Sample records for spiro-bridged ladder-type oligo-p-phenylenes

  1. Coupling Reaction of Oligo p-Phenylene Ethynylene and Peptide Antagonist RM26 Labeling with 131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAN Yuan1,2;ZHOU Zhi-jun2;ZHUO Lian-gang2;ZHAO Peng2;LIAO Wei2;WANG Guan-quan2;LIU Ning1


    Full Text Available Investigations reveale that oligo p-phenylene ethynylene (OPE molecule can insert into cell membrane, which leads to its cellular internization capacility. Antagonists have high cancer cell affinity, high uptake in cancer cells and fast clearance in normal tissue, these capabilities have attracted much research interest in radiopharmaceutical development. Combining the strong cell-penetrating ability and high affinity of Gastrin-releasing peptide which is overexpressed in the PC-3 cells, the thesis designed and synthesized unsymmetric OPE(NH2 molecule. Then the OPE(NH2 molecule was followed by the coupling reaction with RM26 peptide to obtain the OPE-RM26, and (Tyr3-RM26 was also got for controling study. After that, the (Tyr3-RM26 and OPE-RM26 were radiolabeled with I-131 to give high radiolabeling yields that could up to 95%. The radiolabeling compound was stable after 24 h storage at room temperature. These labeled compounds are ready for animal in-vivo experiment. It is expected that OPE-RM26-131I has multi-properties with targeting membrane crossing fire of radioactive elements. The molecule may fast travel to the target tissue and bind to GRP receptor and internalized into cancer cells. The casade process will give rise to its cancer cell toxicity due to longer retention and more killing effect of ray’s irradiation to cancer cells. In this way, OPE-RM26-131I can achieve better anti-cancer ability.

  2. Neue Polymere für organische LEDs auf der Basis von Fluorenyliden-verknüpften Oligo(p-phenylen)en


    Fáber, René


    Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurden neue Polymere auf der Basis von Fluorenyliden-verknüpften Oligo-(p-Phenylen)en als Materialien für organische Leuchtdioden (OLEDs) hergestellt. Mit Hilfe der palladium-katalysierten Suzuki-Kupplung gelangen sowohl die Synthese niedermolekularer Modellverbindungen als auch die Herstellung der Polymere. Durch den Einbau des quartären Kohlenstoffatoms der Fluoren-Einheit und durch die chemische Modifikation der Oligo(p-Phenylenen)en sind die elektronische Eigenschafte...

  3. Donor-acceptor random copolyesters containing perylenebisimide (PBI) and oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (OPV) by melt condensation polymerization: energy transfer studies. (United States)

    Nisha, S Kumari; Asha, S K


    Novel copolyesters consisting of oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (OPV) as donor (D) and perylenebisimide (PBI) as acceptor (A) were synthesized by melt polycondensation. Photoinduced energy transfer and photoinduced charge separation in these polyesters were studied in solution as well as in the solid state. Selective excitation of OPV moiety resulted in the energy transfer with >90% efficiency from OPV to PBI chromophore in the solution state. The direct excitation of PBI in the D-A copolyester resulted in reduced fluorescence emission of acceptor, indicating electron transfer between the D and A moieties. The effect of distance between donor and acceptor on the energy transfer efficiency from donor to acceptor was studied. Compared to a physical mixture of D and A polyesters alone, the energy transfer was 4 times more efficient in the D-A copolyester, highlighting the influence of covalently linking D and A in a single polymer chain. A strong fluorescence quenching (∼ 100%) of both chromophores in solid state indicated an efficient photoinduced charge transfer after photoexcitation of either D or A. Thus, OPV-PBI main chain copolyester is an excellent system for the study of energy- and electron-transfer processes in organic semiconductor. Reactive blend of D/A copolyester was also prepared by the transesterification reaction between D and A alone copolyesters. The energy transfer efficiency from D to A moiety upon selective excitation of D chromophore in the D/A copolyester blend was ∼4 times higher compared to a physical mixture of D and A alone copolyesters, which gave direct proof for the transesterification reaction in polyester/polyester reactive blending.

  4. Conjugation Length Effect on TPA-Based Optical Limiting Performance of a Series of Ladder-Type Chromophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Zhang


    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical properties of a series of newly-synthesized ladder-type chromophores containing oligo-p-phenylene moiety with different π-conjugated lengths were theoretically studied by numerically solving the rate equations and the field intensity equation with an iterative predictor-corrector finite-difference time-domain technique. Ab initio calculation results show that the compounds can be described by the three-level model. Based on the two-photon absorption mechanism, highly efficient optical limiting performances are demonstrated in the chromophores, which strongly depend on the π-conjugated length of the molecule. Special attention has been paid to the dynamical two-photon absorption, indicating that the parameter of the medium can affect the dynamical two-photon absorption cross section. Our numerical results agree well with the experimental measurements. It reveals that the increase in the π-conjugated length of ladder-type oligo-p-phenylene for these chromophores leads to enhanced nonlinear optical absorption. The results also provide a method to modulate the optical limiting and dynamical two-photon absorption of the compounds by changing the molecular density and thickness of the absorber.

  5. Valence electron orbitals of an oligo(p-phenylene-ethynylene)thiol on gold. (United States)

    Zangmeister, Christopher D; Robey, Steven W; van Zee, Roger D; Yao, Yuxing; Tour, James M


    This communication reports measurement of one-photon (21.2 eV) and one-color, two-photon (3.2-4.5 eV) photoemission spectra of 4,4'-bis-(phenylethynyl)benzenethiol chemisorbed on gold. Four features are observed in these spectra: two occupied, predominantly molecular levels below the Fermi level and two unoccupied, predominantly molecular levels above the Fermi level. The occupied and unoccupied bands closest to the Fermi level are assigned to delocalized pi-bands, and the other occupied and unoccupied bands, to localized pi-bands. With this assignment, the hole- and electron-injection barriers and the transport gap for those levels are deduced.

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution-Processed n-Doped Ladder-Type Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Suhao; Sun, Hengda; Ail, Ujwala


    Ladder-type "torsion-free" conducting polymers (e.g., polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL)) can outperform "structurally distorted" donor-acceptor polymers (e.g., P(NDI2OD-T2)), in terms of conductivity and thermoelectric power factor. The polaron delocalization length is larger in BBL than...

  7. Star-shaped ladder-type ter(p-phenylene)s for efficient multiphoton absorption. (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Li, King Fai; Wong, Man Shing; Cheah, Kok Wai


    Star-shaped ladder-type ter(p-phenylene)s exhibit remarkably efficient multiphoton absorption properties with 2PA cross-section up to 2579 GM at 700 nm and 3PA cross-section up to 3.35 × 10(-76) cm(6) s(2) in the femtosecond regime for a blue-emissive molecule despite having such a short π-conjugated framework.

  8. Cyano-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) single-crystal with balanced hole and electron injection and transport for ambipolar field-effect transistors. (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Tang, Jia; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Yan; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang


    High and balanced hole and electron mobilities were achieved in OFETs based on the high photoluminescence of a 1,4-bis(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)benzene single-crystal with symmetric electrodes. For electron and hole, the operation voltage in the OFETs based on symmetric gold electrodes was 30 and -20 V, respectively. The accumulation threshold voltage is low enough for the OFETs to operate in an ambipolar model with the source/drain voltage (Vds) around 50 V despite the high injection barrier. The highest electron and hole mobility was 0.745 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 0.239 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the current density reached 90.7 and 27.4 A cm(-2), respectively with an assumed 10 nm accumulation layer. The high mobility comes from the strong π-π interactions. In addition, the highly ordered hydrogen bonding matrix may create an efficient route to pump the charge to the inner layer which can improve the injection ability.

  9. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system. (United States)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul


    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  10. Phase control of group velocity in a dielectric slab doped with three-level ladder-type atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, D.; Sahrai, M.; Motavalli, H.; Mahmoudi, M.


    Propagation of an electromagnetic pulse through a dielectric slab doped with three-level ladder-type atomic systems is discussed. It is shown that the group velocity of the reflected and transmitted pulses can be switched from subluminal to superluminal light propagation by the thickness of the slab or the intensity of the coupling field. Furthermore, it is found that, in the presence of quantum interference, the reflected and transmitted pulses are completely phase dependent. So, the group velocity of the reflected and transmitted pulses can only be switched from subluminal to superluminal by adjusting the relative phase of the applied fields.

  11. Alkylated selenophene-based ladder-type monomers via a facile route for high performance thin-film transistor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Zhuping


    We report the synthesis of two new selenophene containing ladder-type monomers, cyclopentadiselenophene (CDS) and indacenodiselenophene (IDSe), via a twofold and fourfold Pd catalyzed coupling with a 1,1-diborylmethane derivative. Co-polymers with benzothiadiazole (BT) were prepared in high yield by Suzuki polymerization to afford co-polymers which exhibited excellent solubility in a range of non-chlorinated solvents. The CDS co-polymer exhibited a band gap of just 1.18 eV, which is amongst the lowest reported for donor-acceptor polymers. Thin-film transistors were fabricated using environmentally benign, non-chlorinated solvents with the CDS and IDSe co-polymers exhibiting hole mobility up to 0.15 and 6.4 cm2 /Vs, respectively. This high performance was achieved without the undesirable peak in mobility often observed at low gate voltages due to parasitic contact resistance.

  12. Tunable photonic band gaps and optical nonreciprocity by an RF-driving ladder-type system in moving optical lattice (United States)

    Ba, Nuo; Zhong, Xin; Wang, Lei; Fei, Jin-You; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Qian-Qian; Xiao, Li


    We investigate photonic transport properties of the 1D moving optical lattices filled with vast cold atoms driven into a four-level ladder-type system and obtain dynamically controlled photonic bandgaps and optical nonreciprocity. It is found that the two obvious optical nonreciprocity can be generated at two well-developed photonic bandgaps based on double dark states in the presence of a radio-frequency field. However, when the radio-frequency field is absence, the only one induced photonic bandgaps with distinguishing optical nonreciprocity can be opened up via single dark state. Dynamic control of the induced photonic bandgaps and optical nonreciprocity could be exploited to achieve all-optical diodes and routing for quantum information networks.

  13. Haptacyclic Carbazole-Based Ladder-Type Nonfullerene Acceptor with Side-Chain Optimization for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics. (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chia-Hua; Chang, Shao-Ling; Heo, Soowon; Tajima, Keisuke; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Hsu, Chain-Shu


    In this research, a haptacyclic carbazole-based dithienocyclopentacarbazole (DTCC) ladder-type structure was formylated to couple with two 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC) moieties, forming a new nonfullerene acceptor DTCCIC-C17 using a bulky branched 1-octylnonayl side chain at the nitrogen of the embedded carbazole and four 4-octylphenyl groups at the sp 3 -carbon bridges. The rigid and coplanar main-chain backbone of the DTCC core provides a broad light-absorbing window and a higher-lying LUMO energy level, whereas the bulky flanked side chains reduce intermolecular interactions, making DTCCIC-C17 amorphous with excellent solution processability. The DTCCIC-C17 as an acceptor is combined with a medium band gap polymer poly[(2,6-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene))-alt-(5,5-(1',3'-di-2-thienyl-5',7'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)benzo[1',2'-c:4',5'-c']dithiophene-4,8-dione))] (PBDB-T) as the donor in the active layer to obtain suitable highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy alignments and complimentary absorption. The devices with an inverted configuration (ITO/ZnO/active layer/MoO 3 /Ag) without using an aqueous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate layer were fabricated for better device stability. When the diiodooctane-treated PBDB-T:DTCCIC-C17 active layer was thermally annealed at 50 °C for 10 min, the device achieved the highest efficiency of 9.48% with a high V oc of 0.98 V, a J sc of 14.27 mA cm -2 , and an FF of 0.68.

  14. Double-resonance optical-pumping effect and ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency signal without Doppler background in cesium atomic vapour cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bao-Dong; Gao Jing; Liang Qiang-Bing; Wang Jie; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min


    In a Doppler-broadened ladder-type cesium atomic system (6S 1/2 -6P 3/2 -8S 1/2 ), this paper characterizes electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in two different experimental arrangements, and investigates the influence of the double-resonance optical-pumping (DROP) effect on EIT in both arrangements. When the probe laser is weak, DROP is explicitly suppressed. When the probe laser is moderate, population of the intermediate level (6P 3/2 F' = 5) is remarkable, therefore DROP is mixed with EIT. An interesting bimodal spectrum with the broad component due to DROP and the narrow part due to EIT has been clearly observed in cesium 6S 1/2 F = 4−6P 3/2 F' = 5−8S 1/2 F″ = 4 transitions. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Highly Efficient Inverted D:A1:A2Ternary Blend Organic Photovoltaics Combining a Ladder-type Non-Fullerene Acceptor and a Fullerene Acceptor. (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Ling; Cao, Fong-Yi; Huang, Wen-Chia; Huang, Po-Kai; Hsu, Chain-Shu; Cheng, Yen-Ju


    A formylated benzodi(cyclopentadithiophene) (BDCPDT) ladder-type structure with forced coplanarity is coupled with two 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC) moieties via olefination to form a non-fullerene acceptor, BDCPDT-IC. The BDCPDT-IC, as an acceptor (A 1 ) with broad light-absorbing ability and excellent solution processability, is combined with a second PC 71 BM acceptor (A 2 ) and a medium band gap polymer, PBDB-T, as the donor (D) to form a ternary blend with gradient HOMO/LUMO energy alignments and panchromatic absorption. The device with the inverted architecture using the D:A 1 :A 2 ternary blend has achieved a highest efficiency of 9.79% with a superior J sc of 16.84 mA cm -2 .

  16. Hybrid polaritons in a resonant inorganic/organic semiconductor microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höfner, M., E-mail:; Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kobin, B.; Hecht, S. [Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    We demonstrated the strong coupling regime in a hybrid inorganic-organic microcavity consisting of (Zn,Mg)O quantum wells and ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene) molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by an epitaxially grown lower ZnMgO Bragg reflector and a dielectric mirror deposited atop of the organic layer. A clear anticrossing behavior of the polariton branches related to the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel excitons, and the cavity photon mode with a Rabi-splitting reaching 50 meV, is clearly identified by angular-dependent reflectivity measurements at low temperature. By tailoring the structural design, an equal mixing with weights of about 0.3 for all three resonances is achieved for the middle polariton branch at an incidence angle of about 35°.

  17. Ladder-type P,S-bridged trans-stilbenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weymiens, W.; Zaal, M.; Slootweg, J.C.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lammertsma, K.


    Phosphole-containing π-systems have emerged as building blocks with enormous potential as electronic materials because of the tunability of the phosphorus center. Among these, asymmetric P-bridged trans-stilbenes are still rare, and here an elegant and efficient synthesis toward such fluorescent

  18. A poly(p-phenylene ethynylene vinylene) with pendant fullereness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, A.M.; Rispens, M.T; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, R.A.J.


    In order to obtain a predefined nanoscopic phase segregation of semiconducting polymers and fullerenes for application in photovoltaic devices we have prepared a conjugated polymer with dangling fullerenes. For this purpose an oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) with acetylene end groups has been

  19. Analytical study of PPV-oligomer- and C-60-based devices for optimising organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geens, W.; Poortmans, J.; Jain, S.C.; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R.; Veenstra, S.C.; Krasnikov, V.V.; Hadziioannou, G


    A blend of a 5-ring n-octyloxy-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) and C60, sandwiched between two electrodes, has been used as the active layer for an organic solar cell. It delivered external quantum efficiencies up to 60% in the visible and 70% in the UV part of the spectrum. To unambiguously

  20. Alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based all donor ladder-type conjugated polymers for organic thin film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Rimei


    We report the synthesis of a series of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (IDTT) based conjugated polymers by copolymerization with three different electron rich co-monomers [thiophene (T), thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT) and dithieno[3,2-b:2\\',3\\'-d]thiophene (DTT)] under Stille coupling conditions. The resulting all-donor polymers show very good solubility in common solvents and exhibit similar optical, thermal and electronic properties. However, the performance of these semiconductors in thin film transistor devices varied and was highly dependent on the nature of the co-monomer. All polymers exhibited unipolar p-type charge transport behaviour, with the mobility values following the trend of IDTT-TT>IDTT-DTT>IDTT-T. The peak saturation mobility value of IDTT-TT was extracted to be 1.1 cm2V-1s-1, amongst the highest mobility for all-donor conjugated polymers reported to date.

  1. Nanoscale Structure of Self-Assembling Hybrid Materials of Inorganic and Electronically Active Organic Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofos, M.; Goswami, D.A. Stone D.K.; Okasinski, J.S.; Jin, H.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Stupp, S.I. (NWU)


    Hybrid materials with nanoscale structure that incorporates inorganic and organic phases with electronic properties offer potential in an extensive functional space that includes photovoltaics, light emission, and sensing. This work describes the nanoscale structure of model hybrid materials with phases of silica and electronically active bola-amphiphile assemblies containing either oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) or oligo(thiophene) segments. The hybrid materials studied here were synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly and characterized by X-ray scattering techniques. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering studies of these materials revealed the formation of two-dimensional hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles of the organic molecules with diameters between 3.1 and 3.6 nm and cylindrical axes parallel to the surface. During the self-assembly process at low pH, the cylindrical aggregates of conjugated molecules become surrounded by silica giving rise to a hybrid structure with long-range order. Specular X-ray reflectivity confirmed the long-range periodicity of the hybrid films within a specific range of molar ratios of tetraethyl orthosilicate to cationic amphiphile. We did not observe any long-range ordering in fully organic analogues unless quaternary ammonium groups were replaced by tertiary amines. These observations suggest that charge screening in these biscationic conjugated molecules by the mineral phase is a key factor in the evolution of long range order in the self-assembling hybrids.

  2. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties. (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian


    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Self-Calibrating Mechanochromic Fluorescent Polymers Based on Encapsulated Excimer-Forming Dyes. (United States)

    Calvino, Céline; Guha, Anirvan; Weder, Christoph; Schrettl, Stephen


    While mechanochemical transduction principles are omnipresent in nature, mimicking these in artificial materials is challenging. The ability to reliably detect the exposure of man-made objects to mechanical forces is, however, of great interest for many applications, including structural health monitoring and tamper-proof packaging. A useful concept to achieve mechanochromic responses in polymers is the integration of microcapsules, which rupture upon deformation and release a payload causing a visually detectable response. Herein, it is reported that this approach can be used to create mechanochromic fluorescent materials that show a direct and ratiometric response to mechanical deformation. This can be achieved by filling poly(urea-formaldehyde) microcapsules with a solution of a photoluminescent aggregachromic cyano-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) and embedding these particles in poly(dimethylsiloxane). The application of mechanical force by way of impact, incision, or tensile deformation opens the microcapsules and releases the fluorophore in the damaged area. Due to excimer formation, the subsequent aggregation of the dye furnishes a detectable fluorescence color change. With the emission from unopened microcapsules as built-in reference, the approach affords materials that are self-calibrating. This new concept appears to be readily applicable to a range of polymer matrices and allows for the straightforward assessment of their structural integrity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Polarized luminescence of mesogeneous semiconductors; Polarisierte Lumineszenz mesogener Halbleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauhof, Marcus


    In this work, a homologous series of di-2,5-[(ethylhexyl)-oxy] substituted oligo(p-phenylene-vinylenes) with p-(decyloxyl)-phenyl endgroups was tested for its suitability as emitting material in light-emitting diodes which are able to emit linearly polarised light. The liquid crystalline character of the OPV-derivatives was utilised for the fabrication of highly orientated organic layers. Different polymers were tested as orientation layers. The best results were obtained with PTFE layers. In this way, a dichroic ratio for photoluminescence of DPL=16.3 could be obtained for the OPV pentamer. For the other oligomers, a decreasing photoluminescence dichroism was found for a decreasing number of oligomeric units: The measured dichroic ratios were DPL=12.1 for the tetramer, DPL=10.9 for the trimer and DPL=3.5 for the dimer. Using PTFE orientation layers, polarised OLEDs containing the different OPV derivatives as emitting material and Alq3 as electron-conducting material could be fabricated. The best results were obtained for the pentamer OLED: At an applied voltage of 20 V a luminance of approximately 400 Cd/m{sup 2} and an efficiency of 2.7-10{sup -2} Cd/W were measured. An electroluminescence dichroism of DEL=8.7 for the pentamer OLED, DEL=8.5 for the tetramer, DEL=4.2 for the trimer and DEL=1.9 for the dimer could be achieved. The threshold voltages of the series of OPVs were found to be increasing with decreasing chain length. The second part of this work documents the modification of the high-vacuum evaporation apparatus and the construction of a sample holder for the OLED fabrication. (orig.)

  5. Three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states (United States)

    Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb


    We investigated three-photon coherence effects of the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5 S1/2 (F = 3) - 5 P3/2 (F' = 4) - 50 D5/2 - 51 P3/2 transition of 85 Rb atoms. By adding a resonant electric field of microwave (MW) at electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg state scheme, we observed experimentally that splitting of EIT signal appears under the condition of three-photon resonance in the Doppler-broadened atomic system. Discriminating the two- and three-photon coherence terms from the calculated spectrum in a simple four-level ladder-type Doppler-broadened atomic system, we found that the physical origin of splitting of EIT was three-photon coherence effect, but not three-photon quantum interference phenomena such as three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA).

  6. Sub-half-wavelength atom localization via two standing-wave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Luling; Sun Hui; Niu Yueping; Gong Shangqing


    We propose a scheme for sub-half-wavelength atom localization in a four-level ladder-type atomic system, which is coupled by two classical standing-wave fields. We find that one of the standing-wave fields can help in enhancing the localization precision, and the other is of crucial importance in increasing the detecting probability and leading sub-half-wavelength localization

  7. Design and synthesis of polyphosphazenes: Hard tissue scaffolding biomaterials and physically crosslinked elastomers (United States)

    Modzelewski, Tomasz

    oar's on adjacent polymer chains, and lock the chains in place, similar to the way in which the oars on one ship will interdigitate with the oars of another ship if they get too close. Chapter 6 expands the chemistry of the non-traditional elastomers described in Chapter 5. Specifically, the substituent groups on the cyclotriphosphazene groups are changed from 2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy to phenoxy, while the remaining chlorine atoms along the polymer backbone are still replaced with 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxide. The new polymers are shown to have better mechanical properties then the polymers described in Chapter 5. Chapter 7 describes a further extension of the ideas in Chapters 5 and 6. Specifically it involves the synthesis and mechanical testing of polyphosphazenes bearing oligo-p-phenylene groups co-substituted with 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxide. The oligo-phenylene groups are incorporated to act as variable length cross-linking moieties to further expand the new family of non-traditional polyphosphazene elastomers. The mechanical and physical properties of these polymers reveal a strong dependence on both the length and concentration of the oligo-phenylene minor co-substituent groups. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. A new method of taking into account the Coulomb interaction in the Logunov - Tavkhelidze quasipotential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyukhtyaev, Yu.N.


    The problem of taking into account the Coulomb interaction of the ladder type in the analysis of bound states in quantum electrodynamics is discussed in the framework of the quasipotential approach. The main qiasipotential equation and the quasipotential are expressed in the terms of the two-time positive frequency Coulomb Green functions. The corresponding perturbation theory is developed which makes it possible to calculate the shifts of the energy levels in hydrogen-like atoms up to α 6 lnα terms

  9. Octabutylbis{(E-2-[4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneaminophenyl]acetato}di-μ2-methoxo-di-μ3-oxido-tetratin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkuan Li


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Sn4(C4H98(C15H12NO32(CH3O2O2], is a centrosymmetric dimer and displays a ladder type structural motif. There are four SnIV centres which can be divided into two sorts, viz. two endocyclic and two exocyclic. The endo- and exocyclic SnIV centres are linked by bidentate deprotonated methanol and μ3-O atoms. Each exocyclic SnIV centre is also coordinated by a monodentate 2-[4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneaminophenyl]acetate ligand. Parts of the butyl groups were found to be disordered over two sets of sites.

  10. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium (United States)

    Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi


    Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.

  11. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg


    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...

  12. Analysis and demonstration of single-passband response and tuning characteristics in a chirped ladder interferometric filter for a widely tunable laser diode. (United States)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Matsuo, Shinji; Yoshikuni, Yuzo; Segawa, Toru; Ohiso, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki


    We have designed and demonstrated a chirped ladder-type tunable filter and discussed its potential application for a tunable diode laser. A ladder interferometric filter normally has a periodic passband, which makes it impossible to stabilize laser oscillation frequency. To overcome this drawback, we have designed, fabricated, and characterized a novel chirped tunable ladder filter. We have successfully demonstrated a single-passband response in the fabricated device. Furthermore, a tuning operation of more than 30 nm was achieved by introducing a current injection structure and optimizing electrode lengths at each single-stage ladder interferometer.

  13. Action–angle variables, ladder operators and coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Gadella, M.; Kuru, Ş.; Negro, J.


    This Letter is devoted to the building of coherent states from arguments based on classical action–angle variables. First, we show how these classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators and a structure known as spectrum generating algebra. All this allows to generate coherent states and thereby the correspondence of classical–quantum properties by means of the aforementioned underlying structure. This approach is illustrated with the example of the one-dimensional Pöschl–Teller potential system. -- Highlights: ► We study the building of coherent states from classical action–angle variables arguments. ► The classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. ► In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators. ► All this allows to formulate coherent states and the correspondence of classical–quantum properties.

  14. Etude, par principes premiers, des effets de la correlation entre electrons sur les proprietes electroniques et magnetiques de polymeres pontes et de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique (United States)

    Pesant, Simon

    Description of complex systems by Density functional theory is treated in this thesis. First, the Density functional theory and a few functionals used to simulate cristals are presented. Specifically, the LDA and GGA functionnals are described and their limits are exposed. Furthermore, the Hubbard model as well as the LDA+U functionnal are addressed in this chapter. These methods enable the study of highly correlated materials. Then, results obtained on polymers are summarized in two articles. The first one treats the band gap variation of ladder-type polymers compared to non ladder type ones. The second article considers small band gap polymers. In this case, it will be shown that an hybrid functional, which contains exact exchange, is required to describe the electronic properties of the polymers under study. Finally, the last chapter address the study of cuprates superconductors. The LDA+U can account for the localization of electrons in copper orbitals. Consequently, a study of the impact of this functionnal on electronic properties of cuprates is conducted. The chapter is ended by an article treating magnetic orders in doped La 2CuO4. Supplementary materials of the second article and a description of the theory of superconductivity of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer are put in annex. Keywords : Electronic correlation, DFT, LDA+U, cuprates, polymers, magnetic orders

  15. Circuit QED: generation of two-transmon-qutrit entangled states via resonant interaction (United States)

    Ye, Xi-Mei; Zheng, Zhen-Fei; Lu, Dao-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping


    We present a way to create entangled states of two superconducting transmon qutrits based on circuit QED. Here, a qutrit refers to a three-level quantum system. Since only resonant interaction is employed, the entanglement creation can be completed within a short time. The degree of entanglement for the prepared entangled state can be controlled by varying the weight factors of the initial state of one qutrit, which allows the prepared entangled state to change from a partially entangled state to a maximally entangled state. Because a single cavity is used, only resonant interaction is employed, and none of identical qutrit-cavity coupling constant, measurement, and auxiliary qutrit is needed, this proposal is easy to implement in experiments. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to prepare a two-qutrit partially or maximally entangled state with two natural or artificial atoms of a ladder-type level structure, coupled to an optical or microwave cavity.

  16. Syntheses of dibenzo[d,d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran derivatives and their application to organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Anh Truong


    Full Text Available Ladder-type π-conjugated compounds containing a benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran skeleton, such as dibenzo[d,d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran (syn-DBBDF and dinaphtho[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran (syn-DNBDF were synthesized. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were revealed by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs were fabricated with these compounds as organic semiconductors, and their semiconducting properties were evaluated. OFETs with syn-DBBDF and syn-DNBDF showed typical p-type characteristics with hole mobilities of −3 cm2·V−1·s−1 and −1 cm2·V−1·s−1, respectively.

  17. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min


    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  18. Gas transport behavior of mixed-matrix membranes composed of silica nanoparticles in a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1)

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Juhyeon


    Recently, high-free volume, glassy ladder-type polymers, referred to as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM), have been developed and their reported gas transport performance exceeded the Robeson upper bound trade-off for O2/N2 and CO2/CH4. The present work reports the gas transport behavior of PIM-1/silica nanocomposite membranes. The changes in free volume, as well as the presence and volume of the void cavities, were investigated by analyzing the density, thermal stability, and nano-structural morphology. The enhancement in gas permeability (e.g., He, H2, O2, N2, and CO2) with increasing filler content shows that the trend is related to the true silica volume and void volume fraction. Crown Copyright © 2009.

  19. New phenazine-containing ladder polymer of intrinsic microporosity from a spirobisindane-based AB-type monomer

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader


    A new solution-processable ladder polymer (PSBI-AB) of intrinsic microporosity with dibenzodioxane linkages and bis(phenazine) units was designed and synthesized by self-polymerization of an AB-type monomer containing both catechol and aromatic dichloride groups. Such polymerization is an effective way to synthesize high molecular weight polymers and has a significant advantage over AA-BB polycondensation due to the lack of the requirement for strict control over stoichiometric balance. This protocol can be used to prepare a variety of phenazine-containing ladder type PIMs from their aromatic tetramethoxy precursors. The obtained polymer had high average molecular mass, excellent thermal stability, a high BET surface area of 705 m(2) g(-1) and good solubility in some organic solvents such as chloroform, m-cresol and dichlorobenzene. Gas permeation measurements showed comparable results to the previously reported analogous PIM-7 for films made under the same formation protocol.

  20. Syntheses of dibenzo[d,d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran derivatives and their application to organic field-effect transistors (United States)

    Truong, Minh Anh


    Summary Ladder-type π-conjugated compounds containing a benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran skeleton, such as dibenzo[d,d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran (syn-DBBDF) and dinaphtho[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran (syn-DNBDF) were synthesized. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were revealed by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated with these compounds as organic semiconductors, and their semiconducting properties were evaluated. OFETs with syn-DBBDF and syn-DNBDF showed typical p-type characteristics with hole mobilities of <1.5 × 10−3 cm2·V−1·s−1 and <1.0 × 10−1 cm2·V−1·s−1, respectively. PMID:27340471

  1. Adsorption properties of carbonized polyacrylonitrile deposited on γ-alumina and silica gel by precipitation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustrowski, Piotr; Janus, Rafal; Kochanowski, Andrzej; Chmielarz, Lucjan; Dudek, Barbara; Piwowarska, Zofia; Michalik, Marek


    The precipitation polymerization method was used for the deposition of various contents of polyacrylonitrile on two oxide-type supports (γ-alumina and silica gel). The synthesized materials were characterized by thermal analysis performed in inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The mechanism of polyacrylonitrile decomposition was proposed. In order to gain effective adsorbents of volatile organic compounds the polyacrylonitrile/support composites were carbonized at elevated temperatures. The texture and morphology of the calcined materials were examined by low-temperature sorption of N 2 and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. An influence of thermal treatment conditions and carbonaceous species loading on adsorption capacity of methyl-ethyl ketone vapour was also determined. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements revealed that the ladder-type polyacrylonitrile species formed above 250 o C and stable up to about 350-400 o C are the most effective sites for methyl-ethyl ketone sorption. The carbonaceous species dispersion was found to be an additional factor influencing the adsorption capacity of the carbonized polyacrylonitrile/support composites.

  2. Market segmentation and industry overcapacity considering input resources and environmental costs through the lens of governmental intervention. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Jin, Peizhen; Mishra, Nishikant; Song, Malin


    The problems with China's regional industrial overcapacity are often influenced by local governments. This study constructs a framework that includes the resource and environmental costs to analyze overcapacity using the non-radial direction distance function and the price method to measure industrial capacity utilization and market segmentation in 29 provinces in China from 2002 to 2014. The empirical analysis of the spatial panel econometric model shows that (1) the industrial capacity utilization in China's provinces has a ladder-type distribution with a gradual decrease from east to west and there is a severe overcapacity in the traditional heavy industry areas; (2) local government intervention has serious negative effects on regional industry utilization and factor market segmentation more significantly inhibits the utilization rate of regional industry than commodity market segmentation; (3) economic openness improves the utilization rate of industrial capacity while the internet penetration rate and regional environmental management investment have no significant impact; and(4) a higher degree of openness and active private economic development have a positive spatial spillover effect, while there is a significant negative spatial spillover effect from local government intervention and industrial structure sophistication. This paper includes the impact of resources and the environment in overcapacity evaluations, which should guide sustainable development in emerging economies.

  3. Toward Activity Origin of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Carbon-Rich Crystalline Coordination Polymers. (United States)

    Wang, Lihuan; Tranca, Diana C; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Yanpeng; Sfaelou, Stavroula; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Renhao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Zhikun; Seifert, Gotthard


    The fundamental understanding of electrocatalytic active sites for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is significantly important for the development of metal complex involved carbon electrocatalysts with low kinetic barrier. Here, the MS x N y (M = Fe, Co, and Ni, x/y are 2/2, 0/4, and 4/0, respectively) active centers are immobilized into ladder-type, highly crystalline coordination polymers as model carbon-rich electrocatalysts for H 2 generation in acid solution. The electrocatalytic HER tests reveal that the coordination of metal, sulfur, and nitrogen synergistically facilitates the hydrogen ad-/desorption on MS x N y catalysts, leading to enhanced HER kinetics. Toward the activity origin of MS 2 N 2 , the experimental and theoretical results disclose that the metal atoms are preferentially protonated and then the production of H 2 is favored on the MN active sites after a heterocoupling step involving a N-bound proton and a metal-bound hydride. Moreover, the tuning of the metal centers in MS 2 N 2 leads to the HER performance in the order of FeS 2 N 2 > CoS 2 N 2 > NiS 2 N 2 . Thus, the understanding of the catalytic active sites provides strategies for the enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity by tailoring the ligands and metal centers to the desired function. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrolo-Fused Pentacyclic Benzotriazole-Based Acceptor for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics. (United States)

    Feng, Liuliu; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Peng, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Shutao; Liu, Ye; Li, Yongfang; Zou, Yingping


    A novel nonfullerene small molecular acceptor (BZIC) based on a ladder-type thieno[3,2-b]pyrrolo-fused pentacyclic benzotriazole core (dithieno[3,2-b]pyrrolobenzotriazole, BZTP) and end-capped with 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (INCN) has been first reported in this work. Through introducing multifused benzotriazole and INCN, BZIC could maintain a high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level of -3.88 eV. Moreover, BZIC shows a low optical bandgap of 1.45 eV with broad and efficient absorption band from 600 to 850 nm due to increased π-π interactions by the covalently locking thiophene and benzotriazole units. A power conversion efficiency of 6.30% is delivered using BZIC as nonfullerene acceptor and our recently synthesized hexafluoroquinoxaline-based polymer HFQx-T as donor. This is the first time to synthesize mutifused benzotriazole-based molecules as nonfullerene electron acceptor up to date. The preliminary results demonstrate that the mutifused benzotriazole derivatives hold great potential for efficient photovoltaics.

  5. Diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for diagrammatic extensions of dynamical mean-field theory: Convergence analysis of the dual fermion technique (United States)

    Gukelberger, Jan; Kozik, Evgeny; Hafermann, Hartmut


    The dual fermion approach provides a formally exact prescription for calculating properties of a correlated electron system in terms of a diagrammatic expansion around dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). Most practical implementations, however, neglect higher-order interaction vertices beyond two-particle scattering in the dual effective action and further truncate the diagrammatic expansion in the two-particle scattering vertex to a leading-order or ladder-type approximation. In this work, we compute the dual fermion expansion for the two-dimensional Hubbard model including all diagram topologies with two-particle interactions to high orders by means of a stochastic diagrammatic Monte Carlo algorithm. We benchmark the obtained self-energy against numerically exact diagrammatic determinant Monte Carlo simulations to systematically assess convergence of the dual fermion series and the validity of these approximations. We observe that, from high temperatures down to the vicinity of the DMFT Néel transition, the dual fermion series converges very quickly to the exact solution in the whole range of Hubbard interactions considered (4 ≤U /t ≤12 ), implying that contributions from higher-order vertices are small. As the temperature is lowered further, we observe slower series convergence, convergence to incorrect solutions, and ultimately divergence. This happens in a regime where magnetic correlations become significant. We find, however, that the self-consistent particle-hole ladder approximation yields reasonable and often even highly accurate results in this regime.

  6. S,N-Heteroacene-Based Copolymers for Highly Efficient Organic Field Effect Transistors and Organic Solar Cells: Critical Impact of Aromatic Subunits in the Ladder π-System. (United States)

    Chung, Chin-Lung; Chen, Hsieh-Chih; Yang, Yun-Siou; Tung, Wei-Yao; Chen, Jian-Wei; Chen, Wen-Chang; Wu, Chun-Guey; Wong, Ken-Tsung


    Three novel donor-acceptor alternating polymers containing ladder-type pentacyclic heteroacenes (PBo, PBi, and PT) are synthesized, characterized, and further applied to organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and polymer solar cells. Significant aspects of quinoidal characters, electrochemical properties, optical absorption, frontier orbitals, backbone coplanarity, molecular orientation, charge carrier mobilities, morphology discrepancies, and the corresponding device performances are notably different with various heteroarenes. PT exhibits a stronger quinoidal mesomeric structure, linear and coplanar conformation, smooth surface morphology, and better bimodal crystalline structures, which is beneficial to extend the π-conjugation and promotes charge transport via 3-D transport pathways and in consequence improves overall device performances. Organic photovoltaics based on the PT polymer achieve a power conversion efficiency of 6.04% along with a high short-circuit current density (J SC ) of 14.68 mA cm -2 , and a high hole mobility of 0.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 is fulfilled in an OFET, which is superior to those of its counterparts, PBi and PBo.

  7. Induction of apoptosis in the human mast cell leukemia cell line HMC-1 by various antineoplastic drugs. (United States)

    Samorapoompichit, Puchit; Steiner, Marianne; Lucas, Trevor; Wachtler, Franz; Schedled, Andreas; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter


    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare disorder characterized by rapid disease progression, resistance against conventional cytoreductive drugs, and short survival. In an attempt to identify drugs that show significant antiproliferative effects on neoplastic mast cells (MC), we exposed the MCL-derived cell line HMC-1 to various cytotoxic drugs including 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine [2CdA], fludarabine and cytosine arabinoside [ARA-C]. The effects of these drugs on 3H-thymidine incorporation, electron microscopic signs of apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation in HMC-1 cells, were analyzed. As assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation, all drugs produced inhibition of proliferation in HMC-1 cells with the following rank order of potency: ARA-C > doxorubicine > 2-CdA > etoposide > vincristine > fludarabine > cisplatin. Fludarabin, cisplatin, etoposide and 2-CdA also induced ladder-type fragmentation of DNA, endonuclease activity in a Tunel assay, and electron microscopic signs of apoptosis in HMC-1 cells. Together, our data show that various cytostatic drugs can induce apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in the human MCL cell line HMC-1. Whether these drugs, alone or in combination, are also effective in patients with MCL, remains to be determined.

  8. A narrow window of Rabi frequency for competition between electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ray-Yuan; Fang, Wei-Chia; Lee, Ming-Tsung; He, Zong-Syun; Ke, Bai-Cian; Lee, Yi-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chun


    This investigation clarifies the transition phenomenon between the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Raman absorption in a ladder-type system of Doppler-broadened cesium vapor. A competition window of this transition was found to be as narrow as 2 MHz defined by the probe Rabi frequency. For a weak probe, the spectrum of EIT associated with quantum interference suggests that the effect of the Doppler velocity on the spectrum is negligible. When the Rabi frequency of the probe becomes comparable with the effective decay rate, an electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) dip emerges at the center of the power broadened EIT peak. While the Rabi frequency of the probe exceeds the effective decay rate, decoherence that is generated by the intensified probe field occurs and Raman absorption dominates the interaction process, yielding a pure absorption spectrum; the Doppler velocity plays an important role in the interaction. A theory that is based on density matrix simulation, with or without the Doppler effect, can qualitatively fit the experimental data. In this work, the coherence of atom-photon interactions is created or destroyed using the probe Rabi frequency as a decoherence source.

  9. Leading singularities and off-shell conformal integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, James; Duhr, Claude; Eden, Burkhard; Heslop, Paul; Pennington, Jeffrey; Smirnov, Vladimir A.


    The three-loop four-point function of stress-tensor multiplets in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory contains two so far unknown, off-shell, conformal integrals, in addition to the known, ladder-type integrals. In our paper we evaluate the unknown integrals, thus obtaining the three-loop correlation function analytically. The integrals have the generic structure of rational functions multiplied by (multiple) polylogarithms. We use the idea of leading singularities to obtain the rational coefficients, the symbol — with an appropriate ansatz for its structure — as a means of characterising multiple polylogarithms, and the technique of asymptotic expansion of Feynman integrals to obtain the integrals in certain limits. The limiting behaviour uniquely fixes the symbols of the integrals, which we then lift to find the corresponding polylogarithmic functions. The final formulae are numerically confirmed. Furthermore, we develop techniques that can be applied more generally, and we illustrate this by analytically evaluating one of the integrals contributing to the same four-point function at four loops. This example shows a connection between the leading singularities and the entries of the symbol.

  10. Cooperative Magnetism in Crystalline N-Aryl-Substituted Verdazyl Radicals: First-Principles Predictions and Experimental Results. (United States)

    Eusterwiemann, Steffen; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doerenkamp, Carsten; Janka, Oliver; Niehaus, Oliver; Massolle, Anja; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer; Neugebauer, Johannes; Studer, Armido


    We report on a series of eight diaryl-6-oxo-verdazyl radicals containing a tert-butyl group at the C(3) position with regard to their crystal structure and magnetic properties by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements in combination with quantum chemical calculations using a first-principles bottom-up approach. The latter method allows for a qualitative prediction and detailed analysis of the correlation between the solid-state architecture and magnetic properties. Although the perturbation in the molecular structure by varying the substituent on the N-aryl ring may appear small, the effects upon the structural parameters controlling intermolecular magnetic coupling interactions are strong, resulting in a wide spectrum of cooperative magnetic behavior. The non-substituted 1,5-diphenyl-tert-butyl-6-oxo-verdazyl radical features a ferromagnetic one-dimensional spin ladder type magnetic network-an extremely rarely observed phenomenon for verdazyl radicals. By varying substituents at the phenyl group, different non-isostructural compounds were obtained with widely different magnetic motifs ranging from linear and zigzag one-dimensional chains to potentially two-dimensional networks, from which we predict magnetic susceptibility data that are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal a large sensitivity to packing effects of the molecules. The present study advances the fundamental understanding between solid-state structure and magnetism in organically based radical systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of new metal-5-bromonicotinate coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenjie [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Guoting [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Lv, Lulu; Zhao, Hong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wu, Benlai, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)


    Four metal–5-bromonicotinate (Brnic) coordination polymers [Fe(Brnic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Ni(Brnic){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Ni(Brnic)(bpy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·n(Brnic)·4.5nH{sub 2}O (3), and [Co{sub 2}(Brnic){sub 3}(bpy){sub 2}(OH)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (4) have been synthesized and structurally characterized (bpy=4,4′-bipyridine). Complex 1 has corrugated (4,4) sheets formed by μ-Brnic ligands and planar nodes Fe(II). As for 2–4, they all built up from Brnic-bridged dinuclear subunits, but have very different structure features. Complex 2 is a twin-like polymer with (4,4) layers formed by twin paddle-wheel [Ni{sub 2}(Brnic){sub 4}] subunits. Through the bridge coordination of bpy ligands with dinuclear rings [Ni{sub 2}(Brnic){sub 2}] and trigons [Co{sub 2}(Brnic){sub 3}(OH)], 6{sup 3}-topological cationic layers with nanosized grids of 3 and chiral ladder-type double chains of 4 formed, respectively. Notably, halogen-related interactions play an important role in the formation of 3D metallosupermolecules 1–4. The thermostabilities of all compounds have been discussed in detail. Moreover, the magnetic investigations of 2 and 4 indicate that there exist antiferromagnetic interactions in the paddle-wheel [Ni{sub 2}(Brnic){sub 4}] and trigon [Co{sub 2}(Brnic){sub 3}(OH)] cores, respectively. - Highlights: • Four novel metal–5-bromonicotinate coordination polymers have been synthesized. • Notably, halogen-related interactions play an important role in the formation of 3D metallosupermolecules. • Antiferromagnetic interactions in nickel(II) paddle-wheel and cobalt(II) trigon cores were observed.

  12. Design and optimization of G-band extended interaction klystron with high output power (United States)

    Li, Renjie; Ruan, Cunjun; Zhang, Huafeng


    A ladder-type Extended Interaction Klystron (EIK) with unequal-length slots in the G-band is proposed and designed. The key parameters of resonance cavities working in the π mode are obtained based on the theoretical analysis and 3D simulation. The influence of the device fabrication tolerance on the high-frequency performance is analyzed in detail, and it is found that at least 5 μm of machining precision is required. Thus, the dynamic tuning is required to compensate for the frequency shift and increase the bandwidth. The input and output coupling hole dimensions are carefully designed to achieve high output power along with a broad bandwidth. The effect of surface roughness of the metallic material on the output power has been investigated, and it is proposed that lower surface roughness leads to higher output power. The focusing magnetic field is also optimized to 0.75 T in order to maintain the beam transportation and achieve high output power. With 16.5 kV operating voltage and 0.30 A beam current, the output power of 360 W, the efficiency of 7.27%, the gain of 38.6 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz are predicted. The output properties of the EIK show great stability with the effective suppression of oscillation and mode competition. Moreover, small-signal theory analysis and 1D code AJDISK calculations are carried out to verify the results of 3D PIC simulations. A close agreement among the three methods proves the relative validity and the reliability of the designed EIK. Thus, it is indicated that the EIK with unequal-length slots has potential for power improvement and bandwidth extension.

  13. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Well-ordered nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon materials were prepared by in-situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile in SBA-15 template. The composite of sulfur and nitrogen-doped carbon was successfully used as a cathode material for lithium sulfur battery. - Highlights: • N-doped mesoporous carbons were prepared with PAN as carbon source. • Highly ordered pore system facilitates sulfur loading. • Ladder-type carbon matrix provides good structural stability for confining sulfur. • N-doping ensures an improved absorbability of soluble polysulfides. - Abstract: Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g{sup −1} and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  14. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S.; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon


    Graphical abstract: Well-ordered nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon materials were prepared by in-situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile in SBA-15 template. The composite of sulfur and nitrogen-doped carbon was successfully used as a cathode material for lithium sulfur battery. - Highlights: • N-doped mesoporous carbons were prepared with PAN as carbon source. • Highly ordered pore system facilitates sulfur loading. • Ladder-type carbon matrix provides good structural stability for confining sulfur. • N-doping ensures an improved absorbability of soluble polysulfides. - Abstract: Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g −1 and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  15. Biochemical Variations in Cytolytic Activity of Ortho- and Paramyxoviruses in Human Lung Tumor Cell Culture. (United States)

    Zhirnov, O P


    Human lung cancer cells (Calu-3 line) were studied for the development of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy in response to infection with ortho- and paramyxoviruses. Biochemical pathways underlying various mechanisms of cell death differed for different viruses. When infected with murine Sendai paramyxovirus, Calu-3 cells demonstrated typical necrotic features such as cell swelling (but not shrinkage), lack of chromatin DNA laddering, of caspase 3 and 8 activation, and of apoptotic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein; an activation of antiapoptotic protein kinase Akt was also revealed. In contrast, infection with avian influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1 subtype) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian paramyxovirus) caused the development of typical apoptotic markers such as cell shrinkage, ladder-type chromosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 and 8 activation, and proteolytic cleavage of PARP in the absence of Akt activation. Notably, no upregulation of p53 protein phosphorylation was observed in all infected cells, which indicates that p53 is not involved in the virus-induced death of Calu-3 cells. Cell death caused by the influenza virus was accompanied by overstimulation of autophagy, whereas no stimulation of autophagy was observed in the NDV-infected cells. Infection with Sendai virus caused moderate stimulation of autophagy, which suggests that the mechanism of the virus-induced cell death and the balance between autophagy and cell death in infected cancer cells depend on the virus type and might significantly differ even for closely related viruses. Therefore, an optimal strategy for oncolytic virus-mediated destruction of tumor cells in cancer patients requires selection of the most appropriate oncolytic virus based on the mechanism of its cytolytic action in a particular type of tumor.

  16. New Lanthanide Alkynylamidinates and Diiminophosphinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Sroor


    Full Text Available This contribution reports the synthesis and structural characterization of several new lithium and lanthanide alkynylamidinate complexes. Treatment of PhC≡CLi with N,N′-diorganocarbodiimides, R–N=C=N–R (R = iPr, Cy (cyclohexyl, in THF or diethyl ether solution afforded the lithium-propiolamidinates Li[Ph–C≡C–C(NCy2] S (1: R = iPr, S = THF; 2: R = Cy, S = THF; 3: R = Cy, S = Et2O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 1 and 2 showed the presence of typical ladder-type dimeric structures in the solid state. Reactions of anhydrous LnCl3 (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm or Ho with 2 in a 1:3 molar ratio in THF afforded a series of new homoleptic lanthanide tris(propiolamidinate complexes, [Ph–C≡C–C(NCy2]3Ln (4: Ln = Ce; 5: Ln = Nd; 6: Ln = Sm; 7: Ln = Ho. The products were isolated in moderate to high yields (61%–89% as brightly colored, crystalline solids. The chloro-functional neodymium(III bis(cyclopropylethynylamidinate complex [{c-C3H5–C≡C–C(NiPr2}2Ln(µ-Cl(THF]2 (8 was prepared from NdCl3 and two equiv. of Li[c-C3H5–C≡C–C(NiPr2] in THF and structurally characterized. A new monomeric Ce(III-diiminophosphinate complex, [Ph2P(NSiMe32]2Ce(µ-Cl2Li(THF2 (9, has also been synthesized in a similar manner from CeCl3 and two equiv. of Li[Ph2P(NSiMe32]. Structurally, this complex resembles the well-known “ate” complexes (C5Me52Ln(µ-Cl2Li(THF2. Attempts to oxidize compound 9 using trityl chloride or phenyliodine(III dichloride did not lead to an isolable cerium(IV species.

  17. Hydrogen-bonding directed crystal engineering of some molecular solids (United States)

    Xue, Feng


    The design of crystalline clathrates and microporous solids is a contemporary goal in crystal engineering, in which hydrogen bonds play a central role because of their strength, directionality and flexibility. We have constructed various layer- and channel-type host structures by using hydrogen-bonding interactions. A novel hydrogen-bonded supramolecular rosette structure is generated from guanidinium and hydrogen carbonate ions in (1) and ( 2). The rosettes are fused into linear ribbons, which are cross-linked by terephthalate or 4-nitrobenzoate ions functioning as hydrogen-bond acceptors, resulting in anionic host layers with tetra-n-butylammonium guest species sandwiched between them. In (3) ˜ (6), new crystalline adducts of tetraalkylammonium terephthalate/trimesate with urea and water molecules result from hydrogen-bond directed assembly of complementary acceptors and donors that generate anionic channel- and layer-type host lattices for the accommodation of bulky hydrophobic cations. Some 4,4'-disubstituted biphenyls manifest their robustness and flexibility as supramolecular building blocks to construct host structures. 4,4'-biphenyl dicarboxylate ion has a strong tendency in generating ladder-type structure in (7) ˜ (10) due to its rigidity and effectiveness as a bifunctional hydrogen-bond acceptor. In (11) ˜ (15), 4,4 '-dicyanobiphenyl, 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N '-dioxide and 4,4'-dinitrobiphenyl exhibit a constructive interplay of strong and weak hydrogen bond functionalities that generate robust synthons. 4-Tritylbenzoic acid crystallizes via the carboxyl dimer supramolecular synthon to produce a wheel-and-axle host lattice that includes different aromatic solvents in its microporous framework in (16) ˜ (25 ), in which the host architecture is robust and yet adaptive. Based on the trigonal symmetry of 2,4,6-tris-4-(halo-phenoxy)-1,3,5-triazines (halo = chloro, bromo) and the Br3 or Cl3 supramolecular synthon, a new hexagonal host lattice has been designed

  18. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits. (United States)

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J


    emphasis on structure-property relationships. We then examine the synthesis and properties of carbonyl-functionalized oligomers, which constitute second-generation n-channel oligothiophenes, in both vacuum- and solution-processed FETs. These materials have high carrier mobilities and good air stability. In parallel, exceptionally electron-deficient cyano-functionalized arylenediimide derivatives are discussed as early examples of thermodynamically air-stable, high-performance n-channel semiconductors; they exhibit record electron mobilities of up to 0.64 cm(2)/V·s. Furthermore, we provide an overview of highly soluble ladder-type macromolecular semiconductors as OFET components, which combine ambient stability with solution processibility. A high electron mobility of 0.16 cm(2)/V·s is obtained under ambient conditions for solution-processed films. Finally, examples of polymeric n-channel semiconductors with electron mobilities as high as 0.85 cm(2)/V·s are discussed; these constitute an important advance toward fully printed polymeric electronic circuitry. Density functional theory (DFT) computations reveal important trends in molecular physicochemical and semiconducting properties, which, when combined with experimental data, shed new light on molecular charge transport characteristics. Our data provide the basis for a fundamental understanding of charge transport in high-performance n-channel organic semiconductors. Moreover, our results provide a road map for developing functional, complementary organic circuitry, which requires combining p- and n-channel transistors.

  19. Development of prototype components for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton


    . A detector module is a basic functional unit that includes a sensor, an analogue microcable and frontend electronics mounted on a support structure. The objective of the thesis is to perform quality assurance tests of the prototype module components in order to validate the concept of the detector module and to demonstrate its operation using radioactive sources and particle beams. Double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been chosen as sensor technology for the STS because of the combination of a good spatial resolution, two-dimensional coordinate measurement achieved within low material budget (0.3%X{sub 0}), high readout speed and sufficient radiation tolerance. Several generations of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors have been manufactured in order to explore the radiation hard design features and the concept of a large-area sensor compatible with ladder-type structure of the detector module. In particular, sensors with double metal layer on both sides and active area of 62 x 62 mm{sup 2} have been produced. Electrical characterization of the sensors has been performed in order to establish the overall operability as well as to extract the device parameters. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage characteristics and interstrip parameters have been measured. Readout of the sensors has been done using self-triggering front-end electronics. A front-end board has been developed based on the n-XYTER readout chip with data driven architecture and capable of operating at 32 MHz readout rate. The front-end board included an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Calibration of the ADC has been performed using both {sup 241}Am X-ray source and external pulse generator. Threshold calibration and investigation of temperature dependence of chip parameters has been carried out. Low-mass support structures have been developed using carbon fibre that has the rigidity to hold the detector modules and introduce minimal Coulomb scattering of the particle tracks

  20. 網路使用者與非網路使用者的社會意向 | The Social Image of Internet Users VS. Non-users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳齊殷 Chyi-In Wu



         How the living experience in cyberspace affects the real life of individuals is not just a theoretical question but also an empirical question. The cyberspace not only provides freedom to imagination but also presents opportunities for creating. It makes it possible that people are able to experiment or try brand new things in this "unlimited" world. To understand this circumstance, we need empirical data to explore the pathway that how the experience of cyberspace "reconstruct" or "re-model" individuals' behaviors and feelings of real community life.

        The purpose of this study is to figure out some hypotheses that could be empirically examined. This study found that, first; the process of transmission from Internet nonusers to Internet users for individuals is not a monotone linear trajectory. Instead, it's a ladder-type of process that people have to transcend from previous level to next level. The threshold for each level is not parallel; therefore, the effort need to be made to reach next level is dissimilar. These situations will all reflect on individuals' imagination of cyberspace and thereby affect their daily behaviors in real social life. Secondly, gender effect is another important issue that have to be investigated more thoroughly in the studies related to cyberspace since