological performance of silk fibroin nanofiber containing microalgae Spirulina extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Bum-Gyu; Kwak, Hyo Won; Park, A Reum; Kim, Shin Hwan; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ick-Soo; Lee, Ki Hoon; Park, Young Hwan

    2014-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) nanofiber scaffold containing microalgae Spirulina extract were prepared by electrospinning and the performance and functionality of the scaffold were evaluated. The viscosity and conductivity of the dope solution of Spirulina containing SF were examined for electrospinability and we found that the morphological structure of SF nanofiber is affected by the concentration of Spirulina extract added. The platelet adhesion and coagulation time test confirmed that the Spirulina containing SF nanofiber scaffold had excellent ability to prevent blood clotting or antithrombogenicity that is comparable to heparin. Low cytotoxicity and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation were also observed for Sprulina containing SF nanofiber scaffold by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and confocal fluorescence microscope using fibroblast and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Based on these results, we believe SF nanofiber scaffold containing Spirulina extract has the potential to be used as tissue engineering scaffold that requires high hemocompatibility. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties of Spirulina platensis and Spirulina lonar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Mohamed, Nor Azura; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Shamsuddin, Lokman; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian; Kadir, Arifah Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Spirulina spp. is a blue-green algae belongs to the family of Oscillatoriaceae, which having diverse biological activity. The aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Spirulina platensis/SP and Spirulina lonar/SL extracts. In the anti-pyretic study, the ability to reduce the rectal temperature of rats induced pyrexia with 2g/kg Brewer's Yeast (BY) was performed. Rats were dosed either 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. Rectal temperature was taken every hour for 8 hours. Results shown that there were significant dose-dependent (p<0.05) reduction of both treatments. However, SP treatment revealed faster reduction in rectal temperature. For anti-inflammatory activity, the reduction in the volume of paw edema induced by Prostaglandin E2 (100 IU/rat intraplantar) was measured. Rats were dosed orally with 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. The paw edema was measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours using plethysmometer. Results had shown a significant dose dependent reduction in diameter of paw edema (p<0.05). The finding suggests that SP and SL extracts have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, SP was found to be more effective than SL as anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  5. Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Hall, D.O. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Nouee, J. De La [Univ. Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology

    1995-07-20

    The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m{sup 2} basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input of photosynthetically active radiation into the photobioreactor was 2,920 kJ per day. An air-lift system incorporating 4% CO{sub 2} was used to circulate the growth medium in the tubing. The maximum productivity achieved in batch culture was 7.18 g dry biomass per day which corresponded to a photosynthetic (PAR) efficiency of 5.45%. The CO{sub 2} was efficiently removed from the gaseous stream; monitoring the CO{sub 2} in the outlet and inlet gas streams showed a 70% removal of CO{sub 2} from the inlet gas over an 8-h period with almost maximum growth rate.

  6. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J., E-mail: j.sanz@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, V., E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muntifering, R., E-mail: muntirb@auburn.ed [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gonzalez-Fernandez, I., E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, B.S., E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, S., E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, R., E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O{sub 3} and three N levels. Increased O{sub 3} exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O{sub 3}-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O{sub 3}-induced increase in senescence biomass. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  7. Engineering strategies for simultaneous enhancement of C-phycocyanin production and CO2 fixation with Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Kao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-10-01

    Spirulina platensis produces nutraceutical product C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and simultaneously mitigates CO2 emissions during its growth. Using a designed flat-type photobioreactor, the S. platensis biomass production was markedly enhanced, leading to a CO2 removal rate and a biomass concentration of 0.23 g/L/d and 2.25 g/L, respectively. The cell growth, CO2 fixation rate and C-PC production of S. platensis were investigated when it was cultivated under different irradiation conditions. As the light intensity increased from 100 to 700 μmol/m(2)/s, the overall biomass productivity, CO2 consumption rate and maximal C-PC productivity increased significantly to 0.74, 1.53 and 0.11 g/L/d, respectively. After determining the suitable light intensity, the nitrogen concentration was also adjusted to further enhance the performance of CO2 fixation and C-PC production. The results show that with an optimal nitrogen concentration of 0.045 M, the CO2 consumption rate and maximal C-PC productivity were further increased to 1.58 and 0.13 g/L/d, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marketingová strategie Maxima pojišťovny

    OpenAIRE

    Šafrová, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on the analysis of marketing strategy of an insurance company Maxima pojišťovna, a.s. and its aim is to asses current strategy and to propose recommendations for its improvement. In the theoretical part of the thesis I describe how is a marketing strategy made and I also cover the content of distribution strategy, price strategy, product strategy and communication strategy. In the practical part I focus on the Maxima's marketing strategy and I describe its produ...

  9. Assessment of pharmacokinetic interaction of spirulina with glitazone in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Annu; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar-E; Chattopadhyaya, Ipshita; Gupta, Sumeet

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of spirulina with glitazones in an insulin resistance rat model. Wistar male albino rats were equally divided into five groups: insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), and insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg). Described doses of pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, or spirulina were per orally administered and the plasma drug concentrations were determined. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel were determined by plotting the drug concentration as a function of time. The data observed in this acute study indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel) of glitazones (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) or spirulina, when they were coadministered. Given the promising results, this study concludes that the coadministration of spirulina does not influence the pharmacokinetics of glitazones in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Further chronic in vivo studies are recommended to assess the real time effect.

  10. Efficacy of spirulina as an antioxidant adjuvant to corticosteroid injection in management of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Prathima; Shenai, Prashanth; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Rao, Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic condition of the oral cavity which results in permanent disability. A number of studies have proven that the management of premalignant diseases should include antioxidants. Therefore, a study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina as an antioxidant adjuvant to corticosteroid injections in the management of 40 oral submucous fibrosis subjects of south Karnataka and north Kerala. An intervention study was conducted on 40 oral submucous fibrosis cases, 40 patients were divided into two groups, group A (spirulina group) and group B (placebo group). Group A received spirulina 500 mg twice daily and biweekly intralesional steroid injection of Betamethasone 4 mg/ml for 3 months and group B was given placebo capsules twice daily and biweekly intralesional steroid injection of Betamethasone 4 mg/ml for 3 months. The results were analyzed with the paired "t" test and the unpaired "t" test. Clinical improvements in mouth opening was significant in the posttreatment period in both Spirulina and placebo groups. Both the groups showed statistically significant reduction in burning sensation. However, when both groups were compared, mouth opening and burning sensation was found to be statistically very highly significant in favor of the spirulina group. Spirulina can bring about clinical improvements in OSF patients. The observed effects suggest that spirulina can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the initial management of OSF patients. However, studies involving larger samples and longer period of treatment follow up are suggested in the future.

  11. The hepatoprotective potential of Spirulina and vitamin C supplemention in cisplatin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Mehta, Pooja

    2012-02-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. We investigated the mechanism of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity and whether this natural antioxidant provided protection against cisplatin hepatotoxicity. The study was carried out in a mice model where the animals were segregated into different groups according to their treatments, e.g. control group with no treatment, cisplatin treated, cisplatin + Spirulina treated, cisplatin + vitamin C treated and cisplatin + Spirulina + vitamin C treated. The liver marker enzymes were found to be elevated following cisplatin treatment, signifying hepatotoxicity. The supplementation of Spirulina and vitamin C could effectively bring down the levels of these enzymes. Light microscopy also showed that cisplatin treatment induced liver injury and that histopathological abnormalities were prevented by Spirulina and vitamin C supplementation. This protective effect was further substantiated by the estimation of antioxidant levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in the Spirulina, vitamin C and Spirulina + vitamin C supplemented groups as compared to cisplatin alone.

  12. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  13. Gas exchange and growth responses to nutrient enrichment in invasive Glyceria maxima and native New Zealand Carex species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Fitridge, Isla

    2012-01-01

    the sedges, but correlations between leaf N, gas exchange parameters (Amaxa, Amaxm, Rd and gs) and RGR were all highly significant in G. maxima, whereas they were weak or absent in the sedges. Allocation of biomass (root:shoot ratio, leaf mass ratio, root mass ratio), plant N and P content, and allocation......) in G. maxima (17 ± 6 m2 kg-1) was 1.3 times that of the sedges, leading to 1.4 times higher maximum rates of photosynthesis (350 – 400 nmol CO2 g-1 dry mass s-1) expressed on a leaf mass basis (Amaxm) when N supply was unlimited, compared to the sedges (mass s-1). Analysis......, the sedges had 2.4 times higher intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs: range 20-70 c.f. 8-30 µmol CO2 mol-1 H2O) and 1.6 times higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE: 25 – 30 c.f. 20 – 23 g dry mass g-1 N) under excess N supply. Relative growth rates (RGR) were not significantly higher in G. maxima than...

  14. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  15. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  16. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring. PMID:20858231

  17. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) adult female wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on immunity. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (A,B,C and D) with five rats in each group. Group A, served as control while group B, C and D served as the experimental groups.

  18. In-Place Algorithms for Computing (Layers of) Maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal (nlogn) time and occupy only constant extra space in addition to the space needed for representing the input....

  19. Depth preference in released juvenile turbot Psetta maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Støttrup, Josianne; Nielsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile turbot Psetta maxima were tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags and released at three different depths in a sandy bay in Denmark. About 2–7% of the released fish were registered daily to monitor their distribution using a tag antenna mounted on a modified...

  20. MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ARTHOBACTER GLOBIFORMIS AND SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Kalabegishvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing contamination of soil, sediment, and water with heavy metals by natural and industrial processes is a worldwide problem. Many bacteria and microalgae have demonstrated ability to absorb toxic elements. To study mercury biosorption by bacteria Arthrobacter globiformis and microalga Spirulina platensis neutron activation analysis (NAA was applied. The process of mercury biosorption by these media was described by Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich Model. Both microorganisms showed a great potential to be used as biosorbing agents for mercury removal from the environment.

  1. Spirulina (Arthrospira: An Important Source of Nutritional and Medicinal Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmumin A. Nuhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. While many species, such as Anabaena sp., produce hepatotoxins (e.g., microcystins and nodularins and neurotoxins (such as anatoxin a, Spirulina (Arthrospira displays anticancer and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities via the production of phycocyanin, phycocyanobilin, allophycocyanin, and other valuable products. This paper is an effort to collect these nutritional and medicinal applications of Arthrospira in an easily accessible essay from the vast literature on cyanobacteria.

  2. In vitro evaluation of the effects of electrospun PCL nanofiber mats containing the microalgae Spirulina (Arthrospira) extract on primary astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Shin, Chungwhan; Min, Seul Ki; Jung, Sang-Myung; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2012-02-01

    The blue-green microalgae, Spirulina, a harmless food and pharmaceutical additive, has several bioactive compounds that have therapeutic functions. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that has widely been used for tissue engineering. The electrospun PCL nanofiber containing Spirulina (PCL-Spirulina) was fabricated and tested as a potential extracellular matrix material for a culture of primary astrocytes, which play important roles in CNS injured systems. Spirulina extract was observed to increase growth and metabolic activity of rat primary astrocytes without any harm once added to the culture media. However, PCL-Spirulina nanofiber was proven to alleviate astrocyte activity. Through this research and to the best of our knowledge, we first suggest a novel composite nanomaterial, an electrospun PCL-Spirulina nanofiber that could be used to treat CNS injured systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maxima poekett mitmendat aastat järjest keeleinspektsiooni murelaps / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Kauplusekettidest on kõige rohkem saanud keeleinspektsioonilt ettekirjutusi Maxima. Inspektsiooni nõuniku Hele Pärna, Maxima pressiesindaja Erkki Erilaiu selgitusi. Lisa: Probleem haridussüsteemis?

  4. Spirulina-templated metal microcoils with controlled helical structures for THz electromagnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-05-12

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  5. Spirulina platensis prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress mitochondrial damage mediated apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaun, Pratiksha; Yadav, Dhananjay; Bisen, Prakash Singh

    2018-04-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) extract on enhanced oxidative stress during high glucose induced cell death in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cultured under high glucose (33 mM) conditions resulted in a noteworthy increase in oxidative stress (free radical species) accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, increase in caspase activity and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax). Spirulina extract (1 μg/mL), considerably inhibited increased ROS and RNS levels, reduction in cytochrome c release, raise in mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased the over expression of proapoptotic protein Bax and suppressed the Bax/Bcl2 ratio with induced apoptosis without affecting cell viability. Overall results suggest that Spirulina extract plays preventing role against enhanced oxidative stress during high glucose induced apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts as well as related dysfunction in H9c2 cells.

  6. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-05-01

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  7. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  8. Skew Generalized Extreme Value Distribution: Probability Weighted Moments Estimation and Application to Block Maxima Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribereau, Pierre; Masiello, Esterina; Naveau, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Following the work of Azzalini ([2] and [3]) on the skew normal distribution, we propose an extension of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, the SGEV. This new distribution allows for a better t of maxima and can be interpreted as both the distribution of maxima when maxima are taken on dependent data and when maxima are taken over a random block size. We propose to estimate the parameters of the SGEV distribution via the Probability Weighted Moments meth...

  9. The influence of obesity on the effects of spirulina supplementation in the human metabolic response of Korean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpo...

  10. Cytotoxic effect of Spirulina platensis extracts on human acute leukemia Kasumi-1 and chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Hernandez, Flor Yohana; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Ramírez López, Inocencia Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Spirulina platensis extracts on acute leukemia Kasumi-1 and chronic leukemia K-562 cancer cell lines. Methods: Various concentrations of Spirulina platensis extracts (0.25–50.00 mg/mL) obtained with different solvents were used to treat cell lines for 72 h. For cytotoxic effect studies, cell viability test with trypan blue solution, MTT assay and microscopic cytomorphological assessment were done. Results: Spirulina extract obtained with 7...

  11. Proses Kultivasi Spirulina Platensis Menggunakan Pome (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) Sebagai Media Kultur Dalam Receway Open Pond Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Khoirunisa, Erlinda; Mutiah, Elisa; Abdullah, A

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengkultivasi Spirulina platensis pada media POME menggunakan raceway open pond bioreactor selama 5 hari. Penelitian dengan variabel konsentrasi POME (pengenceran 3×, 4×, 5×) dan kepadatan umpan Spirulina platensis (0.443 g/L; 0.618 g/L; 0.952 g/L) ini, bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh variabel tersebut terhadap pertumbuhan Spirulina platensis dan mengetahui perpaduan yang paling baik untuk kedua variabel yang dipelajari. Respon yang diambil adalah biomassa ker...

  12. Enhanced algal CO(2) sequestration through calcite deposition by Chlorella sp. and Spirulina platensis in a mini-raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kannan, Krishnamurthi; Deshkar, Ashok; Yadav, Raju; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2010-04-01

    Biological CO(2) sequestration using algal reactors is one of the most promising and environmentally benign technologies to sequester CO(2). This research study was taken up to alleviate certain limitations associated with the technology such as low CO(2) sequestration efficiency and low biomass yields. The study demonstrates an increase in CO(2) sequestration efficiency by maneuvering chemically aided biological sequestration of CO(2). Chlorella sp. and Spirulina platensis showed 46% and 39% mean fixation efficiency, respectively, at input CO(2) concentration of 10%. The effect of acetazolamide, a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, on CO(2) sequestration efficiency was studied to demonstrate the role of carbonic anhydrase in calcite deposition. Calcite formed by both species was characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled electron dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The overall scheme of calcite deposition coupled CO(2) fixation with commercially utilizable biomass as a product seems a viable option in the efforts to sequester increasing CO(2) emissions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  14. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  15. A spirulina-enhanced diet provides neuroprotection in an α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mibel M Pabon

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD. An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9 for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1 on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action.

  16. Pemanfaatan Emisi Gas Co2 Untuk Budidaya Spirulina Platensis Dalam Upaya Penurunan Gas Rumah Kaca (Grk)

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Yusup; Surachman, Aep; Asthary, Prima Besty; Saepulloh

    2014-01-01

    Gas CO2 emisi boiler merupakan salahsatu Gas Rumah Kaca (GRK) harus diminimisasi emisinya ke atmosfir. Pada saat ini emisi boiler dibuang ke atmosfir belum termanfaatkan. Percobaan budi daya Spirulina platensis skala laboratorium dengan penambahan gas CO2 emisi boiler telah dilakukan. Emisi CO2 boiler berbahan bakar batubara industri kertas berbahan baku kertas bekas digunakan dalam percobaan ini. Gas CO2 emisi boiler ditambahkan ke dalam media tumbuh Spirulina platensis dengan laju alir 250 ...

  17. Análisis microscópico de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1996-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophytu), expendidas en el mercado como suplementos dietéticos y adelgazantes. Fueron observadas al microscopio fotónico y al microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), previo tratamiento por "freeze drying". Los resultados indican que todas contienen Spirulina platensis. En algunas de ellas esta especie se presenta pura, mientras que en otras se halla mezclada con otras Cyanophyta (Oscillatoria y Phormidium) debido probablemente...

  18. Effects of fish oil and spirulina on oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chao, Jane C-J

    2014-12-06

    Altered plasma lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Fish oil has shown inconclusive effects on plasma lipids and oxidative stress. Spirulina has both cholesterol lowering and antioxidant properties. However, the effect of fish oil and spirulina on hypercholesterolemia has not been studied. We investigated the effects of fish oil, spirulina, and their combination on hypercholesterolemia. The hamsters were divided into 7 groups: control, high cholesterol (HF), fish oil (post FO), spirulina (post SP), and a combination of fish oil and spirulina (post SF, pre-SF, and HF + SF) groups. The HF and HF + SF groups were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The post FO, post SP, and post SF groups were given a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks and then the treatment for 4 weeks. The pre-SF group was given the combined treatment for 4 weeks and then a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. The HF and HF + SF groups altered plasma lipids, increased oxidative stress, inhibited antioxidants, and increased inflammation. While the post FO group increased plasma lipids and was more atherogenic. The vice versa was observed in spirulina-treated group. Both the post SP and post SF groups inhibited oxidative stress and increased antioxidant status, and post FO and post SP diets regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines to near the control levels. Both single treatment of fish oil or spirulina inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Treatment with a combination of fish oil and spirulina (post SF) may be beneficial for diet-induced hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  19. A Spirulina-Enhanced Diet Provides Neuroprotection in an α-Synuclein Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Mibel M.; Jernberg, Jennifer N.; Morganti, Josh; Contreras, Jessika; Hudson, Charles E.; Klein, Ronald L.; Bickford, Paula C.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action. PMID:23028885

  20. Post-fire vegetative recruitment of the alien grass Glyceria maxima at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An accidental fire at a site where the reproductive behaviour of Glyceria maxima was being investigated provided an opportunity to measure its effect on G. maxima vegetative recruitment. The fire burned G. maxima growing along the water's edge and down to a water depth of 10 cm. Post-fire tiller densities in these zones ...

  1. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  3. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  4. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  5. SPIRULINA PLATENSIS PROTECTS AGAINST RENAL INJURY IN RATS WITH GENTAMICIN-INDUCED ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdagić, Nesina; Ćosović, Esad; Nakaš-Ićindić, Emina; Mornjaković, Zakira; Začiragić, Asija; Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the renoprotective antioxidant effect of Spirulina platensis on gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis in rats. Albino-Wistar rats, (9male and 9 female), weighing approximately 250 g, were used for this study. Rats were randomly assigned to three equal groups. Control group received 0,9 % sodium chloride intraperitoneally for 7 days at the same volume as gentamicin group. Gentamicin group was treated intraperitoneally with gentamicin, 80mg/kg daily for 7 days. Gentamicin+spirulina group received Spirulina platensis 1000 mg/kg orally 2 days before and 7 days concurrently with gentamicin (80mg/kg i.p.). Nephrotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma nitrite concentration, stabile metabolic product of nitric oxide with oxygen. Plasma nitrite concentration was determined by colorimetric method using Griess reaction. For histological analysis kidney specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. Plasma nitrite concentration and the level of kidney damage were significantly higher in gentamicin group in comparison both to the control and gentamicin+spirulina group. Spirulina platensis significantly lowered the plasma nitrite level and attenuated histomorphological changes related to renal injury caused by gentamicin. Thus, the results from present study suggest that Spirulina platensis has renoprotective potential in gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis possibly due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:19125703

  6. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-04-12

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted.

  7. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  8. Cultivo da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis a partir de efluente sintético de suíno Culture of the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis using synthetic swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Boeira Pelegrini Bertolin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o cultivo da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis utilizando-se efluente sintético de suíno a fim de avaliar o crescimento das cepas LEB 52 e PARACAS dessa cianobactéria, em função da diluição do meio (0 e 50% e da concentração de bicarbonato de sódio (0 e 3g/L. Nesta etapa foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³. Na Segunda etapa, diluiu-se o meio em 80, 50 e 20% e utilizou-se um Planejamento Fatorial Multiníveis 3¹ x 2¹. Os cultivos foram realizados a 30°C, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. As variáveis utilizadas como resposta nas duas etapas foram a concentração máxima de biomassa e a velocidade específica máxima de crescimento, sendo os resultados avaliados mediante de Análise de Variância. Na primeira etapa, os maiores valores de concentração celular, 0,55 g/L, foram obtidos com a cepa LEB-52 em efluente sintético diluído a 50% em água destilada e sem a adição de bicarbonato de sódio, como suplementação da fonte de carbono. Na otimização da diluição, o maior valor de concentração celular foi de 0,35 g/L utilizando-se cepa PARACAS e diluição de 80%. As duas cepas estudadas de Spirulina platensis podem crescer em efluente sintético de suíno e o seu crescimento é favorecido pela diluição do meio.The growth of LEB-52 and PARACAS strains of Spirulina platensis cyanobacteria was studied using synthetic swine wastewater. The effects of medium dilution (0 and 50% and sodium bicarbonate addition to the medium (0 and 3g/L were initially investigated. In this step, it was used a complete Factorial Planning 2³. In the second step, the medium was diluted at 80, 50 and 20% and it was used a Factorial Planning 3¹x2¹. The cultivation was carried out at 30°C, with photophase of 12 hours. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were assessed, with the results being evaluated through Analysis of Variance. In first step, the greater biomass concentration (0.55g/L was

  9. Cultivation of spirulina platensis and its growth behavior controlling cultivation medium; Baiyoeki sosei no seigyo ni yoru spirulina platensis no baiyo oyobi sono zoshoku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, K.; Fujita, K. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis while controlling pH and nitrate ion in the culture medium was investigated in order to obtain a high density culture. In the cultivation of Spirulina platensis using sodium bicarbonate as a carbon source, the pH value increased during growth of Spirulina, and then the growth stopped at a pH value of more than 12. The cell concentration reached 2.2g/l by maintaining a pH range of 8.5 to 10.0 using CO2 gas without controlling the nitrate ion concentration. By controlling the pH and adding nitrate to a concentration of 2.0g/l, the cell concentration reached 4.2g/l at 350 hours. It was found that the cell concentration was about four times that of the culture without controlling pH and nitrate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high temperature in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyakampol, Jaruta; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Sutheeworapong, Sawannee; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Senachak, Jittisak; Siangdung, Wipawan; Jeamton, Wattana; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee

    2015-03-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a well-known commercial cyanobacterium that is used as a food and in feed supplements. In this study, we examined the physiological changes and whole-genome expression in A. platensis C1 exposed to high temperature. We found that photosynthetic activity was significantly decreased after the temperature was shifted from 35°C to 42°C for 2 h. A reduction in biomass production and protein content, concomitant with the accumulation of carbohydrate content, was observed after prolonged exposure to high temperatures for 24 h. Moreover, the results of the expression profiling in response to high temperature at the designated time points (8 h) revealed two distinct phases of the responses. The first was the immediate response phase, in which the transcript levels of genes involved in different mechanisms, including genes for heat shock proteins; genes involved in signal transduction and carbon and nitrogen metabolism; and genes encoding inorganic ion transporters for magnesium, nitrite and nitrate, were either transiently induced or repressed by the high temperature. In the second phase, the long-term response phase, both the induction and repression of the expression of genes with important roles in translation and photosynthesis were observed. Taken together, the results of our physiological and transcriptional studies suggest that dynamic changes in the transcriptional profiles of these thermal-responsive genes might play a role in maintaining cell homeostasis under high temperatures, as reflected in the growth and biochemical composition, particularly the protein and carbohydrate content, of A. platensis C1. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

  13. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  14. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of Spirulina fusiform and amantadine in the 6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, I; Gupta, Sumeet; Mohammed, Asad; Mushtaq, N; Chauhan, S; Ghosh, Saikat; Ghosh, Saikant

    2015-08-25

    Multi-factorial etiology exists in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. The imbalance of anti-oxidant enzymes and dopamine level leads to Parkinsonism. The objective of this study was to assess the protective effect of Spirulina fusiform alone and in combination with amantadine against Parkinsonism effect in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rat model. S. fusiform was administered in different groups (500 mg/kg, once daily and twice daily) and a combination of spirulina (500 mg/kg, once daily) with amantadine (20 mg/kg once daily) for 30 days before and 14 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA into the dorsal striatum. Post lesion produced rotational behavior which was measured at two week intervals (37th and 44th day). Locomotors activity was also done at 44th and muscle coordination at 48th day. Dorsal striatum was isolated from rat brain for evaluating the antioxidant assays and dopamine content at 49th day. Both the body rotations (ipsilateral and contralateral) were found to have a statistically significant (pspirulina (Twice a day) in spirulina treated lesioned group. A higher percentage of improvement was shown in the reduction of ipsilateral (57.34%) and contralateral (78.3%) rotations in combination of spirulina with amantadine treated lesioned group rather than spirulina alone treated lesioned groups when compared with positive control lesioned group. Body movements and locomotor activity were improved statistically (pspirulina with amantadine and spirulina twice daily). Similar results were also seen in anti-oxidant levels which later on reached to the normal value. The levels of dopamine content had a statistically significant (pspirulina with amantadine treated lesioned group. Spirulina is a potent nutraceutical supplement all over the world, so my preclinical study may contribute to give an additional adjuvant drug therapy in aging related disorders (Neurodegenerative as well as diabetes associated neurodegenerative disorders).

  16. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  17. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  18. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  19. Cytotoxic effect of Spirulina platensis extracts on human acute leukemia Kasumi-1 and chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Yohana Flores Hernandez

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The cytotoxicity exhibited by Spirulina extract to cancer cell lines might be due to the presence of phytopigments (carotenoids, chlorophyll, phycocyanin as well as polysaccharides that were reported previously as constituents of the extract. So crude extracts of Spirulina can be used as a source to develop anticancer drugs.

  20. The effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean on insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Azabji-Kenfack; Ekali, Loni G; Eugene, Sobngwi; Arnold, Onana E; Sandrine, Edie D; von der Weid, Denis; Gbaguidi, Emmanuel; Ngogang, Jeanne; Mbanya, Jean C

    2011-07-01

    HIV-infected patients develop abnormalities of glucose metabolism due to the virus and antiretroviral drugs. Spirulina and soybean are nutritional supplements that are cheap, accessible in our community and affect glucose metabolism. We carried out a randomized study to assess the effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean as a food supplement on HIV/HAART-associated insulin resistance (IR) in 33 insulin-resistant HIV-infected patients. The study lasted for two months at the National Obesity Centre of Cameroon. Insulin resistance was measured using the short insulin tolerance test. Physical activity and diet did not change over the study duration. On-treatment analysis was used to analyze data. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Students T test and the Chi square test were used as appropriate. Curve gradients were analyzed using ANCOVA. Seventeen subjects were randomized to spirulina and 16 to soybean. Each received 19 g of supplement daily. The follow up rate was 65% vs. 100% for spirulina and soybean groups, respectively, and both groups were comparable at baseline. After eight weeks, insulin sensitivity (IS) increased by 224.7% vs. 60% in the spirulina and soybean groups respectively (p spirulina versus soybean, respectively, improved their IS (p = 0.049) with a 1.45 (1.05-2.02) chance of improving insulin sensitivity on spirulina. This pilot study suggests that insulin sensitivity in HIV patients improves more when spirulina rather than soybean is used as a nutritional supplement. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01141777.

  1. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [es

  2. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C). Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS) yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars) with higher rates, while...

  3. Effect of light intensity on respiration rate of Spirulina plantensis; Spirulina no kokyu sokudo no oyobosu shodo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Y.; Obata, E.; Kuga, Y.; Ando, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Effects of light intensity and irradiation time on respiration rate in the dark period after irradiating are discussed. The specific respiration rate of S. platensis in the dark is a constant value Q1, up to 15-30 minutes, and then rapidly decreases to Q2 after 30 minutes. The specific respiration rate Q1 increases with light intensity. No significant effect of Q1 on irradiation time and Q2 on light intensity is observed. The respiration rate for a long dark time, Q0(=1.2 mg-O2{center_dot}kg-Spirulina{sup -1}centre dots{sup -1}), is almost the same as Q2. The effect of the logarithmic mean light intensity I{sub 1m}[klx] on Q1 is described by the following equation. Q1-Q0 = 13 and I{sub 1m}/(15+I{sub 1m}) 12 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  5. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co...

  6. MODELING OF ANIMATED SIMULATIONS BY MAXIMA PROGRAM TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya O. Bugayets

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodical features in training of computer simulation of systems and processes using animation. In the article the importance of visibility of educational material that combines sensory and thinking sides of cognition is noted. The concept of modeling and the process of building models has been revealed. Attention is paid to the development of skills that are essential for effective learning of animated simulation by visual aids. The graphical environment tools of the computer mathematics system Maxima for animated simulation are described. The examples of creation of models animated visual aids and their use for the development of research skills are presented.

  7. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  9. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzuddin Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone, Control (laminectomy with SCI, and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis. A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord.

  10. [SPIRULINA AND ITS HYPOLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Lepe, Marco Antonio; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-08-01

    Several chronic transmissible (e.g. AIDS) and non transmissible diseases like cadiovascular disease, are associated with oxidative stress (EOX) and dyslipidemia. Has been reported that Spirulina can reduce them, this has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models but scarcely in humans. Through a systematic review on last 5 years (keywords: Spirulina AND cholesterol, Spirulina AND oxidative stress) 8 intervention studies with humans were reported, finding that oral (1-10 g/d) subchronic (0.5-6 month) administration of Spirulina appears to have and hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect. However, no study was properly randomized and/or controlled and no biological mechanism was proposed to support these findings. The level of evidence and the absence of appropriate experimental designs do not allow validating Spirulina as a functional food for preventing dyslipidemic diseases and EOX, and hereby decrease the CVD. We do not found papers relating harmful effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Spirulina platensis in Response to Low Temperature Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingye; Chang, Rong; Sun, Yijun; Li, Bosheng

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of the most important abiotic stresses that can significantly reduce crop yield. To gain insight into how Spirulina responds to LT stress, comprehensive physiological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Significant decreases in growth and pigment levels as well as excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes were observed in response to LT stress. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify changes in protein abundance in Spirulina under LT. A total of 3,782 proteins were identified, of which 1,062 showed differential expression. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and translation are important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and metabolic balance in Spirulina when subjected to LT stress. The up-regulation of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis served as coping mechanisms of Spirulina in response to LT stress. Moreover, the down-regulated expression of proteins involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, photosynthesis, and translation were associated with reduced energy consumption. The findings of the present study allow a better understanding of the response of Spirulina to LT stress and may facilitate in the elucidation of mechanisms underlying LT tolerance.

  12. Quantification of Phytochemicals from Commercial Spirulina Products and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to profile the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols in 37 varieties of Spirulina commonly available in the market using gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the biological potentials of the Spirulina samples were evaluated by analysing the in vitro antioxidant activities using various analytical techniques. The analyses revealed the presence of 13 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18 amino acids, 7 sugars, and polyphenols. The polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were varied between Spirulina samples. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids amount was 4.25 mg/100 g, and the average among of sapienic acid detected was 2.25 mg/100 g, which was followed by linoleic acid (16.7%) and γ-linolenic acid (14%). Among the 7 sugars, the hexose levels were the highest (73.85%). The total amino acids contents ranged from 11.49 to 56.14 mg/100 g, and the individual essential amino acids accounted for 17% to 39.18%. The “natural” tablets exhibited the highest polyphenols levels (24 mg/g). All of the Spirulina samples expressed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, free amino acids, and polyphenols contents varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the Spirulina samples were significant. PMID:26933442

  13. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-08-31

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  14. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  15. Anaerobic bioassay of methane potential of microalgal biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei

    This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion as a technique to recover solar energy embodied in excess algal biomass production harvested from Clemson University's high rate algal based Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS) as an energy source to support PAS operations. In this study, four different organic substrates were loaded to anaerobic digesters in eight experimental trials, to ascertain the optimal combination of operational variables and effect of algal, or modified algal substrate upon methane production rate. The four substrates used in this study were: (1) a synthetic feedstock consisting of molasses and dog food, (2) a commercially obtained, readily degradable algal biomass (Spirulina ) in dry form, (3) PAS harvested and dewatered algal sludge, and (4) algal biomass blended with shredded waste paper or molasses as a carbon supplement for the adjustment of algal C/N ratio. Eight experimental trials using combinations of the four substrates were conducted in 15 liter digesters to investigate the effects of controlled digester parameters upon digester performance. Digesters operating at 20 days HRT, mesophilic digestion (35°C), and twice per day mixing at maximal loading rates produced maximal methane gas using PAS algal sludge. However, under these conditions overall methane production was less than 1000 ml CH4/l day. This low level of energy recovery from the fermentation of algal biomass (alone) is not energetically or economically favorable. Co-digestion of algal sludge and waste paper was investigated as a way to increase methane production. The data obtained from these trials suggest an optimum C/N ratio for co-digestion of algal sludge and waste paper in the range of 20--25/l. A balanced C/N ratio along with the stimulated increase in cellulase activity is suggested as likely reasons for increased methane production seen in co-digestion of algal sludge and waste paper. Yeast extract addition to anaerobic

  16. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  17. Protective role of Spirulina platensis against acute deltamethrin-induced toxicity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Abdel-Daim

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin is a broad-spectrum synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, its human and animal exposure leads to hepatonephrotoxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the hepatonephroprotective and antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis against deltamethrin toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. Deltamethrin treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum biochemical parameters as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation but caused an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. Spirulina normalized the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Furthermore, it reduced deltamethrin-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, it could be concluded that spirulina administration able to minimize the toxic effects of deltamethrin by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

  18. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Minea, R.; Mitru, Ecaterina; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Albulescu, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  19. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  20. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  1. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. Isolation and identification of anti-proliferative peptides from Spirulina platensis using three-step hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2017-02-01

    Spirulina platensis is an excellent source of proteins (>60%) that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. In this study, whole proteins of Spirulina platensis were extracted and hydrolyzed using three gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin). Subsequently, gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates, and four fractions (Tr1-Tr4) were obtained. Among them, Tr2 showed the strongest anti-proliferation activities on three cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2 and SGC-7901), with IC 50 values of anticancer agent for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Liver oxidation and inflammation in Fa/Fa rats fed glucomannan/spirulina-surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, María Isabel; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-09-15

    The effect of high-fat squid-surimi diets enriched in glucomannan or glucomannan-spirulina on lipemia, liver glutathione status, antioxidant enzymes and inflammation biomarkers was determined in Zucker Fa/Fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received for 7weeks the squid-surimi control (C), glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi (G) and glucomannan-spirulina enriched squid-surimi (GS). Liver weight, cytochrome P450 7A1 expression and cholesterolemia were decreased in G and GS vs. C, improving glutathione red-ox index (pspirulina kept those hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects but reduced the inflammation observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    J.Sunitha; S.Asha; G.Taju

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our present study is to assess the effects of spirulina as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. Rats were induced to produce kidney stone by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol (v/v) (EG) for 6 weeks. In additiion to this, spirulina extract 20mg/kg, were administered along with ethylene glycol for 6 weeks. On 24 hours after 6 weeks, the blood was collected from individual rats and used for the estimation of sodium, potassium...

  5. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  6. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  7. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M. Neyrinck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

  8. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Taminiau, Bernard; Walgrave, Hannah; Daube, Georges; Cani, Patrice D.; Bindels, Laure B.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2017-01-01

    Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions. PMID:28632181

  9. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Taminiau, Bernard; Walgrave, Hannah; Daube, Georges; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2017-06-20

    Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

  10. Spirulina improves non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, visceral fat macrophage aggregation, and serum leptin in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Makoto; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fujimoto, Takako; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M Eric; Shimada, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    Nutritional approaches are sought to overcome the limits of pioglitazone in metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a filamentous unicellular alga, reduces serum lipids and blood pressure while exerting antioxidant effects. To determine whether Spirulina may impact macrophages infiltrating the visceral fat in obesity characterizing our metabolic syndrome mouse model induced by the subcutaneous injection treatment of monosodium glutamate. Mice were randomized to receive standard food added with 5% Spirulina, 0.02% pioglitazone, or neither. We tested multiple biochemistry and histology (both liver and visceral fat) readouts at 24 weeks of age. Data demonstrate that both the Spirulina and the pioglitazone groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver non-esterified fatty acid compared to untreated mice. Spirulina and pioglitazone were associated with significantly lower leptin and higher levels, respectively, compared to the control group. At liver histology, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and lipid peroxide were significantly lower in mice treated with Spirulina. Spirulina reduces dyslipidaemia in our metabolic syndrome model while ameliorating visceral adipose tissue macrophages. Human studies are needed to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation on the immune response to tetanus toxoid vaccination in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Quynh, Le Van; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model.

  12. Apoptotic activity of frog Bombina maxima skin albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xia; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Yun

    2006-02-01

    Albumin, the most abundant protein components of blood plasma, is synthesized and secreted by liver cells in vertebrates. Recently, it was demonstrated that frog Bombina maxima albumin is also expressed in skin. Both B. maxima albumins from skin and serum (BmA-skin and BmA-serum) have similar biochemical characteristics except that the former contains haem b. Present studies showed that BmA-skin exhibited cytotoxic activity on H9 and C8166 cells. Pretreated with hemin to induce erythroid differentiation, K562 cells lost their resistance to cytotoxicity of BmA-skin. After treating cells with BmA-skin for 48 h, 50 percentage cytotoxic concentrations (CC(50)) of BmA-skin on H9, C8166 and hemin-treated K562 cells were 1.31+/-0.09, 1.59+/-0.08 and 2.28+/-0.06 microM, respectively. The cell death induced by BmA-skin was mediated by apoptosis of the tested cell lines, as demonstrated by nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and DNA hypodiploidy of apoptosis cells. At BmA-skin concentration of 2 microM, 27.3%, 19.7% and 17.8% of H9, C8166 and hemin-treated K562 cells were found to be apoptotic. In contrast, BmA-serum possessed no cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity on all the cell lines tested, even with concentration used up to 15 microM. These results indicated that bound haem b in BmA-skin contributed significantly to its cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity on the cell lines assayed.

  13. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  14. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhova, I.V.; Chernyad' ev, I.I.; Doman, N.G.

    1986-11-20

    The ribulose diphosphate (RDP) carboxylase activity of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is represented by two peaks when a cell homogenate is centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient. In the case of differential centrifugation (40,000 g, 1 h), the activity of the enzyme was distributed between the supernatant liquid (soluble form) and the precipitate (carboxysomal form). From the soluble fraction, in which 80-95% of the total activity of the enzyme is concentrated, electrophoretically homogeneous RDP carboxylase was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The purified enzyme possessed greater electrophoretic mobility in comparison with the RDP carboxylase of beans Vicia faba. The molecular weight of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration, was 450,000. The enzyme consists of monotypic subunits with a molecular weight of 53,000. The small subunits were not detected in electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of SDS after fixation and staining of the gels by various methods.

  15. Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bochao; Zhang, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a multicellular edible blue-green alga with abundant proteins (∼ 60%). No report is available on the antitumor polypeptides from the whole proteins of S. platensis. In this study, for the first time, an antitumor polypeptide Y2 from trypsin digest of S. platensis proteins was obtained by using freeze-thawing plus ultrasonication extraction, hydrolysis with four enzymes (trypsin, alcalase, papain, and pepsin), and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis can be ordered as: trypsin (38.5%) > alcalase (31.2%) > papain (27.8%) > pepsin (7.1%). For MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, at 250 µg/mL, the maximum inhibitory rate of Y2 was 97%, while standard drug 5-FU was 55 and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the nanoencapsulation of Y2 with chitosan (CS) was also investigated. After nanoencapsulation, the maximum encapsulation efficiency and polypeptides contents are 49 and 15%, respectively; and the antitumor activity is basically not lost. These data demonstrated the potential of nanopolypeptides (Y2-CS) in food and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, R.; Tam, L. T.; Anh, H. T. L.; Quynh, H. T. H.; Thom, L. T.; Nhat, P. V.; Thu, N. T. H.; Hong, D. D.; Wakisaka, M.

    2016-04-01

    A growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis M135 was investigated. The growth promotion effect was obtained that was 1.27 times greater than that obtained by the control by adding 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag and culturing for 60 days. The lipid content decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag, whereas the carbohydrate content remained constant. The protein content of S. platensis M135 increased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag when cultured at day 45. The superoxide dismutase activity of S. platensis M135 exhibited a decreasing trend in a time-dependent manner and an increasing trend in the control. The superoxide dismutase activity was lower than that of the control at day 1 but was higher at day 30. No genetic damage was observed up to 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag at 30 days of culture. Recovery from genetic damage was observed at 1,000 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag but not at higher concentrations.

  17. Biosorption of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II) ions by intact cells of Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Gelagutashvili, E.; Bagdavadze, N.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2017-01-01

    The absorption characteristics of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II) ions on intact living cells Spirulina platensis (pH9.6) were studied by using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Also biosorption of these ions with cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis were studied using equilibrium dialysis and atomic absorption analysis.It was shown, that the absorption intensity of Spirulina platensis decreases, when Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II) ions are added. Significant difference between the absorption intensity for Cu(II) Sp...

  18. Phototrophic cultivation of NaCl-tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis for enhanced C-phycocyanin production under optimized culture conditions and its dynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Apurva; Mohan, Devendra; Saxena, Rishi Kumar; Singh, Surendra

    2018-02-01

    Commercial cultivation of Spirulina sp. is highly popular due to the presence of high amount of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and other valuable chemicals like carotenoids and γ-linolenic acid. In this study, the pH and the concentrations of nitrogen and carbon source were manipulated to achieve improved cell growth and C-PC production in NaCl-tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis. In this study, highest C-PC (147 mg · L -1 ) and biomass (2.83 g · L -1 ) production was achieved when a NaCl-tolerant mutant of S. platensis was cultivated in a nitrate and bicarbonate sufficient medium (40 and 60 mM, respectively) at pH 9.0 under phototrophic conditions. Kinetic study of wildtype S. platensis and its NaCl-tolerant mutant was also done to determine optimum nitrate concentrations for maximum growth and C-PC production. Kinetic parameter of inhibition (Haldane model) was fitted to the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration obtained from the growth curves. Results showed that the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) for NaCl-tolerant mutant increased by 17.94% as compared to its wildtype counterpart, with a slight increase in half-saturation constant (K s ), indicating that this strain could grow well at high concentration of NaNO 3 . C-PC production rate (C max ) in mutant cells increased by 12.2% at almost half the value of K s as compared to its wildtype counterpart. Moreover, the inhibition constant (K i ) value was 207.85% higher in NaCl-tolerant mutant as compared to its wildtype strain, suggesting its ability to produce C-PC even at high concentrations of NaNO 3 . © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  20. Immunohistochemical Study Effects of Spirulina Algae on the Induced Mammary Tumor in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BinMeferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed at investigating the protective effects of Spirulina platensis on the induced mammary tumor in rats by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and the proliferation of the tumor cells by using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). At 50 days of age, group 1 remained untreated, group 2 treated with 2% Spirulina platenesis in food, group 3 received 50 mg/kg DMBA i.p. groupe 4 received 50 mg/kg DMBA i.p and fed on 2% spirulina. Rats were killed when the largest mammary tumor reached 1-2 cm in diameter or after 6 months of animal>s age. All the tumors produced by DMBA were ductal carcinoma in 100% of group 3, but in group 4 two rats had mammary tumor. The groups 1 and 2 had no tumor and have the same histological and immunostaining features, but in group 4, 13/15 rats had no tumor except formation of some cysts and hyperplasia in epithelial cells. The conclusion of this work suggests that Spirulina platnesis could be considered as a chemotherapeutic agent that causes apoptosis to tumor cells by reducing the number of malignant cells and resists cancer formation. (author)

  1. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  2. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  3. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  4. Wool quality traits of purebred and crossbred Merino lambs orally drenched with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W.B. Holman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Spirulina supplementation, sire breed and sex on the wool characteristics of purebred and crossbred Merino weaned lambs under a single pasture-based management system. Lambs sired by Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset, Black Suffolk breeds were randomly allocated into 3 treatments – the control group grazing without Spirulina (0 mL, low (100 mL and high (200 mL Spirulina groups. All lambs were kept as a single mob in paddocks, grazed for 9 weeks and wool samples analysed. Differences in wool quality between the control and supplemented groups were not significant (P>0.05. However, sire breed significantly (P<0.001 influenced fibre diameter, spinning fineness, comfort factor and fibre curvature with purebred Merinos having superior wool quality than crossbreds. Wethers grew higher quality wool than ewes. Spirulina has a potential as an alternative supplementary bioresource in dual-purpose sheep feeding because it does not compromise wool quality in supplemented weaner lambs.

  5. Vitmin A, nutrition, and health values of algea: spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro ...

  6. The hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Starakis, Ioannis K; Papadomanolaki, Maria G; Mavroeidi, Niki G; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S

    2014-02-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a filamentous cyanobacterium used as a food supplement. The objective of the study was to determine the lipid-lowering effects of Spirulina in Cretan Greek dyslipidaemic patients, and to document its effectiveness as a possible alternative treatment for dyslipidaemia. Fifty-two adultCretan outpatients (32 men, 20 women), median age 47 (range, 37-61) years, with recently diagnosed dyslipidaemia, consumed orally 1 g Spirulina (Greek production) per day for 12 weeks. The full lipid profile was measured in fasting blood samples at the beginning and end of the study period. Anthropometric measurements including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, height, weight and body mass index were also recorded. At the end of the 3-month intervention period the mean levels of triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteincholesterol were significantly decreased: 16.3% (P Spirulina supplementation at a dose of 1 g daily has powerful hypolipidaemic effects, especially on the triglyceride concentration in dyslipidaemic Cretan outpatients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Growth and antioxidant production of Spirulina in different NaCl concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Lu-Jia; Wu, Chun-Yuan; Guo, Kang-Ning; Li, Jian-Hong

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the quantity of Spirulina cultured in seawater, salt-tolerant strains were screened out and their growth and antioxidant accumulation were studied in different salt concentrations Salt tolerance of five Spirulina strains were investigated with modified Zarrouk medium (with 200-800 mM NaCl). All strains grew well with 400 mM NaCl; their growth rates were almost same as in the control medium. Spirulina strains FACHB-843 (SP843) and FACHB-972 (SP972) had the highest salt tolerance their growth rates in 600 mM NaCl were nearly same as the control. Both strains produced more carotene, phycocyanin, polysaccharides, proline and betaine in 400-600 mM NaCl than the control. Salt stress also induced them to produce higher activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. Total antioxidant capacities of SP843 and SP972 peaked at 600 and 400 mM NaCl, respectively. Spirulina strains cultured with seawater accumulate more bioactive substances and will have a higher nutritive value.

  8. Stable bio-oil production from proteinaceous cyanobacteria: tail gas reactive pyrolysis of spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of Spirulina, a cyanobacteria with high levels of protein (74 wt %) and low levels of lipid (0.8 wt %) content, has the potential to produce fuels and platform chemicals that differ from those produced from lignocellulosic materials. The yields and product distribution from fluidized-bed p...

  9. A simple method for rapid estimation of Ecklonia maxima and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass estimates are traditionally obtained by destructive sampling of kelp sporophytes from quadrats placed on the bottom. Scuba divers harvest the plants and weigh them ashore. This method is slow and labour-intensive, and severely limits the area of kelp bed that can be sampled. This study investigates several ...

  10. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Sherif, N.H

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  11. Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Vila, Jennifer L; Hudson, Charles; Cole, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Paul R; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Borlongan, Cesario; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Gemma, Carmelina; Bickford, Paula C

    2010-05-05

    Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020) of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the

  12. Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg. The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p. and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020 of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected

  13. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  14. The Production of High Purity Phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis Using Light-Emitting Diodes Based Two-Stage Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Yoori; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and red algae. In general, production of phycocyanin depends mainly on the light conditions during the cultivation period, and purification of phycocyanin requires expensive and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a new two-stage cultivation method to maximize the quantitative content and purity of phycocyanin obtained from Spirulina platensis using red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under different light intensities. In the first stage, Spirulina was cultured under a combination of red and blue LEDs to obtain the fast growth rate until reaching an absorbance of 1.4-1.6 at 680 nm. Next, blue LEDs were used to enhance the concentration and purity of the phycocyanin in Spirulina. Two weeks of the two-stage cultivation of Spirulina yielded 1.28 mg mL(-1) phycocyanin with the purity of 2.7 (OD620/OD280).

  15. Modification of mercury-induced biochemical alterations in blood of Swiss albino mice by Spirulina fusiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Patni, Reena; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-09-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the role of Spirulina fusiformis in modifying the mercury-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into four groups: (i) control group - only vehicle (0.9% NaCl/olive oil) was given; (ii) HgCl(2) treated group - 5.0mg/kg b.w. HgCl(2) administered as i.p.; (iii) Spirulina treated group - 800mg/kg b.w. Spirulina extract was administered orally; (iv) combination group -S. fusiformis was administered 10 days before mercuric chloride administration and continued up to 30 days after mercuric chloride administration (5.0mg/kg b.w.). The animals were sacrificed on 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and the activity of serum alkaline and acid phosphatase, serum iron level, serum calcium level, blood lipid peroxidation content and blood glutathione (GSH) level were measured. In the present investigation, mercury intoxication causes significant increase (Pcalcium level, acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation content and significant decrease in iron level, alkaline phosphatase and glutathione level. Spirulina pre- and post-treatment with mercury prevented or reduces mercury-induced alterations in terms of calcium level, iron level, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in serum, and lipid peroxidation and GSH level in blood. Thus from the present investigation, it can be concluded that Spirulina pre- and post-treatment with HgCl(2) significantly modulate or modify mercury-induced biochemical alteration in blood of Swiss albino mice.

  16. INFLUENŢA SELENITULUI DE Fe(III ŞI A INTENSITĂŢII DE ILUMINARE ASUPRA CONŢINUTULUI DE FICOBILIPROTEINE, SELENIU ŞI FIER ÎN BIOMASA CIANOBACTERIEI SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BULIMAGA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Productivitatea spirulinei şi onţinutul de fier în biomasă au înregistrat valori mai înalte la iluminare mai intensă (5500 lx, comparativ cu 3500 lx, iar acumularea ficobiliproteinelor în biomasa de spirulină a fost mai semnificativă la 3500 lx. Conţinutul de seleniu acumulat în fracţia de ficobiliproteine a înregistrat valori mai sporite cu majorarea concentraţiei selenitului de fier, fiind maxime la concentraţia acestuia de 45 mg/l la ambele intensităţi de iluminare. La 3500 lx conţinutul de seleniu în extractul sumar de ficobiliproteine a fost de 1,4-1,5 ori mai majorat, comparativ cu cel atestat la 5500 lx.EFFECTS OF Fe(III SELENITE AND LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE ACCUMULATION OF PHYCOBILIPROTEINS, SELENIUM AND IRON IN BIOMASS OF CYANOBACTERIUM SPIRULINA PLATENSISSpirulina productivity and iron content in biomass recorded higher values at light intensity 5500 lx, compared to 3500 lx, but phycobiliproteins accumulation in spirulina biomass was more significant at 3500 lx. The content of the accumulated selenium in the phycobiliproteins registered the increased values with the increasing of selenite concentra­tion, attesting its maximum value at 45 mg/l, at the both light intensity. Selenium content in the phycobiliproteins at 3500 lx was by 1.4-1.5 times higher, compared to that registered at 5500 lx.

  17. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  18. Calorimetric Study of Helix aspersa Maxima Hemocyanin Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Todinova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal unfolding of hemocyanin isoforms, β-HaH and αD+N-HaH, isolated from the hemolymph of garden snails Helix aspersa maxima, was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. One transition, with an apparent transition temperature (Tm at 79.88°C, was detected in the thermogram of β-HaH in 20 mM HEPES buffer, containing 0.1 M NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, and 5 mM MgCl2, pH 7.0, at scan rate of 1.0°C min−1. By means of successive annealing procedure, two individual transitions were identified in the thermogram of αD+N-HaH. Denaturation of both hemocyanins was found to be an irreversible process. The scan-rate dependence of the calorimetric profiles indicated that the thermal unfolding of investigated hemocyanins was kinetically controlled. The thermal denaturation of the isoforms β-HaH and αD+N-HaH was described by the two-state irreversible model, and parameters of the Arrhenius equation were calculated.

  19. Phenoloxidase activity of Helix aspersa maxima (garden snail, gastropod) hemocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynova, Yuliana; Doumanova, Lyuba; Idakieva, Krassimira Nikolova

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen-transporting protein, hemocyanin (Hc), of the garden snail Helix aspersa maxima (HaH) was isolated and kinetically characterized. Kinetic parameters of the reaction of catalytic oxidation of catechol to quinone, catalyzed by native HaH were determined: the V max value amounted to 22 nmol min(-1) mg(-1), k cat to 1.1 min(-1). Data were compared to those reported for other molluscan Hcs and phenoloxidases (POs). The o-diphenoloxidase activity of the native HaH is about five times higher than the activity determined for the Hcs of the terrestrial snail Helix pomatia and of the marine snail Rapana thomasiana (k cat values of 0.22 and 0.25 min(-1), respectively). The K m values obtained for molluscan Hcs from different species are comparable to those for true POs, but the low catalytic efficiency of Hcs is probably related to inaccessibility of the active sites to potential substrates. Upon treatment of HaH with subtilisin DY, the enzyme activity against substrate catechol was considerably increased. The relatively high proteolytically induced o-diPO activity of HaH allowed using it for preparation of a biosensor for detection of catechol.

  20. Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMA example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Radek; Balbi, Amedeo; Borrill, Julian D.; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hanany, Shaul; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Lee, Adrian T.; Oh, Sang; Rabii, Bahman; Richards, Paul L.; Smoot, George F.; Winant, Celeste D.; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2002-01-01

    This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXIMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

  1. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-01-01

    : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure bu...

  2. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Spirulina platensis on the expression of endothelial NO synthase in apoE-deficient mouse model of atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pešlová, Monika

    2008-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Spirulina platensis is a blue-green microalga belonging to the cyanobacteria family. Microalga is a large source of proteins and good fatty acid and other nutritional elements, for example iron, calcium, chromium, lithium, selenium. It also contains natural dyes chlorophyll, phycocyanin. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory were described. The aim of this thesis was to determine potencial hypolipidemic effects and potential effects on endothelium of Spirulina platensis in apoE-de...

  4. Extraction of nutraceuticals from Spirulina (blue-green alga): A bioorganic chemistry practice using thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together current research, theory, and practice, and always in accordance with pedagogical ideas. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. The influence of obesity on the effects of spirulina supplementation in the human metabolic response of Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immuno-modulation, antioxidant capacity, and lipid-lowering effect of spirulina in obese and non-obese Korean elderly. The subjects were 78 elderly aged 60-87 years. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects were fed either placebo or spirulina daily, at 8 g for 12 weeks. Subjects were divided into the non-obese group and the obese group based on body mass index (BMI) criteria for Asians suggested by the International Obesity Task Force: BMI effect on plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-2 concentration (P effects were not observed in the obese group. These results demonstrated that blood lipid lowering and immune and antioxidant improving response for spirulina supplement was affected by obesity in Korean elderly.

  6. Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A I Ali

    Full Text Available Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA in rat model were tested.We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

  7. Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahroojian, N; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk colour, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet. In total, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them into 5 groups, 32 birds in each. Except for the control group (based on wheat and soyabean meal), the feed for three other groups contained 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5% of Spirulina; while one group contained synthetic pigments (BASF Lucantin® yellow: 30 mg/kg, and BASF Lucantin® red: 35 mg/kg). Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight and egg yolk colour were determined. A significant increase in egg yolk colour was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina and synthetic pigment, compared with the control diet. There were no significant differences between the treatments with 2·5% Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour. Finally, the results indicated that the diet containing 2·5% Spirulina could be as effective as the diet with synthetic pigment in producing an agreeable egg yolk colour.

  8. Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eman A I; Barakat, Bassant M; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

  9. Antioxidant and Angiostatic Effect of Spirulina platensis Suspension in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eman A. I.; Barakat, Bassant M.; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. Results We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. Conclusions The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:25853428

  10. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis evaluated with broilers Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis avaliada com frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis, the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metabolic cages for 10 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions with five birds each. Diets consisted on a reference-ration based on corn and soybean meal and two test diets, one containing spirulina (30% and the other one with soybean meal (30%. Spiruline was superior to soybean meal for contents of dry matter (DM, gross energy (9.60%, crude protein (26.56%, ether extract (54.45%, mineral matter (42.77%, calcium (100% and total phosphorus (130.77% and also for most amino acids, except lysine, glutamate, histidine and proline. Nevertheless, spiruline presented lower values of gross fiber (83.95%, acid detergent fiber (85.12% and neutral detergent fiber (6.15. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg of DM were, respectively, 2,906 and 2,502 for the spirulina and 2,646 and 2,340 for the soybean meal and AMEn of spirulina was 6.92% higher than soybean meal.Objetivou-se determinar a composição química e energética da espirulina (Spirulina platensis, os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn em frangos de corte. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas com 90 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com peso inicial de 256 ± 5 g aos 11 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo durante dez dias, distribuídas em delineamento

  11. Suppression of phytopathogenic fungi by hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Samkeun; Cha, Byeong Jin

    2007-12-01

    The hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf exhibited antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  12. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  13. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  14. Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the north-western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Aswanikumar, V.

    The depth profiles of phytoplankton pigments in the north-western Bay of Bengal are generally characterizEd. by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. The occurrence of subsurface chlorophyll maxima is discussed in relation to other information on water...

  15. Variance analysis of forecasted streamflow maxima in a wet temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aamery, Nabil; Fox, James F.; Snyder, Mark; Chandramouli, Chandra V.

    2018-05-01

    Coupling global climate models, hydrologic models and extreme value analysis provides a method to forecast streamflow maxima, however the elusive variance structure of the results hinders confidence in application. Directly correcting the bias of forecasts using the relative change between forecast and control simulations has been shown to marginalize hydrologic uncertainty, reduce model bias, and remove systematic variance when predicting mean monthly and mean annual streamflow, prompting our investigation for maxima streamflow. We assess the variance structure of streamflow maxima using realizations of emission scenario, global climate model type and project phase, downscaling methods, bias correction, extreme value methods, and hydrologic model inputs and parameterization. Results show that the relative change of streamflow maxima was not dependent on systematic variance from the annual maxima versus peak over threshold method applied, albeit we stress that researchers strictly adhere to rules from extreme value theory when applying the peak over threshold method. Regardless of which method is applied, extreme value model fitting does add variance to the projection, and the variance is an increasing function of the return period. Unlike the relative change of mean streamflow, results show that the variance of the maxima's relative change was dependent on all climate model factors tested as well as hydrologic model inputs and calibration. Ensemble projections forecast an increase of streamflow maxima for 2050 with pronounced forecast standard error, including an increase of +30(±21), +38(±34) and +51(±85)% for 2, 20 and 100 year streamflow events for the wet temperate region studied. The variance of maxima projections was dominated by climate model factors and extreme value analyses.

  16. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  17. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  18. Deep silicon maxima in the stratified oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Crombet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silicon biogeochemical cycle has been studied in the Mediterranean Sea during late summer/early autumn 1999 and summer 2008. The distribution of nutrients, particulate carbon and silicon, fucoxanthin (Fuco, and total chlorophyll-a (TChl-a were investigated along an eastward gradient of oligotrophy during two cruises (PROSOPE and BOUM encompassing the entire Mediterranean Sea during the stratified period. At both seasons, surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the nutriclines gradually deepened towards the East, the phosphacline being the deepest in the easternmost Levantine basin. Following the nutriclines, parallel deep maxima of biogenic silica (DSM, fucoxanthin (DFM and TChl-a (DCM were evidenced during both seasons with maximal concentrations of 0.45 μmol L−1 for BSi, 0.26 μg L−1 for Fuco, and 1.70 μg L−1 for TChl-a, all measured during summer. Contrary to the DCM which was a persistent feature in the Mediterranean Sea, the DSM and DFMs were observed in discrete areas of the Alboran Sea, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ionian sea and the Levantine basin, indicating that diatoms were able to grow at depth and dominate the DCM under specific conditions. Diatom assemblages were dominated by Chaetoceros spp., Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudonitzschia spp. and the association between large centric diatoms (Hemiaulus hauckii and Rhizosolenia styliformis and the cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis was observed at nearly all sites. The diatom's ability to grow at depth is commonly observed in other oligotrophic regions and could play a major role in ecosystem productivity and carbon export to depth. Contrary to the common view that Si and siliceous phytoplankton are not major components of the Mediterranean biogeochemistry, we suggest here that diatoms, by persisting at depth during the stratified period, could contribute to a

  19. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  20. Isolation of an antihypertensive peptide from alcalase digest of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Ren, Di-Feng; Xue, You-Lin; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2010-06-23

    An angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide Ile-Gln-Pro with an IC(50) value of 5.77 +/- 0.09 microM was purified from the alcalase digests of Spirulina platensis by gel filtration chromatography and two steps of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was synthesized and showed resistance to in vitro digestion by gastrointestinal proteases. Kinetics studies indicated that the peptide was a noncompetitive inhibitor and that the K(i) value was 7.61 +/- 0.16 microM. Oral administration of Ile-Gln-Pro at a dosage of 10 mg/kg showed significant decreases of the weighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 4, 6, and 8 h after treatment. The results showed that the ACE inhibitory peptide from Spirulina platensis may have potential for use in the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  1. Isolation, purification and characterization of the hydrogen evolution promoting factor of hydrogenase of Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tian-Qing; Zhang, Hui-Miao; Sun, Shi-Hua

    1996-03-01

    A component (s-factor) with obvious promoting effect on hydrogen evolution of hydrogenase has been isolated and extracted from a cell-free preparation of Spirulina platensis. The effect of the s-factor in the reaction system is similar to that of Na2S2O4, but is coupled with light. The s-factor has the maximum absorption peak at 620 nm in the oxidized state, at 590 nm in the reduced state. The partially purified s-factor showed two bands by SDS-PAGE and is distinctly different from phycocyanin, which has no change of oxidized state and reduced state absorption spectra, and also has no promoting effect on hydrogenase of Spirulina platensis under the light.

  2. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; El-Shaer, E.A.; Ismaiel, M.M.S.; Shabana, E.F.; Gabr, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same

  3. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Li Y; Zhang Y; Chen T; Bai Y; Zhong X; Tang Q; Yang F; Zheng W

    2012-01-01

    Fang Yang1*, Quanming Tang1,2*, Xueyun Zhong3, Yan Bai1, Tianfeng Chen1, Yibo Zhang1, Yinghua Li1, Wenjie Zheng11Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2South China Seas Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccha...

  4. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: La culture de la tomate exige l'apport d'importantes quantités de pesticides et fertilisants chimiques, ce qui peut compromettre la qualité nutritionnelle des fruits produits et nuire à l'environnement. Cette étude visait à déterminer les effets biostimulants de Jatropha curcas et Spirulina platensis sur la croissance et le ...

  5. Decontaminative effect of irradiation on spirulina powder and its active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Liu Chunquan; Feng Min; Yu Gang; Liu Zhiling

    2007-01-01

    The decontaminative effects of 60 Co γ-rays, irradiation on spirulina powder and its main active components, such as mineral, vitamin, amino acid and activities of SOD and POD were studied. The results showed that the irradiation treatment was very effective on eliminating microorganism in spirulina powder, and the components varied with the irradiation dose. In the range of 4.0-8.0 kGy, the higher the irradiation dose is, the more the content of polysaccharide is. On the contrary, contents of phycobiliprotein, phycocyanins, vitamin and activities of SOD, POD decrease with the increase of dose. The number of microorganism in spirulina powder was controlled the national standard when irradiation dose was 6.0 kGy. Compared with CK, the ranges of all components in irradiated Spirulinal powder are just like that there was 27.2% increase in the content of polysaccharide if irradiation dose was 8 kGy, and the contents of Phycobiliprotein and Phycocyanins decreased significantly if dose was more than 6.0 kGy. When dose ranged from 4 kGy to 8 kGy, decrease ratios to contents of V c are 40.6%, 62.8%, 14.1%, contents of V A are 36.3%, 17.6%, 17.0%, contents of V E are 25.8%, 61.7%, 52.6%. On the base of these results, we conclude that the optimal doses for Spirulina powder irradiation is in the range of 4.0-6.0 kGy for the sake of various quality factors. (authors)

  6. Optimization of medium components using orthogonal arrays for Linolenic acid production by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work describes the medium optimization of '-Linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis using one-factor and orthogonal array design methods. In the one-factor experiments, NaHCO3 (9 mg L-1), NaNO3 (13.5 mg L-1) and MgSO4•7H2O (11.85 mg L-1) proved to be the best components for GLA p...

  7. Identification of immune protective genes of Eimeria maxima through cDNA expression library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XinChao; Li, MengHui; Liu, JianHua; Ji, YiHong; Li, XiangRui; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai

    2017-02-16

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most prevalent Eimeria species causing avian coccidiosis, and results in huge economic loss to the global poultry industry. Current control strategies, such as anti-coccidial medication and live vaccines have been limited because of their drawbacks. The third generation anticoccidial vaccines including the recombinant vaccines as well as DNA vaccines have been suggested as a promising alternative strategy. To date, only a few protective antigens of E. maxima have been reported. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel protective antigens of E. maxima for the development of neotype anticoccidial vaccines. With the aim of identifying novel protective genes of E. maxima, a cDNA expression library of E. maxima sporozoites was constructed using Gateway technology. Subsequently, the cDNA expression library was divided into 15 sub-libraries for cDNA expression library immunization (cDELI) using parasite challenged model in chickens. Protective sub-libraries were selected for the next round of screening until individual protective clones were obtained, which were further sequenced and analyzed. Adopting the Gateway technology, a high-quality entry library was constructed, containing 9.2 × 10 6 clones with an average inserted fragments length of 1.63 kb. The expression library capacity was 2.32 × 10 7 colony-forming units (cfu) with an average inserted fragments length of 1.64 Kb. The expression library was screened using parasite challenged model in chickens. The screening yielded 6 immune protective genes including four novel protective genes of EmJS-1, EmRP, EmHP-1 and EmHP-2, and two known protective genes of EmSAG and EmCKRS. EmJS-1 is the selR domain-containing protein of E. maxima whose function is unknown. EmHP-1 and EmHP-2 are the hypothetical proteins of E. maxima. EmRP and EmSAG are rhomboid-like protein and surface antigen glycoproteins of E. maxima respectively, and involved in invasion of the parasite. Our

  8. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., dan Nannochloropsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  9. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  10. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  11. Isolation of methyl gamma linolenate from Spirulina platensis using flash chromatography and its apoptosis inducing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubie, S; Dhanabal, S P; Chaitanya, M V N L

    2015-08-04

    Isolation of methyl gamma linolenate from Spirulina platensis using flash chromatography and its apoptosis inducing effect against human lung carcinoma A- 549 cell lines. Gamma linolenic acid is an important omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of medicinal interest was isolated from microalgae Spirulina platensis using flash chromatography system (Isolera system) as its methyl ester. The isolated methyl gamma linolenate was characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral analysis and the data were consistent with the structure. The percentage yield of isolated methyl gamma linolenate is found to be 71% w/w, which is a very good yield in comparison to other conventional methods. It was subjected to in-vitro cytotoxic screening on A-549 lung cancer cell lines using SRB assay and result was compared with standard rutin. It may be concluded that the Flash chromatography system plays a major role in improving the yield for the isolation of methyl gamma linoleate from Spirulina platensis and the isolated molecule is a potent cytotoxic agent towards human lung carcinoma cell lines, however it may be further taken up for an extensive study.

  12. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  13. Assessment of potential toxicological aspects of dietary exposure to silicon-rich spirulina in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidé, Joris; Romain, Cindy; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Bonafos, Béatrice; Cristol, Jean Paul; Fouret, Gilles; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Gaillet, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    Silicon has beneficial effects especially on bones and skin and is important in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Furthermore, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, it reduces hypertension and increases antihypertensive and antiatherogenic gene expressions in the aorta. Thus, incorporating silicon into spirulina could be a way to produce a bioavailable food supplement. The potential toxic effects of silicon-rich spirulina (SES) through haematological and biochemical parameters and inflammatory and oxidative status were evaluated in rats' blood and liver tissue. The study consisted in a 90-day experiment on female and male rats supplemented with three doses (28.5, 57 and 285 mg/kg BW/day) of SES. No mortality, abnormal clinical signs, behavioural changes or macroscopic findings were observed whatever the groups. Haematological parameters were not modified in SES treated-groups. No marked change was recorded in biochemical parameters The liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, catalase) activities were not modified whatever the gender and the dose, just as markers of oxidative stress (O2°(-), TBARS, thiols) and inflammation such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of silicon-rich spirulina on rats has no harmful side nor toxic effects and could be beneficial especially in the case of suspicion or installation of pathologies due to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attenuation of anti-tuberculosis therapy induced hepatotoxicity by Spirulina fusiformis, a candidate food supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sherry Joseph; Baskaran, Udhaya Lavinya; Vedi, Mahima; Sabina, Evan Prince

    2014-12-01

    Therapy using Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) leads to induction of hepatotoxicity in some individuals undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment. In this study, we assessed the effect of Spirulina fusiformis on INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity in rats compared with hepatoprotective drug Silymarin. Induction of hepatotoxicity was measured by changes in the liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase). The antioxidant status was also analyzed in liver tissue homogenate and plasma by measurement of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation levels. We also aimed to study the binding and interactions of the transcription factors Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) with INH, RIF, and representative active compounds of Spirulina fusiformis by in silico methods. The administration of INH and RIF resulted in significant (p Spirulina fusiformis was seen to protect the parameters from significant changes upon challenge with INH and RIF in a dose-dependent manner. This was corroborated by histological examination of the liver. The results of the in silico analyses further support the wet lab results.

  15. Arsenic-induced genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the role of Spirulina platensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M; Zahran, Eman

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most relevant environmental global single substance toxicants that have long been regarded as a carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. In this respect, we evaluated the cytogenetic effect of arsenic exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in terms of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phytoantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties supplementation. The protective role of Spirulina as supplementary feeds was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic-induced cytogenotoxicity. Four groups were assigned as control group (no SP or As), As group (exposed to water-born As in the form of NaAsO2 at 7 ppm), SP1 (SP at 7.5% + As at the same level of exposure), and SP2 (SP at 10% + As at the same level of exposure). As-treated group had a significant increase in all cytogenetic analyses including erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei after 2 weeks with continuous increase in response after 3 weeks. The combined treatment of Spirulina at two different concentrations of 7.5 and 10% had significantly declined the induction of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and micronuclei formation induced by arsenic intoxication.

  16. Combination of Spirulina with glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cognition enhancing effect of the combination of Spirulina and glycyrrhizin in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese aged rats. Obesity was induced in rats by administration of MSG (intraperitoneally, 4 mg/g body weight) for 14 consecutive days from day 1 after birth. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to grow for 18 months with food and water ad libitum. Hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, leptin resistance, were monitored in these animals. Cognitive status was assessed by Barne's maze task and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Further, the animals were treated with Spirulina (Sp) (oral route, 1 g/Kg body weight, for 30 days) alone or glycyrrhizin (Gly) alone (intraperitoneal route, 0.1 mg/Kg, on day 15 and day 21), or their combination (SpGly). Counting of the treatment days was done by considering first day of Sp administration as day 1. After the completion of 30 days of Spirulina treatment or 2 doses of Gly administration or the combination (SpGly) treatment, the animals were left for 3 weeks. They were then were assessed for their biochemical and cognitive changes. The combination of Sp with Gly showed a significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in glucose, cholesterol, leptin levels in the serum with improvement in cognitive functions with concomitant reduction in AChE activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates (P < 0.0001) of the obese rats. SpGly combination has a potential role in reversing cognitive dysfunctions associated with aging and obesity.

  17. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol Dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina Sp., Chlorella Sp., dan Nannochloropsis Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  18. Nutritional comparison of Spirulina sp powder by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Amalia, U.

    2018-01-01

    The Spirulina sp powder contains high levels of protein and Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) improved protein level. The aims of the study was to find the proximate contents in Spirulina sp’s powder fermentation. The experiments were conducted by SSF of Spirulina sp’s powder using fungi Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127). SSF was carried out for 10 days at 35% moisture level. The protein contents of Spirulina sp’s powder fermented by L. plantarum were consistently lower (p < 0.05) about 43.28% than compare with the other one about 46.12% (SSF by Aspergillus sp) until the end of fermentation. The Spirulina sp fermented products contained the highest level of protein after 6 days.

  19. Properties of the cyanobacterial coupling factor ATPase from Spirulina platensis. II. Activity of the purified and membrane-bound enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D B; Yocum, C F

    1986-02-15

    Cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis) photosynthetic membranes and isolated F1 ATPase were characterized with respect to ATP activity. The following results indicate that the regulation of expression of ATPase activity in Spirulina platensis is similar to that found in chloroplasts: the ATPase activity of Spirulina membranes and isolated F1 ATPase is mostly latent, a characteristic of chloroplast ATPase activity; treatments that elicit ATPase activity in higher plant chloroplast thylakoids and isolated chloroplast coupling factor (CF1) greatly stimulate the activity of Spirulina membranes and F1, and the cation specificity of chloroplast ATPase activity, e. g., light-induced membrane activity that is magnesium dependent and trypsin-activated CF1 activity that is calcium dependent, is also observed in Spirulina. Thus, an 8- to 15-fold increase in specific activity (to 13-15 mumol Pi min-1 mg chl-1) is obtained when Spirulina membranes are treated with trypsin (CaATPase) or with methanol (MgATPase): a light-induced, dithiothreitol-dependent MgATPase activity is also found in the membranes. Purified Spirulina F1 is a CaATPase when activated with trypsin (endogenous activity increases from 4 to 27-37 mumol Pi min-1 mg protein-1) or with dithiothreitol (5.6 mumol Pi min-1 mg-1), but a MgATPase when assayed with methanol (18-20 mumol Pi min-1 mg-1). The effects of varying calcium and ATP concentrations on the kinetics of trypsin-induced CaATPase activity of Spirulina F1 were examined. When the calcium concentration is varied at constant ATP concentration, the velocity plot shows a marked sigmoidicity. By varying Ca-ATP metal-nucleotide complex concentration at constant concentrations of free calcium or ATP, it is shown that the sigmoidicity is due to the effect of free ATP, which changes the Hill constant to 1.6 from 1.0 observed when the free calcium concentration is kept constant at 5 mM. Therefore not only is ATP an inhibitor but it is also an allosteric effector of

  20. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaoman; Yu, Lin; Lan, Guobing; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum . The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies for C. maxima wilt

  1. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman She

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies

  2. Bioremediation of surface water co-contaminated with zinc (II) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huijuan; Xia, Yunfeng; Chen, Hong

    Potential remediation of surface water contaminated with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and zinc (Zn (II)) by sorption on Spirulina platensis was studied using batch techniques. Results show that LAS can be biodegraded by Spirulina platensis, and its biodegradation rate after 5 days was 87%, 80%, and 70.5% when its initial concentration was 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L, respectively. The maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis was found to be 30.96 mg/g. LAS may enhance the maximum Zn (II) uptake capacity of Spirulina platensis, which can be attributed to an increase in bioavailability due to the presence of LAS. The biodegradation rates of LAS by Spirulina platensis increased with Zn (II) and reached the maximum when Zn (II) was 4 mg/L. The joint toxicity test showed that the combined effect of LAS and Zn (II) was Synergistic. LAS can enhance the biosorption of Zn (II), and reciprocally, Zn (II) can enhance LAS biodegradation.

  3. Effects of glucomannan/spirulina-surimi on liver oxidation and inflammation in Zucker rats fed atherogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Cholesterolemia is associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Glucomannan- or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched surimis were included in cholesterol-enriched high-saturated diets to test the effects on lipemia; antioxidant status (glutathione status, and antioxidant enzymatic levels, expressions and activities); and inflammation biomarkers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in Zucker fa/fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received diet containing squid-surimi (C), squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HC), glucomannan-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HG), or glucomannan-spirulina-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HGS) over a period of 7 weeks. HC diet induced severe hyperlipemia, hepatomegalia, increased inflammation markers, and impaired antioxidant status significantly (at least p spirulina in diet maintained the positive results observed in the HG diet but, in addition, increased inflammation index [eNOS/(eNOS + iNOS)] and decreased plasma TNF-α (both p spirulina blocks negative effects promoted by hypercholesterolemic diets. Although more studies are needed, present results suggest the utility of including glucomannan and/or spirulina as functional ingredients into fish derivates to be consumed by people on metabolic syndrome risk.

  4. Growth performance and nutrient composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed Spirulina flakes, rice bran and mustard oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, N; Noor, P; Abdullah, A T M; Hasan, M R; Ahmed, K M; Naser, M N

    2012-08-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important cultured fish that is widely distributed in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to improve the growth performance and nutrient contents of the fish using five different types of feeds. Tilapia fingerlings were fed two types of commercial fish feeds (Feed-1 and Feed-2), Spirulina flakes (Feed-3), Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4) and manually mixed feed made from a mixture of mustard oil cake and rice bran (Feed-5). After 4 weeks of being fed with the diets, growth parameters and meat nutrient composition of the tilapia fingerlings were recorded. Significant growth in length and weight was observed in juvenile tilapia fish fed with commercial Feed-1 only, while growth performance varied significantly among fingerlings fed other types of feeds. Body tissue calcium (92.8 mg/100 g), iron (1.29 mg/100 g) was higher in fishes fed with dry Spirulina flakes (Feed 3), while the highest amount of zinc (2.09 mg/100 g) was recorded in fishes fed Feed-5. Protein (13.32%) content was highest in fish fed Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4). Meat nutritional quality of tilapia can be improved by combining commercial feeds with Spirulina flakes, compared with feeding commercial feeds in isolation.

  5. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  6. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  7. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  8. Durability of Biomass Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaķītis, A.; Nulle, I.

    2006-01-01

    The main resources for biomass agro-ecotechnologies are cereal straw residues, energy crops and emergent vegetation from wetlands. The herbaceous biomass is a material of low density (20 – 60kg/m3) therefore new mobile equipment and technologies for biomass comminution and densification have to be worked out. To guarantee the quality of biomass briquettes in the handling and usage process, sufficient durability of briquettes should be provided. National Standards of biomass briquettes should ...

  9. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data: appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  10. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  11. Compositions of the volatile oils of Citrus macroptera and C. maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Virendra S; Blazquez, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the fresh peels of Citrus macroptera Montr. and C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of oil ranged from 0.53% in C. macroptera to 0.13% in C. maxima cultivar (white). Forty-seven compounds were identified in the oils with limonene (55.3-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (2.2-8.0%), geranial (0.4-3.5%), trans-linalool oxide (1.0-2.8%), alpha-terpineol (0.7-2.3%), linalool (0.7-1.5%) and cis-linalool oxide (0.5-1.4%) identified as major compounds. The oil ofC. macroptera contained limonene (55.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.7%) and geranial (3.5%) as main compounds. Similarly, oils from two C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were rich in limonene (72.0-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (8.0-7.2%) and nootkatone (1.6-2.5%). C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were found to contain higher amount of limonene (72.0 and 80.0%) as compared with C. macroptera (55.3%). The chemical compositions of the oils were found to be similar, but nootkatone (1.6-2.5%) was identified only in C. maxima cultivars.

  12. A new biomaterial of nanofibers with the microalga Spirulina as scaffolds to cultivate with stem cells for use in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, D; Lersch, M; Rosa, A; Scher, C; Crestani, T; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V; Pranke, P

    2013-04-01

    The association of stem cells (SCs) with biomaterials promises to be the protagonist for future regenerative medicine in the treatment of tissue and organ lesions. Stem cells were cultivated in scaffolds constructed by the electrospinning technique, using poly-D,L-lactic acid (PDLLA) associated or not with Spirulina biomass (PDLLA/Sp), which has bioactive components of interest for tissue engineering (TE). Physicochemical analyses were performed, such as morphology, fiber diameter, degradability, residual solvent, roughness, contact angle with water, among others. SCs adhesion, proliferation and scaffold cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Nanofibers without beads and with characteristics similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) in terms of mechanical and topographical properties were obtained. In biological tests it was found that SCs adhered more and had greater viability in the PDLLA/Sp molds, when compared with the PDLLA scaffolds. The scaffolds were shown to be atoxic for the SCs. It can be concluded that the scaffolds developed in this work have the characteristics to be a new biomaterial suitable for use in TE.

  13. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men.

  14. Dietary silicon-enriched spirulina improves early atherosclerosis markers in hamsters on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidé, Joris; Virsolvy, Anne; Romain, Cindy; Ramos, Jeanne; Jouy, Nicolas; Richard, Sylvain; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Gaillet, Sylvie; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary silicon-enriched spirulina (SES) on atherosclerosis. Hamsters (six per group) on a high-fat (HF) diet received SES or non-enriched spirulina (both at 57 mg/kg body weight) daily. This corresponded to 0.57 mg silicon/kg body weight daily. The HF diet induced dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. Compared with the HF group, SES attenuated increases of lipemia and prevented insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.001). SES protected against oxidative stress through a reduction of heart (P = 0.006) and liver (P spirulina and silicon were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  16. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125–0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work. PMID:29190763

  17. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  18. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  19. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  20. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  1. Short Communication: Genetic linkage map of Cucurbita maxima with molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Li, X; Yang, X X; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-05-22

    Cucurbita maxima is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables in China and exhibits distinct morphological characteristics. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with 57 simple-sequence repeats, 21 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 3 random-amplified polymorphic DNA, and one morphological marker revealed 20 genetic linkage groups of C. maxima covering a genetic distance of 991.5 cM with an average of 12.1 cM between adjacent markers. Genetic linkage analysis identified the simple-sequence repeat marker 'PU078072' 5.9 cM away from the locus 'Rc', which controls rind color. The genetic map in the present study will be useful for better mapping, tagging, and cloning of quantitative trait loci/gene(s) affecting economically important traits and for breeding new varieties of C. maxima through marker-assisted selection.

  2. Extreme value theory (EVT) application on estimating the distribution of maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, F. A.; Nurrohmah, S.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has emerged as one of the most important statistical theories for the applied sciences. EVT provides a firm theoretical foundation for building a statistical model describing extreme events. The feature that distinguish extreme value analysis than other statistical analysis is the ability to quantify the behavior of unusually large values even when those values are scarce. One of the key results from EVT is the ability to estimate the distribution of maximum value, that usually called as maxima, using the asymptotic argument. In order to build such models, the Fisher-Tippett theorem which specifies the form of the limit distribution for transformed maxima will be greatly used. Furthermore, it can be shown that there are only three families of possible limit laws for distribution of maxima, which are the Gumbel, Frechet, and Weibull distributions. These three distributions can be expressed in a single distribution function called the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution.

  3. Time spans between price maxima and price minima in stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yongjie; Li, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    We empirically investigate the distribution of time spans between price maxima and price minima in international stock markets, where a time span is defined as the time interval between a local price minimum and a local price maximum, and local price extrema are identified by a method introduced by Preis and Stanley (Preis et al. (2011), Preis (2011), Preis and Stanley (2011, 2010), Preis (2010), Preis and Stanley (2010), Stanley et al. (2010), Preis and Stanley (2009)). The empirical results show that both the tail distributions of time spans from local price maxima to local price minima and the tail distributions of time spans from local price minima to local price maxima yield an exponential distribution. In addition, price rise/fall asymmetry is observed by comparing the values of the exponents of the distribution curves. These results are robust across eight representative stock markets.

  4. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  5. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and...

  6. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  7. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  8. Supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Improves Lifespan and Locomotor Activity in Paraquat-Sensitive DJ-1βΔ93Flies, a Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Christian, Pearl K; Panchal, Komal; Guruprasad, B R; Tiwari, Anand K

    2017-09-03

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) consumed by humans and other animals because of its nutritional values and pharmacological properties. Apart from high protein contents, it also contains high levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as carotenoids, β-carotene, phycocyanin, and phycocyanobilin, indicating its possible pharmaco-therapeutic utility. In the present study using DJ-1β Δ93 flies, a Parkinson's disease model in Drosophila, we have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of spirulina and its active component C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in the improvement of lifespan and locomotor behavior. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of spirulina significantly improves the lifespan and locomotor activity of paraquat-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Furthermore, supplementation of spirulina and C-PC individually and independently reduced the cellular stress marked by deregulating the expression of heat shock protein 70 and Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling in DJ-1β Δ93 flies. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in spirulina-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies tends to indicate the involvement of antioxidant properties associated with spirulina in the modulation of stress-induced signaling and improvement in lifespan and locomotor activity in Drosophila DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Our results suggest that antioxidant boosting properties of spirulina can be used as a nutritional supplement for improving the lifespan and locomotor behavior in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Credentials of Spirulina diet on stability and flux related properties on the biomineralization process during oxalate mediated renal calcification in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shukkur Muhammed; Ebrahim, Abdul Shukkur; Asokan, Devarajan; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Savitha, Sethumadhavan; Rajesh, Nachiappa Ganesh; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2005-12-01

    High Spirulina diet is a potential risk factor for nephrolithiasis since it has the capacity to increase urinary oxalate and uric acid level, facilitating lithogenesis. Our aim was to identify the effect of Spirulina diet during hyperoxaluric condition in Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four groups: control (Gl, n=6); ethylene glycol (EG) induced (G2, n=6); EG+Spirulina (G3, n=6); Spirulina alone (G4, n=6). EG at 0.75% was administered to G2 and G3 through drinking water for 4 weeks and Spirulina 1500 mg/kg feed was administered to G3 and G4. Urinary parameters like oxalate, uric acid, calcium, urea, and creatinine (PSpirulina diet under hyperoxaluric conditions compared to the same without Spirulina diet. Similarly the BUN, plasma contents of uric acid, urea, creatinine (PSpirulina diet alone (G4) did not induce any features relating to stone forming condition suggesting that free radical release might have been suppressed due to enrichment of dietary antioxidants and vitamins. Thus the present investigation demonstrates that during hyperoxaluric conditions the Spirulina diet must possibly be avoided and can be considered in normal subjects checked for family history of renal stone deposition.

  10. Inhibitory effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis on corneal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingling; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yiqiang; Wang, Ye; Liu, Ting

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis (PSP) on corneal neovascularization (CNV) in vivo and in vitro. Methods PSP was extracted from dry powder of Spirulina platensis. Its anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in the mouse corneal alkali burn model after topical administration of PSP four times daily for up to seven days. Corneal samples were processed for histochemical, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analyses. The effects of PSP on proliferation, migration, tube formation, and serine threonine kinase (AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling levels in vascular endothelial cells were determined using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeling assays, wound healing assay, Matrigel tube formation assay, and western blot. Results Topical application of PSP significantly inhibited CNV caused by alkali burn. Corneas treated with PSP showed reduced levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) proteins, reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), SDF1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs, and an increased level of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) mRNA. These are parameters that have all been related to CNV and/or inflammation. In human vascular endothelial cells, PSP significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PSP also decreased the levels of activated AKT and ERK 1/2. Conclusions These data suggest that polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis is a potent inhibitor of CNV and that it may be of benefit in the therapy of corneal diseases involving neovascularization and inflammation. PMID:19784394

  11. Phyocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis assisted by ultrasound irradiation: effect of time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina platensis using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was conducted by using variable of extraction time, temperature and ultrasound frequency, while ethanol was used as solvent. The results show that the yield of phycocyanin extract was 15.97% at constant frequency of 42 kHz and 11.24% at constant frequency of 28 kHz, while the soxhlet extraction method obtained yield at 11.13%. The ultrasound could reduce the extraction time from 4 hrs (conventional to 20 minutes, while the optimum temperature of extraction was found at 55°C.

  12. Isolation of plasmid from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Tong, Shun; Zhang, Peijun; Tseng, C. K.

    1993-09-01

    CCC plasmid was isolated from an economically important blue-green alga — Spirulina platensis (1.7×106 dalton from the S6 strain and 1.2×106 dalton from the F3 strain) using a rapid method based on ultrasonic disruption of algal cells and alkaline removal of chromosomal DNA. The difference in the molecular weight of the CCC DNAs from the two strains differing in form suggests that plasmid may be related with the differentiation of algal form. This modified method, which does not use any lysozyme, is a quick and effective method of plasmid isolation, especially for filamentous blue-green algae.

  13. The improvement of phycocyanin stability extracted from Spirulina sp using extrusion encapsulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, Meiny; Hadiyanto, Sutanto, Heri; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Majid, Dian; Setyawan, Deny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    The stability of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae Spirulina has been evaluated and it showed that the stability of this antioxidant was affected by temperature and pH changes. The encapsulation technique was of the alternatives to overcome this stability changes. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of coating materials (alginate and chitosan) during encapsulation by using extrusion technique. The experiments were conducted with variation of alginate as coating materials. The size of each microcapsules was evaluated by using SEM/XRD for its size and homogeneity.

  14. Further purification and structural analysis of calcium spirulan from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J B; Hayashi, T; Hayashi, K; Sankawa, U; Maeda, M; Nemoto, T; Nakanishi, H

    1998-09-01

    An antiviral sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), isolated from Spirulina platensis, was subjected to further purification. Ca-SP was found to be composed of rhamnose, 3-O-methylrhamnose (acofriose), 2,3-di-O-methylrhamnose, 3-O-methylxylose, uronic acids, and sulfate. The backbone of Ca-SP consisted of 1,3-linked rhamnose and 1,2-linked 3-O-methylrhamnose units with some sulfate substitution at the 4-position. The polymer was terminated at the nonreducing end by 2,3-di-O-methylrhamnose and 3-O-methylxylose residues.

  15. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  16. Effects of kelp Ecklonia maxima inclusion in formulated feed on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of kelp Ecklonia maxima inclusion in formulated feeds on abalone growth and gut bacterial communities has not been previously investigated in South Africa. An eight-month on-farm growth trial was conducted with sub-adult Haliotis midae (~43 mm shell length) fed graded levels of kelp in formulated feeds.

  17. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment

  18. An Example of Competence-Based Learning: Use of Maxima in Linear Algebra for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana; Garcia, Alfonsa; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in a model of learning based on competences. The proposal is an e-learning model Linear Algebra course for Engineering, which includes the use of a CAS (Maxima) and focuses on problem solving. A reference model has been taken from the Spanish Open University. The proper use of CAS is…

  19. Different AT-rich satellite DNAs in Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganal, M; Hemleben, V

    1986-11-01

    The AT-rich highly repeated satellite DNA of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) were cloned and their DNA structure was investigated. DNA sequencing revealed that the repeat length of satellite DNA in Cucurbita pepo is 349-352 base pairs. The percentage of AT-base pairs is about 61%. This satellite is highly conserved in restriction enzyme pattern and DNA sequence; sequence heterogeneity is about 10%. In contrast, the satellite DNA of Cucurbita maxima has a repeat length of 168-169 base pairs. This satellite is also rich in AT-base pairs (64%), existing in at least three different variants as revealed by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing. The sequence heterogeneity between these variants is about 15%. The two satellite DNAs showed no cross-hybridization to each other and sequence homology is only limited. Nevertheless, we found in the C. pepo genome a high amount of sequences resembling the satellite of C. maxima. In contrast, the satellite repeat of C. pepo is found in the C. maxima DNA only in a few copies. These observations were discussed with respect to satellite DNA evolution and compared to the data received from monocotyledonous species.

  20. Maxima soovib kukkuval turul kiiret kasvu jätkata / Katre Pilvinski, Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi tarbimise vähenemise tulemusel vähenes 2008. aastal jaemüügi kasv, suutis Maxima kaubanduskett kasvatada siinsel turul käivet pea poole võrra. Vt. samas: Kiratsevat jaemüüki hoidsid üleval ravimid ja toit. Diagramm

  1. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...

  2. Rikkad ja ilusad protestivad Maxima säästupoe vastu / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Pirital asuva Merivälja tee 80e kinnistu eskiisprojektist, mis ei vasta kehtestatud detailplaneeringule. Elanikud protestivad plaani vastu rajada elukohta lähedale Maxima säästuketi pood. Hoone arhitektuurse lahenduse autor on Tõnis Tarbe Arhitektuuribüroo

  3. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  4. Microeconomic theory and computation applying the maxima open-source computer algebra system

    CERN Document Server

    Hammock, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step-by-step tutorial for using Maxima, an open-source multi-platform computer algebra system, to examine the economic relationships that form the core of microeconomics in a way that complements traditional modeling techniques.

  5. Estimating return levels from maxima of non-stationary random sequences using the Generalized PWM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ribereau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work of Landwehr et al. (1979, Hosking et al. (1985 and their collaborators, the Probability Weighted Moments (PWM method has been very popular, simple and efficient to estimate the parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution when modeling the distribution of maxima (e.g., annual maxima of precipitations in the Identically and Independently Distributed (IID context. When the IID assumption is not satisfied, a flexible alternative, the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE approach offers an elegant way to handle non-stationarities by letting the GEV parameters to be time dependent. Despite its qualities, the MLE applied to the GEV distribution does not always provide accurate return level estimates, especially for small sample sizes or heavy tails. These drawbacks are particularly true in some non-stationary situations. To reduce these negative effects, we propose to extend the PWM method to a more general framework that enables us to model temporal covariates and provide accurate GEV-based return levels. Theoretical properties of our estimators are discussed. Small and moderate sample sizes simulations in a non-stationary context are analyzed and two brief applications to annual maxima of CO2 and seasonal maxima of cumulated daily precipitations are presented.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study for Response to Eimeria maxima Challenge in Broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Hérault, Frédéric

    Use of genetic tools for improvement of host’s response is considered as a promising complementary approach for coccidiosis control. Therefore, we performed genome wide association study (GWAS) for response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. The challenge was done on 2024 Cobb500 broilers. ...

  7. Effects of Two Isolates of E. Maxima on the Pigmentation and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of infections with the two isolates of E. maxima on four different ages of broiler chickens revealed that feces of the older infected broiler chickens were more watery and contained more blood than those of the younger infected broiler chickens (4 days old). Death resulting from coccidiosis was greatest at D+6 and ...

  8. Is Maxima a Wal-Mart in sheep's clothing? / Todd Graham

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graham, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Nii USA-s kui Leedus tegutsev teadlane Randy Richards uuris Ida-Euroopas jõudsalt laienenud kaubaketi Maxima ja USA Wal-Mart-i turu hõivamise, -positsiooni ja -strateegiate sarnasusi ja erinevusi. Vt. samas: Baltic retail continues to thrive. Kaubanduskeskuste ehitusbuum Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus

  9. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  10. Development of a Pilot Process for the Production of c-Phycocyanin from Spirulina sp. in Northern Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Villagra Gil, Diego Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Descripción del desarrollo de un proceso piloto para la extracción de c-ficocianina a partir de biomasa Spirulina sp. en base a operaciones unitarias sencillas y escalables. Centro Interdisciplinario de Líquidos Iónicos, Universidad de Chile Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile

  11. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníčková, R.; Vaňková, K.; Vaníková, J.; Váňová, K.; Muchová, L.; Subhanová, I.; Zadinová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, S.; Ruml, T.; Wong, R.J.; Vítek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 1665-2681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : bilirubin * chlorophyll * heme oxygenase * phycocyanin * phycocyanobilin * Spirulina platensis * tetrapyrroles Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2014

  12. [Phylogenetic comparison between Spirulina and Arthrospira based on 16S rRNA and rpoC1 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuemei; Wang, Suying; Dong, Shirui

    2016-02-04

    Based on 16S rRNA and rpoC1 gene sequences, the phylogenetic relationship between Spirulina and Arthrospira were studied and compared. We amplified, sequenced and analyzed 16S rRNA and rpoC1 of 84 strains. Then the phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared. The conserved sites percentage, average G+C content and sequence identity of rpoC1 were 49.7%, 47.7%, 76%-100% respectively, significantly lower than 79.4%, 55.6% and 91%-100% of 16S rRNA, and the heterogeneity degree was higher. The trees generated with two different genes showed similar topologies and thus inferred consistent phylogenetic relationships. Eighty-four experimental strains were divided into 3 groups belonging to 2 genera: F-35 1, F-904-2, F-1070 and TJBC14 were Spirulina and the rest were Arthrospira. Although morphospecies and geographical species could not be distinguished based on 16S rRNA and rpoC1 gene sequences, the bootstrap value of rpoC1 (100%) was higher than that of 16S rRNA (99%). Moreover, clustering effect of rpoC1 for Spirulina and Arthrospirai was better than 16S rRNA. Spirulina and Arthrospira were different genera, rpoC1 gene has more advantage to distinguish the strains in the same genus than that of 16S rRNA gene.

  13. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Wing; Takayama, Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4+/CD8+) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression. PMID:23170052

  14. Effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Md; Hossain, Md Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163).

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  16. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  17. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3% had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7% had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12 and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22 by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Maria-Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Dragan, Simona; Stoichescu-Hogea, Gheorghe; Ursoniu, Sorin; Andrica, Florina; Banach, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    The impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations has not been conclusively studied. Therefore the aim of the meta-analysis was to assess the effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. We searched PubMed and Scopus (up to July 03, 2015) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigate the effect Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using random-effects models. Random-effect meta-analysis of data from 7 RCTs showed a significant effect of supplementation with spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: -46.76 mg/dL, 95% CI: -67.31 to -26.22, p spirulina on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (slope: -1.32; 95% CI: -8.58 to 5.93; p = 0.720), LDL-C (slope: -1.01; 95% CI: -8.03 to 6.02; p = 0.778), triglycerides (slope: -1.39; 95% CI: -4.26 to 1.48; p = 0.342) and HDL-C (slope: 1.79, 95% CI: -0.48 to 4.05; p = 0.122) was independent of administered dose. Regarding duration of supplementation with Spirulina, significant associations were found with changes in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (slope: -1.77; 95% CI: -3.48 to -0.07; p = 0.042), LDL-C (slope: -1.73; 95% CI: -3.40 to -0.06; p = 0.042) HDL-C (slope: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.68-1.14; p Spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and elevating those of HDL-C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Salem, Amel

    2012-04-12

    Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment.The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months) and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ), Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX) and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3%) had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7%) had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12) and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22) by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group. Our results could suggest a therapeutically

  20. [Contribution of supplementation by spirulina to the performance of school children in an introductory course in Dakar (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Anta Tal; Camara, Maty Diagne; Ndiaye, Papa; Faye, Adama; Wone, Issa; Gueye, B C; Seck, Ibrahima; Diongue, Mayassine

    2009-01-01

    Senegal initiated a program to improve the nutritional status of school-age children with the use of spirulina. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spirulina on academic performance of school children in the municipality of Dakar, Senegal. The evaluation was conducted as a prospective study, comparing school performance of schoolchildren from public elementary schools located in three National Education Departments of Dakar (before supplements, during and after). The study population consisted of students from six schools randomly selected among the 100 who were in the program. We included all children with agreement of their parent or guardian, and those who rejected the spirulina were not included. Supplemental feeding with spirulina was given to young children during two months (from mid-April to mid June 2005). Over these 60 days, the students took a daily dose of 2 grams of spirulina mixed with 10g of honey to make the taste acceptable. The data on age, gender and monitoring of school performance (i.e. the average compositions of the second and third quarters) were collected. Mean differences in grades between second quarter and third quarter (after two months of supplementation) were analyzed and compared by the paired student test. The sample size was a total of 549 schoolchildren: 273 (49.72%) were girls, and 276 (50.28%) boys. The mean age was 91 months [90.29-91.71]. The average of 2rd quarter marks before supplementation was 5.17 out of 10 IC = [4.99-5.35] and the same for the 3rd quarter after two months of supplementation was 5.78 out of 10 IC = [5.59-5.97]. The mean difference between pupils' marks at the 3rd and the 2nd trimester was 0.59 (p academic performance of the children was improved.

  1. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Hind M; Soliman, Eman M

    2015-10-01

    This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were done. FMDV titer for each type of treated FMDV was calculated to evaluate the antiviral activity of the Spirulina extract against FMDV. Furthermore, old baby Swiss mice were inoculated with 0.1 ml intraperitonially from the mixture of FMDV different types and different concentration of Spirulina extracts. After 48 h post inoculation, all the baby mice examined to evaluate the antiviral action of Spirulina extract. The result showed that the non-toxic doses of S. platensis (50 ug/ml) revealed 35.7%, 28.5%, and 31% reductions in FMDV titers Type O, A, and SAT2 on BHK cells, respectively. The same non-toxic dose gave 50% of the inhibitory concentration in baby mice without cytotoxic effect. This study confirmed the biological activity of the ethanol extract of S. platensis against FMDV Types O, A, and SAT2. From the results, S. platensis could be useful as antiviral lead to limitation of infection among animals during outbreaks but further studies need to evaluate the S. platensis on experimental or natural infected farm animals to establish the effective dose side affected period of treatment of S. platensis.

  2. Expressions of ion co-transporter genes in salicylate-induced tinnitus and treatment effects of spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2016-09-02

    Although the activity of tinnitus-related ion co-transporter are known, their mRNA expressions has seldom been reported. We aimed to investigate the mRNA expressions of tinnitus-related ion co-transporter genes, and treatment effects of Spirulina. The mRNA expressions of K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) and Na-K-2Cl co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) genes in the cochlea and brain of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The effects of spirulina water extract on these gene expressions were investigated. Compared to the control group, the tinnitus scores increased significantly, however, the salicylate-induced tinnitus could be reduced significantly by spirulina water extract. The tinnitus group had higher of borderline significance mRNA expression of KCC2 gene in the cochlear, significantly higher in the temporal lobes and in the frontal lobes. Meanwhile, compared to the tinnitus group, the spirulina group had significantly lower mRNA expression of KCC2 gene in the cochlear, temporal lobes, frontal lobes and parahippocampus/hippocampus. However, the NKCC1 mRNA expression was not significantly different between three groups in the cochlea and these brain areas. Salicylate-induced tinnitus might be associated with increased mRNA expression of KCC2 gene, but not with mRNA expressions of NKCC1 gene in the cochlear and some tinnitus-related brain areas. Spirulina reduced the expression of KCC2 genes in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

  3. Metagenome from a Spirulina digesting biogas reactor: analysis via binning of contigs and classification of short reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vimac; Peces, Miriam; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E

    2015-12-17

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which a consortium of microorganisms transforms a complex substrate into methane and carbon dioxide. A good understanding of the interactions between the populations that form this consortium can contribute to a successful anaerobic digestion of the substrate. In this study we combine the analysis of the biogas production in a laboratory anaerobic digester fed with the microalgae Spirulina, a protein rich substrate, with the analysis of the metagenome of the consortium responsible for digestion, obtained by high-throughput DNA sequencing. The obtained metagenome was also compared with a metagenome from a full scale biogas plant fed with cellulose rich material. The optimal organic loading rate for the anaerobic digestion of Spirulina was determined to be 4.0 g Spirulina L(-1) day(-1) with a specific biogas production of 350 mL biogas g Spirulina (-1) with a methane content of 68 %. Firmicutes dominated the microbial consortium at 38 % abundance followed by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Thermotogae. Euryarchaeota represented 3.5 % of the total abundance. The most abundant organism (14.9 %) was related to Tissierella, a bacterium known to use proteinaceous substrates for growth. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales dominated the archaeal community. Compared to the full scale cellulose-fed digesters, Pfam domains related to protein degradation were more frequently detected and Pfam domains related to cellulose degradation were less frequent in our sample. The results presented in this study suggest that Spirulina is a suitable substrate for the production of biogas. The proteinaceous substrate appeared to have a selective impact on the bacterial community that performed anaerobic digestion. A direct influence of the substrate on the selection of specific methanogenic populations was not observed.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  5. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  6. Ultraviolet-B induced damage to photosystem II in intact filaments of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, B.K.; Tiwari, S.; Mohanty, P. [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Schoof of Life Sciences

    1998-05-01

    When Spirulina platensis filaments were exposed to 0.75 mW x m{sup -2} x s{sup -1} of ultraviolet-B radiation (the ultraviolet-B radiation under clear sky condition is {proportional_to}1.0 mW x m{sup -2} x s{sup -1}), an inhibition in photosystem II activity was observed, the inhibition being 90% after 90 min exposure. Upon exposure to ultraviolet-B, the room temperature emission characteristics of Spirulina cells were altered when excited with light primarily absorbed by chlorophyll a or phycobilisomes. When the cells were exposed for 3 h the emission at 685 nm (F{sub 685}), when excited at 440 nm (primarily chlorophyll a absorption), was enhanced compared to 715 nm (F{sub 715}) band of photosystem I suggesting a decrease in energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I. Similarly, when the cells were excited at 580 nm (primarily the phycobilisomes), the ratio of emission intensity at 685 nm (F{sub 685}) to that of 655 nm (F{sub 655}) was decreased in the exposed cells. This change in emission characteristics seems to be linked with the uncoupling of the energy transfer from all phycocyanin to chlorophyll a of photosystem II. A small shift in emission peak positions was also indicated when excited either at 440 nm or 580 nm. (orig./AJ)

  7. Polysaccharides in Spirulina platensis Improve Antioxidant Capacity of Chinese-Style Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aiguo; Feng, Jia; Hu, Bianfang; Lv, Junping; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Xie, Shulian

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the effect of Spirulina platensis polysaccharides (SPP) at 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (wt/wt) of Chinese-style sausages on lipid peroxidation, microbiological and sensory properties during 24 d stored at 4 °C. During the storage, pH, lightness (L * ) values, DPPH radical scavenging activity and sensory scores decreased with time and TBARS, TVB-N, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic total viable counts increased. However, the magnitude of the changes was attenuated with the addition of SPP as compared to control. Samples containing SPP had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lower TBARS values compared with the control, and the antioxidant effect was dose-dependent. The addition of 0.5% SPP maintained stable redness (a * ) values of sausages, although there was no positive effect on the microbiological status. Moreover, the addition of SPP prevented the decrease of aroma, flavor and sensory acceptance of samples. The results suggested incorporation of SPP could decrease lipid peroxidation and improve sensory properties of Chinese-style sausage. There is a great need for adding natural antioxidants to healthier meat and meat products. Spirulina platensis polysaccharides (SPP) had strong antioxidant activity. The addition of SPP to Chinese-style pork sausage could inhibit lipid peroxidation, to extend the shelf life of meat products. SPP were very potential to be used to replace synthetic antioxidants in meat and meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Biomass valorization; La valorisation de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, M. [Groupe d' Analyse Thematique (France)

    2006-09-15

    Biomass is the photosynthesis product of carbon dioxide and water, made by the solar energy capture by plants (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + solar energy hydrocarbons). It is this carbon which, at the end of the cycle, after fossilization, gives petroleum, gas and coal. But before being in this state, the biomass deposits are diversified and available all over the world. (O.M.)

  9. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 polymorphism interaction with spirulina immunomodulatory effects in healthy Korean elderly: A 16 week, double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina is a known a functional food related to lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level is associated with inflammation markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter region -2518 have been identified and shown to affect gene transcription. Gene variation may also impact functional food supplementary effects. The current study investigated the interaction of MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism with spirulina supplements on anti-inflammatory capacity in Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS After genotyping, healthy elderly subjects (n = 78) were included in a randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Baseline characteristic, body composition, and dietary intake were measured twice (baseline vs. week 16). For 16 weeks, subjects consumed 8 g either spirulina or placebo daily. Plasma MCP-1, interleukin (IL) -2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, complement (C) 3, immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and Ig A concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR) were analyzed as inflammatory markers. RESULTS In the placebo group with A/A genotype, MCP-1 level was significantly increased, but the spirulina group with A/A genotype was unchanged. IL-2 was significantly increased only in subjects with spirulina supplementation. TNF-α was significantly reduced in subjects with the G carrier. C3 was significantly increased in the placebo group, particularly when A/A increased more than G, but not when spirulina was ingested. LPR was significantly different only in subjects with A/A genotype; there was a significant increase in phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide induced LPR in the spirulina group. CONCLUSION In healthy Korean elderly, spirulina supplementation may influence different inflammatory markers by the MCP-1 genotype. These results may be useful for customized dietary guidelines to improve immune function in Koreans. PMID:28765775

  10. Effects of dietary Spirulina on antioxidant status, lipid profile, immune response and performance characteristics of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Objective Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue-green algae but more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira). This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat-exposed broilers. Methods Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615.6 g at 17 days of age were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 chicks. Treatment groups were as follows: positive and negative controls with 0% Spirulina supplement and three Spirulina receiving groups with 5 g/kg (0.5%), 10 g/kg (1%), and 20 g/kg (2%) supplementation. Spirulina receiving groups as well as positive control were exposed to high ambient temperature at 36°C for 6 h/d from 38 to 44 days of age. Biochemical variables were measured in serum samples at 35, 38, 42, and 45 days of broiler chickens age. Results The results showed that supplementation of the diet with Spirulina decreased concentration of stress hormone and some serum lipid parameters while enhanced humoral immunity response and elevated antioxidant status whereas it didn’t meaningfully affect performance characteristics. Nevertheless, feed conversion ratio was improved numerically but not statistically in broilers fed with 1% Spirulina under high ambient temperature. Conclusion Overall, the present study suggests that alleviation of adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature at biochemical level including impaired enzymatic antioxidant system, elevated stress hormone and lipid profile can be approached in broiler chickens through supplementation of the diet with Spirulina platensis. PMID:28920419

  11. Vliv Spirulina platensis na atergoneze u apoE-deficientního myšího modelu aterosklerózy

    OpenAIRE

    Rusnoková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a blue-green microalga belonging to the cyanobacteria family. Microalga is a large source of proteins and good fatty acid and other nutritional elements, for example iron, calcium, chromium, lithium, selenium. It also contains natural dyes chlorophyll, phycocyanin. Its antioxidant and antiinflammatory were described. The aim of this thesis was to determine potencial hypolipidemic and antiinflammatory effects Spirulina platensis in apoE-deficient mice. ApoE-deficient mic...

  12. Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis) avaliada com frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Cantarelli, Vinícius de Souza; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Silva Júnior, José Walter da; Silva, Leonardo Rafael da; Santos, Luziane Moreira dos; Pereira, Luciano José

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis), the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metab...

  13. Investigation on the role of Spirulina platensis in ameliorating behavioural changes, thyroid dysfunction and oxidative stress in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pratusha, N Gouri; Annamalai, A R

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing sodium fluoride-induced thyroid, neurodevelopment and oxidative alterations in offspring of pregnant rats. The total antioxidant activity, phycocyanins, and β carotene content were quantified in Spirulina. Thirty female pregnant rats were allocated to six groups and treatment initiated orally from embryonic day (ED) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 15. Treatment groups included control, Spirulina alone, sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) alone, and sodium fluoride along with Spirulina (250 and 500 mg/kg). Serum fluoride levels were determined on ED 20 and PND 11. Offspring were subjected to behavioural testing, estimation of thyroid levels, oxidative measurements in brain mitochondrial fraction and histological evaluation of the cerebellum. Fluoride-induced alterations in thyroid hormones, behaviour and increased oxidative stress. Spirulina augmented the displacement of fluoride, facilitated antioxidant formation, improved behaviour and protected Purkinje cells. Supplementing Spirulina during pregnancy could reduce the risk of fluoride toxicity in offspring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of pycnogenol and spirulina on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in adult male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z; Said, Mona A; Badawi, Marwa S; El-Bakary, Reda H

    2016-08-01

    Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to occur in 5%-25% of patients who were administered with it. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. We evaluated the possible protective effects of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress. Forty-nine rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: group I, control; group II, received spirulina 1000 mg/kg per day; group III, received pycnogenol 200 mg/kg per day; group IV, received vancomycin 200 mg/kg per day every 12 h; group V, (spirulina + vancomycin); group VI, (pycnogenol + vancomycin); and group VII, (pycnogenol + spirulina + vancomycin). At the end of the experiment, kidney functions were estimated and then the kidneys were removed, weighed, and sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. Administration of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal malondialdehyde, and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), autophagic marker protein (LC3/B), and inducible nitric oxide synthase induced by vancomycin. They increased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). They also ameliorated the morphological changes induced by vancomycin. The combination therapy of spirulina and pycnogenol showed better protective effects than the corresponding monotherapy.

  15. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  16. Comparative analysis of spatial organization of laccases from Cerrena maxima and Coriolus zonatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Yu. N.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Morgunova, E. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Mikhaĭlov, A. M.

    2007-09-01

    Laccase (oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) belongs to the multicopper oxidase family. The main function of this enzyme is to perform electron transfer from the oxidized substrate through the mononuclear copper-containing site T1 to the oxygen molecule bound to the site T3 in the trinuclear T2/ T3 cluster. The structures of two new fungal laccases from C. maxima and C. zonatus were solved on the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Both laccases show high structural homology with laccases from other sources. The role of the carbohydrate component of laccases in structure stabilization and formation of ordered protein crystals was demonstrated. In the structures of C. maxima and C. zonatus laccases, two water channels of functional importance were found and characterized. The structural results reported in the present study characterize one of the functional states of the enzyme fixed in the crystal structure.

  17. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  18. Accuracy assessment of tree crown detection using local maxima and multi-resolution segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N; Hamid, J R A; Latif, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of trees forms an important component in the forest ecosystems and needs proper inventories to assist the forest personnel in their daily activities. However, tree parameter measurements are often constrained by physical inaccessibility to site locations, high costs, and time. With the advancement in remote sensing technology, such as the provision of higher spatial and spectral resolution of imagery, a number of developed algorithms fulfil the needs of accurate tree inventories information in a cost effective and timely manner over larger forest areas. This study intends to generate tree distribution map in Ampang Forest Reserve using the Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation algorithm. The utilization of recent worldview-2 imagery with Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation proves to be capable of detecting and delineating the tree crown in its accurate standing position

  19. Determining foreground contamination in cosmic microwavebackground observations: Diffuse Galactic emission in the MAXIMA-Ifield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A.H.; Balbi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Ferreira, P.G.; Finkbeiner, D.; Hanany, S.; Lee, A.T.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot,G.F.; Stompor, R.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2003-01-05

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can be contaminated by diffuse foreground emission from sources such as Galactic dust and synchrotron radiation. In these cases, the morphology of the contaminating source is known from observations at different frequencies, but not its amplitude at the frequency of interest for the CMB. We develop a technique for accounting for the effects of such emission in this case, and for simultaneously estimating the foreground amplitude in the CMB observations. We apply the technique to CMB data from the MAXIMA-1 experiment, using maps of Galactic dust emission from combinations of IRAS and DIRBE observations, as well as compilations of Galactic synchrotron emission observations. The spectrum of the dust emission over the 150-450 GHz observed by MAXIMA is consistent with preferred models, but the effect on CMB power spectrum observations is negligible.

  20. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  1. Extended-Maxima Transform Watershed Segmentation Algorithm for Touching Corn Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Touching corn kernels are usually oversegmented by the traditional watershed algorithm. This paper proposes a modified watershed segmentation algorithm based on the extended-maxima transform. Firstly, a distance-transformed image is processed by the extended-maxima transform in the range of the optimized threshold value. Secondly, the binary image obtained by the preceding process is run through the watershed segmentation algorithm, and watershed ridge lines are superimposed on the original image, so that touching corn kernels are separated into segments. Fifty images which all contain 400 corn kernels were tested. Experimental results showed that the effect of segmentation is satisfactory by the improved algorithm, and the accuracy of segmentation is as high as 99.87%.

  2. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.J.; Freeman, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi(q) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2(2π/a) in momentum space--in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q) calculated for both ZrC and HfC--for which no phonon anomalies have been observed--fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are thus interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons

  3. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muliterno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fonte orgânica de carbono (glicose em modo bateladaalimentada. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³ para o cultivo e as variáveis de estudo foram a concentração de glicose (0,5 gL-1 e 1,0 gL-1, a diluição do meio Zarrouk (50% e 75% e a iluminância (1800 lux e 3000 lux. A concentração celular máxima obtida foi de 5,38 gL-1 com uma velocidade específica máxima de crescimento de 0,0063 h-1, nas condições de 0,5 gL-1 de glicose, diluição do meio de 75% e iluminância de 3000 lux.The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied due to its high content (~65% of highly digestible protein as well as significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals and phycocyanin which could be useful in the human nutrition. The use of nutrients of low costs in the cyanobacterium growth could reduce the costs of production. We studied the fed-batch mixotrophic growth of the S. platensis in Zarrouk's medium with glucose (0.5 gL-1 and 1.0 gL-1 as carbon source and also investigated the effects of dilution (50% and 75%, with water and illumination (1,800 lux and 3,000 lux using a 2³ factorial design. The maximum celular concentration of 5.38 gL-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.0063 h-1 were obtained with a glucose concentration of 0.5 gL-1, 50% dilution and 1800 lux of illuminance.

  5. The observation of resonance maxima in H+CF4 and H+SF6 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, J.R.; Toennies, J.P.; Welz, W.; Wolf, G.

    1977-01-01

    High resolution relative integral cross sections were measured for the interactions of low-velocity H atoms with CF 4 and SF 6 . In each system two maxima were resolved, and the lower peak occurs at relative velocities of about 450-500 m/s. The shapes of the 'spectra' are similar to those observed for H-rare gas scattering but differ in details. (Auth.)

  6. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2018-04-10

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  7. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  8. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  9. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  10. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas

    Full Text Available Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected. The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi. In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05 was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  11. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  12. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  13. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5 × 10³ sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05) was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  14. The Nature of Grand Minima and Maxima from Fully Nonlinear Flux Transport Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inceoglu, Fadil; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Rempel, Matthias, E-mail: finceoglu@aip.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We aim to investigate the nature and occurrence characteristics of grand solar minimum and maximum periods, which are observed in the solar proxy records such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C, using a fully nonlinear Babcock–Leighton type flux transport dynamo including momentum and entropy equations. The differential rotation and meridional circulation are generated from the effect of turbulent Reynolds stress and are subjected to back-reaction from the magnetic field. To generate grand minimum- and maximum-like periods in our simulations, we used random fluctuations in the angular momentum transport process, namely the Λ-mechanism, and in the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. To characterize the nature and occurrences of the identified grand minima and maxima in our simulations, we used the waiting time distribution analyses, which reflect whether the underlying distribution arises from a random or a memory-bearing process. The results show that, in the majority of the cases, the distributions of grand minima and maxima reveal that the nature of these events originates from memoryless processes. We also found that in our simulations the meridional circulation speed tends to be smaller during grand maximum, while it is faster during grand minimum periods. The radial differential rotation tends to be larger during grand maxima, while it is smaller during grand minima. The latitudinal differential rotation, on the other hand, is found to be larger during grand minima.

  15. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  16. The effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis (Oscillatoriales: Cyanobacteria on the experimental breeding of Pseudosuccinea columella (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Prepelitchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae, as Pseudosuccinea columella, are the intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis in human and livestock all over the world. A thorough knowledge of snail biology is essential for describing the transmission dynamics and for controlling this disease. Since food quality has had a significant effect on snail growth, fecundity and fertility, in this study we evaluated the use of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis as a food resource for the artificial breeding of P. columella, an invasive snail and the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Northeastern Argentina. The main purpose was to measure the effect of spirulina on fitness parameters such as survival rate, growth rate, size at first reproduction, lifetime fecundity and viable offspring. A total of 20 676 newly-laid F2 eggs were used; half of them were fed with lettuce (treatment L and the other half with lettuce plus spirulina (treatment L+S. In comparison with P. columella snails fed only with lettuce, we found that P. columella fed with lettuce plus spirulina: 1 showed higher survival rates, 2 grew faster and showed higher growth increments, 3 attained sexual maturity earlier in time (L+S:60 days vs. L:120 days and at a smaller size (L+S:4.8mm vs. L:8.2mm, 4 had a longer reproductive period (L+S:150 days vs. L:90 days, 5 produced a higher number of eggs/snail (L+S:29.6 vs. L:13.3, and 6 showed a higher offspring hatching rate (L+S:70% vs. L:40%. The supplementation of P. columella diet with commercial spirulina enhances it fitness and improved the artificial breeding of this species. Spirulina may have a direct positive effect on P. columella development by consuming it, along with an indirect positive effect by improving the water quality. This rearing technique provided large number of reproducing adults and a continuous production of offspring, which are essential for developing future experimental studies in order to

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Betzel, Christian; Lindley, Peter F.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R free = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO 2 substituents

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N. [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voelter, Wolfang [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tuebingen, Physiologisch-Chemisches Institut, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 4, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N. [University of St Andrews, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Bento, Isabel [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Apartado 127, Av. Republica, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Stepanova, Elena V. [A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, RAS, Leninskiy Prospect 33, 119071 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kachalova, Galina S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of RAS, Institutskaya Street 3, 142290 Puschino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Koroleva, Ol’ga V. [A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, RAS, Leninskiy Prospect 33, 119071 Moscow (Russian Federation); Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I. [Department of Chemical Enzymology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu. [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Betzel, Christian [University of Hamburg, Institute fur Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Lindley, Peter F. [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Apartado 127, Av. Republica, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Mikhailov, Al’bert M., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R{sub free} = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO{sub 2} substituents.

  19. The fifth dimension of the taste in Spirulina platensis feed. Study on the influence of monosodium glutamate in the development and composition of the Spirulina platensis algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MANEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food additives have become a way of life, creating pleasure and food request. But from the point of view of health promotion, it is necessary to demonstrate the risks and find out new possibilities for a good sensorial aspect of the food. This would apply especially in the case of long-term consumption, or in some particular conditions (allergies to different ingredients which appear more often to consumers. Cheap products are manufactured by using E-dangerous. The explanation is simple: the natural E extracted from various fruits and vegetables are very expensive. The study wants to demonstrate that the monosodium glutamate (MSG into the culture medium of plantscan affect their healthiness. Spirulina platensis has the same type of amino acids as humans and this is why it has been chosen as an experiment plant. Four samples obtained from the Spirulina’s culturemedium were studied: one blank and three with 0.2%, 0.4% and respectively 0.6% MSG in the culture medium. The mineral content was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS and a rapid increase of calcium and magnesium content was registered for the sample with the biggest amount of MSG. The structure of the filaments and the cells appearance were evaluated microscopically. There were changes identified in the structure after three days of cultivating. Also, the sample with 0.6% MSG presented dead cells and the ones which were still alive had profound changes in form and structure.

  20. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of

  1. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  2. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  3. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  4. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  5. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  6. PRODUKSI DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI Spirulina fusiformis YANG DIKULTUR DENGAN PENCAHAYAAN MONOKROMATIS LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-06-01

    yang bersumber dari LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah (M, biru (B, dan biru-merah (BM, serta cahaya dari lampu fluoresens sebagai kontrol (K. Puncak kepadatan sel terjadi pada hari ke-18 dengan kepadatan masing-masing sebanyak 5,56 x 104 sel/mL (M; 1,65 x 104 sel/mL (B; 4,15 x 104 sel/mL (BM; dan 4,56 x 104 sel/mL (K. Perlakuan pencahayaan LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah mencapai biomassa panen tertinggi sebesar 3,91 mg/mL dengan kandungan protein 49,77%; lemak 19,61%; karbohidrat 6,15%; serat kasar 0,00%; dan abu 24,48%. Pencahayaan dengan LED merah berpotensi diaplikasikan sebagai sumber cahaya dalam produksi Spirulina.

  7. Biosorption of food dyes onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles: equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, G L; Lima, E C; Pinto, L A A

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of food dyes FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles was studied at different conditions of pH and temperature. Four isotherm models were used to evaluate the biosorption equilibrium and the thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Infra red analysis (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to verify the biosorption behavior. The maximum biosorption capacities of FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 were found at pH 4 and 298 K, and the values were 468.7 mg g(-1) and 1619.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The Sips model was more adequate to fit the equilibrium experimental data (R2>0.99 and AREdyes onto nanoparticles occurred by chemisorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis by Spirulina subsalsa from Gujarat coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Mishra, Sandhya

    2010-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have many unexploited potential for natural products with a huge variability in structure and biological activity. Their products are species specific and substrate+growth condition specific. Under stress conditions they are reported to produce biopolymers like EPS and PHA, which can be produced extracellularly and intracellularly, respectively. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polymers of biological origin, they are also capable of being completely broken down to water and carbon dioxide by microorganisms found in a wide range of environments, such as soil, water, and sewage. We have studied marine cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa from Veraval coast, Gujarat, India, producing PHA under increased sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (5% enhancement to the ASNIII medium), The biopolymer was chemically characterized through FTIR, NMR, TGA, and DSC. The present study shows increased PHA accumulation in S. subsalsa by twofold increased NaCl concentration in the growth media. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 101±8 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory effects of small molecular peptides from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis on cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were extracted, hydrolysis with three proteases (trypsin, alcalase and papain) was performed, and gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates. Totally, 15 polypeptides were isolated, which showed anti-proliferation activities on five cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549 and HT-29), with the IC50 values between <31.25 and 336.57 μg mL(-1). Moreover, a new peptide YGFVMPRSGLWFR was identified from papain-digested hydrolysates. It also exhibited inhibitory activities on cancer cells, and the best activity was observed on A549 cancer cells (IC50 values 104.05 μg mL(-1)). In other words, these polypeptides exhibited anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells, and low toxicity or stimulatory activity on normal cells, suggesting that they are promising ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Kultivasi Spirulina Platensis pada Media Bernutrisi Limbah Cair Tahu dan Sintetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Syaichurrozi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the effect of various additions of synthetic nutrient into Spirulina platensis growth medium containing tofu wastewater 8%v/v. Synthetic nutrient was varied at 50, 75, 100%. Based on abservation, the OD680 (Optical Density at 680 nm increased until in the end of cultivation time with final OD680 of 0.381, 0.392, 0.189 for variable of 50, 75, 100% respectively. Meanwhile, the growth rate value was 0.0743, 0.0759, 0.0354/day. The best protein content was obtained at nutrient synthetic of 75%, which was 91,27%. The good growth and protein content of S. platensis obtained at nutrient synthetic of 75%, which had C:N:P ratio of 128:12:1.

  12. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  13. Physical characteristics of phycocyanin from spirulina microcapsules using different coating materials with freeze drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Purnamayati, L.; Kurniasih, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physical characteristics of phycocyanin microcapsules (F) from Spirulina sp. with different coating materials, such as κ-Carrageenan (C) and Na-alginate (A) in combination with maltodextrin (M) by freeze drying method. Microcapsules were prepared in three variations of coating materials i.e. maltodextrin (FM); maltodextrin and Na-alginate (FMA); and maltodextrin and carrageenan (FMC) with concentration of each materials were 10%; 9%:1.0%; and 9%:1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that FMA with Na-alginate 1.0% produced the highest bulk density and total soluble solid, there were 0,334 g/ml and 9,067%, respectively. Color analysis by chromameter showed that FMC produced the bluest color compared to other samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) investigated with Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in all of the samples.

  14. Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Hayashi, K; Maeda, M; Kojima, I

    1996-01-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of a hot H2O extract from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis led to the isolation of a novel sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) as an antiviral principle. This polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, ribose, mannose, fructose, galactose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, sulfate, and calcium. Ca-SP was found to inhibit the replication of several enveloped viruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, measles virus, mumps virus, influenza A virus, and HIV-1. It was revealed that Ca-SP selectively inhibited the penetration of virus into host cells. Retention of molecular conformation by chelation of calcium ion with sulfate groups was suggested to be indispensable to its antiviral effect.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Maulida Safitri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51 was identified and synthetized, which exhibited 45.98 ± 1.7% at concentration 128.15 µg/mL. Therefore, S. platensis is indicated as a potential therapeutic source for combating oxidative stress.

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  17. Biomass burning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the direct biomass burning practices in India. The review pertains to fire practices in forest, agricultural fields, grasslands, households, and industry. In forest land, extent of controlled burning for regeneration and fire prevention is estimated based on the forest statistics. The biomass burned annually due to accidental fires and for shifting cultivation is quantified based on a few earlier studies. In the case of household and small-scale industries, the biomass burned is quantified by extrapolating past data on energy consumption. In addition to wood and crop residues, the use of dungcakes and charcoal is also accounted for in calculating the total amount of biofuels burned annually. Wherever possible, regional and seasonal variations in the biomass burning practices are highlighted. This exercise has led to improve the current estimates of biomass burned annually in India. The factors influencing the impact of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions are discussed

  18. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  19. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  20. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.