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Sample records for spirulina electronic resource

  1. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Minea, R.; Mitru, Ecaterina; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Albulescu, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  2. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  4. Improvement the Yoghurt Nutritional Value, Organoleptic Properties and Preferences by Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Hadiyanto; Sutanto, H.; Widiastuti, Y.; Judiono

    2018-04-01

    Spirulina sp has been identified as potential source food functional such as protein, amino acids and other high added value compounds from microalgae. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. This research was aimed to increase the nutritional value and organoleptic properties and preferences yoghurt by Spirulina platensis supplementation. Completely randomized controlled group design conducted by 31 respondents. Spirulina Research accomplished in Food Technology, Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory at Bandung Health Polytechnic in Bandung. Samples divided randomly into three groups: (1) yoghurt standard supplemented 50 ml, (2) yoghurt and spirulina 1% supplemented 50 ml, (3) yoghurt and spirulina 1,2% supplemented 50 ml. Spirulina was added concentration by 0, 1, 1,2 % calculated by dx trial. Proximate analysis revealed the highest protein in enriched by spirulina 1%. However fat was lower 3.48 – 3.56 compare to control. All products found growing Lactobacillus acidophilus with a pH of 4.0 range. There was no microbial contamination such as E coli, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas sp. Supplementation of spirulina to yoghurt products can be accepted by organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests of concentrations of 1 and 1.2%. The material makes the blue colours more attractive and can be accepted by the expert panellist.

  5. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  6. Response of Spirulina Platensis to Sulfamethazine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiankuan; Lu, Xiaohong; Ma, Xiangjuan; Xia, Huilong

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between a positive important biological energy source algae Spirulina platensis and an antimicrobial drug sulfamethazine was studied by a panel of bioassays. The result demonstrated that the acute toxicity of sulfadimidine on Spirulina platensis gradually increased with the increasing of the concentration of sulfadimidine. During the exposure, the toxicity of sulfamethazine on Spirulina platensis enlarged at first and reduced thereafter, and the summit was at 48 h, showing a typical “bell” curve. The EC50 in 48 h was 6.06 mg/L. Spirulina platensis was able to accumulate and degrade sulfamethazine simultaneously. The amounts of sulfamethazine accumulated and degraded by Spirulina platensis were 1.40 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg (dry weight) at 24 h, respectively. After 96 h of exposure, the accumulation decreased to 0.47 mg/kg, however, the degradation of sulfamethazine increased to 6.57 mg/kg. Due to biological activity, the removal rate of sulfamethazine was 5.2 times in the nutrient solution with Spirulina platensis as that of without Spirulina platensis. The results of this study implied that Spirulina platensis had a potential to remove sulfamethazine in the sulfamethazine contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  7. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  8. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  9. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  10. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  11. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

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    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  12. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  13. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  14. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  15. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  16. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

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    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  17. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

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    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  18. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Use of rotifers for the maintenance of monoalgal mass cultures of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Richmond, A.

    1987-01-01

    Zooplankton was successfully used for the biological control of unicellular algal contaminants in Spirulina mass cultures even under conditions adverse to the growth of Spirulina (maximal winter daily temperature of approximately 10 degrees C and very low bicarbonate concentration). Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) was the most successful species of zooplankton used. The interrelationships between Spirulina, green unicellular contaminant, and B. plicatilis were studied under various conditions. Two species of unicellular contaminant were used; Monoraphidium minutum was isolated from local cultures and Chlorella vulgaris, obtained from contaminated Spirulina cultures in Israel. The rotifer B. plicatilis successfully controlled the population size of both contaminants whether they were introduced in a single addition or as a daily dose. The biological control of the unicellular contaminants allows Spirulina to be cultured in a medium low in bicarbonate, thereby reducing the cost of the medium and increasing the quantity of CO2 that may be freely absorbed from the atmosphere at the optimal pH for Spirulina cultivation. (Refs. 9).

  20. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

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    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  1. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  2. Optimization of formulation and processing of Moringa oleifera and spirulina complex tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Fan; Lin, Dan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yichao; Mark, Bohn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets. Results: The best ratio of raw material for the M. oleifera leaves powder: spirulina powder was 7:3, the best raw materials for the tablet formulation was 88.5%, 8.0% microcrystalline cellulose, CMC 2.0%, stearin magnesium 1.5%, the optimum parameters for the raw material crushing 200-300 mesh particle size, moisture content of 7%, tableting pressure 40 kN. Conclusion: Through formulation and process optimization, we can prepare more comprehensive and balanced nutrition M. oleifera and spirulina complex tablets, its sheet-shaped appearance, piece weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and other indicators have reached the appropriate quality requirements.

  3. Changes of the delayed fluorescence characteristics in Spirulina, Anabaena and Chlorella in response to chromatic adaptation and irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znak, N.Y.; Morgun, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiency of the energy transformation for CO2 fixation (E), and kinetics of the initial O-2-mediated electron transport of Spirulina platensis (Gem. ) Geitl, and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells were measured after adaptation to various growth irradiances (I) by means of the delayed fluorescence (DF) induction curves. Maxima of the membrane potential expenses during induction period were observed at I half saturating oxygen evolution; they were shifted according to growth I remaining higher in Spirulina than in Chlorella. The alterations of absorbance and fluorescence spectra at 25 degrees C after adaptation to I demonstrated changes in composition of pigments of algae, created to compensate for the imbalance in radiation absorption between the two photosystems. For Spirulina cells, the value of E was higher after growing under low I, or under blue radiation absorbed mainly by photosystem (PS) 1 (400-500 nm) with excitation by yellow (570 nm) radiation. For Chlorella cells, it was also higher after growing under low I. Under such conditions the half-rise time for DP-phase of DF induction curve decreased, which reflected an acceleration of kinetics of the initial electron transport between photosystems. An opposite situation was observed with Spirulina cells grown under high I or yellow radiation, and Chlorella cells from high I. Enhancement of effective PS2/PS1 ratio associated with decrease of reaction centre (RC) 2/RC1 stoichiometry may because of the increase of E and high membrane energization under saturating I in algae adapted to low I

  4. The radioactivity of spirulina and its heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantariandraintsoa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is one of the three classes of algae that have the ability to accumulate contaminants from the environment in which they live. The main aim of this work is to study the radioactive contamination of Spirulina using gamma spectrometry and to determine its content of heavy elements using the technique of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Use of detector and Gamma Vision software, in the laboratory of nuclear analysis of the I nstitut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires -Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar), allowed us to find some amount of radioactive elements such as potassium, lead, thallium and bismuth. The elements found in the laboratory of X-ray fluorescence analysis, of the same institute, using the conventional method along with the XRF AXIL software are calcium, iron, magnesium, bromine, rubidium and strontium as well as heavy elements zinc and copper. Spirulina is rich in potassium, its activity is 98±56 Bq.Kg -1 and the average concentration of the radioactive element is 16.2 g.Kg -1 . Analysis results leads us to say that it is best to consume spirulina from well secured against pollution (greenhouse) culture and we can say that we need to improve crops in natural environments. [fr

  5. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalabegishvili, T.; Kirkesali, E.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by one of the many popular microorganisms - blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was studied. The complex of optical and analytical methods was applied for investigation of experimental samples after exposure to chloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) solution at different doses and for different time intervals. To characterize formed gold nanoparticles UV-vis, TEM, SEM, EDAX, and XRD were used. It was shown that after 1.5-2 days of exposure the extracellular formation of nanoparticles of spherical form and the distribution peak within the interval of 20-30 nm took place. To determine gold concentrations in the Spirulina platensis biomass, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were applied. The results obtained evidence that the concentration of gold accumulated by Spirulina biomass is rapidly growing in the beginning, followed by some increase for the next few days. The obtained substance of Spirulina biomass with gold nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical, and technological purposes

  6. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ambrosi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  7. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [es

  8. Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartsch, Peter C

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes.

  9. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  10. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... générale, les extraits ou la poudre de Spirulina platensis ont eu des ... Mots clés: Biostimulant, croissance, Spirulina platensis, Jatropha curcas, Solanum lycopersicum .... Le test de ..... in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and.

  11. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  12. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  13. Characterization of phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Darojatun, K.; Gumilar, G. G.; Aisyah, S.; Wulandari, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Microalgae have some pigments which are potential to be used as functional colorant for foods and cosmetics industries. Here, Spirulina fusiformis is one of the major sources of a blue pigment phycocyanin which has commercial and biotechnological value for biomedical research, as well as a natural colorant for food and cosmetic industries. This study aims at investigating the characteristic of isolated C-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its stability under different temperature. A food grade phycocyanin with purity of 2.0 (A620/A280) was obtained successfully from Spirulina fusiformis cultured in seawater-based modified medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. No significant changes were observed in the spectrum absorbance of C-phycocyanin at temperature up to 60°C over 30 minutes of incubation, and was observed to significantly denaturation at 70°C and higher temperature. Incubation of the pigment at relatively high temperature resulted in a decrease in the spectrum intensities of the C-phycocyanin in a temperature-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that the optimal condition for preserving the stability of food grade phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina fusiformis is taking it at low temperature.

  14. Experimental grounds for developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for production of the selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals was studied. The dependence of Se and I accumulation in Spirulina biomass during the cultivation in a nutrient medium loading of above elements was determined more precisely. The dynamics of Spirulina biomass growth was observed with nutrient medium loading of selenium. It is found that Spirulina platensis biomass quality may be used for pharmaceutical purposes

  15. Investigation of the interaction of chrome compounds with blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of CrIII with the cells of blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis in course of cultivation in a nutrient medium loaded with corresponding chrome compounds is studied. It is shown that the rate of absorption of CrVI ions by spirulina biomass from the nutrient medium is approximately two orders of magnitude lower as compared to that of CrIII ions. At the same time the presence of CrVI in a nutrient medium is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cell growth rate and by deteriorating the quality of spirulina biomass. It is established that at endogenous insertion of CrIII into the biocomplex of spirulina no change in the valence state of chromium in the nutrient medium is observed and the natural properties of the biomass do not change. On the basis of the obtained concentration dependences, the recommended doses of CrIII in the preparation 'Cr-Spirulina' within the ranges of 30-100 μg/g as a food addition, and 200-250 μg/g for a medical preventive treatment are determined. (author)

  16. The effect of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis (Oscillatoriales: Cyanobacteria on the experimental breeding of Pseudosuccinea columella (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Prepelitchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae, as Pseudosuccinea columella, are the intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis in human and livestock all over the world. A thorough knowledge of snail biology is essential for describing the transmission dynamics and for controlling this disease. Since food quality has had a significant effect on snail growth, fecundity and fertility, in this study we evaluated the use of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis as a food resource for the artificial breeding of P. columella, an invasive snail and the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Northeastern Argentina. The main purpose was to measure the effect of spirulina on fitness parameters such as survival rate, growth rate, size at first reproduction, lifetime fecundity and viable offspring. A total of 20 676 newly-laid F2 eggs were used; half of them were fed with lettuce (treatment L and the other half with lettuce plus spirulina (treatment L+S. In comparison with P. columella snails fed only with lettuce, we found that P. columella fed with lettuce plus spirulina: 1 showed higher survival rates, 2 grew faster and showed higher growth increments, 3 attained sexual maturity earlier in time (L+S:60 days vs. L:120 days and at a smaller size (L+S:4.8mm vs. L:8.2mm, 4 had a longer reproductive period (L+S:150 days vs. L:90 days, 5 produced a higher number of eggs/snail (L+S:29.6 vs. L:13.3, and 6 showed a higher offspring hatching rate (L+S:70% vs. L:40%. The supplementation of P. columella diet with commercial spirulina enhances it fitness and improved the artificial breeding of this species. Spirulina may have a direct positive effect on P. columella development by consuming it, along with an indirect positive effect by improving the water quality. This rearing technique provided large number of reproducing adults and a continuous production of offspring, which are essential for developing future experimental studies in order to

  17. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  18. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  19. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  20. Prebiotic competence of spirulina on the production performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309

  1. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Sherif, N.H

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  2. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan Ammu; Lim Yen-Wei; Chu Wan-Loy; Lim Phaik-Eem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protectiv...

  3. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  4. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Lim, Yen-Wei; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2010-09-21

    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  5. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  6. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Birot, Raphaëlle; Jouvencel, Diane de; Raginel, Laetitia; Rouillé, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  7. Pão sem gluten enriquecido com a microalga Spirulina platensis Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha. Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães não sofreram alteração com a adição de até 4% da alga, porem mostraram redução de 22% nos valores de volume e aumento de 113% na dureza quando se adicionou-se 5% (em base de farinha. Quando comparados ao pão não enriquecido, a adição de Spiriulina platensis provocou uma melhoria da qualidade nutricional dos pães, confirmada pelo aumento significativo de 39,04% do conteúdo protéico, alem de vários aminoácidos essenciais (treonina, metionina, isoleucina e leucina. Com relação a cor, os pães com Spirulina apresentaram redução de luminosidade com o aumento de adição de microalga, sendo também observada tendência de aumento de tonalidade verde. Na avaliação sensorial, não se verificou diferença significativa quanto a preferência entre os pães adicionados com 3% e 5% de Spirulina na formulação.With the objective of offering a product for people with celiac disease, due to their gluten intolerance, gluten-free bread made with rice flour was elaborated, in substitution of the wheat flour. To increase the protein content of the bread, dried Spirulina platensis, a microalga, was added to the products in the range from 2 to 5% (flour basis. The bread samples were evaluated according to their specific volume (V/W, crumb hardness, measured with a texturometer, and the crumb color. It was shown that the specific volume and crumb hardness were not affected by the addition of up to 4% of alga, but a decrease of 22% in the

  8. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  9. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-08-31

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  10. Optimization of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina Growth: From Laboratory Scale to Pilot Scale

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    Florian Delrue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina is the most cultivated microalga worldwide. Improving its cultivation in terms of biomass productivity, quality, or production cost could significantly impact the Spirulina industry. The objectives of this paper were defined as to contribute to this goal. Spirulina biomass productivity was investigated through medium choice. A modified Zarrouk’s medium was selected as it gave higher final dry weights and longer sustained growth than Hiri’s and Jourdan’s media. Then, in order to reduce Spirulina production cost, modified Zarrouk’s medium was rationalized by testing different dilutions. It was found that modified Zarrouk’s medium could be diluted up to five times without impacting the growth rates in a 28-days batch cultivation. Higher dry weights were even observed after 21 days of batch cultivation (1.21 g/L for 20%-modified Zarrouk’s medium in comparison to 0.84 g/L for modified Zarrouk’s medium. Iron uptake was then investigated as one of the major contributors to Spirulina nutritional quality. An increase in iron content was obtained by replacing iron sulfate by iron EDTA at a concentration of 10 mgFe/L (2.11 ± 0.13 mgFe/gbiomass for EDTA-FeNa, 3 H2O at 10 mgFe/L compared to 0.18 ± 0.13 for FeSO4,6H2O at 2 mgFe/L. Impact of light intensity on Spirulina biomass productivity was also investigated in a 2 L Photobioreactor (PBR. Specific growth rates were calculated for Photosynthetically Photon Flux Densities (PPFD from 85 to 430 µmol/m2/s. At 430 µmol/m2/s, photoinhibition was not observed and the specific growth rate was maximum (0.12/day. Finally, a 40-day cultivation experiment was conducted in a 1000 L PBR giving a maximum daily areal productivity of 58.4 g/m2/day. A techno-economic analysis gave production cost two to 20 times higher for PBR (from 18.71 to 74.29 €/kg than for open ponds (from 3.86 to 9.59 €/kg depending on Spirulina productivity.

  11. Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

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    Audrey M. Neyrinck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

  12. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

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    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  13. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

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    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  14. Spirulina platensis attenuates the associated neurobehavioral and inflammatory response impairments in rats exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Khalifa, Hesham A; Abdel-Motal, Sabry M; Mohammed, Hesham H; Elewa, Yaser H A; Mahmoud, Hend Atta

    2018-08-15

    Heavy metals are well known as environmental pollutants with hazardous impacts on human and animal health because of their wide industrial usage. In the present study, the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing the oxidative stress-mediated brain injury elicited by lead acetate exposure was evaluated. In order to accomplish this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw Spirulina for 15 d, before and simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw lead acetate [6 injections through the two weeks]. As a result, the co-administration of Spirulina with lead acetate reversed the most impaired open field behavioral indices; however, this did not happen for swimming performance, inclined plane, and grip strength tests. In addition, it was observed that Spirulina diminished the lead content that accumulated in both the blood and the brain tissue of the exposed rats, and reduced the elevated levels of oxidative damage indices, and brain proinflammatory markers. Also, because of the Spirulina administration, the levels of the depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and interleukin-10 in the lead-exposed rats were improved. Moreover, Spirulina protected the brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum) against the changes elicited by lead exposure, and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 and Caspase-3 in both cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Spirulina has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  16. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  17. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

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    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  18. Nutritional comparison of Spirulina sp powder by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Amalia, U.

    2018-01-01

    The Spirulina sp powder contains high levels of protein and Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) improved protein level. The aims of the study was to find the proximate contents in Spirulina sp’s powder fermentation. The experiments were conducted by SSF of Spirulina sp’s powder using fungi Aspergillus sp (FNCL 6088) and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (FNCL 0127). SSF was carried out for 10 days at 35% moisture level. The protein contents of Spirulina sp’s powder fermented by L. plantarum were consistently lower (p fermentation. The Spirulina sp fermented products contained the highest level of protein after 6 days.

  19. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Oprea, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  20. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  1. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  3. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  4. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  5. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

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    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  6. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis evaluated with broilers Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis avaliada com frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis, the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metabolic cages for 10 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions with five birds each. Diets consisted on a reference-ration based on corn and soybean meal and two test diets, one containing spirulina (30% and the other one with soybean meal (30%. Spiruline was superior to soybean meal for contents of dry matter (DM, gross energy (9.60%, crude protein (26.56%, ether extract (54.45%, mineral matter (42.77%, calcium (100% and total phosphorus (130.77% and also for most amino acids, except lysine, glutamate, histidine and proline. Nevertheless, spiruline presented lower values of gross fiber (83.95%, acid detergent fiber (85.12% and neutral detergent fiber (6.15. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg of DM were, respectively, 2,906 and 2,502 for the spirulina and 2,646 and 2,340 for the soybean meal and AMEn of spirulina was 6.92% higher than soybean meal.Objetivou-se determinar a composição química e energética da espirulina (Spirulina platensis, os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn em frangos de corte. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas com 90 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com peso inicial de 256 ± 5 g aos 11 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo durante dez dias, distribuídas em delineamento

  7. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  8. Análisis microscópico de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1996-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de muestras comerciales de Spirulina (Cyanophytu), expendidas en el mercado como suplementos dietéticos y adelgazantes. Fueron observadas al microscopio fotónico y al microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), previo tratamiento por "freeze drying". Los resultados indican que todas contienen Spirulina platensis. En algunas de ellas esta especie se presenta pura, mientras que en otras se halla mezclada con otras Cyanophyta (Oscillatoria y Phormidium) debido probablemente...

  9. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10 -3 up to 10 4 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  10. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  11. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  12. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  13. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Spirulina platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Spirulina platensis 名詞 一般 * * * *... スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Spirulina platensis

  15. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  16. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  17. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  18. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  19. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; El-Shaer, E.A.; Ismaiel, M.M.S.; Shabana, E.F.; Gabr, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co 60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same

  20. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  1. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  2. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Gundorina, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  3. Effect of spirulina food supplement on blood morphological parameters, biochemical composition and on the immune function of sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Milasius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Of highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by nature. One of food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm (China. It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the needs of the whole body, including its immune system. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological, biochemical picture and immune function of sportsmen. Materials and Methods: The study cohort comprised 12 high performance sportsmen (age 20-22 years. They were using tablets of Spirulina, a dietary product for 14 days. Physical development was determined with the aid of standard methods. The general blood picture was analyzed with the aid of a Micros-60 hematological analyzer (company ABX DIAGNOSTICS, France. Lymphocytes and their subsets were analysed by flow cytometery (FACSCalibur, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS, USA and the absolute and percentage values were calculated. To evaluate immune function lymphocyte blasttransformation response to mitogens was studied. Results: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a 14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices and its biochemical changes. The results of our study confirm the positive effect of Spirulina food supplement on the quantitative parameters of immune system. Part of the study cohort after weeks showed a tendency of normalizing CD3 , CD3 CD4 lympocite count: positive changes were still present two weeks following the interruption of Spirulina intake

  4. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  5. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  7. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan SowriArvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  8. Influência do consumo de diferentes níveis de Spirulina no desenvolvimento e perfil lipídico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Moreira Chiattoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina é uma cianobactéria que vem sendo produzida e estudada por suas propriedades nutricionais e por seus benefícios à saúde. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a influência de dietas acrescidas de diferentes concentrações de Spirulina sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e o perfil lipídico de ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, alimentados, durante 40 dias, com quatro dietas isoproteicas (10% distintas, sendo seis animais por grupo: 1 Dieta controle (AIN93G adaptada; 2 Dieta S1 (8,8% de Spirulina; 3 Dieta S2 (17,6% de Spirulina; 4 Dieta S3 (26,4% de Spirulina. Foram avaliados parâmetros nutricionais e o perfil lipídico dos animais, cujos dados foram analisados estatisticamente por Análise de Variância, seguida do teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância (p ≤ 0,05. O tratamento com 8,8% de Spirulina mostrou-se equivalente ao controle, apresentando respostas mais adequadas de CEA, medidas de crescimento e lipídios séricos. Já o S2 não foi capaz de promover um bom desenvolvimento corporal, comparado com o do controle, além de elevar os níveis de colesterol total e LDL-c. O tratamento S3 apresentou somente valores estatisticamente diferentes de HDL-c, quando comparado com os do controle (p ≤ 0,05. Conclui-se que, no tempo e condições do estudo, o tratamento S3, único com Spirulina como fonte exclusiva de proteína, foi capaz de substituir a fonte proteica padrão (caseína na dieta para roedores, promovendo o adequado desenvolvimento corporal e lipídico dos animais.

  9. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Spirulina platensis, nutritional, quality, proteins, fatty acids. ... advantages make S. platensis a good raw material for the healthy food (Anitha and ... The fat content is determined by the Soxhlet extraction method by using .... human milk and some expensive vegetable oils according to Pierlovisi ...

  10. Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. platensis inhibits also hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by AAPH. In conclusion, S. platensis powder prevent metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose and fat diet. These results justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes in Benin. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, metabolic syndrome, fructose, diabetes, ...

  11. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    Full Text Available The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli, in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml, against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  12. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  13. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  14. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  15. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  16. The nutritional quality of Spirulina platensis of Tamenrasset, Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis, a blue green microalga, has been used since ancient times as a source of food because of its high protein content (65%) and nutritional value. Lipids isolated from S. platensis have been shown to contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linolenic acid which is a precursor of ...

  17. Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Surface characterization and metal ion adsorption properties of Spirulina sp. and Spirulina maxima were verified by various instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of metal ion-binding groups. Comparative FTIR spectra of natural and Cu(II)-treated biomass proved involvement of both phosphoryl and sulfone groups in metal ions sorption. The potentiometric titration data analysis provided the best fit with the model assuming the presence of three types of surface functional groups and the carboxyl group as the major binding site. The mechanism of metal ions biosorption was investigated by comparing the results from multielemental analyses by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX. Biosorption of Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions by lyophilized Spirulina sp. was performed to determine the metal affinity relationships for single- and multicomponent systems. Obtained results showed the replacement of naturally bound ions: Na(I), K(I), or Ca(II) with sorbed metal ions in a descending order of Mn(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) for single- and Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) for multicomponent systems, respectively. Surface elemental composition of natural and metal-loaded material was determined both by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analysis, showing relatively high value of correlation coefficient between the concentration of Na(I) ions in algal biomass. PMID:25386594

  18. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  19. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  20. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  1. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3% had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7% had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12 and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22 by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group

  2. Analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in spirulina-containing supplements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Logan, Alan C; Giddings, Sabrina D; Quilliam, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications. In the current work, we have analyzed ten spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy surrounding the measurement of BMAA, we have used two complementary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods: one based on reversed phase LC (RPLC) with derivatization and the other based on hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC). Potential matrix effects were corrected for by internal standardization using a stable isotope labeled BMAA standard. BMAA was not detected at low limits of detection (80 ng/g dry weight) in any of these product samples. Although these results are reassuring, BMAA analyses should be conducted on a wider sample selection and, perhaps, as part of ongoing spirulina production quality control testing and specifications.

  3. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  4. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  5. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  6. Production of Spirulina platensis by adding sodium bicarbonate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, dry chicken manure (DCM) was used as the source of nitrogen in the production of Spirulina platensis. Experiment was conducted in two different types of nutrition. In the type I nutrition, the highest average cell increase was recorded as 289.70 filaments mL-1 in value in the type I group (DCM+urea). In the type ...

  7. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  10. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  11. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-08-22

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  12. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  13. Compostos fenólicos totais, atividade antioxidante e antifúngica demultimisturas enriquecidas com a microalga Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bierhals, Vânia da Silva; Machado, Vanessa Goulart; Echevenguá, Walesca Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o conteúdo fenólico e as atividades antioxidantes e antifúngicas de multimisturas enriquecidas com Spirulina platensis, foram formuladas quatro multimisturas com farelo de arroz ou trigo, duas contendo Spirulina platensis e duas com sementes de girassol. Os compostos fenólicos foram estimados pela técnica de Folin-Ciocalteau. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada por meio de inibição do radical livre DPPH e a atividade antifúngica foi analisada por meio de ensaio de ...

  14. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-01-01

    : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure bu...

  15. Dampak Intervensi Sumber Iodium Alami Spirulina sp terhadap Kadar T4 Bebas (FT4 dan Tiroglobulin (TG pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Kalibawang Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSRACT Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Salt iodization was one of IDD prevention programme to prevent IDD, however the national coverage for iodized salt is still less than 90%. Alternative solution to solve IDD elimination is needed to find a better iodine sources. One of nutrient rich source from the sea that was developed to improve the nutritional status is Spirulina sp. Spirulina has high bioavailability due to the simple structure of the cell wall, so that the nutrients contained iodine will be more easily absorbed by the body. The aim of this research was to describe the effect of Spirulina sp to free T4 and thyroglobulin level in women of child bearing age in Kalibawang Kulon Progo regency. This is an experimental study using double blind randomized control trial (RCT. Subjects are euthyroid child bearing woman (18-40 years old, with TSH levels of 3 to 6.2 μIU/L. They were divided into 2 groups with subjects in control group were given placebo while the treatment group were given Spirulina sp (1 gr/day for 3 months. Serum for free T4 and thyroglobulin was analysed using ELISA. The results showed that there were significant changes in free T4 level in both groups after intervention (P <0.05, but there were no significant differences between the two groups at the beginning and end of treatment (P> 0.05 in thyroglobulin. The intervention using Spirulina sp has potential effect to increase free T4 level, however it did not effect thyroglobulin level. Keywords: FreeT4, RCT, Spirulina sp, Thyroglobulin   ABSTRAK   Masalah kekurangan asupan iodium dan gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium (GAKI masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. Program iodisasi garam merupakan salah satu program yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah Indonesia untuk menanggulangi GAKI, namun sampai saat ini cakupan angka nasional untuk garam beriodium belum mencapai 90%. Dibutuhkan metode baru yang efektif dalam membantu program

  16. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  17. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  18. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  19. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  20. Magnetic field action on outdoor and indoor cultures of Spirulina: Evaluation of growth, medium consumption and protein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether a magnetic field (MF) affects the growth of Spirulina sp. when applied to it at different exposure times in indoor and outdoor culture systems. The effects of MF on chlorophyll content, medium consumption and protein profile were also investigated. In raceway tanks, a 25 mT MF was applied for 24 h or for 1 h d -1 . MF for 24 h to outdoor assays increased biomass concentration and chlorophyll-a content besides altering the protein profile. Outdoor Spirulina growth was higher (∼3.65 g L -1 ) than the growth found in indoor assays (∼1.80 g L -1 ), while nitrogen and phosphorus consumption was not enhanced by the application of MF. This is the first study that investigated the influence of MF on outdoor microalga assays, and the results showed that MF affected the metabolism of Spirulina cultured in raceways, especially when it was grown outdoors in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  2. Fatty acid composition of Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. microalgae and introduction as potential new sources to extinct omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Gorjzdadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to determine the oil fatty acids from two special species of microalgae; Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp. and also Chaetoceros sp. collected from Bahmanshir River. Materials and Methods: Sampling of microalgae Chaetoceros sp. from Bahmanshir River was under taken using bottle samplers during spring season of 2013. Microalgae Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. were supplied from Shrimp Research Institute of Iran in Bushehr Province. Samples then were cultured under controlled laboratory conditions and mass culture for 100 liters was undertaken. Isolation of microalgae species from water of cultured media was carried out using filtration and centrifugation methods. The fatty acid compositions were determined by Gas – FID chromatography. Results: Results showed that regarding Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA obtained from purified culture of Chaetoceros sp., Spirulina sp. and Chlorella sp. the maximum amount of total fatty acids were belonged to palmitic acids (C16:0 with 15.21%, 30.1% and 25.17% of total fatty acids  respectively. Analysis of Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA showed that in the Oleic acid was maximum amount of 34% in Spirulina sp. In addition the amount of MUFA in Chlorella sp. was 16.37% of total fatty acids. On the other hand the amount of palmeotic acid in purified culture of Chaetoceros sp. was 30.33% from total content of fatty acids. Analysis of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA, Linoleic acid (C18:2 (Omega 6, revealed maximum percentage in Spirulina sp. with 18.8%. Results of Alpha linoleic acid (C18:3 (Omega3 analysis showed maximum amount of 9.66% in Chlorella sp. compared to other microalgae with lower omega 3 contents. Spirulina sp. contained maximum amount of Linoleic acid (C18:2 with 18.8% of total fatty acids. Therefore, Spirulina sp. can be considered as a rich source of omega 6 for the purpose of fatty acid extractions. The presence of PUFA in Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. was

  3. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  4. Outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 in different geographic locations for evaluating its growth and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Cristiane Santos; da Silva Uebel, Lívia; Costa, Samantha Serra; Miranda, Andréa Lobo; de Morais, Etiele Greque; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Nunes, Itaciara Larroza; de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated whether outdoor cultivation of Spirulina sp. in different geographical locations affected its growth and biomass quality, with respect to the chemical composition, volatile compound and heavy metal content, and thermal stability. The positive effect of solar radiation and temperature on biomass productivity in Spirulina sp. cultivated in the northeast was directly related to its improved nutritional characteristics, which occurred with an increase in protein, phycocyanin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (mainly γ-linolenic) content. The biomass produced in Northeast and South Brazil showed high thermal stability and had volatile compounds that could be used as biomarkers of Spirulina, and their parameters were within the limits of internationally recognized standards for food additives; hence, they have been considered safe foods. However, the growth of crops in south Brazil occurred at lower rates due to low temperatures and luminous intensities, indicative of the robustness of microalgae in relation to these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  6. Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis) avaliada com frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Cantarelli, Vinícius de Souza; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Silva Júnior, José Walter da; Silva, Leonardo Rafael da; Santos, Luziane Moreira dos; Pereira, Luciano José

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis), the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metab...

  7. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  8. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  9. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin of Spirulina powder treated with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Dejsungkranont

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The functionality and activity of proteins can be modified by supercritical fluid CO2 (SCFCO2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of enhanced antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC proteins from light-harvested Spirulina maxima powder using the SCFCO2 pretreatment and to optimize the SCFCO2 pretreatment conditions enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the SCFCO2 pretreatment. The experimental factors were the pretreatment temperature, pressure, pretreatment mode (static, dynamic and conjugated and duration. The optimal conditions of SCFCO2 pretreatment were: 60 °C, 24.13 MPa and 60 min in static batch mode. Using these pretreatment conditions, the maximum antioxidant activity of C-PC from the treated residual biomass was 410.1 μmole trolox/mg, which was 1.7-fold higher than the untreated biomass (control. The factor that most affected the antioxidant activity of C-PC was temperature (59%. A high pretreatment temperature could damage C-PC, but promoted antioxidant activity. Of note is that this work was the first to explore SCFCO2 treatment enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC in Spirulina sp. powder. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C-phycocyanin, Spirulina sp., Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide pretreatment, Taguchi method

  10. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima . The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % ( P  maxima -is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements.

  11. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  12. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  14. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  15. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  16. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  17. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  18. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  19. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  20. SpirPro: A Spirulina proteome database and web-based tools for the analysis of protein-protein interactions at the metabolic level in Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachak, Jittisak; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Hongsthong, Apiradee

    2015-07-29

    Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is the only cyanobacterium that in addition to being studied at the molecular level and subjected to gene manipulation, can also be mass cultivated in outdoor ponds for commercial use as a food supplement. Thus, encountering environmental changes, including temperature stresses, is common during the mass production of Spirulina. The use of cyanobacteria as an experimental platform, especially for photosynthetic gene manipulation in plants and bacteria, is becoming increasingly important. Understanding the mechanisms and protein-protein interaction networks that underlie low- and high-temperature responses is relevant to Spirulina mass production. To accomplish this goal, high-throughput techniques such as OMICs analyses are used. Thus, large datasets must be collected, managed and subjected to information extraction. Therefore, databases including (i) proteomic analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and (ii) domain/motif visualization tools are required for potential use in temperature response models for plant chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria. A web-based repository was developed including an embedded database, SpirPro, and tools for network visualization. Proteome data were analyzed integrated with protein-protein interactions and/or metabolic pathways from KEGG. The repository provides various information, ranging from raw data (2D-gel images) to associated results, such as data from interaction and/or pathway analyses. This integration allows in silico analyses of protein-protein interactions affected at the metabolic level and, particularly, analyses of interactions between and within the affected metabolic pathways under temperature stresses for comparative proteomic analysis. The developed tool, which is coded in HTML with CSS/JavaScript and depicted in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), is designed for interactive analysis and exploration of the constructed network. SpirPro is publicly available on the web

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  3. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  4. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  5. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  6. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  7. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  8. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  9. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  10. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  11. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  12. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníčková, R.; Vaňková, K.; Vaníková, J.; Váňová, K.; Muchová, L.; Subhanová, I.; Zadinová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, S.; Ruml, T.; Wong, R.J.; Vítek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 1665-2681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : bilirubin * chlorophyll * heme oxygenase * phycocyanin * phycocyanobilin * Spirulina platensis * tetrapyrroles Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2014

  13. The Effect of a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on macrophage, PMN, and lymphocyte cell expressions in post extraction wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijantini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is the ultimate treatment option for defective teeth followed by the need for dentures. Inflammation is one phase of the healing process that should be minimized in order to preserve alveolar bone for denture support. Macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells are indicators of acute inflammation. Spirulina and chitosan are natural compounds with the potential to be anti-inflammatory agents. Purpose: This research aimed to determine macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells of animal models treated with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd post-extraction day. Methods: Animal models were randomly divided into control (K and treatment (P groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (KI, KII, KIII and PI, PII, PIII. The post-extraction sockets of the control group animals were then filled with CMC Na 3%. Meanwhile, the post-extraction sockets of the treatment group members were filled with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan. Subsequently, the number of PMN, macrophage and lymphocyte cells was analyzed by means of HE analysis on the 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. days. Statistical analysis was then performed using a T-test. Results: There was a decrease in PMN cells and an increase in macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can not only decrease PMN cells, but can also increase macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2 and 3 after tooth extraction.

  14. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  15. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  16. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  17. Spirulina platensis Improves Mitochondrial Function Impaired by Elevated Oxidative Stress in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (ASCs) and Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs), and Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Daria; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-08-03

    Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is a steadily growing life-threatening endocrine disorder linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. Inflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue constitutes the direct tissue milieu for various cell populations, including adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), widely considered as a potential therapeutic cell source in the course of the treatment of metabolic disorders. Moreover, elevated oxidative stress induces inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-the first-line cells exposed to dietary compounds. In the conducted research, we showed that in vitro application of Spirulina platensis contributes to the restoration of ASCs' and IECs' morphology and function through the reduction of cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. Enhanced viability, suppressed senescence, and improved proliferation of ASCs and IECs isolated from metabolic syndrome-affected individuals were evident following exposition to Spirulina. A protective effect of the investigated extract against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration was also observed. Moreover, our data demonstrate that Spirulina extract effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vivo studies showed that horses fed with a diet based on Spirulina platensis supplementation lost weight and their insulin sensitivity improved. Thus, our results indicate the engagement of Spirulina platensis nourishing as an interesting alternative approach for supporting the conventional treatment of equine metabolic syndrome.

  18. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  19. Influência da ingestão de espirulina sobre o metabolismo de ratos exercitados Influencia de ingestión de Spirulina sobre el metabolismo de ratones exercitados Influence of spirulina intake on metabolism of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Puggina Rogatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram comparadas as respostas metabólicas agudas ao exercício em ratos alimentados com dieta padrão e à base de espirulina. Ratos Wistar jovens foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a dieta: controle (C (dieta padrão e espirulina (S (dieta à base de espirulina. Ao final do período experimental (cinco semanas os animais foram submetidos a uma sessão aguda de exercício de natação (20 minutos, suportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% do peso corporal para avaliação do lactato sanguíneo, glicose, insulina, proteínas, albumina e ácidos graxos livres (AGL séricos. Amostras do músculo gastrocnêmio e fígado foram utilizadas para determinação dos teores de glicogênio e lipídeos. Ambos os grupos C e S apresentaram aumento da glicemia e dos AGL, queda da insulinemia e redução dos teores de glicogênio muscular e hepático pós-exercício. A lactacidemia durante o exercício foi superior no grupo S em relação ao C. Conclui-se que o padrão de respostas ao exercício agudo dos grupos C e S foi semelhante. Contudo, a proteína da dieta pareceu influenciar aspectos do metabolismo glicídico.En el presente estudio fueron comparadas las respuestas metabólicas agudas al ejercicio en ratones alimentados con dieta padrón y a base de Spirulina. Ratones Wistar jovenes fueron divididos en dos grupos de acuerdo con la dieta: control (C (dieta padrón y Spirulina (S (dieta a base de Spirulina. Al final del período experimental (5 semanas los animales fueron sometidos a una sesión aguda de ejercício de natación (20 minutos, soportando sobrecarga equivalente a 5% de su peso corporal para evaluación del lactato sanguíneo, glucosa, insulina, proteínas, albumina y ácidos grasos libres (AGL séricos. Las muestras del músculo gastrocnemio y fígado fueron utilizadas para la determinación de los tenores de glicogeno y de lípidos. Ambos grupos C e S presentaron un aumento de la glicemia y de los AGL, mantenimiento

  20. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  1. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  2. The effects of pH in profile of lipid and ester accumulation of arthrospira platensis (spirulina) as a potential source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Patrick A.; Ybañez, Manolito G. Jr.; Avilla, Ruel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to produce biodiesel (ester-based fuel) using the extracts of microalgae Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina). Specifically, the research focused in determining effect of pH in culturing the Spirulina and its lipid accumulation; determining the constituents present in the lipid extracts; and determining the methyl esters in the transesterified lipids. The best pH condition in culturing the algal sample was found to be at pH 10 to 11. Analysis of the extracted lipid samples revealed that pH condition in culturing medium has a significant effect on the lipid accumulation in Spirulina. Perkin Elmer Claurus 500 GC-MS system elucidated that the constituents present in the experimental samples were esterified lipids. The esters were derived from butanoic, hexadeanoic and octadecanoic acid. About 19 free fatty acids out of 23 determined compounds present were from the controlled sample which suggests that these were main precursors of the esters found in the sample were butyl, allyl nonyl, propyl tetradecyl, methylpropyl, allyl dodecyl, hexyl pentadecyl, dodecyl propyl, heptyl esters with the parent chain of fatty acids enumerated above. These showed that pH manipulations could be used as a direct transesterification of fatty acids in producing biodiesels. (author)

  3. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sommella; Giulio Maria Conte; Emanuela Salviati; Giacomo Pepe; Alessia Bertamino; Carmine Ostacolo; Francesca Sansone; Francesco Del Prete; Rita Patrizia Aquino; Pietro Campiglia

    2018-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary sup...

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Maulida Safitri; Endang Yuli Herawati; Jue Liang Hsu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51) was identified and synthetized, w...

  5. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  6. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  7. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  8. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  9. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sommella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis, better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  10. Fast Profiling of Natural Pigments in Different Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Dietary Supplements by DI-FT-ICR and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Potential by Pre-Column DPPH-UHPLC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommella, Eduardo; Conte, Giulio Maria; Salviati, Emanuela; Pepe, Giacomo; Bertamino, Alessia; Ostacolo, Carmine; Sansone, Francesca; Prete, Francesco Del; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Campiglia, Pietro

    2018-05-11

    Arthrospira platensis , better known as Spirulina, is one of the most important microalgae species. This cyanobacterium possesses a rich metabolite pattern, including high amounts of natural pigments. In this study, we applied a combined strategy based on Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for the qualitative/quantitative characterization of Spirulina pigments in three different commercial dietary supplements. FT-ICR was employed to elucidate the qualitative profile of Spirulina pigments, in both direct infusion mode (DIMS) and coupled to UHPLC. DIMS showed to be a very fast (4 min) and accurate (mass accuracy ≤ 0.01 ppm) tool. 51 pigments were tentatively identified. The profile revealed different classes, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls. Moreover, the antioxidant evaluation of the major compounds was assessed by pre-column reaction with the DPPH radical followed by fast UHPLC-PDA separation, highlighting the contribution of single analytes to the antioxidant potential of the entire pigment fraction. β-carotene, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin showed the highest scavenging activity. The method took 40 min per sample, comprising reaction. This strategy could represent a valid tool for the fast and comprehensive characterization of Spirulina pigments in dietary supplements, as well as in other microalgae-based products.

  11. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  12. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  13. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  14. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  15. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  16. Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Maria C; Piccardi, Raffaella; Ventura, Stefano; Viti, Carlo; Giovannetti, Luciana

    2003-05-01

    Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters, belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was well delineated.

  17. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  18. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  19. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  20. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  1. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  2. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  3. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  5. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen-Haur Hwang

    Full Text Available Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC, the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.

  6. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana CEPOI; Ludmila RUDI; Vera MISCU; Angela COJOCARI; Tatiana CHIRIAC; Daniela SADOVNIC

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC), radical-scavenging activity by DPPH ...

  7. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is the production of biomass of S. platensis using different rates of stirring, nitrogen source, amount of micronutrients, and luminosity. A 2(4 experimental design with the following factors: stirring (120 and 140 RPM, amount of nitrogen (1.5 and 2.5 g/L, amount of micronutrients (0,25 and 0,75 mL/L (11 and 15 W, and luminosity was used. Fermentation was performed in a 500 mL conical flask with 250 mL of culture medium and 10% inoculum in an incubator with controlled stirring and luminosity. Fermentation was monitored using a spectrophotometer (560 nm, and each fermentation lasted 15 days. Of the parameters studied, luminosity is the one with the highest significance, followed by the amount of nitrogen and the interaction between stirring and micronutrients. Maximum production of biomass for 15 days was 2.70 g/L under the following conditions: luminosity15W; stirring, 120 RPM; source of nitrogen, 1.5 g/L; and micronutrients, 0.75 mL/L.A Spirulina platensis é uma cianobactéria mesofílica, fotoautotrófica, que utiliza como nutrientes os nitratos, ureia e sais de amônio. O cultivo necessita de controle de temperatura, intensidade de luz e do teor de nutrientes utilizados. Esta microalga tem sido estuda pelo seu potencial nutricional, antioxidante, terapêutico e adjuvante em tratamento de obesidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de biomassa de S. platensis em diferentes níveis de agitação, fonte de nitrog

  8. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  9. Inspiration fuels space research in Congo. Combating malnutrition with Spirulina, the green protein source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Congo, around 43% of all children under the age of five suffer from chronic malnutrition. The result is a high infant mortality rate./ Researchers from the Belgian Nuclear research Center SCK•CEN started working on the cultivation of spirulina, a type of algae rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for combating chronic malnutrition in children. This Inspiration project is the first in a series and signals the ambition of SCK•CEN to contribute towards a balanced and sustainable world.

  10. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muliterno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fonte orgânica de carbono (glicose em modo bateladaalimentada. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³ para o cultivo e as variáveis de estudo foram a concentração de glicose (0,5 gL-1 e 1,0 gL-1, a diluição do meio Zarrouk (50% e 75% e a iluminância (1800 lux e 3000 lux. A concentração celular máxima obtida foi de 5,38 gL-1 com uma velocidade específica máxima de crescimento de 0,0063 h-1, nas condições de 0,5 gL-1 de glicose, diluição do meio de 75% e iluminância de 3000 lux.The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied due to its high content (~65% of highly digestible protein as well as significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals and phycocyanin which could be useful in the human nutrition. The use of nutrients of low costs in the cyanobacterium growth could reduce the costs of production. We studied the fed-batch mixotrophic growth of the S. platensis in Zarrouk's medium with glucose (0.5 gL-1 and 1.0 gL-1 as carbon source and also investigated the effects of dilution (50% and 75%, with water and illumination (1,800 lux and 3,000 lux using a 2³ factorial design. The maximum celular concentration of 5.38 gL-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.0063 h-1 were obtained with a glucose concentration of 0.5 gL-1, 50% dilution and 1800 lux of illuminance.

  11. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-08-17

    Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  12. Separation, identification and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls in dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynstova, Veronika; Sterbova, Dagmar; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech

    2018-01-30

    In this study, 14 commercial products (dietary supplements) containing alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, originated from China and Japan, were analysed. UV-vis spectrophotometric method was applied for rapid determination of chlorophylls, carotenoids and pheophytins; as degradation products of chlorophylls. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used for effective separation of these compounds, and also Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of heavy metals as indicator of environmental pollution. Based on the results obtained from UV-vis spectrophotometric determination of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), it was confirmed that Chlorella vulgaris contains more of all these pigments compared to the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. The fastest mobility compound identified in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using HPTLC method was β-carotene. Spectral analysis and standard calibration curve method were used for identification and quantification of separated substances on Thin-Layer Chromatographic plate. Quantification of copper (Cu 2+ , at 324.7 nm) and zinc (Zn 2+ , at 213.9nm) was performed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with air-acetylene flame atomization. Quantification of cadmium (Cd 2+ , at 228.8 nm), nickel (Ni 2+ , at 232.0nm) and lead (Pb 2+ , at 283.3nm) by Electrothermal Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; and quantification of mercury (Hg 2+ , at 254nm) by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Felipe da Silva; Crizel, Tainara de Morais; Silva, Camila Rubira; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de las Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha). Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães ...

  14. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina®, a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Balachandran, Premalatha; Christensen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Immulina®, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a potent activator of THP-1 monocytes and CD4+ T cells IN VITRO and enhances several immunological functions in mice. We further characterized Immulina® by determining that Braun-type lipoproteins are responsible for a major...

  15. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  16. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  17. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaëlle Birot; Diane de Jouvencel; Laetitia Raginel; Geneviève Rouillé

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced...

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Active Peptide Derived from Spirulina platensis Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Maulida Safitri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to isolate the antioxidative peptide from Spirulina platensis. Peptide was obtained by proteolytic digestion, ultrafiltration, fractionation by RP-HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS—MASCOT Distiller and measured its antioxidant activity by DPPH (2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results showed that thermolysin was the most effective enzyme to digest this algae. The active peptide Phe-Ser-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ala-Pro-Glu-Gln-His-Tyr (m/z 1281.51 was identified and synthetized, which exhibited 45.98 ± 1.7% at concentration 128.15 µg/mL. Therefore, S. platensis is indicated as a potential therapeutic source for combating oxidative stress.

  19. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  20. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  1. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  2. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  3. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid; Mejora de la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva: Incorporación de Espirulina y evaluación de su sinergismo con ácido cítrico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [Spanish] Se evaluaron los efectos de diferentes concentraciones de Espirulina usadas solas y en combinación con ácido cítrico sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva. Las cantidades de productos de oxidación primarios y secundarios producidos en muestras de Espirulina fueron menores que las del control. Además, la estabilidad oxidativa de muestras de Espirulina con y sin ácido cítrico estaban en el intervalo de 85,20–94,47% y 258,10–260,21%, respectivamente. En comparación con el control, las muestras de Espirulina mostraron un contenido significativamente mayor de carotenoides y clorofila al inicio y al final del período de almacenamiento. La presencia de estos compuestos bioactivos y la presencia de Espirulina en el medio pueden retardar la oxidación del aceite de oliva. Se obtuvo una mayor estabilidad oxidativa usando BHT en comparación con muestras de Espirulina. Además, no se observó ninguna acción sin

  4. Modelamiento matemático y por redes neuronales artificiales del crecimiento de Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactor con fuente de luz fluorescente e iluminación en estado sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los modelos matemáticos de Gompertz y logístico en la cinética de crecimiento de Spirulina sp., los cuales fueron comparados con un modelamiento por Redes Neuronales Artificiales Backpropagation (RNA-BP. La Spirulina fue cultivada en un fotobiorreactor de laboratorio aireado (3 L/min de 500 mL, con iluminación fluorescente de 40W y en Estado Sólido (LED-Light Emitting Diode de 1W; obteniendo con ambos sistemas 11,0 klx. La iluminación LED, permitió obtener un valor elevado de biomasa (ɑ de 0,90 , en comparación con la obtenida con iluminación fluorescente de 0,82; así como una mayor velocidad de crecimiento μ=0,63 h-1, precedida de un menor tiempo de latencia λ=0,34 h. La RNA-BP mostró buena precisión con respecto al modelo corregido de Gompertz I, tanto para el caso del cultivo de Spirulina sp. con iluminación fluorescente y con LED, mostrando coeficientes de correlación (R del orden de 0,993 y 0,994 respectivamente, con respecto a los datos experimentales. Resulta ventajoso el modelamiento a través del modelo corregido de Gompertz I, porque además de valores de R de 0,987 y 0,990 en los cultivos de Spirulina sp. Con iluminación fluorescente y con LED respectivamente, permite obtener los parámetros de la cinética de crecimiento de manera directa.

  5. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  6. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A(H1N1) virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that Immulina, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is a potent activator of innate immune cells and that Braun-type lipoproteins (a principal toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand) are the main active components within this product. In the present study, ...

  7. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  8. Sequence of the gamma-subunit of Spirulina platensis : a new principle of thiol modulation of F0F1 ATP synthase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinemann, D.; Lill, H

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the gamma subunit of Spirulina platensis F0F1, the relative of the chloroplast F1 subunit responsible for thiol activation, has been cloned and sequenced. As in other cyanobacteria, a specific couple of cysteines like those involved in thiol modulation of the chloroplast enzyme was

  9. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  10. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  11. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  12. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  13. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  14. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  15. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Dotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium experimental data (R²>0.99 and ARE<5.0% and the maximum biosorption capacities were 363.2 and 468.7 mg g-1 for tartrazine and allura red, respectively, obtained at 298 K. The negative values of ΔG and ΔH showed that the biosorption of both dyes was spontaneous, favorable and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS suggested that the system disorder increases during the biosorption process.

  16. The Effect of Temperature on Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Hızarcı Uslu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sıcaklığın Spirulina platensis’in protein ve amino asit kompozisyonu üzerine etkisi. Bu çalışma, mevsime bağlı iklim değişikliğinin yaz ve kış mevsimlerinde kültüre alınan Spirulina platensis’in protein içeriği ve amino asit kompozisyonuna etkilerini incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Çalışma boyunca ışık yoğunluğu, pH ve tuzluluk günlük olarak ölçülmüş, sıcaklık ve çözünmüş oksijen gün boyunca ve gece ölçülmüştür. Yaz ve kış mevsiminde ortalama gündüz sıcaklığı sırasıyla 33,9±0,4 ºC ve 18,6±0,5 ºC olarak belirlenirken, gece sıcaklığı 29,9±0,2 °C ve 14.4±0.2°C olarak belirlenmiştir. Ortalama ışık yoğunluğu yaz mevsiminde 848,3 µmol m-2s-1 iken kışın 506,26±48 µmol m-2s-1 olmuştur. Yaz büyüme döneminde protein miktarı (72,9±03 % ve amino asit konsantrasyonu kış dönemine göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Amino asitlerden Prolin, Sistin ve Arjinin sadece kış mevsiminde gözlenmiştir

  17. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  20. Characteristic of resistant ionization-radiation and its relationship with polysaccharide contents in spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Xu Bujin

    2001-01-01

    The anti-radiation capacities of intact filaments, no-sheath filaments and cells of 4 kinds of Spiralina strains (Ss-V, Sp-F, Sp-Z and Sp-D) treated by "6"0Co γ-rays were studied. The relationship between polysaccharide contents and anti-radiation capacity of 4 strains were also detected. The results showed that Spirulina is highly resistant toγ-radiation, however there were significant differences with various strains. The order of anti-radiation capacity is Ss-V > Sp-F > Sp-Z > Sp-D. Moreover, the anti-radiation capacity were remarkably related with polysaccharide contents in the 4 strains. This showed that polysaccharide is very important for raising and maintain-ing super anti-radiation capacity in Spiralina. (authors)

  1. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  3. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  4. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  5. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  6. Determination of antioxidant and chelating activity of protein hydrolysates from spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) obtained by simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Palma, N.; Martínez-Ayala, A.; Dávila-Ortíz, G.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  7. Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-11-13

    Spirulina maxima , a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ 1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ 1-42 -induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice.

  8. Quantitative Isotope-Dilution High-Resolution-Mass-Spectrometry Analysis of Multiple Intracellular Metabolites in Clostridium autoethanogenum with Uniformly 13C-Labeled Standards Derived from Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Abdelrazig, Salah; Safo, Laudina; Henstra, Anne M; Millat, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P; Barrett, David A

    2018-04-03

    We have investigated the applicability of commercially available lyophilized spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis), a microorganism uniformly labeled with 13 C, as a readily accessible source of multiple 13 C-labeled metabolites suitable as internal standards for the quantitative determination of intracellular bacterial metabolites. Metabolites of interest were analyzed by hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple internal standards obtained from uniformly (U)- 13 C-labeled extracts from spirulina were used to enable isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in the identification and quantification of intracellular metabolites. Extraction of the intracellular metabolites of Clostridium autoethanogenum using 2:1:1 chloroform/methanol/water was found to be the optimal method in comparison with freeze-thaw, homogenization, and sonication methods. The limits of quantification were ≤1 μM with excellent linearity for all of the calibration curves ( R 2 ≥ 0.99) for 74 metabolites. The precision and accuracy were found to be within relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 15% for 49 of the metabolites and within RSDs of 20% for all of the metabolites. The method was applied to study the effects of feeding different levels of carbon monoxide (as a carbon source) on the central metabolism and Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of C. autoethanogenum grown in continuous culture over 35 days. Using LC-IDMS with U- 13 C spirulina allowed the successful quantification of 52 metabolites in the samples, including amino acids, carboxylic acids, sugar phosphates, purines, and pyrimidines. The method provided absolute quantitative data on intracellular metabolites that was suitable for computational modeling to understand and optimize the C. autoethanogenum metabolic pathways active in gas fermentation.

  9. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  10. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  11. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  12. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Mingming, E-mail: lan_mingming@163.com [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Deyuan; Cai Jun; Zhang Wenqiang; Yuan Liming [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism (Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment. - Highlights: > We used the microorganism cells as forming template to fabricate the bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles. > Microorganism selected as forming templates was Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and have high aspect ratio. > Coated Spirulina cells were a kind lightweight ferromagnetic particle.

  14. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  16. Phyocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis assisted by ultrasound irradiation: effect of time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina platensis using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was conducted by using variable of extraction time, temperature and ultrasound frequency, while ethanol was used as solvent. The results show that the yield of phycocyanin extract was 15.97% at constant frequency of 42 kHz and 11.24% at constant frequency of 28 kHz, while the soxhlet extraction method obtained yield at 11.13%. The ultrasound could reduce the extraction time from 4 hrs (conventional to 20 minutes, while the optimum temperature of extraction was found at 55°C.

  17. Investigation of the Structure and Element Composition of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from the Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism.

  18. Produção, aspectos nutricionais e fisiológicos de alface sob adubação foliar com Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Samara Oliveira e Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de concentrações do fertilizante orgânico a base de Spirulina platensis sobre a produção, crescimento, teores de N, P, K e sódio e sobre as trocas gasosas de alface cv. Elba em condições de campo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, constituídos das concentrações do fertilizante (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5% com seis repetições. No ponto de colheita da cultura foram avaliadas variáveis de produção e crescimento, os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e sódio, bem como, as trocas gasosas das plantas com o medidor de gás infravermelho (IRGA. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as concentrações do fertilizante, não afetaram a produção, o crescimento, os teores de nutrientes avaliados, assim como não influenciaram as trocas gasosas das plantas.Production, mineral nutrition and physiological aspects of lettuce under foliar fertilization with Spirulina platensis Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of concentrations of organic fertilizer based on Spirulina platensis on yield, growth, in N, P, K and sodium contents and on gaseous changes of lettuce cv. Elba in field conditions. Use the design of randomized blocks, with six treatments consisting of different concentrations of fertilizer (0; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 and 7.5% with six replications. At the harvest point were evaluated the growth and production, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, as well as gas exchange plant with infrared gas meter (IRGA. The results showed that the fertilizer concentrations did not affect production, growth, levels of nutrients evaluated, and did not influence the gas exchange of plants.

  19. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Señorans, F. Javier; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol andwater). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 ◦C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using m...

  20. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  1. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  2. Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Spirulina Platensis Protein Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Sharif, M. K.; Butt, M. S.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein malnutrition and food insecurity represent serious obstructions to sustainable development, poverty reduction and food quality throughout the world. The present study has been designed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis (SP) as a protein alternative source for the utilization in food products. A protein isolate was prepared from S. platensis powder through extraction with 0.1N NaOH, precipitation at pH 3, neutralization of the dispersed precipitate to pH 6.8-7.0, and subsequent freeze drying. The S. platensis isolate amino acids compositions revealed that the total essential amino acids contribution was comparatively higher in SPI (31.16±1.43 g/100 g) as compared with SP (27.75±1.21 g/100 g). Moreover, oil and water absorption capacities, foaming and emulsifying properties, surface hydrophobicity and nitrogen solubility index were found better functional properties under laboratory conditions except emulsion properties. Conclusively, SP and its isolates might be used in various food products to curtail protein energy malnutrition. (author)

  3. In vitro evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract incorporated skin cream with its wound healing and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Seda; Tamburaci, Sedef; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Deliloglu Gurhan, Ismet

    2017-12-01

    Algae have gained importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their beneficial effects on skin health and therapeutical value with bioactive compounds. Spirulina platensis Parachas (Phormidiaceae) is renowned as a potential source of high-value chemicals and recently used in skincare products. This study develops and evaluates skin creams incorporated with bioactive S. platensis extract. Spirulina platensis was cultivated, the aqueous crude extract was prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity of S. platensis extract in the range of 0.001-1% concentrations for 1, 3 and 7 d on HS2 keratinocyte cells was determined. Crude extracts were incorporated in skin cream formulation at 0.01% (w/w) concentration and in vitro wound healing and genotoxicity studies were performed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the collagen activity. 0.1% S. platensis extract exhibited higher proliferation activity compared with the control group with 198% of cell viability after 3 d. Skin cream including 1.125% S. platensis crude extract showed enhanced wound healing effect on HS2 keratinocyte cell line and the highest HS2 cell viability % was obtained with this concentration. The micronucleus (MN) assay results indicated that S. platensis extract incorporated creams had no genotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that collagen 1 immunoreactivity was improved by increased extract concentration and it was strongly positive in cells treated with 1.125% extract incorporated skin cream. The cell viability, wound healing activity and genotoxicity results showed that S. platensis incorporated skin cream could be of potential value in cosmeceutical and biomedical applications.

  4. Capacidade antioxidante da microalga Spirulina platensis em células da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae submetidas ao estressor paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Guarienti, Cíntia; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Em virtude de várias publicações terem mostrado a alta associação entre a geração de radicais livres e as doenças crônico-degenerativas, tem havido grande interesse por alimentos funcionais antioxidantes. O excesso de espécies reativas no organismo resulta em estresse oxidativo que provoca danos celulares e teciduais. A microalga Spirulina tem sido pesquisada em função de suas propriedades nutricionais e antioxidantes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar a atividade antioxidante da mi...

  5. Promoting helix pitch and trichome length to improve biomass harvesting efficiency and carbon dioxide fixation rate by Spirulina sp. in 660 m2 raceway ponds under purified carbon dioxide from a coal chemical flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Guo, Wangbiao; Ameer Ali, Kubar; Ye, Qing; Jin, Guiyong; Qiao, Zhanshan

    2018-08-01

    The helix pitch and trichome length of Spirulina sp. were promoted to improve the biomass harvesting efficiency and CO 2 fixation rate in 660 m 2 raceway ponds aerated with food-grade CO 2 purified from a coal chemical flue gas. The CO 2 fixation rate was improved with increased trichome length of the Spirulina sp. in a raceway pond with double paddlewheels, baffles, and CO 2 aerators (DBA raceway pond). The trichome length has increased by 33.3 μm, and CO 2 fixation rate has increased by 42.3% and peaked to 51.3 g/m 2 /d in a DBA raceway pond. Biomass harvesting efficiency was increased with increased helix pitch. When the day-average greenhouse temperature was 33 °C and day-average sunlight intensity was 72,100 lu×, the helix pitch of Spirulina sp. was increased to 56.2 μm. Hence the biomass harvesting efficiency was maximized to 75.6% and biomass actual yield was increased to 35.9 kg in a DBA raceway pond. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  7. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  8. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  9. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  10. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PRODUKSI DAN KANDUNGAN NUTRISI Spirulina fusiformis YANG DIKULTUR DENGAN PENCAHAYAAN MONOKROMATIS LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-06-01

    yang bersumber dari LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah (M, biru (B, dan biru-merah (BM, serta cahaya dari lampu fluoresens sebagai kontrol (K. Puncak kepadatan sel terjadi pada hari ke-18 dengan kepadatan masing-masing sebanyak 5,56 x 104 sel/mL (M; 1,65 x 104 sel/mL (B; 4,15 x 104 sel/mL (BM; dan 4,56 x 104 sel/mL (K. Perlakuan pencahayaan LED dengan cahaya monokromatis merah mencapai biomassa panen tertinggi sebesar 3,91 mg/mL dengan kandungan protein 49,77%; lemak 19,61%; karbohidrat 6,15%; serat kasar 0,00%; dan abu 24,48%. Pencahayaan dengan LED merah berpotensi diaplikasikan sebagai sumber cahaya dalam produksi Spirulina.

  12. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  13. Nitrogen limitation in natural populations of cyanobacteria (Spirulina and Oscillatoria spp.) and its effect on macromolecular synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; Shilo, M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural populations of the cyanobacteria Spirulina species and Oscillatoria species obtained from Israeli fish ponds were limited in growth by nitrogen availability in summer. Physiological indicators for nitrogen limitation, such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carbohydrate content, did not show clear evidence for nitrogen limited growth, since these organisms are capable of vertical migration from and to the nitrogen-rich bottom. By means of 14 C labeling of the cells under simulated pond conditions followed by cell fractionation into macromolecular compounds, it was found that carbohydrates synthesized at the lighted surface were partially utilized for dark protein synthesis at the bottom of these ponds

  14. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  15. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  16. Efecto de la intensidad de diodos electroluminosos y fotoperiodo en la optimización de la producción de biomasa de Spirulina ( Arthrospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vásquez - Villalobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó la producción de biomasa ( ф de cultivos batch d e Spirulina sp. en fotobiorreactores a escala de laboratorio (FBL de 0,2 L, por efecto de X 1 : intensidad de diodos electroluminosos (LED’s entre 1,25 a 41,7 klux y X 2 : fotoperiodo de12/12 a 24/0, h de luz/h de oscuridad (L/O utilizando un diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR y metodología de superficie de respuesta (MSR. Asimismo, se eval uaron las características hidráulicas y el valor ф de un cultivo batch de Spirulina en un fotobiorreactor de canal bucle cerrado abierto a la atmósfera (FB - BCAA por efecto de la iluminación LED de 8,3±1,9 klux y fotoperiodos de 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O. En los FBL se encontró dos zonas óptimas de ф , ambas con una intensidad LED de 21,5 klux y fotoperiodos 12/12 y 24/0 h L/O, siendo los valores ф de 1,65 y 1,62 respectivamente. El modelo matemático que indicó estas zonas fue de segundo orden (p = 0,000396 < 0,05 con una consistencia de predicción de R² = 0,92. En el FB - BCAA, el cultivo de Spirulina sp. con fotoperiodo de 12/12 h L/O, mostr ó un valor ф de 0,72, una adaptación más rápida de λ = 4,62 h, una mayor velocidad específica de crecimiento de μ max = 0,033 h - 1 y menor tiempo de consumo de energía de 74,05 h ; comparado con el cultivo desarrollado con fotoperiodo 24/0 h L/O. Los parámetros hidráulicos del FB - BCAA fueron: volumen de operación 2,5 L, velocidad de flujo 0,26 m/s, números de Reynolds ( Re 15488, Froude ( Fr 0,60 y Vedernikov ( V ed 0,90.

  17. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  18. Phycocyanin extraction in Spirulina produced using agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, N.; Religia, P.; Mulyani, G.; Suryana, D.; Ichsan; Tanjung, F. A.; Arifin, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex synthesized by blue-green microalgae such as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. This pigment is used mainly as natural colouring in food industry. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of this natural pigment. The price of phycocyanin is a vital factor that dictates its marketability. The cost of culturing the algae, particularly from the substrate used for growth, is one of the main factors that determine the price of phycocyanin. Another important factor is the growth yield of the algae. In our research, agricultural waste such as charcoal produced from rice husk was utilized for the algae cultivation to replace the synthetic chemicals such as urea and triple superphosphate used the mineral medium. The use of this low cost substrate increases the cell concentration by 60 % during 8 days’ cultivation to reach 0.39 g/l. The phycocyanin extraction was performed using water at the different biomass-to-solvent ratio and shaking rates. The phycocyanin concentration and purity (A615/A280) obtained were 1.2 g/l and 0.3. These values are 40 % and 20 % lower than the value obtained from the algae produced using the synthetic chemicals. Further purification produced the extract purity required for food grade. The biomass-solvent ratio does not significantly affect the extract purity; however, the higher shaking rate during extraction reduces the purity. This finding demonstrates the potential of using rice husk as an alternative substrate to cultivate algae for phycocyanin extraction.

  19. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  20. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  1. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  2. Influência da ingestão de biomassas de spirulina (Arthrospira sp. sobre o peso corporal e consumo de ração em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Kátia Gomes de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho verificou-se a influência do consumo de biomassas provenientes de três diferentes origens sobre o peso corporal e consumo de ração em ratos Wistar, machos e adultos. Grupos que consumiram 5% ou 10% (p/p da biomassa foram comparados com um controle. A biomassa I não promoveu diferença significativa no consumo de ração ou peso corporal dos três grupos. A biomassa II não causou diferença significativa no peso corporal, mas sim no consumo de ração. A biomassa III não causou diferença significativa no consumo de ração, nem no peso corporal, mas houve tendência de maior ganho de peso para o grupo que consumiu a ração contendo 10% de spirulina. Os resultados obtidos indicam que diferentes biomassas podem apresentar diferentes propriedades, mas não confirmam a alegação de que a spirulina pode levar a diminuição de peso ou de consumo de alimento.

  3. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jun, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the microorganism cells as forming templates to fabricate the bio-based conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microorganism cells selected as forming templates are Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and high aspect ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sliver-coated Spirulina cells are a kind of lightweight conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites containing sliver-coated Spirulina cells exhibit a lower percolation value. - Abstract: In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of {phi}{sub c} and t were obtained.

  4. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  5. Aplicación de estrategias nutricionales y su efecto en el crecimiento en el cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas,Elizabet; Ávila,Marcela; Parada,Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) durante 78 días en un fotobiorreactor tubular de 300 L de volumen. Durante este periodo se registró el crecimiento en biomasa y la respuesta del cultivo a la estrategia de adición del medio nutritivo. Utilizando como base el medio Zarrouk modificado, se elaboraron tres medios: medio inicial (MI), medio crecimiento (SA1+SA2) y medio mantenimiento (SB1+SB2) para las distintas etapas del cultivo. La entrega de los medios se efec...

  6. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  7. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  8. Phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater by Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt Geiteler: pigment content, production variable cost and nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripen Traichaiyaporn1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater by Spirulina platensis was carried out using kitchen wastewater. A complete randomised design (CRD was created for the experiment which was performed on modified Zarrouk’s medium (Zm, 100% kitchen wastewater (100%Kw and 90% kitchen wastewater (90%Kw. Water quality, biomass production, pigment content and nutritional value of Spirulina platensis were determined from cultures harvested every 5 days for a period of 15 days. The physico-chemical properties of cultivated wastewater were: water temperature 27-28 oC, pH 8.73-9.77 and DO 0.20-7.20 mg L-1. The 100%Kw and 90%Kw produced lower BOD, COD, TP, NH3-N, ON, TKN, NO3-N, NO2-N, TON and TN compared to Zm with p< 0.05. After cultivation, the treated kitchen wastewater met the standards for safe discharge in Thailand. The highest level of -carotene of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.29 mg g-1 and 100%Kw (0.29 mg g – 1 while the highest levels of C-phycocyanin were obtained in 100%Kw (17.95 mg g -1 and 90%Kw (16.31 mg g-1. The highest production variable cost for dry weight of S. platensis was in Zm (310.6 Baht kg -1 and 90%Kw (303.6 Baht kg -1 as compared to 100%Kw (276.6 Baht kg -1, with p<0.05. The highest biomass production of S. platensis was achieved in Zm (0.84 g L-1 and 100%Kw (0.82 g L-1, with protein content of 54.44% and 35.86%, respectively. Implications for the use of S. platensis for phytoremediation and C-phycocyanin production using of 100%Kw and 90% Kw are discussed.

  9. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  10. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  11. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  12. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  13. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Zhou, Chen; Cai, Peng; Chen, Wenli; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Liang, Wei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2011-06-15

    Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH(4)NO(3), respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Mingxiong; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumao

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis. A novel antioxidant peptide was obtained by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay used to measure the antioxidant activity, and the sequence was determined to be Pro-Asn-Asn (343.15 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This peptide was synthesized to confirm its antioxidant properties, and it exhibited 81.44 ± 0.43% DPPH scavenging activity at 100 µg/ml, which was similar to that of glutathione (82.63 ± 0.56%). Furthermore, the superoxide anion and hydroxyl free-radical scavenging activities and the SOD activity of the peptide were 47.84 ± 0.49%, 54.01 ± 0.82%, and 12.55 ± 0.75%, respectively, at 10 mg/ml. These results indicate that S. platensis is a good source of antioxidant peptides, and that its hydrolysate may have important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  15. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  16. Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huili

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis (ASP is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328. The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport, translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and

  17. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp Mecanismo de inibição de Fusarium graminearum por compostos fenólicos extraídos de Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.A aplicação de substâncias naturais com efeito antifúngico é motivada pela necessidade de alternativas aos métodos existentes que nem sempre são aplicáveis, eficientes ou sem risco de danos ao consumidor ou meio ambiente. Além disso, estudos para elucidar o comportamento de espécies toxigênicas mediante fungicidas naturais tornam-se necessárias, contribuindo dessa forma com a segurança alimentar. Neste trabalho, extrato fenólico de Spirulina foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antifúngica sobre 12 cepas toxigênicas de Fusarium graminearum, isoladas de cevada e trigo. As rotas metabólicas que poderiam ser afetadas foram avaliadas através da determinação de compostos estruturais (glicosamina e ergosterol e da atividade de enzimas do metabolismo primário dos micro-organismos. Os resultados indicaram que os

  18. Fabrication and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polymeric composites filled with silver-coated microorganism cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Mingming, E-mail: lan_mingming@163.com [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Hu, Yanyan; Yuan, Liming [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, helical silver-coated Spirulina cells were used as conductive fillers for the fabrication of polymeric composites. The morphology and composition of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The densities of silver-coated Spirulina cells were measured using the standard Archimedes method with distilled water. The electrical resistivity was measured by four-probe technique using ammeter and voltmeter whereas electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness was measured by four-port method using vector network analyzer and coaxial-airline sample holder. The results showed that the silver-coated Spirulina cells with different coating thickness were lightweight fillers compared to the other typical conductive particles. The polymeric composites could achieve good conductivity at the lower content of silver-coated Spirulina cells owing to their helical shape. The shielding effectiveness of polymeric composites had a strong dependence on their conductivity. At the coating thickness of 0.96 μm and the content of 40 vol%, the shielding effectiveness could reach above 74.3 dB in entire test wave band.

  19. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  20. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  1. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  2. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  3. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM, collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks with 100 litres of culture medium and an initial biomass concentration of 0.5 g/L. The culture media were prepared to test the effect of unsupplemented DCM, DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U, and/or 40 mg/L of sodium bicarbonate (DCM+U+B or DCM+B. The best cellular growth and highest protein production were observed for S. platensis in the biomass harvested from the culture medium containing DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U.

  4. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  5. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  6. Application of an Ultrafine Shearing Method for the Extraction of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption method, including soaking, ultrasonication, freezing-thawing, soaking-ultrafine shearing and soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication were applied to break the cell walls of S. platensis. The effectiveness of cell breaking was evaluated based on the yield of the C-phycocyanin. The results show that the maximum C-phycocyanin yield was 9.02%, achieved by the soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method, followed by soaking (8.43%, soaking-ultrafine shearing (8.89%, freezing and thawing (8.34%, and soaking-ultrasonication (8.62%. The soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method is a novel technique for breaking the cell walls of S. platensis for the extraction of C-phycocyanin.

  7. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  8. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent compositions, and various other fields and can be extracted from plants and algae. To extract, separate and purify chlorophyll a from associated pigments such as xanthophylls, carotenes, and pheophytins, very costly processes are reported. The present approach is perfectly adequate for use in Chemistry experiments for undergraduate students.

  9. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  10. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  11. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  13. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  14. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  15. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  17. İki Farklı Spirulina platensis Suşunun Büyüme Özelliklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenker Kılıç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikroalgal biyoteknoloji kapsamında sıklıkla kullanılan türlerden Spirulina platensis’in üretimi son yıllarda ülkemizde de başarıyla gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, düz ve spiral formda olan iki farklı Spirulina suşunun büyüme karakteristikleri incelendi. Ayrıca, klorofil ve kuru ağırlık ölçümlerinde pratiklik sağlayacak spektrofotometrik ölçümler çalışıldı. Deneme süresince, hücre sayıları haricinde tüm parametrelerin birbirine benzerlik gösterdiği saptandı. Denemenin başında spiral/düz form oranı 2.43 iken bu oran deneme sonunda 5.53’e yükseldi. Spektrofotometrik ölçümler, kültürlerde büyümenin izlenmesinde pratiklik sağlaması bakımından önemlidir. Bu kapsamda, 680 nm’de ölçülen absorbans değeri ile kuru ağırlık ve klorofil a miktarları arasında önemli bir ilişki olduğu saptandı (p

  18. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  19. Spirulina maxima extract prevents cell death through BDNF activation against amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-04-23

    Spirulina maxima is a blue-green micro alga that contains abundant amounts of proteins (60-70%), vitamins, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). It has been shown to reduce oxidative stress, and prevent diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, it is unclear whether Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE), chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aβ 1-42 -induced cell death. SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC suppressed the Aβ 1-42 -induced increase in poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage and reduced Aβ 1-42 -induced decreases in glutathione and its associated factors. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection, was increased by SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC in Aβ 1-42 -treated cells. SM70EE treatment decreased oxidative stress and cell death in response to Aβ 1-42 treatment, while simultaneously suppressing PARP cleavage and increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH) and its associated factors. Moreover, SM70EE lowered the levels of APP and BACE1, two major factors involved in APP processing, and increased BDNF expression during Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. We suggest that SM70EE prevents cell death caused by Aβ 1-42 -induced neurotoxicity via the activation of BDNF signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  1. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cell-Free Extract of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the cell-free extract of Spirulina platensis. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis and finally evaluated for antibacterial activity. Extracellular synthesis using aqueous extract of S. platensis showed the formation of well scattered, highly stable, spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30–50 nm. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that biomolecules, proteins and peptides, are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilisation of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised nanoparticles exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli, MTCC-9721; Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-7299; Klebsiella pneumoniae, MTCC-9751, and Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-9542; S. epidermidis, MTCC-2639; Bacillus cereus, MTCC-9017, bacteria. The AgNPs had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI that is 31.3±1.11 in P. vulgaris. Use of such a microalgal system provides a simple, cost-effective alternative template for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials of silver in a large scale that could be of great use in biomedical applications.

  2. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13; Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis com isótopo estável Carbono-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: luiz_cnst@hotmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CIE/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Isótopos Estáveis Prof. Dr. Carlos Ducatti

    2017-07-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ({sup 13}C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of {sup 13}C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure {sup 13}C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard.

  3. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  4. Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V B; Madyastha, K M

    2001-07-13

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is known to inactivate important cellular targets and also mediate oxidative damage in DNA. The present study has demonstrated that phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina platensis and its chromophore, phycocyanobilin (PCB), efficiently scavenge ONOO(-), a potent physiological inorganic toxin. Scavenging of ONOO(-) by phycocyanin and PCB was established by studying their interaction with ONOO(-) and quantified by using competition kinetics of pyrogallol red bleaching assay. The relative antioxidant ratio and IC(50) value clearly indicate that phycocyanin is a more efficient ONOO(-) scavenger than PCB. The present study has also shown that PCB significantly inhibits the ONOO(-)-mediated single-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 2.9 +/- 0.6 microM. These results suggest that phycocyanin, has the ability to inhibit the ONOO(-)-mediated deleterious biological effects and hence has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  6. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  7. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ( 13 C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of 13 C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure 13 C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard

  8. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  9. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  10. Study of Selecting on Light Source Used for Micro-algae Cultivation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang; Qin, Li-Feng

    To select suitable light source for micro-algae cultivation in future space station, the selected Spirulina plastensis(No.7) were cultured under different lightening qualities, including six light sources that were made up of different combinations of red and blue light-emitting diode(LED). The growth, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the experiments, the red light may promote the cumulation of biomass of the Spirulina, and the cumulating rate was the highest under all red light source, but the syntheses of protein, phycobiliprotein, β-carotene, VE and other nutrients needs a certain portion of blue light; yet, the complete blue light condition is not favorable to the growth of Spirulina, and may bring pollution by chlorella and other kinds of micro-algae. It is concluded that the LEDs can be used as the light resource of micro-algae cultivation. The normal growth and development of microalgae need two light sources of both red and blue LEDs. The comprehensive analyses of the various factors that affect the growth of Spirulina, such as nutrition quality and photosynthetic activities, etc., showed that the combination of 80% red and 20% blue LED is the optimum one among those tested combinations. Key word: light-emitting diode; micro-algae; controlled ecological life support system (CELSS); space cultivation

  11. Effect of operating conditions on hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina over Ni/TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenying; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Wenjia; Yin, Zhaosen; Yi, Xuewen

    2018-05-04

    In this study, the effects of reaction temperature, holding time, algae/water ratio and catalyst dosage on the yield and quality of bio-oil produced via the HTL of Spirulina were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield (43.05 wt%) and energy recovery (ER) value (64.62%) were obtained at 260 °C for 30 min, with an algae/water ratio of 1/4 and a catalyst dosage of 5 wt%. The bio-oil samples were characterized by elemental analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FI-IR), and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results indicated that higher heating values (HHVs) of bio-oils were in the range of 27.28-36.01 MJ/kg, and main compounds of bio-oil were amides, esters, nitriles, hydroperoxide and alkanes. Adding of the Ni/TiO 2 catalyst can decrease the contents of oxygenated and nitrogenous compounds and promote the formation of desirable components such as esters and alkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  13. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Synthesis by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Using Biopolymer Extraction Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleber Klasener; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2018-01-20

    The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis. Concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (v/v) of biopolymer extraction waste were tested. For comparison, two assays were used without addition of waste, Zarrouk (SZ) and modified Zarrouk (ZM), with reduction of nitrogen. The assays were carried out in triplicate and evaluated for the production of microalgal biomass and PHB. The tests with addition of waste presented a biomass production statistically equal to ZM (0.79 g L -1 ) (p PHB in the assay containing 25% of waste was higher when compared to the other cultivations, obtaining 10.6% (w/w) of biopolymer. From the results obtained, it is affirmed that the use of PHB extraction waste in the microalgal cultivation, aiming at the synthesis of biopolymers, can occur in a cyclic process, reducing process costs and the deposition of waste, thus favoring the preservation of the environment.

  15. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Natali F.; Lima, Eder C.; Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V.; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A.; Calvete, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. ► The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. ► The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for SP and AC, respectively. ► Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. ► SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4–99.0% and 93.6–97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  16. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  17. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  18. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  19. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  20. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. E. Bashandy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO, and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication.

  1. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  2. Spirulina maxima Extract Reduces Obesity through Suppression of Adipogenesis and Activation of Browning in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Jin; Kim, Kui-Jin; Choi, Jia; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-06-01

    Obesity predisposes animals towards the metabolic syndrome and diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Spirulina maxima is a microalga with anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective activities, but the anti-obesity effect of Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has not yet been fully established. We investigated the effect of SM70EE on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning using in vitro and in vivo obesity models. SM70EE treatment reduced lipid droplet accumulation by the oil red O staining method and downregulated the adipogenic proteins C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2, and the lipogenic proteins SREBP1, ACC, FAS, LPAATβ, Lipin1, and DGAT1 by western blot analysis. In addition, the index components of SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin, reduced adipogenesis and lipogenesis protein levels in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice administered with SM70EE demonstrated smaller adipose depots and lower blood lipid concentrations than control HFD-fed mice. The lower body mass gain in treated SM70EE-administrated mice was associated with lower protein expression of adipogenesis factors and higher expression of AMPKα-induced adipose browning proteins PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1. SM70EE administration ameliorates obesity, likely by reducing adipogenesis and activating the thermogenic program, in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese mice.

  3. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  4. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  5. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Linchuan; Zhou Chen; Cai Peng; Chen Wenli; Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei; Gu Jidong; Huang Qiaoyun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH 4 NO 3 , respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  6. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  8. Chlorophyll concentration assays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heaven

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... compounds, seven algal species belonging to cyanobacteria such as Spirulina platensis, ... Key words: Algae isolation, scanning electron microscope, ..... Antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic fresh.

  9. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  11. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  12. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  13. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadiyanto,; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur; Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae

  14. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  15. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  16. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  17. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  18. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  19. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  20. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  1. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  2. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  3. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheevadhanarak Supapon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation.

  4. Bioprocess Engineering Aspects of Biopolymer Production by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina Strain LEB 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guimarães Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biopolymers can replace environmentally damaging plastics derived from petrochemicals. We investigated biopolymer synthesis by the cyanobacterium Spirulina strain LEB 18. Autotrophic culture used unmodified Zarrouk medium or modified Zarrouk medium in which the NaNO3 content was reduced to 0.25 g L−1 and the NaHCO3 content reduced to 8.4 g L−1 or increased to 25.2 g L−1. Heterotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 with the NaHCO3 replaced by 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose (C6H12O6 or sodium acetate (CH3COONa. Mixotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 plus 16.8 g L−1 NaHCO3 with the addition of 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose or sodium acetate. The highest biopolymer yield was 44% when LEB 18 was growing autotrophically in media containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 and 8.4 g L−1 NaHCO3.

  5. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis. The algal dry weight (DW was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g DW was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

  6. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Señoráns, Javier

    2004-08-27

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

  7. Selection and protein sds-page identification of a new high-producing polysaccharide strain of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Liu Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between anti-radiation capacity and polysaccharide contents of ten Spirulina platensis strains were studied. The results showed that the correlation coefficient between 60 Co γ-ray half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) and polysaccharide contents of the 10 strains was 0.9873. After the single cells or spheroplasts of Sp-08 were treated by 0.6%EMS and 2.4 kGy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, four morphological mutant named Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, which could endure about 7.0 kGy γ-ray irradiation, were obtained. The polysaccharide contents of Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, were 32.8%, 17.3%, 3.4% and 42.3% higher than that of their parent Sp-08, respectively. The results of protein SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heredity of Sp-08A, Sp-08C and Sp-08D were mutated. Therefore, Sp-08A was a perfect high-producing polysaccharide strain with excellent characteristics of morphology and growth. Now, Sp-08A is applied in mass cultivation and industrialization. (authors)

  8. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  9. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. From malnutrition to HIV: spirulina is an effective solution which continues to reveal its secrets De la malnutrition au VIH : la spiruline arme efficace qui n’en finit pas de livrer ses secrets De la malnutrición al VIH: la espirulina como arma eficaz que no cesa de revelar secretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Birot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina presents major advantages in the fight against chronic malnutrition based on its micronutrient composition, its health potential and the fact that it can be grown locally. International solidarity associations, such as Antenna Technologies and Entrepreneurs du Monde whose goal is to reduce extreme poverty and public health problems in developing countries, have undertakenproduction and distribution programmes of spirulina, especially in West Africa. The quality of spirulina produced in these developing countries continues to increase to the extent that it can now be exported. Thus, associations such as Spirulidaire market a traditional, fair and supportive spirulina in France and Europe and thus promote local producers.The perception of spirulina continues to evolve with the multiplication of field initiatives and the accumulation of scientific data. New studies demonstrate that spirulina also presents clinically significant anti-viral and immuno-stimulating effects in people infected by HIV.Sur la base de sa composition en micronutriments, de son potentiel pour la santé et du fait qu’elle soit cultivable localement, la spiruline présente des avantages majeurs dans la lutte contre la malnutrition chronique. Des associations de solidarité internationale, comme Antenna Technologies et Entrepreneurs du Monde qui ont comme vocation de réduire l’extrême pauvreté et les problèmes de santé publique dans les pays en développement, ont entrepris des programmes de culture et de distribution de spiruline notamment en Afrique de l’Ouest. La qualité de la spiruline produite dans ces pays en développement ne cesse d’augmenter et est telle qu’elle permet son exportation. C’est ainsi que des associations comme Spirulidaire commercialisent une spiruline artisanale, équitable et solidaire en France et en Europe et permettent ainsi de soutenir les producteurs locaux.La perception de la spiruline ne cesse d’évoluer avec la

  11. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pmaxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  12. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Wong, Ka-Hing; Yang, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Wenjie; Wu, Hualian; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC) and allophycocyanin (Te-APC), two organic tellurium (Te) species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 μg g(-1) protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  14. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  15. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions on Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seker, Ayseguel [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysegulseker@iyte.edu.tr; Shahwan, Talal [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: talalshahwan@iyte.edu.tr; Eroglu, Ahmet E. [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmeteroglu@iyte.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Sinan [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: sinanyilmaz@iyte.edu.tr; Demirel, Zeliha [Department of Biology, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: zelihademirel@gmail.com; Dalay, Meltem Conk [Department of Bioengineering, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: meltemconkdalay@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    The biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution by Spirulina platensis was studied as a function of time, concentration, temperature, repetitive reactivity, and ionic competition. The kinetic results obeyed well the pseudo second-order model. Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models were applied in describing the equilibrium partition of the ions. Freundlich isotherm was applied to describe the design of a single-stage batch sorption system. According to the thermodynamic parameters such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}and {delta}S{sup o} calculated, the sorption process was endothermic and largely driven towards the products. Sorption activities in a three metal ion system were studied which indicated that there is a relative selectivity of the biosorbent towards Pb{sup 2+} ions. The measurements of the repetitive reusability of S. platensis indicated a large capacity towards the three metal ions.

  16. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  17. Development and characterization of bioactive edible films from spider crab (Maja crispata) chitosan incorporated with Spirulina extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Mansour, Mohamed Ben; Sayari, Nadhem; Yacoubi, Lamia; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Brodu, Nicolas; Massé, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Active food packaging films based on crab chitosan and Spirulina extract (SE) were developed. The effects of the SE incorporation at different levels on physical (color, opacity water vapor and oxygen permeability) and mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) properties of chitosan films were investigated. FTIR was carried out to observe the potential modifications of the chitosan films when incorporated with SE. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of SE into chitosan films improved mechanical and barrier properties. The antioxidant activity of the chitosan/SE films was characterized by means of three different analytical assays (DPPH, FRAP and FIC). Crab chitosan edible films containing SE showed higher antioxidant activity, regardless concentrations and methods assayed. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. The agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of chitosan edible films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The chitosan/SE films were more effective (pchitosan edible films incorporated with SE showed great potential to be used for active food packaging due to its excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon.

  19. Species-specific differences of the spectroscopic properties of P700 - Analysis of the influence of non-conserved amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, H.; Bordignon, E.; Carbonera, D.; Dekker, J.P.; Karapetyan, N.; Teutloff, C.; Webber, A.; Lubitz, W.; Schlodder, E.

    2003-01-01

    We applied optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance techniques, and redox titrations to investigate the properties of the primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I (PS I) core complexes from cyanobacteria (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Spirulina platensis, and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), algae

  20. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  1. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  2. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2008-06-25

    Both selenium and phycocyanin have been reported to show potent cancer chemopreventive activities. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) purified from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis. The antioxidant activity of Se-PC was evaluated by using four different free radical scavenging assays, namely, the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, and erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The results indicated that Se-PC exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than phycocyanin by scavenging ABTS, DPPH, superoxide anion, and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride free radicals. Se-PC also showed dose-dependent protective effects on erythrocytes against H 2O 2-induced oxidative DNA damage as evaluated by the Comet assay. Moreover, Se-PC was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against human melanoma A375 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Induction of apoptosis in both A375 and MCF-7 cells by Se-PC was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and nuclear condensation. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms indicated that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi m) was involved in Se-PC-induced cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that Se-PC is a promising organic Se species with potential applications in cancer chemoprevention.

  3. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  4. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (L-AsnA is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2 showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU, total protein (405 mg/g, specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein, and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima.

  5. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  6. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  7. Hawaii Algal Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Spirulina Algea, Swine Manure , and Digested Anaerobic Sludge." Bioresource Technology 102: 8295- 8303. Viets, John W., Narasimhan Sundaram, Bal K. Kaul, and...biofuel source. Dr. Zimmerman noted that since algae decompose easily in landfills, the nutrients produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass can be...resource requirements would be pivotal to the offices of the U.S. Navy Resource entities such as OPNAV. In order for decision makers to digest the

  8. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  9. Down-regulation of histamine-induced endothelial cell activation as potential anti-atherosclerotic activity of peptides from Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-10-09

    Histamine, a potent inflammatory mediator, has been known to cause the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this sense, two bioactive peptides P1 (LDAVNR; 686Da) and P2 (MMLDF; 655Da) purified from gastric enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima were examined for their protective effects against early atherosclerotic responses induced by histamine in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Interestingly, both P1 and P2 exhibited inhibitory activities on the production and expression of IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, P1 and P2 inhibited the production of adhesion molecules including P-selectin and E-selectin, and thus reducing in vitro cell adhesion of monocyte onto endothelial cells. In addition, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed to reduce in the presence of P1 or P2. Notably, the inhibitory activities of P1 and P2 were found due to down-regulating Egr-1 expression via histamine receptor and PKCδ-dependent MAPKs activation pathway. These results suggest that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima are effective to suppress histamine-induced endothelial cell activation that may contribute to the prevention of early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  11. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  12. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  13. A study of acute phase and transport protein synthesis in undernourished men using simulated infection and uniformly 15N-labelled Spirulina Platenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Soares, M.J.; Sekhar, R.V.; Reeds, P.J.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that acute phase protein synthesis is accelerated and transport protein synthesis is decelerated in adult men in whom the stress of infection is superimposed upon undernutrition. As a pilot study, four chronically undernourished men and two well-nourished controls were studied on two occasions separated by four days; the second session was conducted 24 hours after the administration of typhoid vaccine. Basal urine and blood samples were collected and then subjects were given priming oral doses of 15 N-Spirulina (13.5mg/kg body weight) and oral doses (3.5mg/kg body weight) every 30 min for the next six hours. Meals were aliquoted during the dosing period. Blood samples were collected at four, five and six hours. 15 N enrichment in different fractions of plasma i.e., albumin, non-albumin and amino acids, was measured by combustion GC-IRMS. Total urinary nitrogen was measured by Kjeldahl. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  15. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  16. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  18. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  19. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina: Toxicity assessment and minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Schideman, Lance C.; Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Yan; Nair, Ken; Qian, Wanyi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient reuse and energy recovery of HTL-WW are realized. • Anaerobic digestion of HTL-WW is vital to the sustainability of algal biocrude. • An anaerobic toxicity assay was conducted to evaluate HTL-WW toxicity. • The presence of adsorbents and biofilms effectively minimized inhibition. • A portion of the toxic compounds could be removed after anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTL-WW) is significant to the sustainability of algal biofuel development for nutrient reuse and residual energy recovery. HTL-WW contains substantial amounts of residual energy but is toxic to anaerobes. With 6% HTL-WW converted from cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina), anaerobes were 50% inhibited. In this study, zeolite, granular activated carbon (GAC), and polyurethane matrices (PM) were used during a two-round anaerobic batch test with HTL-WW, and in the presence of each material, the total methane yields were 136 mL/g COD, 169 mL/g COD, and 168 mL/g COD, respectively, being 11%, 37% and 36% higher than the control. GAC was considered promising due to its highest methane yield of 124 mL/g COD at the second feeding, indicating a good recovery of adsorption capacity. The observed low methane production rates indicated the necessity for anaerobic process optimization. The physicochemical analysis of the digestates demonstrated that most of the compounds identified in the HTL-WW were degraded.

  20. Phosphonate degradation by Spirulina strains: cyanobacterial biofilters for the removal of anticorrosive polyphosphonates from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Prearo, Valentina; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2011-03-07

    The ability of Spirulina spp. to metabolize the recalcitrant xenobiotic Dequest 2054(®) [hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid)], a CaSO(4) inhibitor used for boiler treatment and reverse osmosis desalination, was investigated. The compound served as sole source of phosphorus, but not of nitrogen, for cyanobacterial growth. In vivo utilization was followed by (31)P NMR analysis. The disappearance of the polyphosphonate proceeded only with actively dividing cells, and no release of inorganic phosphate was evident. However, no difference was found between P-starved and P-fed cultures. Maximal utilization reached 1.0 ± 0.2 mmoll(-1), corresponding to 0.56 ± 0.11 mmol g(-1) dry biomass, thus residual amounts were still present in the exhausted medium when the compound was supplied at higher initial concentrations. At low substrate levels metabolism rates were lower, suggesting that a concentration-driven uptake may represent a limiting step during the biodegradation process. The compound was not retained by biocolumns made with immobilized cyanobacterial cells, either alive or dead. A lab-scale pilot plant, consisting of a series of sequentially connected vessels containing an actively proliferating algal culture, was built and tested for wastewater treatment. Results showed 50% removal of the polyphosphonate added to an initial concentration of 2.5mM. Although further optimization will be required, data strengthen the possibility of using cyanobacterial strains for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  2. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  3. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  4. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  5. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  6. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  7. Library usage patterns in the electronic information environment. Electronic journals, Use studies, Libraries, Medical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franklin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the methodology and results from Web-based surveys of more than 15,000 networked electronic services users in the United States between July 1998 and June 2003 at four academic health sciences libraries and two large main campus libraries serving a variety of disciplines. A statistically valid methodology for administering simultaneous Web-based and print-based surveys using the random moments sampling technique is discussed and implemented. Results from the Web-based surveys showed that at the four academic health sciences libraries, there were approximately four remote networked electronic services users for each in-house user. This ratio was even higher for faculty, staff, and research fellows at the academic health sciences libraries, where more than five remote users for each in-house user were recorded. At the two main libraries, there were approximately 1.3 remote users for each in-house user of electronic information. Sponsored research (grant funded research accounted for approximately 32% of the networked electronic services activity at the health sciences libraries and 16% at the main campus libraries. Sponsored researchers at the health sciences libraries appeared to use networked electronic services most intensively from on-campus, but not from in the library. The purpose of use for networked electronic resources by patrons within the library is different from the purpose of use of those resources by patrons using the resources remotely. The implications of these results on how librarians reach decisions about networked electronic resources and services are discussed.

  8. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  9. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  12. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  13. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  14. Composition and functional property of photosynthetic pigments under circadian rhythm in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Richa; Pathak, Jainendra; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2018-05-01

    Circadian rhythm is an important endogenous biological signal for sustainable growth and development of cyanobacteria in natural ecosystems. Circadian effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations on pigment composition have been studied in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under light (L)/dark (D) oscillation with a combination of 4/20, 8/16, 12/12, 16/8, 20/4 and 24/24 h time duration. Circadian exposure of PAR + UV-A (PA) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B (PAB) showed more than twofold decline in Chl a, total protein and phycocyanin (PC) in light phase and significant recovery was achieved in dark phase. The fluorescence emission wavelength of PC was shifted towards lower wavelengths in the light phase of PAB in comparison to P and PA whereas the same wavelength was retrieved in the dark phase. The production of free radicals was accelerated twofold in the light phase (24 h L) whereas the same was retrieved to the level of control during the dark phase. Oxidatively induced damage was alleviated by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the light phase (0-24-h L) whereas the dark phase showed significant inhibition of the same enzymes. Similar characteristic inhibition of free radicals and recovery of PC was observed inside cellular filament after circadian rhythm of 24/24 h (L/D). Circadian exposure of P, PA and PAB significantly altered the synthesis and recovery of pigments that could be crucial for optimization and sustainable production of photosynthetic products for human welfare.

  15. Complete electronics self-teaching guide with projects

    CERN Document Server

    Boysen, Earl

    2012-01-01

    An all-in-one resource on everything electronics-related! For almost 30 years, this book has been a classic text for electronics enthusiasts. Now completely updated for today's technology, this latest version combines concepts, self-tests, and hands-on projects to offer you a completely repackaged and revised resource. This unique self-teaching guide features easy-to-understand explanations that are presented in a user-friendly format to help you learn the essentials you need to work with electronic circuits. All you need is a general understanding of electronics concepts such as Oh

  16. Physiological justification for using an unconventional method for processing raw material in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Honcharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the influence of Spirulina рlatensis, which was previously treated by a non-traditional method, on physiological and biochemical processes in the organism of hydrobionts. To analyze the growth rate of Ukrainian scaly carp and tilapia under the influence of the feeding factor. Methodology. Experimental studies were carried out in the laboratory of biological resources and aquaculture. Following was performed during the experiments: clinical examination of hydrobionts, control of growth rates, survival rate by recording the results in a working journal, physiological studies, analysis of morphological and functional blood indices, which were performed according to generally accepted methods. Findings. It was found that the proposed method of non-traditional processing of feed resource for hydrobionts promoted the activation of metabolic processes, contributed to the improvement of fish development indices. During the process of cultivation of Spirulina рlatensis, the use of plasma-chemically activated water had a positive effect on the dynamics of development. Originality. This article presents for the first time the results of a positive effect of the pretreatment of Spirulina Platensis culture with plasma-chemically activated water for its feeding to hydrobionts. A positive effect of this method of feeding on the functional status of fish organism and the process of adaptation-compensatory mechanisms in ontogenesis has been found. Practical value. The proposed method will provide an opportunity to improve the rate of the development of hydrobionts, physiological and biochemical processes with the maximum utilization of the potential of fish organism at the stages of active growth, and also to reduce the cost of artificial feeds.

  17. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  18. Mutagenic potential of Cordia ecalyculata alone and in association with Spirulina maxima for their evaluation as candidate anti-obesity drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Rechiutti, B M; Mendes, T B; Ito, E T; Souza, E B

    2014-07-07

    Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders, and can be currently considered as an epidemic. Although there are few weight reduction drugs available on the market, some new drug candidates have been proposed, including Cordia ecalyculata, a Brazilian plant with anorectic properties, and Spirulina maxima, a cyanobacterium with antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activity. In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic potential of C. ecalyculata at doses of 150, 300, and 500 mg/kg alone and in association with S. maxima at doses of 75, 150, and 250 mg/kg, respectively, through an in vivo micronucleus test, using mice of both sexes, and an in vitro micronucleus test and comet assay, using human peripheral blood. For all tests, cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. The results showed that treatment of 300 mg/kg C. ecalyculata and the combination treatment of 500 mg/kg C. ecalyculata with 250 mg/kg S. maxima resulted in anorectic effects. The mutagenic tests did not reveal any clastogenic or genotoxic activity for any treatment, indicating that these candidates could be marketed as weight-reduction drugs. Moreover, the drugs contain chemo-preventive substances that can protect against tumorigenesis, which has been associated with obesity.

  19. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  20. Neutron activation analysis for development of mercury sorbent based on blue-green alga salipriina palatinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobylsky, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamic of accumulation of Hg was investigated over days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was / out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼ 100 μg/1

  1. Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang,1 Ka-Hing Wong,2 Yufeng Yang,3 Xiaoling Li,1 Jie Jiang,1 Wenjie Zheng,1 Hualian Wu,1 Tianfeng Chen1 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Hydrobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC and allophycocyanin (Te-APC, two organic tellurium (Te species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 µg g-1 protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropanedihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress. Keywords: tellurium, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, purification, antioxidant activity

  2. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  3. Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifer'in Farklı Besin Ortamlarında Büyümesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bircan Özbaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Farklı besin diyetlerinin rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis kültürlerinin büyümesi üzerindeki etkilerinin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada, rotiferler Nannochloropsis sp., ekmek mayası (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ve kurutulmuş Spirulina tozu ile beslendi. İlk denemede, optimum Spirulina konsantrasyonu günde 0.01 g / 106 rotifer olarak bulundu. Deneme gruplarında alg, alg+maya, alg+Spirulina, maya+Spirulina ve maya/2+Spirulina olmak üzere 5 deneme grubu oluşturuldu. Mikroskobik gözlemlerde, Spirulina partikülleri havanda ezilmiş olmasına rağmen rotiferler tarafından tüketilemeyecek boyutta idi. Sonuç olarak, alg içeren grupların en iyi büyümeyi gösterdiği tespit edildi. Spirulina ise partikül büyüklüğünden dolayı rotiferler tarafından alınamadı. Maya hücreleri ise rotifer hücreleri için optimum büyüklükte olmasına rağmen, ortam kirliliğine neden olması bakımından alg ile beslenen gruplara göre daha düşük bir büyüme gösterdi

  4. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  5. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  6. Adaptation of mathematical educational content in e-learning resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V. Vainshtein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in the world electronic educational system development determine the necessity of adaptive learning intellectual environments and resources’ development and implementation. An upcoming trend in improvement the quality of studying mathematical disciplines is the development and application of adaptive electronic educational resources. However, the development and application experience of adaptive technologies in higher education is currently extremely limited and does not imply the usage flexibility. Adaptive educational resources in the electronic environment are electronic educational resources that provide the student with a personal educational space, filled with educational content that “adapts” to the individual characteristics of the students and provides them with the necessary information.This article focuses on the mathematical educational content adaptation algorithms development and their implementation in the e-learning system. The peculiarity of the proposed algorithms is the possibility of their application and distribution for adaptive e-learning resources construction. The novelty of the proposed approach is the three-step content organization of the adaptive algorithms for the educational content: “introductory adaptation of content”, “the current adaptation of content”, “estimative and a corrective adaptation”. For each stage of the proposed system, mathematical algorithms for educational content adaptation in adaptive e-learning resources are presented.Due to the high level of abstraction and complexity perception of mathematical disciplines, educational content is represented in the various editions of presentation that correspond to the levels of assimilation of the course material. Adaptation consists in the selection of the optimal edition of the material that best matches the individual characteristics of the student. The introduction of a three-step content organization of the adaptive

  7. Effects of dietary on antioxidant status, lipid profile, immune response and performance characteristics of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mirzaie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Spirulina has been recognized formerly as a filamentous spiral-shaped blue-green algae but more recently as a genus of photosynthetic bacteria (Arthrospira. This microorganism is considered as a rich source of essential nutrients for human and animals. The present study was conducted to determine potential application of Spirulina for heat-exposed broilers. Methods Two hundred and fifty Cobb 500 chicks with male to female in equal ratio with average initial weight of 615.6 g at 17 days of age were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 chicks. Treatment groups were as follows: positive and negative controls with 0% Spirulina supplement and three Spirulina receiving groups with 5 g/kg (0.5%, 10 g/kg (1%, and 20 g/kg (2% supplementation. Spirulina receiving groups as well as positive control were exposed to high ambient temperature at 36°C for 6 h/d from 38 to 44 days of age. Biochemical variables were measured in serum samples at 35, 38, 42, and 45 days of broiler chickens age. Results The results showed that supplementation of the diet with Spirulina decreased concentration of stress hormone and some serum lipid parameters while enhanced humoral immunity response and elevated antioxidant status whereas it didn’t meaningfully affect performance characteristics. Nevertheless, feed conversion ratio was improved numerically but not statistically in broilers fed with 1% Spirulina under high ambient temperature. Conclusion Overall, the present study suggests that alleviation of adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature at biochemical level including impaired enzymatic antioxidant system, elevated stress hormone and lipid profile can be approached in broiler chickens through supplementation of the diet with Spirulina platensis.

  8. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  9. Electronic Information Access and Utilization by Makerere University Students in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisam Magara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – The objectives of this study were to establish the level of computer utilization skills of Makerere University (Uganda Library and Information Science (LIS students; to determine the use of electronic information resources by LIS students; to determine the attitudes of LIS students towards electronic information resources; and to establish the problems faced by LIS students in accessing electronic information resources.Methods – A questionnaire survey was used for data collection.Results – The majority of Library and Information Science students at Makerere University depend on university computers for their work, and very few of them access the library’s e-resources. The few who access e-resources are self-taught. The majority of students surveyed were unaware of Emerald and EBSCO databases relevant to Library and Information Science students, and they found accessing eresources time-consuming. Conclusion – The study concluded that a concerted effort is needed by both LIS lecturers and university librarians in promoting use of the library’s electronic resources.

  10. Dynamic models for distributed generation resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morched, A.S. [BPR Energie, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Distributed resources can impact the performance of host power systems during both normal and abnormal system conditions. This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of dynamic models for identifying potential interaction problems between interconnected systems. The models were designed to simulate steady state behaviour as well as transient responses to system disturbances. The distributed generators included directly coupled and electronically coupled generators. The directly coupled generator was driven by wind turbines. Simplified models of grid-side inverters, electronically coupled wind generators and doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) were presented. The responses of DFIGs to wind variations were evaluated. Synchronous machine and electronically coupled generator responses were compared. The system model components included load models, generators, protection systems, and system equivalents. Frequency responses to islanding events were reviewed. The study demonstrated that accurate simulations are needed to predict the impact of distributed generation resources on the performance of host systems. Advances in distributed generation technology have outpaced the development of models needed for integration studies. tabs., figs.

  11. Application of some microorganisms for synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Zinicovscaia, I.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Kalabegishvili, T.; Murusidze, I.; Faanhof, A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to microbial technologies of nanoparticle production. Novel strains of actinomycetes Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD, Streptomyces spp. 211A, arthrobacter genera - Arthrobacter globiformis 151B and Arthrobacter oxydans 61B and blue-green microalga Spirulina platensis were used for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. The studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  12. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  13. Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Effect of Polyphenol Free Spirulina maxima and Its Hydrolyzed Protein Content: Investigation on Azoxymethane Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Palma, Nikte Y; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela

    2017-07-01

    Spirulina maxima (Sm) is known to have nutritive value as well as a number of potentially useful biomedical properties. The initial purpose of this report was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the alga (without its polyphenol content), on the induction of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypts (AC) in mouse. Besides, we hydrolyzed the protein content of such mixture. Our second aim was to determine the inhibitory potential of this last plant mixture on the AOM-induced colon AC in mouse. Moreover, we also determined the effect of the two indicated Sm samples on the oxidative damage caused by AOM in the colon and liver of treated mice. The experiment lasted 5 weeks. At the end, we registered the level of AC, nitric oxide, and the lipid and protein oxidation. Our results showed the following: (1) the carcinogen increased more than 18 times the amount of the AC found in the control group. (2) On the contrary, the two tested mixtures of Sm produced a significant reduction over this damage (about 45%). (3) The two tested Sm mixtures were generally able to reduce the oxidative stress markers although with variable effects which go from 59% to 100% with respect to the control mice. Therefore, the present report established that the tested Sm fractions have mouse colon anticarcinogenic potential, partially related with their antioxidant capacity. Our report also suggested the need to further evaluate specific Sm chemicals as chemopreventive agents.

  14. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  15. To get or not to get: the KAUST library e-resources acquisition experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-06-01

    In the challenging times of budget cuts and reviews, libraries are faced with issues, among others, such as justifying acquisition, negotiating deals and reviewing current subscriptions (pertaining to electronic resources). With the rapid increase in growth of electronic resources, libraries have to continuously assess their acquisition models and policies to constantly ensure that they are balancing their budget and users’ needs as well. This paper highlights the role played by Technical and IT department of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library (Saudi Arabia) in acquiring the electronic resources (electronic books, electronic journals, databases, image and reference) for the community. It will describe the processes during the early days when KAUST library was inaugurated; how electronic resources were acquired and what went through during those days. The paper will elaborate further how the acquisition model has evolved and the various important roles played by the library staff in ensuring that acquisitions/subscriptions are justified, within the budget and provides ROI for the library. King Abdullah University is a graduate research university which opened in September 2009 with its first cohort of 800 graduate students (25% female) taught by 100 faculties. The focus of study and research in the university are: Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Life Sciences. The university library started with 10 staff. The library has a “state-of-the-art learning and information resource center supporting graduate education and advanced scientific research” (KAUST, 2010).

  16. Utilisation of Online Resources among Undergraduates in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic book (e-book) was mostly utilized as against Ejournals and E-thesis, while mobile phones and cybercafés remain the channels used in accessing online resources. it was discovered that incessant power supply, slow Internet connectivity and lack of time to access the information resources are constraints to ...

  17. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  18. Gaseous Electronics Tables, Atoms, and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2011-01-01

    With the constant emergence of new research and application possibilities, gaseous electronics is more important than ever in disciplines including engineering (electrical, power, mechanical, electronics, and environmental), physics, and electronics. The first resource of its kind, Gaseous Electronics: Tables, Atoms, and Molecules fulfills the author's vision of a stand-alone reference to condense 100 years of research on electron-neutral collision data into one easily searchable volume. It presents most--if not all--of the properly classified experimental results that scientists, researchers,

  19. The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

    2010-01-01

    Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…

  20. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE NITROGÊNIO NO CULTIVO DE Spirulina maxima EM DOIS NÍVEIS DE TEMPERATURA: Parte II: PRODUÇÃO DE LIPÍDIOS INFLUENCE OF THE NITROGEN LEVEL IN THE CULTIVATION OF Spirulina maxima IN TWO LEVELS OF TEMPERATURES: PART II: "PRODUCTION OF LIPIDS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Verthein Tavares de MACEDO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina maxima foi cultivada em meios com 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposto por PAOLETTI et al [10] e considerado meio padrão, em meios com 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N e em ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N nas temperaturas de 25°C e 35°C. A composição da biomassa celular seca apresentou a 35°C um aumento médio dos lipídios totais, de 2,8 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 2,9 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A 25°C apresentou um aumento médio de 3,1 vezes do meio com ausência de nitrogênio (0,0N e 3,2 vezes do meio 0,2N em relação ao meio padrão. A biomassa em forma de gel de cada tratamento foi recolhida e feita a extração dos lipídios totais, os quais foram pesados em base seca. As análises estatísticas dos resultados, em estimativa não linear com superfície de resposta e regressão múltipla com análise de resíduos, mostraram para o aumento dos lipídios totais uma função linear com a temperatura (T e não linear com o nitrogênio (N, ajustando-se a um modelo onde o coeficiente de regressão R=0,99459 e a equação LIPT = A+B²T+CN ².The micraolgae Spirulina maxima was cultivated in medium with 2,5g/L KNO3 (2,5N, proposed by Paoletti et al [10] and considered standard medium, in media with 0,2g/L KNO3 (0,2N and in absence of nitrogen (0,0N in temperatures of 25°C and 35°C. The composition of the dry cellular biomass presented to 35°C a medium increase of the total lipids, of 2,8 times of the middle with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 2,9 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. To 25°C it presented a medium increase of 3,1 times of the medium with absence of nitrogen (0,0N and 3,2 times of the half 0,2N in relation to the standard medium. The biomass in form of gel of each treatment was picked up and made the extraction of the total lipids, which were heavy in base evaporate. The statistical analyses of the results, in estimate non lineal with answer surface and

  2. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  3. Implementating Information Technology in E-Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Dana Popescu (Mitu

    2016-01-01

    More and more organizations have been replacing face-to-face human resource managementactivities with electronic human resource management, which is considered as one of the keyfactors that every organization needs to focus. Considering that human resource management isone of the necessary needs of today’s business, the goal of this article is to establish the importanceof human resource management (HRM, to examine recent research in e-HRM in order to evaluatethe cumulated evidence on the relationship between HRM and e-HRM and to outline the impact ofe-HRM on human resource. Many specialists underlined the fact that human resource requiresmore attention and careful management than any other resource of an organization. This paperalso deals with the influence of Internet and information technology on work and human resourcemanagement.

  4. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Singaravelu, G. [Nanoscience Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Elanchezhiyan, M. [Department of Microbiology, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ∼ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • Size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles from blue green alga Spirulina platensis • Stability of gold nanoparticles at different temperatures • Potent antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

  5. UTILIZAÇÃO DE Spirulina platensis COMO SUPLEMENTO ALIMENTAR DURANTE A REVERSÃO SEXUAL DA TILÁPIA-DO-NILO (VAR. CHITRALADA EM ÁGUA SALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lafaiete Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis influence as a food supplement in Nile tilapia post-larvae grown in saline water. The experiment consisted of two treatments with three replicates. In first one the animals were fed ration containing the androgen 17 α - methyltestosterone and S. platensis, and in the other only diet with the hormone. At the end of the reversal (28 days, tilapia that received S. platensis showed average weights of 1.17 ± 0.16 g, significantly superior to the animals fed only ration, which reached an average weight of 0.62 ± 0.38 g (P < 0.05; however, survival rates showed no significant difference (P < 0.05. At the end of the experiment (78 days, fish gonadal analysis showed indices of 47.5% of males for fish reared without microalgae and 59.09% for fish reared with S. platensis. It was conclude that Nile tilapia showed good growth and survival rate in the presence of S. platensis, compared to the fish fed only diet in saline water. However, it was not possible to obtain acceptable rates of sex reversal after the administration of masculinizing hormone through the diet.

  6. Acoustic, electrochemical and microscopic characterization of interaction of Arthrospira platensis biofilm and heavy metal ions

    OpenAIRE

    Tekaya , Nadèje; Gammoudi , Ibtissèm; Braiek , Mohamed; Tarbague , Hakim; Morote , Fabien; Raimbault , Vincent; Sakly , Nawfel; Rebière , Dominique; Ben Ouada , Hatem; Lagarde , Florence; Ben Ouada , Hafedh; Cohen-Bouhacina , Touria; Déjous , Corinne; Jaffrezic-Renault , Nicole

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study examines a biofilm of Arthrospira platensis and its interactions with cadmium and mercury, using electrochemical admittance spectroscopy technique combined with highly sensitive Love wave platform for the real-time detection in liquid medium. Spirulina cells were immobilized via multilayers of polyelectrolyte (PEM) on Si/SiO2 surface of both transducers and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cell images reve...

  7. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-04-01

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  8. Isolation and antibacterial activity of anabaena phycocyanin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... (Yoshida et al., 1996) due to their antioxidant and anti- inflammatory ... studies indicated that phycocyanin from spirulina have obvious curative effect on .... phycocyanin from spirulina platensis using expanded bed adsorption.

  9. 11_64 - 68_Abdullahi and Ibrahim_BAJOPAS 5th paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    Stigeoclonium, Clamydomonas. Lyngbya, Oscillatoria, Chlorococcum, Spirulina etc are the indicators of organic pollution. 5.Wastewater treatment pond algae. Scenedesmus, Ankistrodesmus, Spirulina, Closteridium, Clamydomonas,. Schizothrix, Cloterium, Chodatella, Chlosteriopsis. Source: Maiti (2004). Test Using Fishes.

  10. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  11. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  12. Social Studies Online Resources. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeri, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  14. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  15. APPLICATION OF PHYTOREMEDIATION FOR HERBAL MEDICINE WASTE AND ITS UTILIZATION FOR PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Soetrisnanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal industry in Indonesia is progressing very rapidly. Increasing number of herbal medicineindustries lead to an increase of the waste which are normally processed in anaerobic ponds by usingchemical and biological process. However this process are not economical feasible and therefore analternative method by using natural resource is required. Phytoremediation is an environmentalfriendly method to reduce contaminant using aquatic plant. This method uses water plant to reduceCOD and nutrients content in the waste. Since the waste still high content of nutrient, therefore it ispotential for medium growth of algae Spirulina. This study was aimed to evaluate the use of variousplant species (water hyacinth and lotus in decreasing contaminant and to determine optimal nutrientcomposition of the growth media. The phytoremediation was performed in 3-8 days and height ofliquid in the tank was maintained constant at 5 cm. The effluent of first phytoremediation wastransferred to second stage for cultivation of Spirulina with 15 days of cultivation time. The externalnutrients were added each 2 days and the concentration of biomass was measured for its opticaldensity. Spirulina grow well in herbal medicine waste that has been phytoremediation with lotus for 3days and had a CNP ratio amounted to 57.790 : 9.281 : 1 with a growth rate of 0.271/day. Industri obat di Indonesia tumbuh sangat cepat. Pertumbuhan inimengakibatkan meningkatnya limbah yang umumnya dilakukan dalam kolam anaerobik denganmenggunakan proses kimia dan biologi. Namun demikian, proses tersebut belum menunjukkan hasilekonomis sehingga diperlukan metode lain yang relatif aman dan ekonomis. Salah satu cara yangdapat digunakan adalah phytoremediasi mengguanakn tanaman air untuk mengurangi kandunganCOD dalam limbah dan nutrient. Dikarenakan limbah masih mengandung nutrient yang cukup banyak,maka limbah tersebut juga sangat potensial untuk digunakan sebagai medium mikroalga. Penelitianini

  16. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  17. Building the electronic industry's roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

  18. Biotechnology in Georgia for Various Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.; Tsibakhashvili, N.; Kirkesali, E.; Tsertsvadze, L.; Frontasyeva, M.; Pavlov, S.

    2008-01-01

    The results of collaborative work carried out in the field of biotechnology at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) (Dubna, Russia) jointly with scientists from Georgia are presented. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA), significant results were ontained in the following directions - medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. In the biomedical experiments a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis biomass has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such vitally important trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into Spirulina platensis biocomplexes retaining its protain composition and natural beneficial properties has been proved. The adsorption of such toxic metal as mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass in dynamics of growth has been studied also. NAA has been successfully applied to investigate the biotechnology of toxic Cr(VI) transformation into less toxic Cr(III) complexes by Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts in Georgia. This method was used to track accumulation of chromium in the bacterial cells. To monitor and identify Cr(III) complexes in these bacteria, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was employed. For the first time, the elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria has been studied using epithermal NAA. The natural organic mass of vegetal origin - peat - was applied as a source of microorganisms to study the bacterial leaching of some metals from lean ores, rocks and industrial wastes. (author)

  19. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C., E-mail: kdas@engr.uga.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo [Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-06-23

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  20. Optimization of Protein Extraction from Spirulina platensis to Generate a Potential Co-Product and a Biofuel Feedstock with Reduced Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parimi, Naga Sirisha; Singh, Manjinder; Kastner, James R.; Das, Keshav C.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Azadi, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).

  1. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…

  2. Current status of electron beam treatment of flue gas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil resource especially coal will remain the main energy resource in China over the next 3 ∼4 decades. Pollution of flue gas from fossil power station is one problem being desiderated to solve since 1990's. Electron beam treatment of flue gas as an advanced technique has been developed and used by some institutes and industries in China. The current status of flue gas treatment using electron beam and the development of electron accelerator in China are reviewed. (author)

  3. Desserts with a high nutritional value in the industry employees nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telegenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered questions of the sweet foods with a high nutritional value development. Evaluation of the organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of model jelly samples with jost and spirulina showed that the proposed formula and technology gives a product with high consumer properties. There is a theoretically substantiated expediency of a jost and spirulina jelly implementation in such restaurant enterprises as dining rooms in the industrial plants. Using the jost and spirulina nutritional supplements can expand the range of the preventive nutrition foods.

  4. Optimization of a process for high fibre and high protein biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Rasane, Prasad; Gautam, Anuj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Biscuits are popular and convenient food products due to their ready to eat nature. Biscuits were prepared from sorghum and whole wheat flour with the addition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) powder to produce high fibre and high protein biscuit. Levels of ingredients in biscuits such as spirulina powder, sorghum flour and guar gum were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for its sensory, textural and antioxidant attributes. Sensory attributes as colour intensity (R2 = 0.89, P powder and sorghum flour was found to have significant effect on the responses.

  5. 2716-IJBCS-Article-Laurencia Toulsoumde SONGRE-OUATTARA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Use of the moringa, spirulina, orange-fleshed sweet potato and a multivitamin complex in the manufacture ... spiruline (Spirulina platensis) et la patate douce à chair .... utilisant le test d'acceptabilité avec l'épreuve ...... Antioxidant properties of ...

  6. Where Doctors Read Health Information Resources and Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resources Media Preferences. Obianuju E. ... The survey research design was adopted for the study. ... media of assessing health information are the internet, electronic databases, textbooks, journals and .... for Social Sciences (SPSS).

  7. eLearning resources to supplement postgraduate neurosurgery training.

    OpenAIRE

    Stienen, MN; Schaller, K; Cock, H; Lisnic, V; Regli, L; Thomson, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an increasingly complex and competitive professional environment, improving methods to educate neurosurgical residents is key to ensure high-quality patient care. Electronic (e)Learning resources promise interactive knowledge acquisition. We set out to give a comprehensive overview on available eLearning resources that aim to improve postgraduate neurosurgical training and review the available literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE query was performed, using the search ter...

  8. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  9. The Effect of Food Quality and Rearing Density on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Seven combinations of aquatic plant extracts were tested to feed juveniles of H. scabra: Thalassia hemprichii, T. hemprichii with 3 % Spirulina, Sargassum latifolium, S. latifolium with 3 % Spirulina, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Syringodium isoetifolium and organic biofilm. A control test consisted in rearing ...

  10. Electronic Publishing Approaches to Curriculum: Videotex, Teletext and Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumente, Jerome

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Journalism Resources Institute (JRI) of Rutgers University in terms of its administrative organization, computer resources, computer facilities use, involvement in electronic publishing, use of the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Database, curricular options, and professional continuing education. (AYC)

  11. PERii electronic journals: Assessing access and use by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter G. Underwood

    institutional subscription to electronic journals through the Programme for Enhancement of .... These strategies include the promotion and marketing of these .... assist students and other library users to access PERii electronic journals resources. ..... Smith, H. Bukirwa, H. Mukasa, O. Snell, P. Adeh-Nsoh, S. Mbuyita, ...

  12. Studies on the water quality and biota of a tidal eutrophic creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... E.monodon, Navicula gracilis, N. mutica, Ulnariaulna, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba, Microcystis aeruginosa and Spirulina platensis. Of the 15 mudflat algae Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, P. gibba and Spirulina platensis were environmentally important species. The population of the benthic fauna was ...

  13. Electronic Information – Threat or Challenge to Librarians and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic Information – Threat or Challenge to Librarians and Library Buildings. ... electronic resources because as new things and methods emerge, they exist ... that world trends in the paper industry and Internet use do not justify the fears ...

  14. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  15. [Food value of the spiruline algae to man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, C; Tremolieres, J

    1975-01-01

    The acceptability of various culinary products based on the algae spirulina was tested by questionaire: formulas rich in proteins, soups, omelets, desserts. Spirulina are little appreciated in France due to offensive color, smell and taste. Tomato and chocolate are the most acceptable flavors. Lyophilisation is preferable to atomisation, and discoloration using alcohol is preferable to the acetone method. The hydrolysate obtained, having neither the smell nor the taste of algae, is excellent. Nitrogen, sodium and potassium balances were recorded in 5 undernourished subjects fed via a gastric tube. The spirulina provided respectively 15 p. 100 (1 subject), 30 p. 100 (2 subjects), and 50 p. 100 (2 subjects) of the protein ration. There were no intestinal problems. The spirulina did not modify the investigated balances. However, faecal nitrogen increased to 2.08 g (compared to control period values, 1.33 g and 1.51 g). The various coefficients: digestibility, nitrogen retention and protein utilization did not vary. In man as in animals, nitrogen retention is satisfactory, but digestibility is diminished. Uric acid did not vary in the urine, but serum values increased slightly. Ingestion of spirulina in small doses even over a long period should be tolerable in the normal subject.

  16. A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary institutions in Ogun State. ... Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science ... Serial resources are publications either in printed form or electronic format issued in successive parts usually having numerical or chronological designations and intended to be ...

  17. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  18. Application of ICT-based Learning Resources for University Inorganic Chemistry Course Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana M. Derkach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies expediency and efficiency of various ICT-based learning resources use in university inorganic chemistry course training, detects difference of attitudes toward electronic resources between students and faculty members, which create the background for their efficiency loss

  19. Innovation and development of exhibition electronic-commerce based on the properties of electronic-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    There are two roadmaps of accomplishing exhibition electronic-commerce innovation and development. The first roadmap is that the exhibition organizers should seek mutual benefit cooperation with professional electronic-commerce platform of correspondent area with exhibition projects, thus help exhibitors realize their market object. The second roadmap is to promote innovation and development of electronic-commerce (Business-to-Customer) between both exhibitors and purchasers. Exhibition electronic-commerce must focus on innovative development in the following functions: market research and information service; advertising and business negotiation; online trading and online payment. With the aid of electronic-commerce, exhibition enterprise could have distinctive strengths such as transactions with virtualization, transparency, high efficiency and low cost, enhancing market link during enterprise research and development, promoting the efficiency of internal team collaboration and the individuation of external service, and optimizing resource allocation.

  20. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  1. GENDER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of internet Search engines such as google, yahoo and other free internet resources was found ... empirical studies are undertaken to examine the influence of gender ... H3: Perceived ease of use is positively related to the use of electronic.

  2. Electronics all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Take your electronics skills to the next level! If you're looking for a solitary resource that covers everything you need to know about electronics, then look no further. This friendly-and-straightforward guide introduces the basics of electronics and enhances your learning experience by debunking and explaining concepts such as circuits, analog and digital, schematics, voltage, safety concerns, and more. Packed with nearly 900 pages of detailed information, this book shows you how to develop your own breadboard, design your own circuit, and get savvy with schematics. Cover

  3. Electronic U.S. Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. federal information policy and its treatment of electronic information resources. Highlights include government publications; electronic government information; main providers of government information, including the Government Printing Office; the Freedom of Information Act; public access and use; information…

  4. Connecting Print and Electronic Titles: An Integrated Approach at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Judith; Konecky, Joan Latta; Boden, Dana W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Libraries make heavy investments in electronic resources, with many of these resources reflecting title changes, bundled subsets, or content changes of formerly print material. These changes can distance the electronic format from its print origins, creating discovery and access issues. A task force was formed to explore the enhancement of catalog…

  5. Impact de l'emballage et de la durée de conservation sur la qualité ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Impact of the packaging and conservation on the quality, nutritional and microbiological of sorghum cookies fortified with moringa and Spirulina. English Abstract. Objective: Changes in the quality of two types of sorghum biscuits enriched with 10% moringa and 4% spirulina were studied in two types of ...

  6. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  7. Internet resources and web pages for pediatric surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Vicente, H

    2000-02-01

    The Internet, the largest network of connected computers, provides immediate, dynamic, and downloadable information. By re-architecturing the work place and becoming familiar with Internet resources, pediatric surgeons have anticipated the informatics capabilities of this computer-based technology creating a new vision of work and organization in such areas as patient care, teaching, and research. This review aims to highlight how Internet navigational technology can be a useful educational resource in pediatric surgery, examines web pages of interest, and defines ideas of network communication. Basic Internet resources are electronic mail, discussion groups, file transfer, and the Worldwide Web (WWW). Electronic mailing is the most useful resource extending the avenue of learning to an international audience through news or list-servers groups. Pediatric Surgery List Server, the most popular discussion group, is a constant forum for exchange of ideas, difficult cases, consensus on management, and development of our specialty. The WWW provides an all-in-one medium of text, image, sound, and video. Associations, departments, educational sites, organizations, peer-reviewed scientific journals and Medline database web pages of prime interest to pediatric surgeons have been developing at an amazing pace. Future developments of technological advance nurturing our specialty will consist of online journals, telemedicine, international chatting, computer-based training for surgical education, and centralization of cyberspace information into database search sites.

  8. Gauging User Interest in Non-Traditional Library Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Tami; Abbott, Jennifer

    2015-06-23

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a government funded research laboratory based in Golden, Colorado. In addition to collecting traditional library resources such as journals, conference proceedings, and print and electronic books, the library also spends a significant portion of its collection development funds on resources not often found in many libraries: technical industry standards (e.g., ISO, IEC, ASTM, IEEE) and energy-related market reports. Assessing user needs for these resources is difficult for a number of reasons, particularly because standardized usage statistics are lacking or non-existent. Standards and market reports are generally costly and include fairly restrictive license agreements, which increase the importance of making informed collection development decisions. This presentation will discuss the NREL Library's current collection assessment and development practices as they relate to these unique resources.

  9. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  10. Studies on the dispersal, potential and natural population density of the Heliothis comple over some areas of Northeastern Mexico. Part of a coordinated programme on the ecology and behaviour of the Heliothis comple as related to the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, L.O.

    1976-02-01

    Spirulina algae and opaque-2 maize proved very promising sources of protein in the mass rearing of Heliothis under laboratory conditions. They can be developed as a very simple inexpensive larval diet. Opaque-2 is particularly rich in lysine and tryptophan whereas algae are, in addition rich in alanine, tyrosine, other amino acids and in vitamin-B. Their cost is about 70% below that of other sources of protein tested. Larval and pupae weights were higher, though not significantly so, when reared on diets containing spirulina and opaque-2. The life cycle and reproduction of moths from controls and from larvae reared on spirulina and opaque-2 diets proved comparable

  11. The effects of nitrogen deficiencies on the lipid and protein contents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen deficiencies were studied in Spirulina platensis (Cyanophyceae) with the aim of determining the effects of the 50 and 100% deficient nitrogen on the lipid and protein contents of the cell under laboratory conditions. S. platensis cultures were grown in Spirulina medium and kept at the constant room temperature of ...

  12. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  13. Usability Testing for e-Resource Discovery: How Students Find and Choose e-Resources Using Library Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Amy; Rich, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, library staff at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio designed and conducted a usability study of key parts of the library web site, focusing on the web pages generated by the library's electronic resources management system (ERM) that list and describe the library's databases. The goal was to discover how users find and…

  14. EDUCATIONAL NETWORK RESOURCES IN JOURNALISM AND PUBLISHING: FEATURES OF THE SITES' CONTENT AND DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna A. Zenzina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of electronic educational resource, its importance for the orientation of students in cyberspace, the basic requirements for the design and content of educational resources eligibility criteria standards. Filed benefits of having their own educational resource for high school. Singled out the importance of the interaction of educational resources with social networks. Detected differences and similarities of design and content of educational resources of Kyiv Universities in journalism and publishing.

  15. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)

    2011-01-15

    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  16. Reliability criteria selection for integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiu, D.; Ye, C.; Billinton, R.; Lakhanpal, D.

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted on the selection of a generating system reliability criterion that ensures a reasonable continuity of supply while minimizing the total costs to utility customers. The study was conducted using the Institute for Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE) reliability test system as the study system. The study inputs and results for conditions and load forecast data, new supply resources data, demand-side management resource data, resource planning criterion, criterion value selection, supply side development, integrated resource development, and best criterion values, are tabulated and discussed. Preliminary conclusions are drawn as follows. In the case of integrated resource planning, the selection of the best value for a given type of reliability criterion can be done using methods similar to those used for supply side planning. The reliability criteria values previously used for supply side planning may not be economically justified when integrated resource planning is used. Utilities may have to revise and adopt new, and perhaps lower supply reliability criteria for integrated resource planning. More complex reliability criteria, such as energy related indices, which take into account the magnitude, frequency and duration of the expected interruptions are better adapted than the simpler capacity-based reliability criteria such as loss of load expectation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  18. School Building Design and Audio-Visual Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    The design of new schools should facilitate the use of audiovisual resources by ensuring that the materials used in the construction of the buildings provide adequate sound insulation and acoustical and viewing conditions in all learning spaces. The facilities to be considered are: electrical services; electronic services; light control and…

  19. Free and Innovative Teaching Resources for STEM Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. J.; McWhirter, J.; Dirks, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Unidata Program Center has implemented a teaching resource facility that allows educators to create, access, and share collections of resource material related to atmospheric, oceanic, and other earth system phenomena. While the facility can manage almost any type of electronic resource, it is designed with scientific data and products, teaching tools such as lesson plans and guided exercises, and tools for displaying data in mind. In addition to being very easy for educators and students to access, the facility makes it simple for other educators and scientists to contribute content related to their own areas of expertise to the collection. This allows existing teaching resources to grow in depth and breadth over time, enhancing their relevance and providing insights from multiple disciplines. Based on the open-source RAMADDA content/data management framework, the teaching resource facility provides a variety of built-in services to analyze and display data, as well as support for Unidata's rich 3D client, the Interactive Data Viewer (IDV).

  20. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  1. Electronic Journals in Academic Libraries: A Comparison of ARL and Non-ARL Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemberg, Marian; Grossman, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Describes a survey dealing with academic library provision of electronic journals and other electronic resources that compared ARL (Association of Research Libraries) members to non-ARL members. Highlights include full-text electronic journals; computers in libraries; online public access catalogs; interlibrary loan and electronic reserves; access…

  2. Particles and waves in electron optics and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contains contributions from leading authorities on the subject matter* Informs and updates all the latest developments in the field of imaging and electron physics* Provides practitioners interested in microscopy, optics, image processing, mathematical morphology, electromagnetic fields, electron, and ion emission with a valuable resource* Features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, and digital image pro...

  3. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  4. CLOUD EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR PHYSICS LEARNING RESEARCHES SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Merzlykin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of cloud educational resource is given in paper. Its program and information components are characterized. The virtualization as the technological ground of transforming from traditional electronic educational resources to cloud ones is reviewed. Such levels of virtualization are described: data storage device virtualization (Data as Service, hardware virtualization (Hardware as Service, computer virtualization (Infrastructure as Service, software system virtualization (Platform as Service, «desktop» virtualization (Desktop as Service, software user interface virtualization (Software as Service. Possibilities of designing the cloud educational resources system for physics learning researches support taking into account standards of learning objects metadata (accessing via OAI-PMH protocol and standards of learning tools interoperability (LTI are shown. The example of integration cloud educational resources into Moodle learning management system with use of OAI-PMH and LTI is given.

  5. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  6. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  7. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  8. Preliminary Radiation Analysis of the Total Ionizing Dose for the Resource Prospector Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Tylka, Allan J.; Atwell, William

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a collaborative project between multiple centers and institutions to search for volatiles at the polar regions of the Moon as a potential resource for oxygen and propellant production. The mission is rated Class D and will be the first In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) demonstration on the lunar surface and at the lunar poles. Given that this mission is rated Class D, the project is considering using commercial off the shelf (COTS) electronics parts to reduce cost. However, COTS parts can be more susceptible to space radiation than typical aerospace electronic parts and carry some additional risk. Thus, prior to parts selection, having a better understanding of the radiation environment can assist designers in the parts selection process. The focus of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of the radiation environment from launch, through landing on the surface, and some surface stay as an initial step in determining worst case mission doses to assist designers in screening out electronic parts that would not meet the potential dose levels experienced on this mission.

  9. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Conteúdo lipídico e composição de ácidos graxos de microalgas expostas aos gases CO2, SO2 e NO Lipid content and fatty acids composition variation of microalgae exposed to CO2, SO2 and NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Martha Radmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to verify the lipid content and the fatty acid composition of the microalgae Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus obliquus, Synechococcus nidulans and Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a medium containing CO2, SO2 and NO. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus presented the highest lipid content (6.18%. For the other microalgae the lipid content ranged from 4.56 to 5.97%. The major monounsaturated fatty acids content was 66.01% for S. obliquus. The PUFA were obtained in major amount by the microalgae Spirulina sp. (29.37% and S. nidulans (29.54%. The palmitoleic acid was in larger amount, with 41.02% concentration (Spirulina sp..

  11. Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public Primary School in Oyo States ... the Millennium Development Goals project in the State. ... libraries, well-equipped first aid centres, adequate electronically projected instructional ...

  12. Innovations in electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

  13. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  14. Multimedia presentation as a form of E-learning resources in the educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizyaev АА

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the use of multimedia presentations as an electronic learning resource in the educational process, reflecting resource requirements; pedagogical goals that may be achieved. Currently one of the main directions in the educational process is the effective use of teaching computers. Pressing issue implementation of information and communication technologies in education is to develop educational resources with the aim to increase the level and quality of education.

  15. Sustainable Steel Carburization by Using Snack Packaging Plastic Waste as Carbon Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research regarding waste conversion to resources technology has attracted growing attention with the continued increase of waste accumulation issues and rapid depletion of natural resources. However, the study, with respect to utilizing plastics waste as carbon resources in the metals industry, is still limited. In this work, an environmentally friendly approach to utilize snack packaging plastic waste as a valuable carbon resources for steel carburization is investigated. At high temperature, plastic waste could be subject to pyrolytic gasification and decompose into small molecular hydrocarbon gaseous products which have the potential to be used as carburization agents for steel. When heating some snack packaging plastic waste and a steel sample together at the carburization temperature, a considerable amount of carbon-rich reducing gases, like methane, could be liberated from the plastic waste and absorbed by the steel sample as a carbon precursor for carburization. The resulting carburization effect on steel was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer techniques. These investigation results all showed that snack packaging plastic waste could work effectively as a valuable carbon resource for steel carburization leading to a significant increase of surface carbon content and the corresponding microstructure evolution in steel.

  16. Numerical simulation of transient moisture and temperature distribution in polycarbonate and aluminum electronic enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing a reliable electronic product requires huge amounts of resources and knowledge. Temperature and thermal features directly affect the life of electronic products. Furthermore, moisture can be damaging for electronic components. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics (CF...

  17. Students developing resources for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  18. eLearning resources to supplement postgraduate neurosurgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Schaller, Karl; Cock, Hannah; Lisnic, Vitalie; Regli, Luca; Thomson, Simon

    2017-02-01

    In an increasingly complex and competitive professional environment, improving methods to educate neurosurgical residents is key to ensure high-quality patient care. Electronic (e)Learning resources promise interactive knowledge acquisition. We set out to give a comprehensive overview on available eLearning resources that aim to improve postgraduate neurosurgical training and review the available literature. A MEDLINE query was performed, using the search term "electronic AND learning AND neurosurgery". Only peer-reviewed English-language articles on the use of any means of eLearning to improve theoretical knowledge in postgraduate neurosurgical training were included. Reference lists were crosschecked for further relevant articles. Captured parameters were the year, country of origin, method of eLearning reported, and type of article, as well as its conclusion. eLearning resources were additionally searched for using Google. Of n = 301 identified articles by the MEDLINE search, n = 43 articles were analysed in detail. Applying defined criteria, n = 28 articles were excluded and n = 15 included. Most articles were generated within this decade, with groups from the USA, the UK and India having a leadership role. The majority of articles reviewed existing eLearning resources, others reported on the concept, development and use of generated eLearning resources. There was no article that scientifically assessed the effectiveness of eLearning resources (against traditional learning methods) in terms of efficacy or costs. Only one article reported on satisfaction rates with an eLearning tool. All authors of articles dealing with eLearning and the use of new media in neurosurgery uniformly agreed on its great potential and increasing future use, but most also highlighted some weaknesses and possible dangers. This review found only a few articles dealing with the modern aspects of eLearning as an adjunct to postgraduate neurosurgery training. Comprehensive

  19. Decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes by hydrophytic vegetal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al; Popa, K.; Potoroaca, V.; Melniciuc-Puica, N.

    2001-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of some radioactive ions from contaminated waste solutions, on hydrophytic vegetal organisms is discussed. In order to follow the distribution of radioactive ions 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 51 Cr 3+ in various cell components extracted from Spirulina platensis, Porphiridium cruentum, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Lemna minor, Elodea canadensis, Pistia stratiotes and Riccia fluitans, the plants were cultivated in radioactive solutions. The resulting complexes were extracted with acetone or acetic acid and separated chromatographically. The results show an intense activity of the polysaccharide and lipoid fractions in the bioaccumulation process. The bioaccumulation varies in the series: Spirulina > Scenedesmus > Porphiridium > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna ≥ Elodea for 137 Cs + and 60 Co 2+ ; Spirulina > Porphiridium > Scenedesmus > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna > Elodea for 51 Cr 3+ . (author)

  20. The impact of an electronic clinical decision support for pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State-of-the-art electronic radiology workflow can provide clinical decision support (CDS) for specialised imaging requests, but there has been limited work on the clinical impact of CDS in PE, particularly in resource-constrained environments. Objective. To determine the impact of an electronic CDS for PE on the efficiency ...