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Sample records for spiro heterobicyclic rings

  1. New regioselective multicomponent reaction: one pot synthesis of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, G; Gottlieb, H E; Herscovici, J; Mirkin, F

    2000-01-01

    In the context of our high-throughput organic synthesis program, we have studied the reactivity of special beta-keto esters toward the Biginelli reaction. We have found that a cyclic beta-keto ester reacts with one molecule of urea and two molecules of aldehyde to give a new family of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings in good yields. Interestingly, the Biginelli product was not detected. After analysis of products using HPLC, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR, we have found that the reaction is driven by a regio-specific condensation of two molecules of aldehyde with the other reagents to afford only products harboring substituents exclusively in cis configuration. Monte Carlo minimization studies using MM2 force field suggest that cis products are energetically more stable than the trans counterparts. Together with previously reported data, these results suggest that the trans products were not obtained as result of steric hindrance produced by the equatorial position of one of the ring substituents. This new reaction is useful for high-throughput organic synthesis. Indeed, the new scaffold can be used to introduce additional groups in the molecules through remaining functional groups by a "domino strategy".

  2. Anomalous regioselective four-member multicomponent Biginelli reaction II: one-pot parallel synthesis of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Gerardo; Kabha, Eihab

    2004-01-01

    In a previous preliminary study, we found that a cyclic five-member ring beta-keto ester (lactone) reacts with one molecule of urea and two of aldehyde to give a new family of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings in good yields with no traces of the expected dihydropyrimidine (Biginelli) products. The reaction is driven by a regiospecific condensation of two molecules of aldehyde with urea and beta-keto-gamma-lactone to afford only products harboring substitutions exclusively in a syn configuration (Byk, G.; Gottlieb, H. E.; Herscovici, J.; Mirkin, F. J. Comb. Chem. 2000, 2, 732-735). In the present work ((a) Presented in part at ISCT Combitech, October 15, 2002, Israel, and Eurocombi-2, Copenhagen 2003 (oral and poster presentation). (b) Also in American Peptide Society Symposium, Boston, 2003 (poster presentation). (c) Abstract in Biopolymers 2003, 71 (3), 354-355), we report a large and exciting extension of this new reaction utilizing parallel organic synthesis arrays, as demonstrated by the use of chiral beta-keto-gamma-lactams, derived from natural amino acids, instead of tetronic acid (beta-keto-gamma-lactone) and the potential of the spirobicyclic products for generating "libraries from libraries". Interestingly, we note an unusual and important anisotropy effect induced by perpendicular interactions between rigid pi systems and different groups placed at the alpha position of the obtained spirobicyclic system. Stereo/regioselectivity of the aldehyde condensation is driven by the nature of the substitutions on the starting beta-keto-gamma-lactam. Aromatic aldehydes can be used as starting reagents with good yields; however, when aliphatic aldehydes are used, the desired products are obtained in poor yields, as observed in the classical Biginelli reaction. The possible reasons for these poor yields are addressed and clarify, to some extent, the complexity of the Biginelli multicomponent reaction mechanism and, in particular, the mechanism of the present

  3. Transformation of Zwitterionic Pyridine Derivatives to a Spiro-Fused Ring System: Azoniabenzo[de]fluorine. Synthesis and Mechanistic Rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkó, Roberta; Egyed, Orsolya; Rokob, Tibor András; Bombicz, Petra; Riedl, Zsuzsanna; Hajós, György

    2015-01-02

    Reaction of aryl- and benzylsulfanopyridinium amidates bearing a methyl group in position 6 with 2 equiv of diphenylketene afforded a spiro-fused ring system: azoniabenzo[de]fluorine. By use of an excess amount of ketene, a distinct reaction was observed via which a 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one derivative was furnished. The structure of the tetracyclic spiro-fused ring system was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and its formation was rationalized by DFT calculations.

  4. Preparation of Novel Fused Ring Spiro[benzotetraphene-fluorene] Derivatives and Application for Deep-Blue Host Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Chilwon; Gong, Myoungseon [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A series of novel fused-ring spiro compounds, spiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] derivatives containing an end-capping aryl substituent at both the C3 and C10-positions has been designed and synthesized via multi-step Suzuki coupling reactions. 3-(1-Naphthyl)-10-phenyl, 3-(2-naphthyl)-10-phenyl and 3-[4-(1-naphthyl)phenyl]-10-phenyl showed improved glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) with good thermal stability. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and electroluminescent properties were investigated and were used to construct blue organic light emission diodes (OLEDs). The typical OLED devices showed excellent performance; the based device exhibited highly efficient deep blue-light emission with a maximum efficiency of 5.27 cd/A (EQE, 4.63%) with CIE (x = 0.133, y = 0.144). According to these characteristics, these deep-blue light emitting materials have sufficient potential for fluorescent OLED applications.

  5. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic strategy to C2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  6. Novel Rearrangements in the Reactions Directed Toward Preparation of Spiro-N,N-ketals: Reactions of Naphthalene-1,8-diamine with Ninhydrin and Isatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kobayashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Spiro-N,N-ketal 5, consisting of a phthaloperine heterocyclic ring and a naphtha[1,8-ef][1,4]diazepine ring, was obtained along with spiro-N,N-ketal 2 via 2,2-condensation in the reaction of ninhydrin with naphthalene-1,8-diamine. Their molecular structures were elucidated by X-ray crystal structural analysis. Aside from these spiro compounds, the diazapleiadiene compound 3 formed by 1,2-condensation and the 1,4-isoquinolinedione compound 4 arising from ring expansion were isolated. When isatin was reacted with naphthalene-1,8-diamine, spiro-N,N-ketal 6 and the two 1H-perimidine-based compounds 7 and 8 were isolated. Compound 8 was revealed to undergo a fast dynamic prototropic tautomerization in solution. Plausible mechanisms of the formation of the products are proposed.

  7. Hybrid macrocycle formation and spiro annulation on cis-syn-cis-tricyclo[6.3.0.02,6]undeca-3,11-dione and its congeners via ring-closing metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple methodology to transform cis-syn-cis-triquinane derivative 2 into the diindole based macrocycle 6 involving Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM. Various spiro-polyquinane derivatives have been assembled via RCM as a key step.

  8. The tert-Amino Effect in Heterocyclic Chemistry. Synthesis of Spiro Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Morzherin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The tert-amino reaction effect was examined. A new method to synthesize spiro heterocycles is presented. It was shown that the “tert-amino effect” could be applied to the formation of spiro-fused heterocycles. The formation of spiro compounds proceeds in most cases in good yields in a one-pot reaction.

  9. 5′-Methylsulfanyl-4′-oxo-7′-phenyl-3′,4′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-quinazoline]-8′-carbonitrile dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C21H21N3OS·C3H7NO, the carbonitrile molecule is built up of two fused six-membered rings and one six-membered ring linked through a spiro C atom. The 1,3-diaza ring adopts an envelope conformation and the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 46.7 (3°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  10. 3′,6′-Bis(diethylamino-3H-spiro[2-benzothiophene-1,9′-xanthene]-3-thione

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    Bing-Yuan Su

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C28H30N2OS2, was obtained by thionation of 3′,6′-bis(diethylamino-3H-spiro[isobenzofuran-1,9′-xanthene]-3-one with 2,4-bis(p-methoxyphenyl-1,3-dithiadiphosphetane disulfide (Lawesson's reagent. The planes of the two benzene rings of the xanthene system are inclined at a dihedral angle of 17.4 (1°, and the plane of the dithiophthalide group and the planes through the two benzene rings of the xanthene system make dihedral angles of 80.2 (1 and 82.8 (1°, respectively.

  11. Fragrance material review on 1-spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-Spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all published and unpublished toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-pent-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spiro-OMeTAD single crystals: Remarkably enhanced charge-carrier transport via mesoscale ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Dong

    2016-04-15

    We report the crystal structure and hole-transport mechanism in spiro-OMeTAD [2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9′-spirobifluorene], the dominant hole-transporting material in perovskite and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Despite spiro-OMeTAD’s paramount role in such devices, its crystal structure was unknown because of highly disordered solution-processed films; the hole-transport pathways remained ill-defined and the charge carrier mobilities were low, posing a major bottleneck for advancing cell efficiencies. We devised an antisolvent crystallization strategy to grow single crystals of spiro-OMeTAD, which allowed us to experimentally elucidate its molecular packing and transport properties. Electronic structure calculations enabled us to map spiro-OMeTAD’s intermolecular charge-hopping pathways. Promisingly, single-crystal mobilities were found to exceed their thin-film counterparts by three orders of magnitude. Our findings underscore mesoscale ordering as a key strategy to achieving breakthroughs in hole-transport material engineering of solar cells.

  13. Spiro K. Antiochos Receives 2013 John Adam Fleming Medal: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The John Adam Fleming Medal is awarded for "original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences." Originality and technical leadership are exactly the characteristics that distinguish the research of Spiro K. Antiochos. Spiro possesses a truly unique combination of physical insight, creativity, and mastery of the concepts and mathematical and numerical tools of space physics. These talents have allowed him to develop completely original theories for major observational problems and to test and refine those theories using sophisticated numerical simulation codes that he himself helped to develop. Spiro's physical insight is especially impressive. He has an uncanny ability to identify the fundamental aspects of complex problems and to see physical connections where others do not. This can sometimes involve ideas that may initially seem counterintuitive to those with less creativity. Many of Spiro's revolutionary advances have opened up whole new areas of study and shaped the course of space physics. Examples include the breakout model for coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the S-web model for the slow solar wind, and the thermal nonequilibrium model for solar prominences. The breakout model is of special significance to AGU as it strives to promote science for the betterment of humanity. CMEs are enormous explosions on the Sun that can have major "space weather" impacts here on Earth. They affect technologies ranging from communication and navigation systems to electrical power grids. Breakout is the leading theory for why CMEs occur and may one day be the foundation for more accurate space weather forecasting.

  14. Study on optoelectronic properties of Spiro-CN for developing an efficient OLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    There are a class of organic molecules and polymers which exhibit semiconductor behavior because of nearly free conjugate π-electrons. Hopping of these electrons in molecules forms different excited singlet and triplet states named as excitons. Some of these organic molecules can be set to emit photons by triplet-singlet excitonic transition via a process called Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) which is exploited for designing the Organic Light Emitting diode (OLED.) Spiro-CN (spirobifluorene skeletons) Spiro is one of these reported noble metal-free TADF molecules which offers unique optical and electronic properties arising from the efficient transition and reverse intersystem crossing between the lowest singlet (S) and triplet (T) excited states. Its ability to harvest triplet excitons for fluorescence through facilitated reverse intersystem crossing (T→S) could directly impact their properties and performances, which is attractive for a wide variety of low-cost optoelectronic device. In the present study, the Spiro-CN compounds have been taken up for the investigation of various optoelectronic properties including the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) by using the Koopmans Method and Density Functional Theory. The present study discusses the utility of the Spiro-CN organic semiconductor as a suitable TADF material essential for developing an efficient Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED).

  15. Antibacterial properties of 3 H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane] derivatives from Heliotropium filifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Echeverría, Javier; Rezende, Marcos C; Wilkens, Marcela

    2008-10-01

    A re-examination of cuticular components of Heliotropium filifolium allowed the isolation of four new compounds: 3'-hydroxy-2',2',6'-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzo-furan-2,1'-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylic acid(2), methyl 3'-acetyloxy-2',2',6'-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylate (3), methyl 3'-isopentanoyloxy-2',2',6'-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylate (4) and methyl 3'-benzoyloxy-2',2',6'-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylate (5).Compounds 2-5 were identified by their spectroscopic analogies with filifolinol (1), and their structures confirmed by chemical correlation with 1. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds were tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Some of them proved to be active against Gram positive, but inactive against Gram negative bacteria. In searching for structure-activity relationships from the obtained MIC values, lipophilicity was shown to be an important variable.

  16. Use of Silica-Encapsulated Pseudomonas sp. Strain NCIB 9816-4 in Biodegradation of Novel Hydrocarbon Ring Structures Found in Hydraulic Fracturing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Kelly G.; Kasinkas, Lisa; Aksan, Alptekin

    2014-01-01

    The most problematic hydrocarbons in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) wastewaters consist of fused, isolated, bridged, and spiro ring systems, and ring systems have been poorly studied with respect to biodegradation, prompting the testing here of six major ring structural subclasses using a well-characterized bacterium and a silica encapsulation system previously shown to enhance biodegradation. The direct biological oxygenation of spiro ring compounds was demonstrated here. These and other hydrocarbon ring compounds have previously been shown to be present in flow-back waters and waters produced from hydraulic fracturing operations. Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4, containing naphthalene dioxygenase, was selected for its broad substrate specificity, and it was demonstrated here to oxidize fundamental ring structures that are common in shale-derived waters but not previously investigated with this or related enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 was tested here in the presence of a silica encasement, a protocol that has previously been shown to protect bacteria against the extremes of salinity present in fracking wastewaters. These studies demonstrate the degradation of highly hydrophobic compounds by a silica-encapsulated model bacterium, demonstrate what it may not degrade, and contribute to knowledge of the full range of hydrocarbon ring compounds that can be oxidized using Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4. PMID:24907321

  17. Synthesis of Racemic β-Chamigrene, a Spiro[5.5]undecane Sequiterpene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen Antonsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a total synthesis of racemic β-chamigrene (1, a sesquiterpene with a spiro[5.5]undecane carbon framework. Compared with previously reported β-chamigrene syntheses, we were able to reduce the total number of reaction steps, which also resulted in a significant improvement of the overall yield. The commercially available ketone 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one was transformed by known simple procedures into 3,3-dimethyl-2-methylenecyclohexanone. This reacted with isoprene by a Diels-Alder reaction to give a spiro ketone. An olefination reaction on this compound gave the target molecule.

  18. Microwave mediated synthesis of spiro-(indoline-isoxazolidines): mechanistic study and biological activity evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raunak, R.; Kumar, Vineet; Mukherjee, Shubhasish

    2005-01-01

    Regioisomeric spiro-(indoline-isoxazolidines) have been synthesized in moderate yields by the cycloaddition reaction between ethyl (3-indolylidene)acetate and various substituted α,N-diphenylnitrones, using environmentally benign microwave technology. A novel concerted reaction mechanism is descr......Regioisomeric spiro-(indoline-isoxazolidines) have been synthesized in moderate yields by the cycloaddition reaction between ethyl (3-indolylidene)acetate and various substituted α,N-diphenylnitrones, using environmentally benign microwave technology. A novel concerted reaction mechanism...

  19. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules have been ... due to its importance in various real life systems. 1–8. High level ... It is well-known from the crystal structure data- base that the ...

  20. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Some New Heterocyclic Spiro-Derivatives with Potential Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity

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    Mohamed Mohamed Youssef

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Homophthalic anhydride reacts with different aromatic amines to produce N-substituted homophthalimides. Bromination of the latter produces 4,4-dibromo-homophthalimide derivatives that can be used as precursors for spiro-derivatives. The dibromo derivatives react with different binucleophilic reagents to produce several spiro-isoquinoline derivatives. Reaction of the dibromo derivatives with malononitrile produces dicyanomethylene derivatives which react with different binucleophiles to produce new spiro-derivatives. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds are proved using spectroscopic methods such as IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, showing weak or no antimicrobial activity. On the other hand select compounds showed promising antioxidant activities.

  1. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim of fabricating efficient mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells, we used tris[2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert- butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)] (FK209) as a p-dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The mixture of spiro-OMeTAD, FK209, lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibited significantly higher performance than mixtures of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, spiro-OMeTAD, and FK209, and spiro-OMeTAD, Li-TFSI, and TBP. Such a synergistic effect between the Co-complex and Li-TFSI in conjunction with spiro-OMeTAD effectively improved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fabricated solar cells. As a result, we achieved PCE of 10.4%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. new spiro (thio) barbiturates based on cyclohexanone and bicyclo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    condensation can be operated with the aid of strong acids or bases [2, 13]. Several catalytic methods have been achieved for crossed-aldol condensation [4, 14-31]. Several spiro-(thio)barbituric acid derivatives in which the active methylene carbon of. (thio)barbituric acid is substituted by an unsubstituted cyclobutane or ...

  3. Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxic and NF-ĸB Inhibitory Properties of Spiro(Lactone-Cyclohexanone) Compounds in Human Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhenna, Mustapha M; Orlikova, Barbora; Talhi, Oualid; Schram, Ben; Pinto, Diana C G A; Taibi, Nadia; Bachari, Khaldoun; Diederich, Marc; Silva, Artur M S; Mameri, Nabil

    2017-09-01

    NF-ĸB affects most aspects of cellular physiology. Deregulation of NF-ĸB signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and NF-ĸB inhibition potential of new spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds in two different human leukemia cell lines (U937 and K562). The anti-proliferative effects of the spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds on human K562 and U937 cell lines was evaluated by trypan blue staining, as well as their involvement in NF-kB regulation were analyzed by luciferase reporter gene assay, Caspase-3/7 activities were evaluated to analyze apoptosis induction. Both spiro(coumarin-cyclohexanone) 4 and spiro(6- methyllactone-cyclohexanone) 9 down-regulated cancer cell viability and proliferation. Compound 4 inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-ĸB activation in a dose-dependent manner and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines. Results show that compound 4 and compound 9 have potential as anti-cancer agents. In addition, compound 4 exerted NF-kB inhibition activity in leukemia cancer cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. New insights into canted spiro carbon interstitial in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The self-interstitial carbon is the key to radiation damage in graphite moderator nuclear reactor, so an understanding of its behavior is essential for plant safety and maximized reactor lifetime. The density functional theory is applied on four different graphite unit cells, starting from of 64 carbon atoms up to 256 carbon atoms, using AIMPRO code to obtain the energetic, athermal and mechanical properties of carbon interstitial in graphite. This study presents first principles calculations of the energy of formation that prove its high barrier to athermal diffusion (1.1 eV) and the consequent large critical shear stress (39 eV-50 eV) necessary to shear graphite planes in its presence. Also, for the first time, the gamma surface of graphite in two dimensions is calculated and found to yield the critical shear stress for perfect graphite. Finally, in contrast to the extensive literature describing the interstitial of carbon in graphite as spiro interstitial, in this work the ground state of interstitial carbon is found to be canted spiro interstitial.

  5. Synthesis and properties of nitrogenous heterocycles containing a spiro-fused cyclopropane fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilov, Yury V; Nefedov, Oleg M; Kostyuchenko, Irina V

    2000-01-01

    The published data on the methods of synthesis and chemical transformations of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds spiro-fused with a cyclopropane fragment are described systematically and generalised. The bibliography includes 146 references.

  6. Multicomponent synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of new spiro-oxindole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sapnakumari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new series of spiro-oxindoles that were identified based upon their ability to inhibit methionine tRNA synthase (PDB ID: 1PFV and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (PDB ID: 1JXA enzymes in virtual screening was synthesized by a three-component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition method. The reaction proceeds through the formation of azomethine ylides generated in situ by the decarboxylative condensation of isatin and amino acids with dipolarophile chalcones. These compounds are active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, supporting the in silico screening. In addition, their antitubercular activity was assessed using the MABA method. The compounds 3′-[(4-fluorophenylcarbonyl]-4′-phenylspiro[indole-3,2′-pyrrolidin]-2(1H-one 3a, 4′-(4-bromophenyl-3′-[(4-fluorophenylcarbonyl]-5′-(hydroxymethyl spiro[indole-3,2′-pyrrolidin]-2(1H-one 3e and 4′-(4-chlorophenyl-3′-[(4-fluorophenylcarbonyl]-5′-(2-methylpropylspiro[indole-3,2′-pyrrolidin]-2(1H-one 3g are potent molecules with MIC of 0.8 μg/mL. In the DPPH radical scavenging assay, compounds 4′-(4-chlorophenyl-3′-[(4-fluorophenylcarbonyl]spiro[indole-3,2′-pyrrolidin]-2(1H-one 3b, 4′-(4-chlorophenyl-3′-[(4-fluorophenylcarbonyl]-5′-(hydroxymethylspiro[indole-3,2′-pyrrolidin]-2(1H-one 3d and 4′-(4-bromophenyl-3′-[(4-fluorophenylcarbonyl]-5′-(hydroxymethylspiro[indole-3,2′-pyrrolidin]-2(1H-one 3e exhibited significant radical scavenging capacity. Keywords: Chalcone, Spiro-oxindole, Azomethine ylide, Antimicrobial activity, Molecular docking

  7. CHEMISRTY OF NOVEL SPIRO OXAZOLO-THIADIAZOLES DERIVATIVES – SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION CHEMISRTY NEUARTIGER SPIRO oxazolo-Thiadiazole DERIVATE - Synthese, Charakterisierung und biologische Bewertung

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay V. Dabholkar, Abhishek Karekar, Prem Naik & N. B. Shinde

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel 2-N-acetyl hydrazino,4-acetyl,7-phenyl,9-(substitutedbenzylidine),1-thia, 3,4,8,triaza,6-oxa Spiro[4.4] nona-2,7-diene (4) were synthesized and screened for their antibacterial activity. The structures of the products were confirmed by IR, 1H,13C NMR and elemental analysis.

  8. Spiro-OMeTAD single crystals: Remarkably enhanced charge-carrier transport via mesoscale ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Dong; Qin, X.; Li, Yuan; He, Yao; Zhong, Cheng; Pan, Jun; Dong, H.; Xu, Wei; Li, T.; Hu, W.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    bottleneck for advancing cell efficiencies. We devised an antisolvent crystallization strategy to grow single crystals of spiro-OMeTAD, which allowed us to experimentally elucidate its molecular packing and transport properties. Electronic structure

  9. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular metathesis of dienes and its application in the synthesis of bridged and spiro azabicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. Yu; Bubnov, Yu N.

    2015-07-01

    The review presents a historical excursion into catalytic alkene metathesis, covering the problems of history of the discovery of this process, as well as investigations on the properties, structure and reactivity of the most popular ruthenium catalysts for metathesis, mechanism of their action and decomposition. The main part covers studies devoted to the syntheses of bridged azabicyclic and 1-azaspirocyclic compounds comprising the intramolecular metathesis of dienes as the key step. The formation of a bicyclic skeleton of a series of natural bridged (cocaine, ferruginine, calystegines, and anatoxin-a) and spiro (pinnaic acids, halichlorine, hystrionicotoxin, and cephalotaxine) azabicycles, as well as their analogues and compounds with larger rings is demonstrated. The methods for the synthesis of diene precursors and the conditions for final assembling of the bicyclic compounds are considered in detail. The generalization of the literature data allows one to efficiently carry out the mentioned process taking into account the most important features. The bibliography includes 129 references.

  10. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular metathesis of dienes and its application in the synthesis of bridged and spiro azabicycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N Yu; Bubnov, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    The review presents a historical excursion into catalytic alkene metathesis, covering the problems of history of the discovery of this process, as well as investigations on the properties, structure and reactivity of the most popular ruthenium catalysts for metathesis, mechanism of their action and decomposition. The main part covers studies devoted to the syntheses of bridged azabicyclic and 1-azaspirocyclic compounds comprising the intramolecular metathesis of dienes as the key step. The formation of a bicyclic skeleton of a series of natural bridged (cocaine, ferruginine, calystegines, and anatoxin-a) and spiro (pinnaic acids, halichlorine, hystrionicotoxin, and cephalotaxine) azabicycles, as well as their analogues and compounds with larger rings is demonstrated. The methods for the synthesis of diene precursors and the conditions for final assembling of the bicyclic compounds are considered in detail. The generalization of the literature data allows one to efficiently carry out the mentioned process taking into account the most important features. The bibliography includes 129 references

  11. Synthesis of novel synthetic intermediates from the reaction of benzimidazole and triazole carbenes with ketenimines and their application in the construction of spiro-pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jun-Ming; Ma, Yang-Guang; Cheng, Ying

    2009-12-07

    2-(2-Alkoxycarbonyl-1-arylamino-1-propenyl)benzimidazolium and 5-(2-alkoxycarbonyl-1-arylamino-1-propenyl)triazolium salts were synthesized in good yields from the reaction of benzimidazole and triazole carbenes with ketenimines. Upon treatment with a base, both salts were converted into novel 1,3-dipoles which underwent [3+2] cycloaddition reactions with electron-deficient alkynes and allenes to produce benzimidazole-spiro-pyrroles or triazole-spiro-pyrroles. This work provides novel synthons for the construction of multifunctional spiro-pyrrole derivatives that are not easy accessible by other synthetic methods and are potentially amenable to further transformations.

  12. (R,S-2′-Amino-6′-methyl-2,5′,5′-trioxo-6′H-spiro[indoline-3,4′-pyrano[3,2-c][2,1]benzothiazine]-3′-carbonitrile dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana V. Shishkina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The title solvate, C20H14N4O4S·C3H7NO, comprises a stereogenic centre but the centrosymmetric space group causes the presence of the racemate in the crystal. The spiro-joined fragments are almost orthogonal, with a dihedral angle of 86.8 (2° between the mean planes of the pyrane ring and the dihydroindolone ring system. The atoms of the indolinone bicycle are coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.005 Å. In the crystal, pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers which are linked to the dimethylformamide solvent molecules by further N—H...O hydrogen bonds. N—H...N hydrogen bonds link neighbouring dimers into [010] chains.

  13. The beneficial effects of mixing spiro-OMeTAD with n-butyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine for perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Esmaiel; Wang, Yu-Long; Chen, Qian; Xu, Jia-Ju; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Soluble n-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine. • Mixture with spiro-OMeTAD and employment in perovskite solar cells. • Impressive improvement of perovskite solar cell efficiency. • n-Butyl derivative gives better results than tert-butyl derivative - Abstract: Perovskite solar cells have been constructed under ambient conditions by using 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) mixed with a small quantity of soluble tetra-n-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine as hole transporting material. The introduction of the phthalocyanine derivative resulted in an impressive increase of cell efficiency, which changed from 10.4% in the absence to 15.4% in the presence of phthalocyanine. This effect is related to the creation of deep traps in the hole transporting phase which block back-travelling electrons as well as to the improvement of the structural quality of the spiro-OMeTAD film in the presence of phthalocyanine. Both functionalities decrease shunt paths within the hole transporting phase resulting in increasing the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage of the cell.

  14. Synthesis of spiro[indolo-1,5-benzodiazepines] from 3-acetyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    also as potent virucides and non-nucleoside inhibi- tors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.2 Beside this,. 1,5-benzodiazepines ... printed circuits.8 Here we report the synthesis of spiro ... 3d. 5,6-Benzo 1727. 1701. 1672. 3218 3382. 4⋅22 (d, 2H, J = 17⋅91 Hz), 3⋅81 (d, 2H,. J = 17⋅8 .... R1 = R2 = CH3 show 88⋅88% inhibition.

  15. Reversible photoluminescence in spiropyran-modified porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Hu, Chih-Hsuan; Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Chu, Chih-Chien; Hsiao, Vincent K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Spiropyran-modified porous silicon (spiro-PS) was used for the first time as an organic–inorganic hybrid material by using reversible photoluminescence (PL). Before spiropyran modification, the peak wavelength from PS was approximately 600 nm. Subsequent spiropyran modification strongly quenched the PL intensity, from 15,000 to 2000 counts. However, under UV light irradiation, the PL intensity from spiro-PS was increased gradually to 20,000 counts because of the photoinduced ring opening from a colorless spiropyran (SP-form) to a colored merocyanine (MC-form). Furthermore, the resulting peak wavelength of the PL of an MC–PS sample red-shifted from 600 to 650 nm, and the PL intensity was higher than that of unmodified PS. Because the fluorescence emission band (500–700 nm) of PS substantially overlapped the absorption band (500–700 nm) of the MC-form of spiropyran, the energy transfer from the PS (donor) to the open-ring-state MC-form (acceptor) occurs efficiently. The intensity of the PL from spiro-PS can be reversibly modulated using a heat stimulus. The current demonstrations have potential in reversible solid-state lighting or data storage applications. - Highlights: • Spiropyran-modified porous silicon (spiro-PS) was used for the first time as an organic–inorganic hybrid material with reversible photoluminescence (PL). • UV light irradiation make PL intensity from spiro-PS increased due to the photo-induced ring opening process. • The energy transfer from the PS (donor) to the open-ring state of spiropyran (acceptor) was to be efficient due to the fluorescence emission band of PS substantially overlapped with the absorption band of the ring-opened spiro. • The intensity of the PL from spiro-PS can be reversibly modulated using a heat stimulus

  16. Spiro[pyrrolidine-3,3′-oxindoles] and Their Indoline Analogues as New 5-HT6 Receptor Chemotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám A. Kelemen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic derivatives of spiro[pyrrolidinyl-3,3′-oxindole] alkaloids (coerulescine analogues were investigated as new ligands for aminergic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. The chemical starting point 2′-phenylspiro[indoline-3,3′-pyrrolidin]-2-one scaffold was identified by virtual fragment screening utilizing ligand- and structure based methods. As a part of the hit-to-lead optimization a structure-activity relationship analysis was performed to explore the differently substituted 2′-phenyl-derivatives, introducing the phenylsulphonyl pharmacophore and examining the corresponding reduced spiro[pyrrolidine-3,3′-indoline] scaffold. The optimization process led to ligands with submicromolar affinities towards the 5-HT6 receptor that might serve as viable leads for further optimization.

  17. Shelf life stability comparison in air for solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer and doped spiro-OMeTAD as hole transport layer for perovskite solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Dubey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data in brief includes forward and reverse scanned current density–voltage (J–V characteristics of perovskite solar cells with PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL, stability testing conditions of perovskite solar cell shelf life in air for both PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL as per the description in Ref. [1], and individual J–V performance parameters acquired with increasing time exposed in ambient air are shown for both type of devices using PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD as HTL. The data collected in this study compares the device stability with time for both PDPP3T and spiro-OMeTAD based perovskite solar cells and is directly related to our research article “solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer as hole transport layer for efficient perovskite solar cells with slower degradation” [2].

  18. Characterization of pore-filling of spiro-MeOTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells and its consequence in device performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2009-08-27

    In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9, 9\\'-spirobifluorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UVVis absorption spectroscopy. We show that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-•m-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device

  19. Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism, and Consequences for Device Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Té treault, Nicolas; Brillet, Jé ré mie; Hardin, Brian E.; Smith, Eva H.; Rosenthal, Samuel J.; Sauvage, Fré dé ric; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-OMeTAD (2,2′,7,7′- tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9′-spirobtfIuorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-μm-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism, and Consequences for Device Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2009-08-10

    In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-OMeTAD (2,2′,7,7′- tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9′-spirobtfIuorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-μm-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Antibacterial Properties of 3 H-Spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1’-cyclohexane] Derivatives from Heliotropium filifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Wilkens

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A re-examination of cuticular components of Heliotropium filifolium allowed the isolation of four new compounds: 3’-hydroxy-2’,2’,6’-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzo-furan-2,1’-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylic acid(2, methyl 3’-acetyloxy-2’,2’,6’-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1’-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylate (3, methyl 3’-isopentanoyloxy-2’,2’,6’-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1’-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylate (4 and methyl 3’-benzoyloxy-2’,2’,6’-trimethyl-3H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1’-cyclohexane]-5-carboxylate (5.Compounds 2-5 were identified by their spectroscopic analogies with filifolinol (1, and their structures confirmed by chemical correlation with 1. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds were tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Some of them proved to be active against Gram positive, but inactive against Gram negative bacteria. In searching for structure-activity relationships from the obtained MIC values, lipophilicity was shown to be an important variable.

  2. The oxidation of 2,2,5-three methyl-6-spiro cyclo hexane di hydro pyranol-5(X CI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, V.I.

    1961-01-01

    In this chapter of book author as a result of oxidation of 2,2,5-three methyl-6-spiro cyclo hexane di hydro pyranol-5 evolved acetone, cyclopentanone, formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, α-oxi isobutyric acid and adipinic acids

  3. Improved Photoresponse Performance of Self-Powered ZnO/Spiro-MeOTAD Heterojunction Ultraviolet Photodetector by Piezo-Phototronic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanwei; Yan, Xiaoqin; Si, Haonan; Lin, Pei; Liu, Yichong; Sun, Yihui; Zhang, Yue

    2016-03-09

    Strain-induced piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) within wurtzite-structured ZnO can engineer the energy-band structure at a contact or a junction and, thus, enhance the performance of corresponding optoelectronic devices by effectively tuning the charge carriers' separation and transport. Here, we report the fabrication of a flexible self-powered ZnO/Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid heterojunction ultraviolet photodetector (UV PD). The obtained device has a fast and stable response to the UV light illumination at zero bias. Together with responsivity and detectivity, the photocurrent can be increased about 1-fold upon applying a 0.753% tensile strain. The enhanced performance can be attributed to more efficient separation and transport of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which is favored by the positive piezopotential modulated energy-band structure at the ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD interface. This study demonstrates a promising approach to optimize the performance of a photodetector made of piezoelectric semiconductor materials through straining.

  4. A spiro-bifluorene based 3D electron acceptor with dicyanovinylene substitution for solution-processed non-fullerene organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Debin

    2015-04-20

    A novel electron acceptor, namely 2,2′-(12H,12′H-10,10′-spirobi[indeno[2,1-b]fluorene]-12,12′-diylidene)dimalononitrile (4CN-spiro), exhibiting a three-dimensional molecular structure was synthesized and its thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, crystal, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. The novel acceptor exhibits excellent thermal stability with a decomposition temperature of 460 °C, an absorption extending to 600 nm, and a LUMO level of −3.63 eV. Solution processed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells were fabricated using 4CN-spiro as an acceptor and polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) as a donor polymer. The effect of the donor-to-acceptor ratio and processing conditions on the device performance was investigated. A device processed from tetrachloroethane with a donor to acceptor weight ratio of 1 : 1 yielded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.80%.

  5. New spiro (thio barbiturates based on cyclohexanone and bicyclo [3.1.1]heptan-6-one by nonconcerted [1+5] cycloaddition reaction and their conformational structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Pesyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crossed-aldol condensation reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ketones such as; acetone and cyclohexanone leads to the efficient formation of cross conjugated α,β-unsaturated ketones in excellent yield. The intermolecular and then intramolecular Michael addition reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones derived from acetone and cyclohexanone with (thiobarbituric acids lead to synthesis new type of 7,11-diaryl-2,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-1,3,5,9-tetraone and 2,4-diaryl-1'H-spiro[bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,5'-pyrimidine]-2',4',6',9(3'H-tetraone, respectively in good yield. Structure elucidation is carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, UV-Visible, mass spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography techniques. A possible mechanism of the formation is discussed. The structural conformation also demonstrated by coupling constants derived from dihedral angles between vicinal and geminal protons. The 1H NMR spectra of NH protons of spiro compounds derived from barbituric acid show a broad singlet peak instead, these protons in the spiro compounds derived from thiobarbituric acid show two distinct peaks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.12

  6. CERN Library | Sandrine Saison-Marsollier, Corinne Pralavorio and Michel Spiro present "Si tu devais me dessiner l’Univers…" | 10 December

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2015-01-01

    Sandrine Saison-Marsollier, Corinne Pralavorio and Michel Spiro present Si tu devais me dessiner l’Univers… Thursday, 10 December 2015 at 3.30 p.m. at the Library, Building 52-1-052 Tea and coffee will be served at 3 p.m. In 2014, CERN launched an art competition for local primary schools. Children were asked to come up with questions about the universe, matter and working as a researcher. The initiative was so successful that it has been turned into a book that teachers can explore with their pupils, discussing the questions and discovering the answers together. The book is laid out in double-page spreads, with the child’s illustration on one page and the question and its answer opposite. The answers take the form of a short text written by Michel Spiro, the competition’s scientific advisor, together with a cultural quotation whose purpose is to highlight the close association between science, literature and philosophy. The questions include: What was there...

  7. Access to unusual polycyclic spiro-enones from 2,2'-bis(allyloxy)-1,1'-binaphthyls using Grubbs' catalysts: an unprecedented one-pot RCM/Claisen sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Estefanía; Francos, Javier; Nebra, Noel; Suárez, Francisco J; Díez, Josefina; Cadierno, Victorio

    2011-07-21

    Treatment of 2,2'-bis(allyloxy)-1,1'-binaphthyls with the first-generation Grubbs' carbene under MW-irradiation results in the formation of new polycyclic spiro-enones through an unprecedented RCM/Claisen sequence.

  8. BIOACTIVITIES AND MECHANISM OF SPIRO ENOL ETHER ANALOGUES AGAINST PIERIS RAPAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xiangZhang; Dong-meiCheng; Han-hongXu; Yu-linWu; andJun-faFan

    2004-01-01

    Nineteen kinds of spiro enol ether analogues were screened with larvae of Pieris rapae for antifeedant activity. The results showed that the antifeedant activity of compounds No.20 and No.12 was higher than others. In non-choice test, AFC50 values within 24 h of compounds No.20 and No.12 against 3rd instar larvae of P. rapae were 226.93ug/mL and 370.00ug/mL, and that in choice test against 4th larvae were 280.54 ug/mL and 398.88 ug/mL, respectively. Compd. No.20 could prolong the eggs hatch time and reduce the haemolymph content and the protein content in haemolymph of 4th instar larvae obviously. Compd. No.20 could protect tested leaves and control larvae of P. rapae effectively.

  9. Dimerisation, rhodium complex formation and rearrangements of N-heterocyclic carbenes of indazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Guan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deprotonation of indazolium salts at low temperatures gives N-heterocyclic carbenes of indazoles (indazol-3-ylidenes which can be trapped as rhodium complexes (X-ray analysis. In the absence of Rh, the indazol-3-ylidenes spontaneously dimerize under ring cleavage of one of the N,N-bonds and ring closure to an indazole–indole spiro compound which possesses an exocyclic imine group. The E/Z isomers of the imines can be separated by column chromatography when methanol is used as eluent. We present results of a single crystal X-ray analysis of one of the E-isomers, which equilibrate in solution as well as in the solid state. Heating of the indazole–indole spiro compounds results in the formation of quinazolines by a ring-cleavage/ring-closure sequence (X-ray analysis. Results of DFT calculations are presented.

  10. 5-Chloro-5′′-[4-(dimethylaminobenzylidene]-4′-[4-(dimethylaminophenyl]-1′,1′′-dimethyldispiro[indoline-3,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3′′-piperidine]-2,4′′-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Ahmed Farag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C34H38ClN5O2, has spiro links connecting the pyrrolidine ring and indole residue, as well as the piperidine and pyrrolidine rings. A half-chair conformation is found for the piperidine ring with the C atom connected to the spiro-C atom lying 0.738 (4 Å out of the plane of the remaining five atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0407 Å. The methylene C atom is the flap in the envelope conformation for the pyrrolidine ring. In the crystal, supramolecular chains are sustained by alternating eight-membered {...HNCO}2 and 14-membered {...HC5O}2 synthons. Chains are connected into a three-dimensional network by (pyrrolidine-bound phenyl-methylC—H...π(pyrrolidine-bound phenyl edge-to-face interactions.

  11. Spiro(phosphoamidite) ligand (SIPHOS)/Cu(OTf)2-catalyzed highly regio-and stereo-selective hydroborations of internal alkynes with diborane in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Qing Xuan; Ya-Hui Wei; Qiu-Ling Song

    2017-01-01

    The highly regio-and stereoselective hydroborations of unactivated internal alkynes with diboron compound catalyzed by Cu(OTf)2 with spiro(phosphoamidite) as ligand in the presence of Cs2CO3 in water was developed.This protocol was applied efficiently in the aqueous synthesis of multi-substituted vinylboranes.

  12. Characterization of pore-filling of spiro-MeOTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells and its consequence in device performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Té treault, Nicolas; Hardin, Brian E.; Smith, Eva H.; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-•m-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used

  13. Peniciadametizine A, a Dithiodiketopiperazine with a Unique Spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] Skeleton, and a Related Analogue, Peniciadametizine B, from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Penicillium adametzioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peniciadametizine A (1; a new dithiodiketopiperazine derivative possessing a unique spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton, together with a highly oxygenated new analogue, peniciadametizine B (2; as well as two known compounds, brasiliamide A (3; and viridicatumtoxin (4, were isolated and identified from Penicillium adametzioides AS-53, a fungus obtained from an unidentified marine sponge. The unambiguous assignment of the relative and absolute configuration for the spiro center C-2 of compound 1 was solved by the combination of NMR and ECD measurements with Density-Functional Theory (DFT conformational analysis and Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory-Electronic Circular Dichroism (TDDFT-ECD calculations. The spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton of 1 has not been reported yet among natural products and the biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against the pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicae.

  14. Nano-ZnO Catalyzed Multicomponent One-Pot Synthesis of Novel Spiro(indoline-pyranodioxine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple catalytic protocol for the synthesis of novel spiro[indoline-pyranodioxine] derivatives has been developed using ZnO nanoparticle as an efficient, green, and reusable catalyst. The derivatives are obtained in moderate to excellent yield by one-pot three-component reaction of an isatin, malononitrile/ethylcyanoacetate, and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione in absolute ethanol under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. The catalyst was recovered by filtration from the reaction mixture and reused during five consecutive runs without any apparent loss of activity for the same reaction. The mild reaction conditions and recyclability of the catalyst make it environmentally benign synthetic procedure.

  15. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong; Jeon, Nam Joong; Choi, Yong Chan; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Grä tzel, Michael; Seok, Sang Il

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim

  16. (4′-Acetyloxy-1,3,1′-trioxo-1,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,9,9a-decahydrospiro[indene-2,9′-pyrano[4,3-a]pyrrolizin]-3′-ylmethyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H23NO8, the dihedral angle between the five- and six-membered rings of the indene-dione moiety is 3.09 (13°. The mean plane of the five-membered ring (which has a flat envelope conformation with the spiro C atom as the flap is inclined to the mean plane of the central five-membered ring of the pyrrolizine unit by 76.48 (12°. This central ring has a twist conformation on the N—C(spiro bond. The outer ring of the pyrrolizine unit has an envelope conformation with the N atom as the flap. The mean planes of these two fused rings are inclined to one another by 65.28 (15°. The pyran ring has a screw-boat conformation and its mean plane makes a dihedral angle of 29.50 (11° with the mean plane of the central five-membered ring of the pyrrolizine unit. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane.

  17. Infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material into nanotubular TiO{sub 2} electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmych, Oleksandr, E-mail: alexkuzmych@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Johansson, Erik M.J.; Nonomura, Kazuteru [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 259, 751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Nyberg, Tomas [The Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skompska, Magdalena [Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Hagfeldt, Anders [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 259, 751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We report infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD into pores of TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) arrays. • Surface amount of D35 is diffusion limited for TiO{sub 2} mesoporous film but not for TNTs. • Performance of liquid and solid-state solar cells based on TNTs is compared. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grown by anodic oxidation of Ti thin film deposited on conducting transparent fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate were used as a unique geometrically organized template to study the infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material (HTM) inside straight pores. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) array electrode was compared with a mesoporous one in terms of loading with an organic dye of high extinction coefficient. It was shown that it is possible to build a working solid state dye sensitized solar cell device with such a combination of materials and its performance was compared with a device in which the solid state HTM was replaced by a liquid state electrolyte.

  18. Crystal structure of methyl 3′-benzamido-4′-(4-methoxyphenyl-1′-methylspiro[indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline-11,2′-pyrrolidine]-3′-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Chandralekha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C35H30N4O3, the spiro C atom connects the five-membered pyrrolidine ring and the indenoquinoxaline ring system. The pyrrolidine ring adopts a twist conformation. An intramolecular N—H...N interaction between the amino group and the pyrazine ring is observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  19. Michel Spiro is appointed director of the IN2P3 and the Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics of the CNRS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Michel Spiro was appointed director of the IN2P3, by order of the Minister of Youth, National Education and Research and the Minister of Research and New Technologies on February 17, 2003. He was also appointed director of the Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics of the CNRS by decision of the CNRS Director General on February 21, 2003" (1/2 page).

  20. 3+ and [Sb13Se16Br2] 5+ - Double and quadruple spiro cubanes from ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-01-08

    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the bromine-rich Lewis acidic ionic liquid [BMIm]Br·4.7AlBr3 (BMIm: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium) in the presence of a small amount of NbCl5 at 160 °C yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb7Se8Br 2][AlX4]3. For X = Cl0.15(1)Br 0.85(1), the compound is isostructural to [Sb7S 8Br2][AlCl4]3 [P212 121, a = 12.5132(5) Å, b = 17.7394(6) Å, c = 18.3013(6) Å]. For a higher chlorine content, X = Cl 0.58(1)Br0.42(1), a slightly disordered variant with a bisected unit cell is found [P21212, a = 12.3757(3) Å, b = 17.4116(5) Å, c = 9.0420(2) Å]. The [Sb 7Se8Br2]3+ heteropolycation (C 2 symmetry) is a spiro double-cubane with an antimony atom on the shared corner. From this distorted octahedrally coordinated central atom, tricoordinate selenium and antimony atoms alternate in the bonding sequence. The terminal antimony atoms each bind to a bromine atom. Quantum chemical calculations confirm polar covalent Sb-Se bonding within the cubes and indicate three-center, four-electron bonds for the six-coordinate spiro atoms. The calculated charge distribution reflects the electron-donor role of the antimony atoms. The use of a chlorine-rich ionic liquid resulted in the formation of triclinic [Sb13Se16Br2][AlX4] 5 with X = Cl0.80(1)Br0.20(1) [P$\\\\bar {1}$, a = 9.0842(5) Å, b = 19.607(1) Å, c = 21.511(1) Å, α = 64.116(6), β = 79.768(7), γ = 88.499(7)]. The cationic cluster [Sb13Se16Br2]5+ is a bromine-terminated spiro quadruple-cubane. This 31 atom concatenation of four cubes is assumed to be the largest known discrete main group polycation. A similar reaction in a chloride-free system yielded [Sb7Se 8Br2][Sb13Se16Br2] [AlBr4]8. In its monoclinic structure [P2/c, a = 27.214(5) Å, b = 9.383(2) Å, c = 22.917(4) Å, β = 101.68(1)], the two types of polycations alternate in layers along the a axis. In the series [Sb4+3nSe4+4nBr2](2+n)+, these cations are the members with n = 1 and 3. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  1. Copper-catalyzed difunctionalization of activated alkynes by radical oxidation-tandem cyclization/dearomatization to synthesize 3-trifluoromethyl spiro[4.5]trienones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui-Liang; He, Yu-Tao; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Li, Ying-Xiu; Song, Bo; Gao, Pin; Song, Xian-Rong; Guo, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Liang, Yong-Min

    2015-01-19

    A copper-catalyzed difunctionalizing trifluoromethylation of activated alkynes with the cheap reagent sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate (NaSO2CF3 or Langlois' reagent) has been developed incorporating a tandem cyclization/dearomatization process. This strategy affords a straightforward route to synthesis of 3-(trifluoromethyl)-spiro[4.5]trienones, and presents an example of difunctionalization of alkynes for simultaneous formation of two carbon-carbon single bonds and one carbon-oxygen double bond. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis of spiro-4H-pyrazole-oxindoles and fused 1H-pyrazoles via divergent, thermally induced tandem cyclization/migration of alkyne-tethered diazo compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Dong, Shanliang; Zheng, Yang; He, Ciwang; Chen, Jiaolong; Zhen, Jingsen; Qiu, Lihua; Xu, Xinfang

    2018-01-31

    A thermally induced, substrate-dependent reaction of alkynyl diazo compounds has been developed. This transformation produces spiro-4H-pyrazole-oxindoles and fused 1H-pyrazoles in good to high yields from the corresponding alpha-cyano and alpha-sulfonyl diazo compounds. The salient features of this reaction include excellent chemoselectivity and atom-economy, mild reaction conditions, simple purification and potential for large scale production.

  3. New iridium complex as additive to the spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells with enhanced stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new iridium complex, IrCp*Cl(PyPyz[TFSI], has been synthesized and used as additive for the hole transporter material, spiro-OMeTAD, in perovskite solar cells. The cells prepared with this Ir additive present higher efficiency than reference cells, and similar to cells prepared with Co additive. We have determined that the presence of metal complexes as additives decreases the recombination rate, as it has been observed by impedance spectroscopy. Very interestingly, while the efficiency after 3 months decreases by 22% and 70% for reference cell and cell with Co additive, respectively, the efficiency of devices containing the Ir additive is only decreased by a 4%.

  4. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-08

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability.

  5. 2′-Methyl-2′-nitro-1′-phenyl-2′,3′,5′,6′,7′,7a'-hexahydrospiro[indoline-3,3′-1′H-pyrrolizin]-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Sarrafi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H21N3O3, was synthesized by a multi-component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide, derived from isatin and proline by a decarboxylative route, and (E-1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. In the molecule, the spiro junction links a planar oxindole ring and a pyrrolidine ring in an envelope conformation. The molecular packing is stabilized by an intermolecular N—H...N interaction of the oxindole and pyrrolizidine rings.

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'en Obeidat

    Full Text Available Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium.To comprehensively analyse previously reported genetic associations with lung function measures, and to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in these genomic regions are associated with lung function in a large population sample.We analysed association for SNPs tagging 130 genes and 48 intergenic regions (+/-10 kb, after conducting a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed database for genetic association studies reporting lung function associations.The analysis included 16,936 genotyped and imputed SNPs. No loci showed overall significant association for FEV(1 or FEV(1/FVC traits using a carefully defined significance threshold of 1.3×10(-5. The most significant loci associated with FEV(1 include SNPs tagging MACROD2 (P = 6.81×10(-5, CNTN5 (P = 4.37×10(-4, and TRPV4 (P = 1.58×10(-3. Among ever-smokers, SERPINA1 showed the most significant association with FEV(1 (P = 8.41×10(-5, followed by PDE4D (P = 1.22×10(-4. The strongest association with FEV(1/FVC ratio was observed with ABCC1 (P = 4.38×10(-4, and ESR1 (P = 5.42×10(-4 among ever-smokers.Polymorphisms spanning previously associated lung function genes did not show strong evidence for association with lung function measures in the SpiroMeta consortium population. Common SERPINA1 polymorphisms may affect FEV(1 among smokers in the general population.

  7. O3 fast and simple treatment-enhanced p-doped in Spiro-MeOTAD for CH3NH3I vapor-assisted processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Dong Jia; Xi Lou; Chun-Lan Zhou; Wei-Chang Hao; Wen-Jing Wang

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and fast post-deposition treatment with high process compatibility on the hole transport material (HTM) Spiro-MeOTAD in vapor-assisted solution processed methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3)-based solar cells.The prepared Co-doped p-type Spiro-MeOTAD films are treated by O3 at room temperature for 5 min,10 min,and 20 min,respectively,prior to the deposition of the metal electrodes.Compared with the traditional oxidation of Spiro-MeOTAD films overnight in dry air,our fast O3 treatment of HTM at room temperature only needs just 10 min,and a relative 40.3% increment in the power conversion efficiency is observed with respect to the result of without-treated perovskite solar cells.This improvement of efficiency is mainly attributed to the obvious increase of the fill factor and short-circuit current density,despite a slight decrease in the open-circuit voltage.Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Hall effect measurement method are employed in our study to determine the changes of properties after O3 treatment in HTM.It is found that after the HTM is exposed to O3,its p-type doping level is enhanced.The enhancement of conductivity and Hall mobility of the film,resulting from the improvement in p-doping level of HTM,leads to better performances of perovskite solar cells.Best power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 13.05% and 16.39% are achieved with most properly optimized HTM via CH3NH3I vapor-assisted method and traditional single-step method respectively.

  8. Relationship between Antimalarial Activity and Heme Alkylation for Spiro- and Dispiro-1,2,4-Trioxolane Antimalarials▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Darren J.; Charman, William N.; Chiu, Francis C. K.; Prankerd, Richard J.; Dong, Yuxiang; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Charman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of spiro- and dispiro-1,2,4-trioxolane antimalarials with heme has been investigated to provide further insight into the mechanism of action for this important class of antimalarials. A series of trioxolanes with various antimalarial potencies was found to be unreactive in the presence of Fe(III) hemin, but all were rapidly degraded by reduced Fe(II) heme. The major reaction product from the heme-mediated degradation of biologically active trioxolanes was an alkylated heme adduct resulting from addition of a radical intermediate. Under standardized reaction conditions, a correlation (R2 = 0.88) was found between the extent of heme alkylation and in vitro antimalarial activity, suggesting that heme alkylation may be related to the mechanism of action for these trioxolanes. Significantly less heme alkylation was observed for the clinically utilized artemisinin derivatives compared to the equipotent trioxolanes included in this study. PMID:18268087

  9. (4S)-4-(3,4-Dichloro?phen?yl)-1?-methyl-4?-phenyl-3,4-dihydronaphthalene-2-spiro-3?-pyrrolidine-2?-spiro-1??-acenaphthyl?ene-1,2??(2H,1??H)-dione

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, R.; Gunasekaran, B.; Narayanan, S. Sriman; Manivannan, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C37H27Cl2NO2, the 3,4-dichloro?phenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 46.66?(6)? with the phenyl ring. The mol?ecular structure is stabilized by weak intra?molecular C?H?O inter?actions and the crystal structure is stabilized by weak inter?molecular C?H?O inter?actions. The C?C?C?C?C five-membered ring is planar, while the C?C?C?C?N five-membered ring adopts a half-chair conformation.

  10. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  11. Report of the eRHIC Ring-Ring Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Willeke, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report evaluates the ring-ring option for eRHIC as a lower risk alternative to the linac-ring option. The reduced risk goes along with a reduced initial luminosity performance. However, a luminosity upgrade path is kept open. This upgrade path consists of two branches, with the ultimate upgrade being either a ring-ring or a linac-ring scheme. The linac-ring upgrade could be almost identical to the proposed linac-ring scheme, which is based on an ERL in the RHIC tunnel. This linac-ring version has been studied in great detail over the past ten years, and its significant risks are known. On the other hand, no detailed work on an ultimate performance ring-ring scenario has been performed yet, other than the development of a consistent parameter set. Pursuing the ring-ring upgrade path introduces high risks and requires significant design work that is beyond the scope of this report.

  12. Cobalt Ion Promoted Redox Cascade: A Route to Spiro Oxazine-Oxazepine Derivatives and a Dinuclear Cobalt(III) Complex of an N-(1,4-Naphthoquinone)-o-aminophenol Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sandip; Bera, Sachinath; Maity, Suvendu; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2017-11-06

    The study discloses that the redox activity of N-(1,4-naphthoquinone)-o-aminophenol derivatives (L R H 2 ) containing a (phenol)-NH-(1,4-naphthoquinone) fragment is notably different from that of a (phenol)-NH-(phenol) precursor. The former is a platform for a redox cascade. L R H 2 is redox noninnocent and exists in Cat-N-(1,4-naphthoquinone)(2-) (L R 2- ) and SQ-N-(1,4-naphthoquinone) (L R •- ) states in the complexes. Reactions of L R H 2 with cobalt(II) salts in MeOH in air promote a cascade affording spiro oxazine-oxazepine derivatives ( OX L R ) in good yields, when R = H, Me, t Bu. Spiro oxazine-oxazepine derivatives are bioactive, and such a molecule has so far not been isolated by a schematic route. In this context this cascade is significant. Dimerization of L R H 2 → OX L R in MeOH is a (6H + + 6e) oxidation reaction and is composed of formations of four covalent bonds and 6-exo-trig and 7-endo-trig cyclization based on C-O coupling reactions, where MeOH is the source of a proton and the ester function. It was established that the active cascade precursor is [(L Me •- )Co III Cl 2 ] (A). Notably, formation of a spiro derivative was not detected in CH 3 CN and the reaction ends up furnishing A. The route of the reaction is tunable by R, when R = NO 2 , it is a (2e + 4H + ) oxidation reaction affording a dinuclear L R 2- complex of cobalt(III) of the type [(L NO2 2- ) 2 Co III 2 (OMe) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (1) in good yields. No cascade occurs with zinc(II) ion even in MeOH and produces a L Me •- complex of type [(L Me •- )Zn II Cl 2 ] (2). The intermediate A and 2 exhibit strong EPR signals at g = 2.008 and 1.999, confrming the existence of L Me •- coordinated to low-spin cobalt(III) and zinc(II) ions. The intermediates of L R H 2 → OX L R conversion were analyzed by ESI mass spectrometry. The molecular geometries of OX L R and 1 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and the spectral features were elucidated by TD DFT calculations.

  13. ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Smirnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2  and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4

  14. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  15. Synthesis of 5α-Androstane-17-spiro-δ-lactones with a 3-Keto, 3-Hydroxy, 3-Spirocarbamate or 3-Spiromorpholinone as Inhibitors of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Poirier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized two series of androstane derivatives as inhibitors of type 3 and type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs. In the first series, four monospiro derivatives at position C17 were prepared from androsterone (ADT or epi-ADT. After the protection of the alcohol at C3, the C17-ketone was alkylated with the lithium acetylide of tetrahydro-2-(but-3-ynyl-2-H-pyran, the triple bond was hydrogenated, the protecting groups hydrolysed and the alcohols oxidized to give the corresponding 3-keto-17-spiro-lactone derivative. The other three compounds were generated from this keto-lactone by reducing the ketone at C3, or by introducing one or two methyl groups. In the second series, two dispiro derivatives at C3 and C17 were prepared from epi-ADT. After introducing a spiro-δ-lactone at C17 and an oxirane at C3, an aminolysis of the oxirane with L-isoleucine methyl ester provided an amino alcohol, which was treated with triphosgene or sodium methylate to afford a carbamate- or a morpholinone-androstane derivative, respectively. These steroid derivatives inhibited 17β-HSD3 (14–88% at 1 μM; 46–94% at 10 μM and 17β-HSD5 (54–73% at 0.3 μM; 91–92% at 3 μM. They did not produce any androgenic activity and did not bind steroid (androgen, estrogen, glucocorticoid and progestin receptors, suggesting a good profile for prostate cancer therapy.

  16. Charge Transport in Spiro-OMeTAD Investigated through Space-Charge-Limited Current Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhr, Jason A.; Shi, Xingyuan; Haque, Saif A.; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nelson, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Extracting charge-carrier mobilities for organic semiconductors from space-charge-limited conduction measurements is complicated in practice by nonideal factors such as trapping in defects and injection barriers. Here, we show that by allowing the bandlike charge-carrier mobility, trap characteristics, injection barrier heights, and the shunt resistance to vary in a multiple-trapping drift-diffusion model, a numerical fit can be obtained to the entire current density-voltage curve from experimental space-charge-limited current measurements on both symmetric and asymmetric 2 ,2',7 ,7' -tetrakis(N ,N -di-4-methoxyphenylamine)-9 ,9' -spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) single-carrier devices. This approach yields a bandlike mobility that is more than an order of magnitude higher than the effective mobility obtained using analytical approximations, such as the Mott-Gurney law and the moving-electrode equation. It is also shown that where these analytical approximations require a temperature-dependent effective mobility to achieve fits, the numerical model can yield a temperature-, electric-field-, and charge-carrier-density-independent mobility. Finally, we present an analytical model describing trap-limited current flow through a semiconductor in a symmetric single-carrier device. We compare the obtained charge-carrier mobility and trap characteristics from this analytical model to the results from the numerical model, showing excellent agreement. This work shows the importance of accounting for traps and injection barriers explicitly when analyzing current density-voltage curves from space-charge-limited current measurements.

  17. (1′S-4-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl-1′-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-spiro-2′-pyrrolizidine-3′-spiro-3′′-indoline-1,2′′-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriman Narayanan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound C37H32Cl2N2O4, the unsubstituted pyrrolidine ring shows a twist conformation whereas the substituted pyrrolidine ring shows an envelope conformation. The dimethoxy benzene ring is perpendicular to the tetralone ring, making a dihedral angle of 89.94 (5°. Molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers by N—H...O hydrogen bonds and the crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...π interactions and C—H...O hydrogen bonds. One methoxy group is disordered over two positions with the site occupancy factors of 0.84 (2 and 0.16 (2.

  18. (25R-6α-Hydroxy-5α-spirostan-3β-yl tosylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Fernández-Herrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title steroid, C34H50O6S, is an intermediate on the synthetic route between diosgenin and brassinosteroids, which possess the A ring modified with the 2α,3α-diol functionality. The polycyclic spirostan system has the expected conformation, with six-membered rings adopting chair forms and the five-membered rings envelope forms (flap atoms are the methine C atom in the C/D-ring junction and the spiro C atom connecting rings E and F. The 3β-tosylate group is oriented in such a way that S=O bonds are engaged in intermolecular hydrogen bonds with O—H and C—H donors. Chains of molecules are formed along [100] via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, and secondary weak C—H...O interactions connect two neighbouring chains in the [001] direction.

  19. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  20. Variations in Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.; Déau, E.; Altobelli, N.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded over two million of spectra of Saturn's rings in the far infrared since arriving at Saturn in 2004. CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 ( 16.7 and 1000 μ {m} ) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn’s rings peaks in this wavelength range. Ring temperatures can be inferred from FP1 data. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and rapidly changing temperatures are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias. Ferrari et al. (2005) fit thermal inertia values of 5218 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their B ring data and 6412 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their C ring data. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The rings’ thermal budget is dominated by its absorption of solar radiation. As a result, ring particles abruptly cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  1. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  2. Primitivity and weak distributivity in near rings and matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper shows the structure of matrix near ring constructed over a weakly distributive and primative near ring. It is proved that a weakly distributive primitive near ring is a ring and the matrix near rings constructed over it is also a bag. (author). 14 refs

  3. Interaction of ring dark solitons with ring impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jukui

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of ring dark solitons/vortexes with the ring-shaped repulsive and attractive impurities in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated numerically. Very rich interaction phenomena are obtained, i.e., not only the interaction between the ring soliton and the impurity, but also the interaction between vortexes and the impurity. The interaction characters, i.e., snaking of ring soliton, quasitrapping or reflection of ring soliton and vortexes by the impurity, strongly depend on initial ring soliton velocity, impurity strength, initial position of ring soliton and impurity. The numerical results also reveal that ring dark solitons/vortexes can be trapped and dragged by an adiabatically moving attractive ring impurity

  4. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  5. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  6. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  8. Semi-algebraic function rings and reflectors of partially ordered rings

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The book lays algebraic foundations for real geometry through a systematic investigation of partially ordered rings of semi-algebraic functions. Real spectra serve as primary geometric objects, the maps between them are determined by rings of functions associated with the spectra. The many different possible choices for these rings of functions are studied via reflections of partially ordered rings. Readers should feel comfortable using basic algebraic and categorical concepts. As motivational background some familiarity with real geometry will be helpful. The book aims at researchers and graduate students with an interest in real algebra and geometry, ordered algebraic structures, topology and rings of continuous functions.

  9. Rotating ring-ring electrode theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kellyb, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  10. Topological ring currents in the "empty" ring of benzo-annelated perylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Timothy K; Mallion, Roger B

    2011-01-27

    Cyclic conjugation in benzo-annelated perylenes is examined by means of the topological π-electron ring currents calculated for each of their constituent rings, in a study that is an exact analogy of a recent investigation by Gutman et al. based on energy-effect values for the corresponding rings in each of these structures. "Classical" approaches, such as Kekulé structures, Clar "sextet" formulas, and circuits of conjugation, predict that the central ring in perylene is "empty" and thus contributes negligibly to cyclic conjugation. However, conclusions from the present calculations of topological ring currents agree remarkably with those arising from the earlier study involving energy-effect values in that, contrary to what would be predicted from the classical approaches, rings annelated in an angular fashion relative to the central ring of these perylene structures materially increase the extent of that ring's involvement in cyclic conjugation. It is suggested that such close quantitative agreement between the predictions of these two superficially very different indices (energy effect and topological ring current) might be due to the fact that, ultimately, both depend, albeit in ostensibly quite different ways, only on an adjacency matrix that contains information about the carbon-carbon connectivity of the conjugated system in question.

  11. Kayser-Fleischer Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Contacts Lab Tracker/Copper Calculator Stories Programs & Research ... About Everything you need to know about Wilson Disease Kayser-Fleischer Rings Definition Kayser-Fleischer Ring: Clinical sign. Brownish-yellow ring visible around the corneo- ...

  12. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  13. Preparation for electron ring - plasma ring merging experiments in RECE-MERGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, D.; Sekiguchi, A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of a mixed-CT using relativistic electron rings and gun-produced plasma rings by MERGE-ing them axially is simulated. This process is similar to the axial stacking of relativistic electron rings in RECE-Christa. The results of their first plasm production experiment are reported here. After study of the gun-produced plasma's properties is completed, the gun will be mounted at the downstream end of the vacuum tank and the source of relativistic electron rings will be at the upstream end. The two rings, formed at opposite ends of the tank, will be translated axially and merged

  14. Ring faults and ring dikes around the Orientale basin on the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Head, James W; Johnson, Brandon; Keane, James T; Kiefer, Walter S; McGovern, Patrick J; Neumann, Gregory A; Wieczorek, Mark A; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-08-01

    The Orientale basin is the youngest and best-preserved multiring impact basin on the Moon, having experienced only modest modification by subsequent impacts and volcanism. Orientale is often treated as the type example of a multiring basin, with three prominent rings outside of the inner depression: the Inner Rook Montes, the Outer Rook Montes, and the Cordillera. Here we use gravity data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to reveal the subsurface structure of Orientale and its ring system. Gradients of the gravity data reveal a continuous ring dike intruded into the Outer Rook along the plane of the fault associated with the ring scarp. The volume of this ring dike is ~18 times greater than the volume of all extrusive mare deposits associated with the basin. The gravity gradient signature of the Cordillera ring indicates an offset along the fault across a shallow density interface, interpreted to be the base of the low-density ejecta blanket. Both gravity gradients and crustal thickness models indicate that the edge of the central cavity is shifted inward relative to the equivalent Inner Rook ring at the surface. Models of the deep basin structure show inflections along the crust-mantle interface at both the Outer Rook and Cordillera rings, indicating that the basin ring faults extend from the surface to at least the base of the crust. Fault dips range from 13-22° for the Cordillera fault in the northeastern quadrant, to 90° for the Outer Rook in the northwestern quadrant. The fault dips for both outer rings are lowest in the northeast, possibly due to the effects of either the direction of projectile motion or regional gradients in pre-impact crustal thickness. Similar ring dikes and ring faults are observed around the majority of lunar basins.

  15. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of europium (III) complexes with new second ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ze; Wen Fushan; Li Wenlian

    2005-01-01

    Two novel second ligands, 9,9-Di-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9-H-4,5-' (OMe-Spiro-DF) and 9,9-Di-(2-(4-(4-butyloxy)phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl)-phenyl-9-H-4, 5-Diazafluorene (OXD-Spiro-DF), were successfully prepared. Europium complexes, Eu(DBM) 3 (OMe-Spiro-DF) and Eu(DBM) 3 (OXD-Spiro-DF) (DBM=dibenzolylmethane) based on the two ligands were designed and synthesized. For a double-layer device with configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/N, N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD)/Eu(DBM) 3 (OXD-Spiro-DF) or Eu(DBM) 3 (OMe-Spiro-DF)/Mg/Ag, compared with the device based on complex Eu(DBM) 3 (OMe-Spiro-DF), the brightness and electroluminescent (EL) efficiency of device based on complex Eu(DBM) 3 (OXD-Spiro-DF) with oxadiazole-functionalized ligand OXD-Spiro-DF are significantly improved due to the improvement of electron-transporting ability. A maximum brightness of 154 cd/m 2 was obtained at 17 V in the complex Eu(DBM) 3 (OXD-Spiro-DF), about four times brighter than the corresponding complex Eu(DBM) 3 (OMe-Spiro-DF)

  16. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  17. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  18. The Rotating Ring-Ring Electrode. Theory and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kelly, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  19. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  20. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  1. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  2. FUZZY RINGS AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyati Karyati

    2017-01-01

      One of algebraic structure that involves a binary operation is a group that is defined  an un empty set (classical with an associative binary operation, it has identity elements and each element has an inverse. In the structure of the group known as the term subgroup, normal subgroup, subgroup and factor group homomorphism and its properties. Classical algebraic structure is developed to algebraic structure fuzzy by the researchers as an example semi group fuzzy and fuzzy group after fuzzy sets is introduced by L. A. Zadeh at 1965. It is inspired of writing about semi group fuzzy and group of fuzzy, a research on the algebraic structure of the ring is held with reviewing ring fuzzy, ideal ring fuzzy, homomorphism ring fuzzy and quotient ring fuzzy with its properties. The results of this study are obtained fuzzy properties of the ring, ring ideal properties fuzzy, properties of fuzzy ring homomorphism and properties of fuzzy quotient ring by utilizing a subset of a subset level  and strong level  as well as image and pre-image homomorphism fuzzy ring.   Keywords: fuzzy ring, subset level, homomorphism fuzzy ring, fuzzy quotient ring

  3. Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)

  4. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  5. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  6. Physics of quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.

  7. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display.

  8. α-Skew π-McCoy Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Abduldaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of α-skew McCoy rings, we introduce the concept of α-skew π-McCoy rings, and we study the relationships with another two new generalizations, α-skew π1-McCoy rings and α-skew π2-McCoy rings, observing the relations with α-skew McCoy rings, π-McCoy rings, α-skew Armendariz rings, π-regular rings, and other kinds of rings. Also, we investigate conditions such that α-skew π1-McCoy rings imply α-skew π-McCoy rings and α-skew π2-McCoy rings. We show that in the case where R is a nonreduced ring, if R is 2-primal, then R is an α-skew π-McCoy ring. And, let R be a weak (α,δ-compatible ring; if R is an α-skew π1-McCoy ring, then R is α-skew π2-McCoy.

  9. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 71; Issue 4 .... Total neutron scattering: The key to the local and medium range structure of complex materials ... High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments ... work on assigning the spectra of three 5-6 heterobicyclic systems; indole, benzimidazole and isatin.

  10. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  11. Interaction Region Design for a Ring-Ring LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, L N S; Bernard, N R; Fitterer, M; Holzer, B; Klein, M; Kostka, P

    2011-01-01

    tively low energy and moderately high intensity provides high luminosity TeV-scale e-p collisions at one of the LHC interaction points, running simultaneously with existing experiments. Two designs are studied; an electron ring situated in the LHC tunnel, and an electron linac. The focus of this paper is on the ring design. Designing an e-p machine presents interesting accelerator physics and design challenges, particularly when considering the interaction region. These include coupled optics, beam separation and unconventional mini-beta focusing schemes. Designs are constrained by an array of interdependent factors, including beam-beam interaction, detector dimensions and acceptance, luminosity and synchrotron radiation. Methods of addressing these complex issues are discussed. The current designs for the LHeC Ring-Ring interaction region and long straight section are presented and discussed, in the context of the project goals and design challenges encountered. Future developments and work are also discusse...

  12. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  13. 4-(9-Anthryl-1-(2-methoxyphenylspiro[azetidin-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The stabilized conformation of the title compound, C36H25NO3, 4-(9-anthryl-1-(2-methoxyphenyl-spiro[azetidin-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one, may be compared with that of the isomeric compound 4-(9-anthryl-1-(4-methoxyphenylspiro[azetidin-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one. In the title isomer, the methoxy group is slightly twisted out of the plane of the attached benzene ring, with a C—O—C—C torsion angle of 31.5 (2°. Its β-lactam ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of −0.021 (1 Å. The β-lactam ring makes dihedral angles of 18.815 (9, 83.33 (7 and 53.62 (8° with the mean planes of the benzene, xanthene and anthracene ring systems, respectively. The structure is stabilized by C—H...π, C—H...N and C—H...O interactions.

  14. Influence of ring growth rate on damage development in hot ring rolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J.M.; Omerspahic, E.; Recina, V.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    As an incremental forming process of bulk metal, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. In the production of hot rolled rings, defects such as porosity can sometimes be found in high alloyed steel, manufactured from ingots having macro-segregation. For

  15. Ring rotational speed trend analysis by FEM approach in a Ring Rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, G.; Giorleo, L.; Ceretti, E.

    2018-05-01

    Ring Rolling is an advanced local incremental forming technology to fabricate directly precise seamless ring-shape parts with various dimensions and materials. In this process two different deformations occur in order to reduce the width and the height of a preform hollow ring; as results a diameter expansion is obtained. In order to guarantee a uniform deformation, the preform is forced toward the Driver Roll whose aim is to transmit the rotation to the ring. The ring rotational speed selection is fundamental because the higher is the speed the higher will be the axial symmetry of the deformation process. However, it is important to underline that the rotational speed will affect not only the final ring geometry but also the loads and energy needed to produce it. Despite this importance in industrial environment, usually, a constant value for the Driver Roll angular velocity is set so to result in a decreasing trend law for the ring rotational speed. The main risk due to this approach is not fulfilling the axial symmetric constrain (due to the diameter expansion) and to generate a high localized ring section deformation. In order to improve the knowledge about this topic in the present paper three different ring rotational speed trends (constant, linearly increasing and linearly decreasing) were investigated by FEM approach. Results were compared in terms of geometrical and dimensional analysis, loads and energies required.

  16. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2018-03-01

    As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young's modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  17. Ring correlations in random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Thorpe, M F

    2016-12-01

    We examine the correlations between rings in random network glasses in two dimensions as a function of their separation. Initially, we use the topological separation (measured by the number of intervening rings), but this leads to pseudo-long-range correlations due to a lack of topological charge neutrality in the shells surrounding a central ring. This effect is associated with the noncircular nature of the shells. It is, therefore, necessary to use the geometrical distance between ring centers. Hence we find a generalization of the Aboav-Weaire law out to larger distances, with the correlations between rings decaying away when two rings are more than about three rings apart.

  18. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  19. Pure- and mixed-gas propylene/propane permeation properties of spiro- and triptycene-based microporous polyimides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.; Ghanem, Bader; Swaidan, Raja; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processable polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs) comprising relatively inflexible and contorted backbones have demonstrated outstanding molecular-sieving behavior in membrane-based separation of gas/gas pairs. In this work, the effects of systematically increasing intra-chain rigidity on the propylene/propane separation properties were compared for PIM-PIs made from 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (TMPD) and (i) spiro-centered dianhyride (SPDA-TMPD or PIM-PI-1) and (ii) 9,10-diisopropyltriptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA-TMPD or KAUST PI-1). Pure-gas experiments at 2 bar and 35 oC showed significant increases in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity by transitioning from PIM-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=393 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=6) to KAUST-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=817 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=16), positioning KAUST-PI-1 considerably above the experimentally observed pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 polymer upper bound. However, 50:50 C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas feeds induced significant losses in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity relative to the 2 bar pure-gas data for PIM-PI-1 and KAUST-PI-1 as the C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 6 to 3 and 16 to 5, respectively, at 2 bar C3H6 partial pressure due to plasticization and competitive sorption.

  20. Pure- and mixed-gas propylene/propane permeation properties of spiro- and triptycene-based microporous polyimides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy Jawdat

    2015-06-03

    Solution-processable polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs) comprising relatively inflexible and contorted backbones have demonstrated outstanding molecular-sieving behavior in membrane-based separation of gas/gas pairs. In this work, the effects of systematically increasing intra-chain rigidity on the propylene/propane separation properties were compared for PIM-PIs made from 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (TMPD) and (i) spiro-centered dianhyride (SPDA-TMPD or PIM-PI-1) and (ii) 9,10-diisopropyltriptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA-TMPD or KAUST PI-1). Pure-gas experiments at 2 bar and 35 oC showed significant increases in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity by transitioning from PIM-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=393 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=6) to KAUST-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=817 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=16), positioning KAUST-PI-1 considerably above the experimentally observed pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 polymer upper bound. However, 50:50 C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas feeds induced significant losses in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity relative to the 2 bar pure-gas data for PIM-PI-1 and KAUST-PI-1 as the C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 6 to 3 and 16 to 5, respectively, at 2 bar C3H6 partial pressure due to plasticization and competitive sorption.

  1. Plasma-ring, fast-opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a fast-opening switch concept based on magnetically confined plasma rings, PROS (for Plasma Ring Opening Switch). In PROS, the plasma ring, confined by Bθ /sub and B/poloidal /sub fields of a compact torus, provide a low mass, localized conduction path between coaxial electrodes. To operate the switch, driver current is passed across the electrodes through the ring, storing inductive energy in external inductance and between the electrodes on the driver side of the ring. The ring is accelerated away from the driver by the field of the driver current and passes over a load gap transferring the current to the load. The authors distinguish two configurations in PROS, straight PROS where the electrodes are coaxial cylinders, and cone PROS with conical electrodes. In straight PROS ring acceleration takes place during the inductive store period as in foil switches, but with the localized ring providing the current path. Increased performance is predicted for the cone PROS (see figure) which employs compression of the ring in the cone during the inductive store period. Here, the B/θ /sub field of the driver forces the ring towards the apex of the cone but the force is in near balance with the opposing component of the radial equilibrium force of the ring along the cone. As a result, the ring undergoes a slow, quasistatic compression limited only by resistive decay of the ring field. Slow compression allows inductive storage with low-power drivers (homopoloar, magneto cumulative generators, high C-low V capacitor banks, etc.). Near the apex of the cone, near peak compression, the ring is allowed to enter a straight coaxial section where, because of low-mass, it rapidly accelerates to high velocity and crosses the load gap

  2. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  3. The LSU Electron Storage Ring, the first commercially-built storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., is building the first industrially-produced storage ring. It will be located at Louisiana State University (LSU) at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) in Baton Rouge. The purpose of this electron storage ring is to provide intense beams of x-rays to advance the state-of-the-art in lithography and to permit research in a broad area. This facility consists of a 1.2 GeV, 400 mA electron storage ring with a 200 MeV linac injector. The magnet lattice is a Chasman-Green design (double-bend achromat), and the ring circumference is 55.2 meters. There are four 3.0 meter, dispersion-free straight sections, one for injection, one for the 500 MHz RF cavity, and two for possible future insertion devices. The storge ring construction project is in the detailed-design stage, and many systems are in the initial stages of fabrication. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  5. Crystal structure of methyl 2-(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl-7,9-dibromo-8-oxo-1-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-2,6,9-triene-3-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Julio Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H12Br2O6, was synthesized from Morita–Baylis–Hillman adducts. It incorporates the brominated spiro-hexadienone moiety typically exhibited by compounds of this class that exhibit biological activity. Both the brominated cyclohexadienone and the central five-membered rings are nearly planar (r.m.s. deviations of 0.044 and 0.016 Å, respectively, being almost perpendicularly oriented [interplanar angle = 89.47 (5°]. With respect to the central five-membered ring, the brominated cyclohexadienone ring, the benzodioxol ring and the carboxylate fragment make C—O—C—C, O—C—C—C and C—C—C—O dihedral angles of −122.11 (8, −27.20 (11 and −8.40 (12°, respectively. An intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, molecules are linked by non-classical C—H...O and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds resulting in a molecular packing in which the brominated rings are in a head-to-head orientation, forming well marked planes parallel to the b axis.

  6. Advances in Spiropyrans/Spirooxazines and Applications Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET with Fluorescent Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the following were reviewed: (1 the structure of spiropyrans and spirooxazines (two kinds of spiro compounds under external stimuli and (2 the construction and applications of composite systems based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET with fluorescent materials. When treated with different stimuli (light, acids and bases, solvents, metal ions, temperature, redox potential, and so on, spiropyrans/spirooxazines undergo transformations between the ring-closed form (SP, the ring-opened merocyanine (MC form, and the protonated ring-opened form (MCH. This is due to the breakage of the spiro C–O bond and the protonation of MC, along with a color change. Various novel, multifunctional materials based on photochromic spiropyrans and spirooxazines have been successfully developed because of the vastly differently physiochemical properties posssed by the SP, MC and MCH forms. Among the three different structural forms, the MC form has been studied most extensively. The MC form not only gives complexes with various inorganic particles, biological molecules, and organic chemicals but also acts as the energy acceptor (of energy from fluorescent molecules during energy transfer processes that take place under proper conditions. Furthermore, spiropyran and spirooxazine compounds exhibit reversible physicochemical property changes under proper stimuli; this provides more advantages compared with other photochromic compounds. Additionally, the molecular structures of spiropyrans and spirooxazines can be easily modified and extended, so better compounds can be obtained to expand the scope of already known applications. Described in detail are: (1 the structural properties of spiropyrans and spirooxazines and related photochromic mechanisms; (2 composite systems based on spiropyrans and spirooxazines, and (3 fluorescent materials which have potential applications in sensing, probing, and a variety of optical elements.

  7. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  8. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  9. Some Aspects of Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Herstein, IN

    2011-01-01

    S. Amitsur: Associative rings with identities.- I.N. Herstein: Topics in ring theory.- N. Jacobson: Representation theory of Jordan algebras.- I. Kaplansky: The theory of homological dimension.- D. Buchsbaum: Complexes in local ring theory.- P.H. Cohn: Two topics in ring theory.- A.W. Goldie: Non-commutative localisation.

  10. Improving the Accuracy of Laplacian Estimation with Novel Variable Inter-Ring Distances Concentric Ring Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Makeyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2 and quadripolar (n = 3 electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected.

  11. Improving the Accuracy of Laplacian Estimation with Novel Variable Inter-Ring Distances Concentric Ring Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1)-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1)-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1)-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2) and quadripolar (n = 3) electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected. PMID:27294933

  12. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  13. Study of improvement in 1st ring`s gas-seal; Top ring no gas seal seino kojo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, H; Tateishi, Y; Fujimura, K; Hitosugi, H [Nippon Piston Ring Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of an angle of 1st ring twist on the amount of blow-by concerning higher speed/higher output engines for motorcycles. As a result, the authors found the twist made the ring restrained in a ring groove of piston , and confirmed its suitable range for blow-by. By means of the developed optimization method, the authors have achieved significant reduction in blow-by at high engine speed. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. ring og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  17. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  18. From coffee ring to spherulites ring of poly(ethylene oxide) film from drying droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinchun; Zhang, Xuerong; Qiu, Maibo; Wei, Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Huang, Di

    2018-03-01

    We discuss how the "spherulites ring" morphology and "coffee ring" profile of PEO film formed by the drying droplet at glass substrate with different heating rate. Upon increasing the heating rate of substrate, it is found that deposited PEO film from drying droplet shows the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology. The main mechanism for this phenomenon is proposed to be an enhanced Marangoni convection which is induced by the increased solute concentration gradient and reduced viscous force above 70 °C. A simple formation mechanism of the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology is proposed. These findings can be exploited to trace the center of Marangoni convection, with potential applications in designing the spherulite patterns of crystalline polymer films in ink-jet printing and self-assembly fields.

  19. Systematic Search for Rings around Kepler Planet Candidates: Constraints on Ring Size and Occurrence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Masataka; Masuda, Kento; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    We perform a systematic search for rings around 168 Kepler planet candidates with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios that are selected from all of the short-cadence data. We fit ringed and ringless models to their light curves and compare the fitting results to search for the signatures of planetary rings. First, we identify 29 tentative systems, for which the ringed models exhibit statistically significant improvement over the ringless models. The light curves of those systems are individually examined, but we are not able to identify any candidate that indicates evidence for rings. In turn, we find several mechanisms of false positives that would produce ringlike signals, and the null detection enables us to place upper limits on the size of the rings. Furthermore, assuming the tidal alignment between axes of the planetary rings and orbits, we conclude that the occurrence rate of rings larger than twice the planetary radius is less than 15%. Even though the majority of our targets are short-period planets, our null detection provides statistical and quantitative constraints on largely uncertain theoretical models of the origin, formation, and evolution of planetary rings.

  20. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  1. Multiplicative Structure and Hecke Rings of Generator Matrices for Codes over Quotient Rings of Euclidean Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals. In the first half of the study, we deal with arbitrary Euclidean domains. We show that the product of generator matrices of codes over the rings mod a and mod b produces generator matrices of all codes over the ring mod a b , i.e., this correspondence is onto. Moreover, we show that if a and b are coprime, then this correspondence is one-to-one, i.e., there exist unique codes over the rings mod a and mod b that produce any given code over the ring mod a b through the product of their generator matrices. In the second half of the study, we focus on the typical Euclidean domains such as the rational integer ring, one-variable polynomial rings, rings of Gaussian and Eisenstein integers, p-adic integer rings and rings of one-variable formal power series. We define the reduced generator matrices of codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals and show their uniqueness. Finally, we apply our theory of reduced generator matrices to the Hecke rings of matrices over these Euclidean domains.

  2. Binomial Rings: Axiomatisation, Transfer and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xantcha, Qimh Richey

    2011-01-01

    Hall's binomial rings, rings with binomial coefficients, are given an axiomatisation and proved identical to the numerical rings studied by Ekedahl. The Binomial Transfer Principle is established, enabling combinatorial proofs of algebraical identities. The finitely generated binomial rings are completely classified. An application to modules over binomial rings is given.

  3. AN N-BODY INTEGRATOR FOR GRAVITATING PLANETARY RINGS, AND THE OUTER EDGE OF SATURN'S B RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Joseph M.; Spitale, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    A new symplectic N-body integrator is introduced, one designed to calculate the global 360° evolution of a self-gravitating planetary ring that is in orbit about an oblate planet. This freely available code is called epi i nt, and it is distinct from other such codes in its use of streamlines to calculate the effects of ring self-gravity. The great advantage of this approach is that the perturbing forces arise from smooth wires of ring matter rather than discreet particles, so there is very little gravitational scattering and so only a modest number of particles are needed to simulate, say, the scalloped edge of a resonantly confined ring or the propagation of spiral density waves. The code is applied to the outer edge of Saturn's B ring, and a comparison of Cassini measurements of the ring's forced response to simulations of Mimas's resonant perturbations reveals that the B ring's surface density at its outer edge is σ 0 = 195 ± 60 g cm –2 , which, if the same everywhere across the ring, would mean that the B ring's mass is about 90% of Mimas's mass. Cassini observations show that the B ring-edge has several free normal modes, which are long-lived disturbances of the ring-edge that are not driven by any known satellite resonances. Although the mechanism that excites or sustains these normal modes is unknown, we can plant such a disturbance at a simulated ring's edge and find that these modes persist without any damping for more than ∼10 5 orbits or ∼100 yr despite the simulated ring's viscosity ν s = 100 cm 2 s –1 . These simulations also indicate that impulsive disturbances at a ring can excite long-lived normal modes, which suggests that an impact in the recent past by perhaps a cloud of cometary debris might have excited these disturbances, which are quite common to many of Saturn's sharp-edged rings

  4. Galactic rings revisited - I. CVRHS classifications of 3962 ringed galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Rings are important and characteristic features of disc-shaped galaxies. This paper is the first in a series that re-visits galactic rings with the goals of further understanding the nature of the features and for examining their role in the secular evolution of galaxy structure. The series begins with a new sample of 3962 galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo 2 citizen science data base, selected because zoo volunteers recognized a ring-shaped pattern in the morphology as seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey colour images. The galaxies are classified within the framework of the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage system. It is found that zoo volunteers cued on the same kinds of ring-like features that were recognized in the 1995 Catalogue of Southern Ringed Galaxies. This paper presents the full catalogue of morphological classifications, comparisons with other sources of classifications and some histograms designed mainly to highlight the content of the catalogue. The advantages of the sample are its large size and the generally good quality of the images; the main disadvantage is the low physical resolution that limits the detectability of linearly small rings such as nuclear rings. The catalogue includes mainly inner and outer disc rings and lenses. Cataclysmic (`encounter-driven') rings (such as ring and polar ring galaxies) are recognized in less than 1 per cent of the sample.

  5. Quantum Fourier Transform Over Galois Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Galois rings are regarded as "building blocks" of a finite commutative ring with identity. There have been many papers on classical error correction codes over Galois rings published. As an important warm-up before exploring quantum algorithms and quantum error correction codes over Galois rings, we study the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Galois rings and prove it can be efficiently preformed on a quantum computer. The properties of the QFT over Galois rings lead to the quantum algorit...

  6. Novel manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in quantum rings and Moebius rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    - An overview is given on the recent experimental and theoretical advancements in studies of novel manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm quantum-interference effect for excitons confined to self assembled quantum rings and other semiconductor nanostructures with ring-like states of charge carriers as well as for electrons in Moebius rings at the micro- and nanoscale. The exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect can be effectively controlled by an out-of-plane magnetic field, a vertical electric field, a spin disorder. A 'delocalization-to-localization' transition for the electron ground state occurs in a Moebius ring as it is made more inhomogeneous. (authors)

  7. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  8. On P-coherent endomorphism rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...

  9. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  10. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  11. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  12. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  13. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  14. On the Laurent polynomial rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.

    1985-02-01

    We describe some properties of the Laurent polynomial rings in a finite number of indeterminates over a commutative unitary ring. We study some subrings of the Laurent polynomial rings. We finally obtain two cancellation properties. (author)

  15. The Hi-Ring DCN Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization......We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization...

  16. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  17. Ground Movement in SSRL Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunikumar, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Users of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) are being affected by diurnal motion of the synchrotron's storage ring, which undergoes structural changes due to outdoor temperature fluctuations. In order to minimize the effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, especially on the vertical motion of the ring floor, scientists at SSRL tried three approaches: painting the storage ring white, covering the asphalt in the middle of the ring with highly reflective Mylar and installing Mylar on a portion of the ring roof and walls. Vertical motion in the storage ring is measured by a Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS), which calculates the relative height of water in a pipe that extends around the ring. The 24-hr amplitude of the floor motion was determined using spectral analysis of HLS data, and the ratio of this amplitude before and after each experiment was used to quantitatively determine the efficacy of each approach. The results of this analysis showed that the Mylar did not have any significant effect on floor motion, although the whitewash project did yield a reduction in overall HLS variation of 15 percent. However, further analysis showed that the reduction can largely be attributed to a few local changes rather than an overall reduction in floor motion around the ring. Future work will consist of identifying and selectively insulating these local regions in order to find the driving force behind diurnal floor motion in the storage ring.

  18. Improved Performance and Reproducibility of Perovskite Solar Cells by Well-Soluble Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane as a p-Type Dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tengling; Wang, Junhai; Chen, Wenbo; Yang, Yulin; He, Dongqing

    2017-05-31

    In this work, well-soluble tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (BCF) is introduced for the first time into 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N'-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a p-dopant. The conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD films is dramatically enhanced. When the BCF-doped spiro-OMeTAD film is used as a hole-transport layer (HTL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), nearly double increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) is obtained compared to that of the PSCs based on a pristine spiro-OMeTAD HTL. By the introduction of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and 4-tert-butylpyridine into the BCF-doped spiro-OMeTAD film, the conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD film can be further enhanced, and an optimum PCE of 14.65% is obtained. In addition, the average efficiency of the device and the reproducibility of BCF-based PSCs are better than those of FK209-based PSCs. The working mechanism of the BCF doping effect on spiro-OMeTAD is studied in detail. The strong electron-accepting ability, excellent solubility in common organic solvents, and the low cost make BCF a very attractive p-type dopant for spiro-OMeTAD.

  19. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  20. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  1. Polycomb Group Proteins RING1A and RING1B Regulate the Vegetative Phase Transition in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG protein-mediated gene silencing is a major regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes that affects gene expression at the transcriptional level. Here, we report that two conserved homologous PcG proteins, RING1A and RING1B (RING1A/B, are required for global H2A monoubiquitination (H2Aub in Arabidopsis. The mutation of RING1A/B increased the expression of members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL gene family and caused an early vegetative phase transition. The early vegetative phase transition observed in ring1a ring1b double mutant plants was dependent on an SPL family gene, and the H2Aub status of the chromatin at SPL locus was dependent on RING1A/B. Moreover, mutation in RING1A/B affected the miRNA156a-mediated vegetative phase transition, and RING1A/B and the AGO7-miR390-TAS3 pathway were found to additively regulate this transition in Arabidopsis. Together, our results demonstrate that RING1A/B regulates the vegetative phase transition in Arabidopsis through the repression of SPL family genes.

  2. Researches on the Piston Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehihara, Keikiti

    1944-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the number or spring power. The researches as to the frictional resistance between the piston ring and the cylinder wall were carried out, too. The procedure of study, and

  3. Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)

  4. Magnetization of two coupled rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y; Luck, J M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum

  5. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  6. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  7. Pure subrings of the rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    Pure subrings of finite rank in the Z-adic completion of the ring of integers and in its homomorphic images are considered. Certain properties of these rings are studied (existence of an identity element, decomposability into a direct sum of essentially indecomposable ideals, condition for embeddability into a csp-ring, etc.). Additive groups of these rings and conditions under which these rings are subrings of algebraic number fields are described. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  8. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  9. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  10. The Rings of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Filacchione, G.; Marouf, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    One could become an expert on Saturn's iconic rings pretty easily in the early 1970s, as very little was known about them beyond the distinction between the A, B, and C rings, and the Cassini Division or "gap" between rings A and B (Alexander, 1962; Bobrov, 1970). Water ice was discovered spectroscopically on the ring particle surfaces, and radar and microwave emission observations proved that the particles must be centimeters to meters in size, consisting primarily, not just superficially, of water ice (Pollack, 1975). While a 2:1 orbital resonance with Mimas had long been suspected of having something to do with the Cassini Division, computers of the time were unable to model the subtle dynamical effects that we now know to dominate ring structure. This innocent state of affairs was exploded by the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981. Spectacular images revealed filigree structure and odd regional color variations, and exquisitely detailed radial profiles of fluctuating particle abundance were obtained from the first stellar and radio occultations, having resolution almost at the scale of single particles. Voyager-era understanding was reviewed by Cuzzi et al. (1984) and Esposito et al. (1984). While the Voyager data kept ring scientists busy for decades, planning which led to the monumentally successful NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini mission, which arrived in 2004, had been under way even before Voyager got to Saturn. A review of pre-Cassini knowledge of Saturn's Rings can be found in Orton et al. (2009). This chapter will build on recent topical and process-specific reviews that treat the gamut of ring phenomena and its underlying physics in considerable detail (Colwell et al., 2009; Cuzzi et al., 2009; Horányi et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2009; Esposito, 2010; Tiscareno, 2013b; Esposito, 2014). We will follow and extend the general organization of Cuzzi et al. (2010), the most recent general discussion of Saturn's rings. For brevity and the benefit of the

  11. Examination techniques for non-magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metala, M.J.; Kilpatrick, N.L.; Frank, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Until the introduction of 18Mn18Cr rings a few years ago, most non-magnetic steel rings for generator rotors were made from 18Mn5Cr alloy steel, which is highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of water. This, the latest in a series of papers on the subject of non-magnetic rings by the authors' company, provides a discussion of nondestructive examination of 18Mn5Cr rings for stress corrosion distress. With rings on the rotor, fluorescent penetrant, ultrasonic and special visual techniques are applied. With rings off the rotor, the fluorescent penetrant technique is used, with and without stress enhancement

  12. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  13. Self-gravitation in Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.; Lukkari, J.

    1982-01-01

    In a ring-shaped collisional system self-gravitation reduces the equilibrium values of the geometric and optical thickness. In Saturn's rings both effects are appreciable. The previously found discrepancy between the calculated profile and the observed profile of the rings is chiefly caused by the omission of self-gravitation. (Auth.)

  14. Saturn’s ring temperatures at equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Ferrari, C.; Morishima, R.

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the thermal emission of Saturn's rings is challenging due to the numerous heating sources as well as the structural properties of the disk and of the particles that are closely related. At equinox, however, the main rings are externally heated by Saturn alone and the problem is somewhat simplified. We test the abilities of our current models to reproduce the temperatures observed with the Cassini CIRS instrument around equinox in August 2009. A simple semi-analytic model which includes mutual shadowing effects can mostly explain the radial profile of the equinox ring temperatures, except the model predicts lower temperatures than those observed for the A ring. The temperature variation at a given saturnocentric radius is primarily caused by observational geometry variations relative to Saturn. The observed temperature increases with decreasing Saturn-ring-observer angle. In addition, we found evidence that the leading hemispheres of particles are warmer than the trailing hemispheres at least for the C ring and probably for the A and B rings as well. This is explained if some fraction of particles has spin rates lower than the synchronous rotation rate as predicted by N-body simulations. The spin model for a monolayer ring (Ferrari, C., Leyrat, C., 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 447, 745-760) can fit the temperature variations with spacecraft longitude observed in the C ring with currently known thermal properties and a mixing of slow and fast rotators. The multilayer model (Morishima, R., Salo, H., Ohtsuki, K., 2009, Icarus 201, 634-654) can reproduce the temperatures of the B and C rings but gives A ring temperatures that are significantly lower than those observed as does the simple semi-analytic model. More advanced models which take into account self-gravity wakes may explain the A ring temperature behavior.

  15. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  16. An N-body Integrator for Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    2011-04-01

    A planetary ring that is disturbed by a satellite's resonant perturbation can respond in an organized way. When the resonance lies in the ring's interior, the ring responds via an m-armed spiral wave, while a ring whose edge is confined by the resonance exhibits an m-lobed scalloping along the ring-edge. The amplitude of these disturbances are sensitive to ring surface density and viscosity, so modelling these phenomena can provide estimates of the ring's properties. However a brute force attempt to simulate a ring's full azimuthal extent with an N-body code will likely fail because of the large number of particles needed to resolve the ring's behavior. Another impediment is the gravitational stirring that occurs among the simulated particles, which can wash out the ring's organized response. However it is possible to adapt an N-body integrator so that it can simulate a ring's collective response to resonant perturbations. The code developed here uses a few thousand massless particles to trace streamlines within the ring. Particles are close in a radial sense to these streamlines, which allows streamlines to be treated as straight wires of constant linear density. Consequently, gravity due to these streamline is a simple function of the particle's radial distance to all streamlines. And because particles are responding to smooth gravitating streamlines, rather than discrete particles, this method eliminates the stirring that ordinarily occurs in brute force N-body calculations. Note also that ring surface density is now a simple function of streamline separations, so effects due to ring pressure and viscosity are easily accounted for, too. A poster will describe this N-body method in greater detail. Simulations of spiral density waves and scalloped ring-edges are executed in typically ten minutes on a desktop PC, and results for Saturn's A and B rings will be presented at conference time.

  17. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  18. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  19. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  20. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...

  1. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  2. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  3. Forandringslæring med autismediagnoser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, Kari Ingrid; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen drøfter en række aktuelle spørgsmål omkring læring hos børn og unge med autisme-spektrum-forstyrrelses diagnoser. Der introduceres til en social praksisteoretisk forståelse af forandringslæring, der diskuterer forandring ikke kun i relation til en persons identitet, men også aktuelle og...... potentielle forandringer, når det gælder overskridelse af binær logik i autisme versus normalitet, samt i relation til at overskride individualiserede og dualistiske problem-forståelser af fejl og mangler ved det autistiske barn. Det illustreres, hvordan disse former for dualistisk tænkning er forankret i et...... Rasmus’ ændringer i læring, selvforståelse og tilhørsforhold perspektiveres med andre ASF-diagnostiseredes læring udforsket bl.a. gennem gruppeinterviews i regi af Asperger-foreningen. Artiklen byder således på et alternativ i form af at forstå forandringslæring som overskridende læring, med langt større...

  4. Supercritical fluid chromatography for separation and preparation of tautomeric 7-epimeric spiro oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Pan, Huiqin; Yao, Changliang; Hou, Jinjun; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Luying; Feng, Ruihong; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-02-05

    Increasing challenge arising from configurational interconversion in aqueous solvent renders it rather difficult to isolate high-purity tautomeric reference standards and thus largely hinders the holistic quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Spiro oxindole alkaloids (SOAs), as the markers for the medicinal Uncaria herbs, can easily isomerize in polar or aqueous solvent via a retro-Mannich reaction. In the present study, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is utilized to separate and isolate two pairs of 7-epimeric SOAs, including rhynchophylline (R) and isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxine (C) and corynoxine B (CB), from Uncaria macrophylla. Initially, the solvent that can stabilize SOA epimers was systematically screened, and acetonitrile was used to dissolve and as the modifier in SFC. Then, key parameters of ultra-high performance SFC (ultra-performance convergence chromatography, UPC 2 ), comprising stationary phase, additive in modifier, column temperature, ABPR pressure, and flow rate, were optimized in sequence. Two isocratic UPC 2 methods were developed on the achiral Torus 1-AA and Torus Diol columns, suitable for UV and MS detection, respectively. MCI gel column chromatography fractionated the U. macrophylla extract into two mixtures (R/IR and C/CB). Preparative SFC, using a Viridis Prep Silica 2-EP OBD column and acetonitrile-0.2% diethylamine in CO 2 as the mobile phase, was finally employed for compound purification. As a result, the purity of four SOA compounds was all higher than 95%. Different from reversed-phase HPLC, SFC, by use of water-free mobile phase (inert CO 2 and aprotic modifier), provides a solution to rapid analysis and isolation of tautomeric reference standards for quality control of TCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and

  6. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  7. Laparoscopic appendicectomy using endo-ring applicator and fallope rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Iyoob V; Maliekkal, Joji I

    2009-01-01

    Wider adoption of laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) is limited by problems in securing the appendiceal base as well as the cost and the duration compared with the open procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a new method for securing the appendiceal base in LA, so as to make the entire procedure simpler and cheaper, and hence, more popular. Twenty-five patients who were candidates for appendicectomy (emergency as well as elective) and willing for the laparoscopic procedure were selected for this study. Ports used were 10 mm at the umbilicus, 5 mm at the lower right iliac fossa, and 10 mm at the left iliac fossa. Extremely friable, ruptured, or turgid organs of diameters larger than 8 mm were excluded from the study. The mesoappendix was divided close to the appendix by diathermy. Fallope rings were applied to the appendiceal base using a special ring applicator, and the appendix was divided and extracted through the lumen of the applicator. The procedure was successful in 23 (92%) cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 20 minutes (15-32 minutes). There were no procedural complications seen during a median follow-up of two weeks. The equipment and rings were cheaper when compared with that of the standard methods of securing the base of the appendix. LA using fallope rings is a safe, simple, easy-to-learn, and economically viable method. (author)

  8. SMARANDACHE NON-ASSOCIATIVE RINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2002-01-01

    An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly built using a vecto...

  9. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  10. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. Tinkering at the main-ring lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-08-23

    To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

  12. The ring plus project: safety and acceptability of vaginal rings that protect women from unintended pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schurmans, C?line; De Baetselier, Irith; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Jespers, Vicky; Delvaux, Th?r?se; Agaba, Stephen K; van Loen, Harry; Menten, Joris; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is ongoing to develop multipurpose vaginal rings to be used continuously for contraception and to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) are available in a number of countries and are most of the time used intermittently i.e. three weeks out of a 4-week cycle. Efficacy trials with a dapivirine-containing vaginal ring for HIV prevention are ongoing and plans to develop multi-purpose vaginal rings for prevention of both HIV a...

  13. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  14. Electron beam cooling at a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, and an electrostatic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsumi

    2006-01-01

    At the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, with an electron cooler was operated from 1989 to 1999, while an electrostatic storage ring with a small electron cooler has been operational since 2000. In this paper, the electron cooling at TARN II and the electrostatic storage ring is described. (author)

  15. Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior

  16. Redox shuttles having an aromatic ring fused to a 1,1,4,4-tetrasubstituted cyclohexane ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    An electrolyte includes an alkali metal salt; an aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive including an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring fused with at least one non-aromatic ring, the aromatic ring having two or more oxygen or phosphorus-containing substituents.

  17. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  18. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  19. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  20. A first course in noncommutative rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, T Y

    2001-01-01

    A First Course in Noncommutative Rings, an outgrowth of the author's lectures at the University of California at Berkeley, is intended as a textbook for a one-semester course in basic ring theory. The material covered includes the Wedderburn-Artin theory of semisimple rings, Jacobson's theory of the radical, representation theory of groups and algebras, prime and semiprime rings, local and semilocal rings, perfect and semiperfect rings, etc. By aiming the level of writing at the novice rather than the connoisseur and by stressing th the role of examples and motivation, the author has produced a text that is suitable not only for use in a graduate course, but also for self- study in the subject by interested graduate students. More than 400 exercises testing the understanding of the general theory in the text are included in this new edition.

  1. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing the frictio......One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing...... the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount...... available is reflected in the friction absorbed in the bearing. The following properties will be measured: Oil fillm thickness - along liner (axial variation), oil film thickness - along piston ring (circumferential variation), piston tilt, temperature of piston rings and liner, pressure at piston lands...

  2. Study for ILC Damping Ring at KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, J.W.; Fukuma, H.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Y.; Oide, Katsunobu; Suetsugu, Y.; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    ILC damping ring consists of very low emittance electron and positron storage rings. It is necessary for ILC damping ring to study electron cloud effects in such low emittance positron ring. We propose a low emittance operation of KEKB to study the effects.

  3. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  4. Longitudinal beam instability due to the ring impedance at KEK's accelerator test facility damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-San

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a numerical study of the impedance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring. The longitudinal impedance in the damping ring is shown to be inductive. It is shown that the total impedance |Z || /n| is 0.23 Ω and the inductance is L = 14 nH. In the extremely low emittance beam of the damping ring, bunch lengthening is caused by both the effects of potential-well distortion and intra-beam scattering. In this paper, the bunch-lengthening due to the ring impedance is numerically investigated, and the result shows qualitative agreement with the result of an analysis performed using the bunch-length measurement. With the calculated longitudinal impedance, the instability threshold in the damping ring is estimated to be a bunch population of 3.3 x 10 10 by using both a Vlasov equation approach and a multi-particle tracking method.

  5. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  6. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing; Arcak, Murat; Salama, Khaled N.

    2010-01-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  8. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring(SEA Ring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the verification is to test the efficacy and ability of the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants in the sediment, at the sediment-water interface, and WC to organisms that live in those respective environments.

  9. Dynamical Evolution of Ring-Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand dynamical processes related to the evolution of size distribution of particles in planetary rings and application of theoretical results to explain features in the present rings of giant planets. We studied velocity evolution and accretion rates of ring particles in the Roche zone. We developed a new numerical code for the evolution of ring particle size distribution, which takes into account the above results for particle velocity evolution and accretion rates. We also studied radial diffusion rate of ring particles due to inelastic collisions and gravitational encounters. Many of these results can be also applied to dynamical evolution of a planetesimal disk. Finally, we studied rotation rates of moonlets and particles in planetary rings, which would influence the accretional evolution of these bodies. We describe our key accomplishments during the past three years in more detail in the following.

  10. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  11. Cosmic rings from colliding galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitton, S

    1976-11-18

    Research on two ring galaxies has led to the proposal of an interaction model to account for the rings. It is envisaged that this class of galaxy is created when a compact galaxy crashes through the disc of a spiral galaxy. The results of a spectroscopic investigation of the galaxy known as the Cartwheel and of another ring galaxy 11 NZ 4 are discussed. The general picture of ring galaxies which emerges from these studies of a massive starry nucleus with a necklace of emitting gas and some spokes and along the spin axis of the wheel a small companion galaxy that is devoid of interstellar gas. An explanation of these properties is considered.

  12. On Semiprime Noetherian PI-Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Katsuo

    2000-01-01

    Let R be a semiprime Noetherian PI-ring and Q(R) the semisimple Artinian ring of fractions of R. We shall prove the following conditions are equivalent: (1) the Krull dimention of R is at most one, (2) Any ring between R and Q(R) is again right Noetherian, (3) Let a, b be central regular elements of Q(R). Then the subring R + aR[b] of Q(R) is right Noetherian.

  13. On zero divisor graph of unique product monoid rings over Noetherian reversible ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hashemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity and $Z^*(R$ be its set of non-zero zero divisors.  The zero-divisor graph of $R$, denoted by $Gamma(R$, is the graph whose vertices are the non-zero  zero-divisors of  $R$, and two distinct vertices $r$ and $s$ are adjacent if and only if $rs=0$ or $sr=0$.  In this paper, we bring some results about undirected zero-divisor graph of a monoid ring over reversible right (or left Noetherian ring $R$. We essentially classify the diameter-structure of this graph and show that $0leq mbox{diam}(Gamma(Rleq mbox{diam}(Gamma(R[M]leq 3$. Moreover, we give a characterization for the possible diam$(Gamma(R$ and diam$(Gamma(R[M]$, when $R$ is a reversible Noetherian ring and $M$ is a u.p.-monoid. Also, we study relations between the girth of $Gamma(R$ and that of $Gamma(R[M]$.

  14. Imidazolopiperazines (IPZ) kill both rings and dormant rings in wild type and K13 artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Laurent; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Lim, Michelle Yi-Xiu; Ang, Xiaoman; Selva, Jeremy J; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nguon, Chea; Dondorp, Arjen M; Bonamy, Ghislain M C; Diagana, Thierry T; Bifani, Pablo

    2018-03-12

    Artemisinin (ART) resistance has spread through Southeast Asia, posing serious threat to the control and elimination of malaria. ART resistance has been associated with mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch-13 ( Pfk13 ) propeller domain. Phenotypically, ART resistance is defined as delayed parasite clearance in patients' due to the reduced susceptibility of early ring-stage parasites to the active metabolite of ART dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Early rings can enter a state of quiescence upon DHA exposure and resume growth in its absence. These quiescent rings are referred to as dormant rings or DHA-pretreated rings (called here dormant rings). The imidazolopiperazine (IPZ) is a novel class of antimalarial drugs, which has demonstrated efficacy in early clinical trials. Here, we characterized the stage of action of IPZ GNF179 and evaluated its activity against rings and dormant rings in wild type and ART resistant parasites. Unlike DHA, GNF179 does not induce dormancy. We show that GNF179 is more rapidly cidal against schizonts than ring and trophozoite stages. However, with 12 hours exposure, the compound effectively kills rings and dormant rings of both susceptible and ART resistant parasites within 72 hours. We further demonstrate that in combination with ART, GNF179 effectively prevent recrudescence of dormant rings including those bearing pfk13 propeller mutations. Copyright © 2018 Dembele et al.

  15. Complete snake and rotator schemes for spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-11-01

    In order to maintain spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings, some generalized Siberian Snake scheme may be required to make the spin tune almost independent of energy and thus avoid depolarizing resonances. The practical problem of finding such schemes that, at reasonable technical effort, can be made to work over large energy ranges has been addressed before and is here revisited in a broadened view and with added new suggestions. As a result, possibly optimum schemes for electron rings (LEP) and proton rings are described. In the proposed LEP scheme, spin rotation is devised such that, at the interaction points, the spin direction is longitudinal as required for experiments. (orig.)

  16. Koffka's Ring Effect Depends on Thickness, Not Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail E. Huang; Alice J. Hon; Eric L. Altschuler

    2007-01-01

    More than 70 years ago Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka described a fascinating effect1,2: When a contiguous grey ring is placed on a background half of one shade of grey (different from the ring) and half of another shade of grey, the ring appears to be a homogenous. However, if the ring is slightly divided, now the two halves of the ring appear different shades of grey with the half of the ring on the darker background appearing lighter than the half of the ring on the darker background. Th...

  17. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  18. IAG ring test animal proteins 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Voet, van der H.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG – International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants

  19. IAG ring test animal proteins 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Rhee, van de N.E.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the ring test was RIKILT - Wageningen UR, The

  20. IAG ring test animal proteins 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the the ring study was to provide the

  1. Cooling rings for TeV colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-02-01

    Consideration is given to quantum fluctuations, intra beam scattering, cooling rates, and ring acceptance in order to see if one can obtain a normalized emittance of 10 -8 in any plausible cooling ring. It is concluded that only a small gain is obtained by varying the partition functions, but a very significant gain is made by using higher bending fields. The ring is found to get bigger if the magnet apertures are increased. The ring diameter is found to increase if the momentum spread of the beam is reduced. It is shown that the power can be reduced by allowing a high beamstrahlung energy loss resulting in higher current in the cooling ring. Parameters are also given for a 10 -7 m radian emittance case

  2. Dipole Magnets for the LHeC Ring-Ring Option

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Chritin, R

    2012-01-01

    The Ring-Ring option of a Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) requires 3080 bending magnets, 5.35-meter-long each providing a magnetic field ranging from 0.0127 T at 10 GeV to 0.0763 T at 60 GeV. Main issues in the design of these magnets are the very low injection field, constituting a challenge in achieving a satisfactory field reproducibility from cycle to cycle, and the required compactness to fit in the existing LHC tunnel. This paper describes and discusses a design meeting these requirements, together with its experimental validation by the manufacture and measurement of a 400-mm-long magnet model.

  3. The multi-bend achromat storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Mikael [MAX IV Laboratory Ole Römers v. 1 22100 Lund Sweden (Sweden)

    2016-07-27

    Not very long ago, the 3{sup rd} generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3{sup rd} generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.

  4. The multi-bend achromat storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Not very long ago, the 3"r"d generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3"r"d generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.

  5. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Gibbons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.

  6. Evidence for Quantisation in Planetary Ring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    WAYTE, RICHARD

    2017-01-01

    Absolute radial positions of the main features in Saturn's ring system have been calculated by adapting the quantum theory of atomic spectra. Fine rings superimposed upon broad rings are found to be covered by a harmonic series of the form N α A(r)1/2, where N and A are integers. Fourier analysis of the ring system shows that the spectral amplitude fits a response profile which is characteristic of a resonant system. Rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also obey the same rules. Involvement o...

  7. Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuganbaev, A A

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings

  8. Status of the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.M.; Davies-White, W.A.; Delahaye, J.P.

    1985-06-01

    Electron beams of full design energy 1.21 GeV and nearly full design intensity 4 x 10 10 particles/pulse (design 5 x 10 10 ) have been extracted from the Stanford Linac and successfully stored in the electron damping ring. Beams of less intensity have been extracted from the ring and reinjected into the Linac. The present intensity limits are not thought to be fundamental. The operating experience with the electron ring and the status of the construction of the positron ring will be discussed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Characterization of heterocyclic rings through quantum chemical topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark Z; Popelier, Paul L A

    2013-07-22

    Five-membered rings are found in a myriad of molecules important in a wide range of areas such as catalysis, nutrition, and drug and agrochemical design. Systematic insight into their largely unexplored chemical space benefits from first principle calculations presented here. This study comprehensively investigates a grand total of 764 different rings, all geometry optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level, from the perspective of Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT). For the first time, a 3D space of local topological properties was introduced, in order to characterize rings compactly. This space is called RCP space, after the so-called ring critical point. This space is analogous to BCP space, named after the bond critical point, which compactly and successfully characterizes a chemical bond. The relative positions of the rings in RCP space are determined by the nature of the ring scaffold, such as the heteroatoms within the ring or the number of π-bonds. The summed atomic QCT charges of the five ring atoms revealed five features (number and type of heteroatom, number of π-bonds, substituent and substitution site) that dictate a ring's net charge. Each feature independently contributes toward a ring's net charge. Each substituent has its own distinct and systematic effect on the ring's net charge, irrespective of the ring scaffold. Therefore, this work proves the possibility of designing a ring with specific properties by fine-tuning it through manipulation of these five features.

  10. Single photon emission and quantum ring-cavity coupling in InAs/GaAs quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, E; Nowak, A K; Sanvitto, D; Meulen, H P van der; Calleja, J M; MartInez, L J; Prieto, I; Alija, A R; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; GarcIa, J M; Postigo, P A; Sarkar, D

    2010-01-01

    Different InAs/GaAs quantum rings embedded in a photonic crystal microcavity are studied by quantum correlation measurements. Single photon emission, with g (2) (0) values around 0.3, is demonstrated for a quantum ring not coupled to the microcavity. Characteristic rise-times are found to be longer for excitons than for biexcitons, resulting in the time asymmetry of the exciton-biexciton cross-correlation. No antibunching is observed in another quantum ring weakly coupled to the microcavity.

  11. Powder metallurgy ferrous synchronizer ring with brass-based friction layer; Tetsu-do niso shoketsu synchronize ring no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okajima, H; Yoshikawa, K; Miyajima, K; Sugiyama, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Nakamura, M; Ito, M [Japan Powder Metallurgy Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Synchronizer rings for manual transmissions are generally made of brass or molybdenum coated brass. Powder metallurgy (PM) synchronizer ring was developed for the purpose of high performance and cost reduction. This synchronizer ring consists of the high strength PM ferrous ring that needs neither special densification nor heat treatment, and it has the brass-based friction layer. New joining technique was required because of that shape and two different materials. Powder of copper-phosphorus alloy are admixed with the friction material. While sintering, that melt and migrate to the interface. Then the friction layer and the ferrous ring are joined tightly. 7 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  13. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  14. The Saturnian rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1975-09-01

    The structure of the Saturnian rings is traditionally believed to be due to resonances caused by Mimas (and possibly other satellites). It is shown that both theoretical and observational evidence rule out this interpretation. The increased observational accuracy on one hand and the increased understanding of the cosmogonic processes on the other makes it possible to explain the structure of the ring system as a product of condensation from a partially corotating plasma. In certain respects the agreement between theory and observations is about 1%. (Auth.)

  15. Hubble again views Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Saturn's magnificent ring system is seen tilted edge-on -- for the second time this year -- in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture taken on August 10, 1995, when the planet was 895 million miles (1,440 million kilometers) away. Hubble snapped the image as Earth sped back across Saturn's ring plane to the sunlit side of the rings. Last May 22, Earth dipped below the ring plane, giving observers a brief look at the backlit side of the rings. Ring-plane crossing events occur approximately every 15 years. Earthbound observers won't have as good a view until the year 2038. Several of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are from left to right, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Mimas. 'The Hubble data shows numerous faint satellites close to the bright rings, but it will take a couple of months to precisely identify them,' according to Steve Larson (University of Arizona). During the May ring plane crossing, Hubble detected two, and possibly four, new moons orbiting Saturn. These new observations also provide a better view of the faint E ring, 'to help determine the size of particles and whether they will pose a collision hazard to the Cassini spacecraft,' said Larson. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in wide field mode. This image is a composite view, where a long exposure of the faint rings has been combined with a shorter exposure of Saturn's disk to bring out more detail. When viewed edge-on, the rings are so dim they almost disappear because they are very thin -- probably less than a mile thick.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  16. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

  17. The ring plus project: safety and acceptability of vaginal rings that protect women from unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmans, Céline; De Baetselier, Irith; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Jespers, Vicky; Delvaux, Thérèse; Agaba, Stephen K; van Loen, Harry; Menten, Joris; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-04-10

    Research is ongoing to develop multipurpose vaginal rings to be used continuously for contraception and to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) are available in a number of countries and are most of the time used intermittently i.e. three weeks out of a 4-week cycle. Efficacy trials with a dapivirine-containing vaginal ring for HIV prevention are ongoing and plans to develop multi-purpose vaginal rings for prevention of both HIV and pregnancy have been elaborated. In contrast with the CVRs, multi-purpose vaginal rings will have to be used continuously. Women who continuously use a CVR will no longer have menses. Furthermore, some safety aspects of CVR use have never been studied in-depth in the past, such as the impact of the vaginal ring on the vaginal microbiota, biofilm formation and induction of inflammation. We studied acceptability and these novel aspects of safety in Rwandan women. Although significant progress has been made over the past decade, Rwanda still has a high unmet need for contraception (with 47% unplanned births) and a generalized HIV epidemic, and CVRs are not yet available. We will conduct an open label, single centre, randomized controlled trial. A total of 120 HIV-negative women will be randomized to intermittent CVR use (to allow menstruation) or continuous CVR use. Women will be followed for a maximum of 14 weeks. In parallel, we will conduct a qualitative study using in-depth interview and focus group discussion methodology. In addition to evaluating the safety and acceptability of intermittent and continuous CVR use in Rwandan women, we hope that our findings will inform the development of future multipurpose vaginal rings, will prepare Rwandan study populations for future clinical trials of multipurpose vaginal rings, and will pave the way for introduction of CVRs on African markets. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01796613 . Registered 14 February 2013.

  18. Common pass decentered annular ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, D. A.; Waite, T. R.

    1985-04-30

    An optical resonator having an annular cylindrical gain region for use in a chemical laser or the like in which two ring-shaped mirrors having substantially conical reflecting surfaces are spaced apart along a common axis of revolution of the respective conical surfaces. A central conical mirror reflects incident light directed along said axis radially outwardly to the reflecting surface of a first one of the ring-shaped mirrors. The radial light rays are reflected by the first ring mirror to the second ring mirror within an annular cylindrical volume concentric with said common axis and forming a gain region. Light rays impinging on the second ring mirror are reflected to diametrically opposite points on the same conical mirror surfaces and back to the first ring mirror through the same annular cylindrical volume. The return rays are then reflected by the conical mirror surface of the first ring mirror back to the central conical mirror. The mirror surfaces are angled such that the return rays are reflected back along the common axis by the central mirror in a concentric annular cylindrical volume. A scraper mirror having a central opening centered on said axis and an offset opening reflects all but the rays passing through the two openings in an output beam. The rays passing through the second opening are reflected back through the first opening to provide feedback.

  19. Tritium concentrations in tree ring cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Toshio; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Takashima, Yoshimasa.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of tritium (tissue bound tritium; TBT) concentration in tree rings are presented and discussed. Such measurement is expected to provide a useful means of estimating the tritium level in the environment in the past. The concentration of tritium bound in the tissue (TBT) in a tree ring considered to reflect the environmental tritium level in the area at the time of the formation of the ring, while the concentration of tritium in the free water in the tissue represents the current environmental tritium level. First, tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a cedar tree grown in a typical environment in Fukuoka Prefecture is compared with the tritium concentration in precipitation in Tokyo. Results show that the year-to-year variations in the tritium concentration in the tree rings agree well with those in precipitation. The maximum concentration, which occurred in 1963, is attibuted to atmospheric nuclear testing which was performed frequently during the 1961 - 1963 period. Measurement is also made of the tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a pine tree grown near the Isotope Center of Kyushu University (Fukuoka). Results indicate that the background level is higher probably due to the release of tritium from the facilities around the pine tree. Thus, measurement of tritium in tree ring cellulose clearly shows the year-to-year variation in the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. (N.K.)

  20. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  1. Translational velocity oscillations of piston generated vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Arakeri, J. H.; Shankar, P. N.

    1995-11-01

    Experimental results are presented that show that the translational velocities of piston generated vortex rings often undergo oscillations, similar to those recently discovered for drop generated rings. An attempt has been made to minimize uncertainties by utilizing both dye and hydrogen bubbles for visualization and carefully repeating measurements on the same ring and on different realizations under the same nominal piston conditions. The results unambiguously show that under most conditions, both for laminar and turbulent rings and for rings generated from pipes and orifices, the oscillations are present. The present results, together with the earlier results on drop generated rings, give support to the view that translational velocity oscillations are probably an inherent feature of translating vortex ring fields.

  2. Synthesis and crystal structures of 5'-phenylspiro[indoline-3, 2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Subbu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spiro- indole-pyrrolidine ring system is a frequently encountered structural motif in many biologically important and pharmacologically relevant alkaloids. The derivatives of spirooxindole ring systems are used as antimicrobial, antitumour agents and as inhibitors of the human NKI receptor besides being found in a number of alkaloids like horsifiline, spirotryprostatin and (+ elacomine. The recently discovered small-molecule MDM2 inhibitor MI-219 and its analogues are in advanced preclinical development as cancer therapeutics. Results In the crystal structures of the two organic compounds, 4'-Nitro-3',5'-diphenylspiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one and 3'-(4-Methoxyphenyl- 4'-nitro -5'-phenylspiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one, N-H···O hydrogen bonds make the R22 (8 ring motif. Further, the structures are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Conclusion The crystal structures of 4'-Nitro-3',5'-diphenylspiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one and 3'-(4-Methoxyphenyl- 4'-nitro -5'-phenylspiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one have been investigated in detail. In both the compounds, the R22(8 motif is present. Due to the substitution of methoxyphenyl instead of phenyl ring, the entire configuration is inverted with respect to the 2-oxyindole ring.

  3. Seco-B-Ring Steroidal Dienynes with Aromatic D Ring: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szybinski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our structure-activity studies on the vitamin D analogs with the altered intercyclic seco-B-ring fragment, we designed compounds possessing dienyne system conjugated with the benzene D ring. Analysis of the literature data and the docking experiments seemed to indicate that the target compounds could mimic the ligands with a good affinity to the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Multi-step synthesis of the C/D-ring building block of the tetralone structure was achieved and its enol triflate was coupled with the known A-ring fragments, possessing conjugated enyne moiety, using Sonogashira protocol. The structures of the final products were confirmed by NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy. Their binding affinities for the full-length human VDR were determined and it was established that compound substituted at C-2 with exomethylene group showed significant binding to the receptor. This analog was also able to induce monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells.

  4. Saturn's Ring: Pre-Cassini Status and Mission Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeff N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In November 1980, and again in August 1981, identical Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system, changing forever the way we think about planetary rings. Although Saturn's rings had been the only known ring system for three centuries, a ring system around Uranus had been discovered by stellar occultations from Earth in 1977, and the nearly transparent ring of Jupiter was imaged by Voyager in 1979 (the presence of material there had been inferred from charged particle experiments on Pioneer 10 and 11 several years earlier). While Saturn had thus temporarily lost its uniqueness as having the only ring system, with Voyager it handily recaptured the role of having the most fascinating one. The Voyager breakthroughs included spiral density and bending waves such as cause galactic structure; ubiquitous fine-scale radial 'irregular' structure, with the appearance of record-grooves; regional and local variations in particle color; complex, azimuthally variable ring structure; empty gaps in the rings, some containing very regular, sharp-edged, elliptical rings and one containing both a small moonlet and incomplete arcs of dusty material; and shadowy 'spokes' that flicker across the main rings. One of the paradigm shifts of this period was the realization that many aspects of planetary rings, and even the ring systems themselves, could be 'recent' on geological timescales. These early results are reviewed and summarized in the Arizona Space Science series volumes 'Saturn'. (An excellent review of ring dynamics at a formative stage is by Goldreich and Tremaine.) From the mid 1980's to the time of this writing, progress has been steady, while at a less heady pace, and some of the novel ring properties revealed by Voyager 1 and 2 are beginning to be better understood. It is clearly impossible to cite, much less review, every advance over the last decade; however, below we summarize the main advances in understanding of Saturn's rings since the mid 1980's, in the context

  5. Rings Related to Special Atoms | France-Jackson | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract unavailable at this time... Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 16A21, 16A12 Keywords: ring, special atoms, atoms, *k-ring, prime ring, *-ring, Jacobson, artinia, essential extension, homomorphic image, ideals. Quaestiones Mathematicae 24(1) 2001, 105–109 ...

  6. Using Ring Strain to Control 4π-Electrocyclization Reactions: Torquoselectivity in Ring Closing of Medium-Ring Dienes and Ring Opening of Bicyclic Cyclobutenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Byron A; Green, Aaron G; Liu, Peng; Houk, K N; Merlic, Craig A

    2017-05-05

    Syntheses of strained cyclic dienes were accomplished via palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclizations of terminal bis(vinylboronate esters). The reactions generate strained (E,E)-1,3-dienes that undergo spontaneous 4π-electrocyclizations to form bicyclic cyclobutenes. Formation of the cyclobutenes is driven by the strain in the medium-ring (E,E)-1,3-diene intermediate. Thermal ring openings of the cyclobutenes give (Z,Z)-1,3-diene products, again for thermodynamic reasons. DFT calculations verified the thermodynamic versus kinetic control of the reactions, and kinetic studies are in excellent agreement with the calculated energy changes. An extension of the tandem coupling/4π-electrocyclization pathway was demonstrated by a palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative homocoupling/8π-electrocyclization cascade.

  7. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.

  8. Investigation of piston ring – cylinder liner dry wear using a block-on-ring test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian L.

    Characterization of the wear of piston rings and cylinder liner is an important aspect of large two stroke diesel engine design. Two major wear mechanisms exist; corrosive wear and mechanical wear. This paper deals with the most aggressive form of the latter, which is known as scuffing. Different...... that ceramic coating on the piston ring decreases the dry wear rate of both piston ring and liner, while the coefficient of friction is increased....

  9. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Han, Xiaole; Xia, Dong; Liu, Taolin; Lang, Hao

    2018-01-13

    Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  10. Nilradicals of skew Hurwitz series of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ‎For a ring endomorphism α of a ring R, ‎Krempa called α a rigid endomorphism if aα(a=0 implies a = 0 for a in R. ‎A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we extend the α-rigid property of a ring R to the upper nilradical N_r(R of R. ‎For an endomorphism α and the upper nilradical N_r(R of a ring R, ‎we introduce the condition (*: ‎N_r(R is a α-ideal of R and aα(a in N_r(R implies a in N_r(R for a in R. ‎We study characterizations of a ring R with an endomorphism α satisfying the condition (*, ‎and we investigate their related properties‎. ‎The connections between the upper nilradical of R and the upper nilradical of the skew Hurwitz series ring (HR,α of R are also investigated‎.

  11. Spin transitions in semiconductor quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxevanis, Benjamin; Pfannkuche, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We adopt the path integral Monte Carlo method to accurately resolve the total spin of the ground state of electrons confined in a quantum ring with different geometries. Using this method, an evaluation of the ground state of three electrons in a ring shows a spin transition to the fully polarized state by increasing the radius and thereby enhancing the Coulomb interaction. The total spin of the ground state is determined by the mutual interplay of confinement and electron-electron interaction. An analysis of the four-electron ring demonstrates that in this case no spin transitions take place. Furthermore, the effect of geometric distortion of the ring on its ground state has been investigated. Elliptically deforming the ring breaks the symmetry of the system and leads to the removal of orbital degeneracy. For strong distortion the splitting between hybridized states is sufficient to overcome the exchange-energy saving associated with a higher spin state. We have found that this effect removes the polarization of three electrons. Even in a four-electron ring the ground state is forced by the distortion to be unpolarized and thus suppressing the Hund's rule ground state.

  12. INJECTION EFFICIENCY IN COMPTON RING NESTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Gladkikh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available NESTOR is the hard X-ray source that is under commissioning at NSC KIPT. NESTOR based on the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. The structure of the facility can be represented as the following components: a linear accelerator, a transport channel, a storage ring, and a laser-optical system. Electrons are stored in the storage ring for energy of 40-200 MeV. Inevitable alignment errors of magnetic elements are strongly effect on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. These errors lead to a shift of the equilibrium orbit relative to the ideal one. Significant shift of the equilibrium orbit could lead to loss of the beam on physical apertures. Transverse sizes of electron and laser beams are only few tens of microns at the interaction point. The shift of electron beam at the interaction point could greatly complicate the operation adjustment of storage ring without sufficient beam position diagnostic system. This article presents the simulation results of the efficiency of electron beam accumulation in the NESTOR storage ring. Also, this article is devoted to electron beam dynamics due to alignment errors of magnetic element in the ring.

  13. Control of ring lasers by means of coupled cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Abitan, Haim; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Variable phase coupling to an external ring is used to control a unidirectional ring laser. The observed behavior of the coupled rings is explained theoretically. We have found experimentally that by quickly changing the phase of the feedback from the external ring it is possible to Q......-switch the ring laser. Also, at certain values of the phase of the feedback in the external ring, instabilities in the total system occur and oscillations arise in the ring laser....

  14. Moving-ring field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    We describe a first prototype fusion reactor design of the Moving-Ring Field-Reversed Mirror Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma. The plamsa rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, are magnetically compressed to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. DT ice pellets refuel the rings during the burn at a rate which maintains constant fusion power. A steady train of plasma rings moves at constant speed through the reactor under the influence of a slightly diverging magnetic field. The aluminum first wall and breeding zone structure minimize induced radioactivity; hands-on maintenance is possible on reactor components outside the breeding blanket. Helium removes the heat from the Li 2 O tritium breeding blanket and is used to generate steam. The reactor produces a constant, net power of 376 MW

  15. Artificial light harvesting by dimerized Möbius ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Gong, Z. R.; Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study artificial light harvesting by a Möbius ring. When the donors in the ring are dimerized, the energies of the donor ring are split into two subbands. Because of the nontrivial Möbius boundary condition, both the photon and acceptor are coupled to all collective-excitation modes in the donor ring. Therefore, the quantum dynamics in the light harvesting is subtly influenced by dimerization in the Möbius ring. It is discovered that energy transfer is more efficient in a dimerized ring than that in an equally spaced ring. This discovery is also confirmed by a calculation with the perturbation theory, which is equivalent to the Wigner-Weisskopf approximation. Our findings may be beneficial to the optimal design of artificial light harvesting.

  16. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  17. Synthesis of Imidazopyridines via Copper-Catalyzed, Formal Aza-[3 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Pyridine Derivatives with α-Diazo Oxime Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangjune; Kim, Hyunseok; Son, Jeong-Yu; Um, Kyusik; Lee, Sooho; Baek, Yonghyeon; Seo, Boram; Lee, Phil Ho

    2017-10-06

    The Cu-catalyzed, formal aza-[3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of pyridine derivatives with α-diazo oxime ethers in trifluoroethanol was used to synthesize imidazopyridines via the release of molecular nitrogen and elimination of alcohol. These methods enabled modular synthesis of a wide range of N-heterobicyclic compounds such as imidazopyridazines, imidazopyrimidines, and imidazopyrazines with an α-imino Cu-carbenoid generated from the α-diazo oxime ethers and copper.

  18. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  19. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  20. Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2000-11-01

    Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.

  1. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  2. Synlig læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Introduktionen af John Hatties synlig læring i den danske skoleverden møder stadig meget kritik. Mange lærere og pædagoger oplever synlig læring som en tornado, der vil opsuge og ødelægge deres særlige danske udgave af den kontinentale dannelsestænkning, didaktik og pædagogik. Spørgsmålet er om...

  3. How Jupiter's Ring Was Discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, James; Kerr, Richard

    1985-01-01

    "Rings" (by astronomer James Elliot and science writer Richard Kerr) is a nontechnical book about the discovery and exploration of ring systems from the time of Galileo to the era of the Voyager spacecraft. One of this book's chapters is presented. (JN)

  4. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  5. Vortex Ring Interaction With a Coaxially Aligned Cylinderical Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Rajmanoharan, P.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    1998-11-01

    We present results of experiments of a fully developed vortex ring interacting with a cylinderical rod, having a rounded nose, placed coaxially in line with the motion of the ring. The pressure field of the translating ring causes unsteady boundary layer separation and results in the formation of one or more ( secondary ) vortex rings, that subsequently interact. The nature and strength of the interaction depends on the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the ring diameter. For the larger diameter cylinders the vortex ring travels a few ring diameters before it breaks up. For the smaller diameter cylinders the vortex ring speed decreases slowly and, simultaneously, its diameter increases.

  6. A study of the outermost ring of Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, M.S.

    1974-01-01

    The attention is called to the fact that the discovery by Feibelman (1967) of the rarefied outer ring of Saturn is confirmed by the observations of Kuiper (1972). It is proposed to designate this object as E-ring (exterior) in order to avoid confusion with the innermost, also rarefied, D-ring observed by Guerin (1970) and earlier by Barabashov and Semejkin (1933). The effects of the interaction of E-ring with inner Saturn's satellites are briefly discussed. The conclusion is drawn that in cosmogonic time scale these effects are small. It is also shown that the optical thickness of E-ring is lower than 1/20000; the available photometric estimations of the geometric thickness of A- and B-rings need not be corrected for the light scattering and absorption by E-ring. (Auth.)

  7. Cytoplasmic tethering of a RING protein RBCK1 by its splice variant lacking the RING domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Koyanagi, Tomoyoshi; Okajima, Toshihide; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2005-01-01

    RBCC protein interacting with PKC 1 (RBCK1) is a transcription factor belonging to the RING-IBR protein family and has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, possessing both the nuclear export and localization signals within its amino acid sequence. RBCK2, lacking the C-terminal half of RBCK1 including the RING-IBR domain, has also been identified as an alternative splice variant of RBCK1. RBCK2 shows no transcriptional activity and instead it represses the transcriptional activity of RBCK1. Here, we show that RBCK2 is present usually in the cytoplasm containing two Leu-rich regions that presumably serve as a nuclear export signal (NES). Moreover, an NES-disrupted RBCK1 that is mostly localized within the nucleus is translocated to the cytoplasm when coexpressed with RBCK2, suggesting that RBCK2 serves as a cytoplasmic tethering protein for RBCK1. We propose a novel and general function of RING-lacking splice variants of RING proteins to control the intracellular localization and functions of the parental RING proteins by forming a hetero-oligomeric complex

  8. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palviainen, Tanja; Tuuva, Tuure; Leinonen, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n + -type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p + /n/n + detector structure with an n + guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software

  9. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palviainen, Tanja [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.palviainen@lut.fi; Tuuva, Tuure [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Leinonen, Kari [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2007-04-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n{sup +}-type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p{sup +}/n/n{sup +} detector structure with an n{sup +} guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software.

  10. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  11. Distributively generated matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    It is known that if R is a near ring with identity then (I,+) is abelian if (I + ,+) is abelian and (I,+) is abelian if (I*,+) is abelian [S.J. Abbasi, J.D.P. Meldrum, 1991]. This paper extends these results. We show that if R is a distributively generated near ring with identity then (I,+) is included in Z(R), the center of R, if (I + ,+) is included in Z(M n (R)), the center of matrix near ring M n (R). Furthermore (I,+) is included in Z(R) if (I*,+) is included in Z(M n (R)). (author). 5 refs

  12. Storage rings, internal targets and PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Storage rings with internal targets are described, using PEP as an example. The difference between electrons and heavier particles such as protons, antiprotons, and heavy ions is also discussed because it raises possibilities of bypass insertions for more exotic experiments. PEP is compared to other rings in various contexts to verify the assertion that it is an ideal ring for many fundamental and practical applications that can be carried on simultaneously

  13. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  14. The rings of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.; Mink, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the observation of five brief occultations of the star SAO 158687 which occurred both before and after its occultation by Uranus on March 10, 1977. The events were observed with a three-channel occultation photometer, attached to a 91-cm telescope. The observations indicate that at least five rings encircle the planet Uranus. Possible reasons for the narrowness of the Uranus rings are discussed.

  15. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  16. Achieving Translationally Invariant Trapped Ion Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Erik; Li, Hao-Kun; Noel, Crystal; Hemmerling, Boerge; Zhang, Xiang; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    We present the design and implementation of a novel surface ion trap design in a ring configuration. By eliminating the need for wire bonds through the use of electrical vias and using a rotationally invariant electrode configuration, we have realized a trap that is able to trap up to 20 ions in a ring geometry 45um in diameter, 400um above the trap surface. This large trapping height to ring diameter ratio allows for global addressing of the ring with both lasers and electric fields in the chamber, thereby increasing our ability to control the ring as a whole. Applying compensating electric fields, we measure very low tangential trap frequencies (less than 20kHz) corresponding to rotational barriers down to 4mK. This measurement is currently limited by the temperature of the ions but extrapolation indicates the barrier can be reduced much further with more advanced cooling techniques. Finally, we show that we are able to reduce this energy barrier sufficiently such that the ions are able to overcome it either through thermal motion or rotational motion and delocalize over the full extent of the ring. This work was funded by the Keck Foundation and the NSF.

  17. On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2 cannot...... be learned from positive (negative) examples alone. However, if the restriction that the hypothesis which is output by the learning algorithm is also a k-RSE is suspended, then k-RSE is learnable from positive (negative) examples only. Moreover, it is proved that 2-term-RSE is learnable by a conjunction...

  18. Computerspil og læring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Juel Larsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning og gamification er ord, der ofte optræder i forbindelse med computerspil og læring. Denne artikel vil analytisk undersøge, hvordan computerspil og læring går i forbindelse med hinanden. Artikel tager afsæt i Gregory Batesons læringsteori og læser denne igennem det kommercielle computerspil StarCraft 2 fra Blizzard Intertainment. Batesons læringsteori vil ikke alene blive gennemgået, men også udvidet og perspektiveret.  Formålet med denne indsats er at skabe et afsæt, der kan demonstrere, hvordan læring foregår i computerspil. Herefter vil afsættet blive anvendt til at destillere et læringsteoretisk udkast. Artiklen falder således i to dele, hvor den første analytisk adresserer, hvordan læring i computerspil foregår, mens den anden er teoriproducerende på baggrund af resultaterne fra første del.

  19. On rings generating supernilpotent and special atoms | France ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study prime rings which generate supernilpotent (respectively special) atoms, that is, atoms of the lattice of all supernilpotent (respectively special) radicals. A prime ring A is called a **-ring if the smallest special class containing A is closed under semiprime homomorphic images of A. A semiprime ring A whose every ...

  20. Lamb shift of energy levels in quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkyan, G Yu; Kyriienko, O; Shelykh, I A

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum radiative corrections to energy levels of a confined electron in quantum rings. The calculations are provided for the Lamb shift of energy levels in a low-momentum region of virtual photons and for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional quantum rings. We show that contrary to the well known case of a hydrogen atom the value of the Lamb shift increases with the magnetic momentum quantum number m. We also investigate the dependence of the Lamb shift on magnetic flux piercing the ring and demonstrate a presence of magnetic-flux-dependent oscillations. For a one-dimensional ring the value of the shift strongly depends on the radius of the ring. It is small for semiconductor rings but can attain measurable quantities in natural organic ring-shape molecules, such as benzene, cycloalcanes and porphyrins. (paper)

  1. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping; Zhang Lin-Xi

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond (S 2 )/(Nb 2 ) and the shape factor (δ*) depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type. With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity C v , and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas—liquid—solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  2. Foundations of commutative rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fanggui

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the basics and recent developments of commutative algebra. A glance at the contents of the first five chapters shows that the topics covered are ones that usually are included in any commutative algebra text. However, the contents of this book differ significantly from most commutative algebra texts: namely, its treatment of the Dedekind–Mertens formula, the (small) finitistic dimension of a ring, Gorenstein rings, valuation overrings and the valuative dimension, and Nagata rings. Going further, Chapter 6 presents w-modules over commutative rings as they can be most commonly used by torsion theory and multiplicative ideal theory. Chapter 7 deals with multiplicative ideal theory over integral domains. Chapter 8 collects various results of the pullbacks, especially Milnor squares and D+M constructions, which are probably the most important example-generating machines. In Chapter 9, coherent rings with finite weak global dimensions are probed, and the local ring of weak gl...

  3. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  4. The Storage Ring Proton EDM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semertzidis, Yannis; Storage Ring Proton EDM Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The storage ring pEDM experiment utilizes an all-electric storage ring to store ~1011 longitudinally polarized protons simultaneously in clock-wise and counter-clock-wise directions for 103 seconds. The radial E-field acts on the proton EDM for the duration of the storage time to precess its spin in the vertical plane. The ring lattice is optimized to reduce intra-beam scattering, increase the statistical sensitivity and reduce the systematic errors of the method. The main systematic error is a net radial B-field integrated around the ring causing an EDM-like vertical spin precession. The counter-rotating beams sense this integrated field and are vertically shifted by an amount, which depends on the strength of the vertical focusing in the ring, thus creating a radial B-field. Modulating the vertical focusing at 10 kHz makes possible the detection of this radial B-field by a SQUID-magnetometer (SQUID-based BPM). For a total number of n SQUID-based BPMs distributed around the ring the effectiveness of the method is limited to the N = n /2 harmonic of the background radial B-field due to the Nyquist sampling theorem limit. This limitation establishes the requirement to reduce the maximum radial B-field to 0.1-1 nT everywhere around the ring by layers of mu-metal and aluminum vacuum tube. The metho's sensitivity is 10-29 e .cm , more than three orders of magnitude better than the present neutron EDM experimental limit, making it sensitive to SUSY-like new physics mass scale up to 300 TeV.

  5. Open-ring enhancement sign in diagnosing demyelinating pseudotumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liting; Wang Zhiping; Wang Linyou

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe open-ring enhancement sign on MRI of demyelinating pseudotumor. Methods: Contrast-enhanced MRI of histologically confirmed demyelinating pseudotumors (14 patients) and astrocytomas (21) was reviewed. Results: Of the 14 cases of demyelinating pseudotumor, open-ring enhancement pattern was observed in 6; closed ring enhancement in 2; nodular enhancement in 3; patchy enhancement in 1; slight enhancement in 1; and no enhancement in 1. Of the 21 cases of astrocytoma, there was complete ring or lace-like enhancement in 13, no contrast enhancement in 6, patchy enhancement in 2, and none with open-ring enhancement pattern. Conclusion: Open-ring enhancement is a valuable sign in differential diagnosis between demyelinating pseudotumor and astrocytoma. (authors)

  6. 21 CFR 870.3800 - Annuloplasty ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An annuloplasty ring is a rigid or flexible ring implanted around the mitral or tricuspid heart valve for reconstructive treatment of valvular insufficiency. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  7. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  8. Bimodality and the formation of Saturn's ring particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.

    1980-01-01

    The F ring appears to have an outer and an inner rim, with only the latter observed by the imaging photopolarimeter (IPP) on the Pioneer Saturn spacecraft. The inside of the G ring, near 2.49 R/sub S/, may also be seen in the optical data. 1979S1 is red as well as dark. The light scattered through the B ring is noticeably red. The A ring has a dense outer rim. The Cassini Division and the French Division (Dollfus Division) have a dark gap near their centers. The C ring becomes weaker toward the center such that outer, middle, and inner C rings can be recognized. The Pioneer and earth-based observations are explained with a model for the B and A rings to some extent of a bimodal size distributions of particles; the larger ones may be original accretions, while small debris diffuses inward through the Cassini Division and the C ring. During the formation of the ring system, differential gravitation allowed only silicaceous grains of higher density (rho> or approx. =3 g cm -3 ) to coagulate. These serve as interstitial cores for snowy carbonaceous grains, between the times of accretion from interplanetary cometary grains and liberation by collision followed by diffusion inward to Saturn and final evaporation

  9. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  10. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  11. Saturn Rings Origin: Quantum Trapping of Superconducting Iced Particles and Meissner Effect Lead to the Stable Rings System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorovich Tchernyi, Vladimir

    2018-06-01

    Saturn Rings Origin: Quantum Trapping of Superconducting Iced Particles and Meissner Effect Lead to the Stable Rings System Vladimir V. Tchernyi (Cherny), Andrew Yu. Pospelov Modern Science Institute, SAIBR, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: chernyv@bk.ruAbstractIt is demonstrated how superconducting iced particles of the protoplanetary cloud of Saturn are coming to magnetic equator plane and create the stable enough rings disk. There are two steps. First, after appearance of the Saturn magnetic field due to Meissner phenomenon all particles orbits are moving to the magnetic equator plane. Finally they become distributed as rings and gaps like iron particles around magnet on laboratory table. And they are separated from each other by the magnetic field expelled from them. It takes up to few tens of thousands years with ten meters rings disk thickness. Second, due to their quantum trapping all particles become to be trapped within magnetic well at the magnetic equator plane due to Abrikosov vortex for superconductor. It works even when particles have small fraction of superconductor. During the rings evolution some contribution to the disk also could come from the collision-generated debris of the current moon and from the geysers like it happened due to magnetic coupling of Saturn and Enceladus. The rings are relict of the early days of the magnetic field of Saturn system.

  12. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Takashi; Okura, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions

  13. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Takashi, E-mail: naitoh.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Okura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ohkura@meijo-u.ac.jp [Department of Vehicle and Mechanical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Gotoh, Toshiyuki, E-mail: gotoh.toshiyuki@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Scientific and Engineering Simulation, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Controller Business Unit Engineering Division 1, Engineering Department 3, Denso Wave Incorporated, 1 Yoshiike Kusagi Agui-cho, Chita-gun Aichi 470-2297 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions.

  14. Beam dynamic issues in TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we study general requirements on impedances of the linear collider TESLA damping ring design. Quantitative consideration is performed for 17-km long ''dog-bone'' ring. Beam dynamics in alternative options of 6.3 and 2.3-km long damping rings is briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  15. New graft sizing rings for aortic valve reimplantation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Matija; Jelenc, Blaž; Kneževic, Ivan; Klokocovnik, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to design sizing rings that would enable proper sizing of the graft in reimplantation procedures and to perform leaflet repair before graft implantation. The rings were designed in Autodesk Fusion 360 (San Rafael, CA, USA) and 3D printed using a commercial online 3D printing service. We designed incomplete rings with a low profile and complete rings with a high profile. The complete rings are best suited for reimplantation procedures, whereas low profile C rings are intended for isolated aortic valve repair, where the ascending aorta is not transected. The rings come in sizes corresponding to Vascutek Gelweave graft sizes (Vascutek Terumo, Renfrewshire, Scotland). The ring internal diameters are 5% larger than the designated ring sizes and account for the 5% stretch of the grafts when pressurized. Blades of the rings are placed at 20° intervals. The slits between the blades are designed in such a way that the commissural U-sutures, when put in place and under tension, will lock the ring in position. The rings were successfully used in 10 of our latest reimplantation procedures. After dissection of the aortic root, the commissures were suspended with U-stitches and then the ring was seated onto them. Complete leaflet repair with plication to achieve adequate effective height was then performed, followed by graft implantation. No additional leaflet repair was needed. The newly designed sizing rings enable proper sizing of the graft in reimplantation procedures and enable complete leaflet repair before graft implantation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles with internal alkynes through C(sp²)-H/alkene functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Bo; Pi, Rui; Hu, Ming; Yang, Yuan; Song, Ren-Jie; Xia, Yuanzhi; Li, Jin-Heng

    2014-10-13

    This study describes a new rhodium(III)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles with internal alkynes using a Cu(OAc)2 oxidant for building a spirocyclic ring system, which includes the functionalization of an aryl C(sp(2))-H bond and addition/protonolysis of an alkene C=C bond. This method is applicable to a wide range of 5-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles and internal alkynes, and results in the assembly of the spiro[indene-1,2'-pyrrolidine] architectures in good yields with excellent regioselectivities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  18. RING STAR FORMATION RATES IN BARRED AND NONBARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouchy, R. D.; Buta, R. J.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonbarred ringed galaxies are relatively normal galaxies showing bright rings of star formation in spite of lacking a strong bar. This morphology is interesting because it is generally accepted that a typical galactic disk ring forms when material collects near a resonance, set up by the pattern speed of a bar or bar-like perturbation. Our goal in this paper is to examine whether the star formation properties of rings are related to the strength of a bar or, in the absence of a bar, to the non-axisymmetric gravity potential in general. For this purpose, we obtained Hα emission line images and calculated the line fluxes and star formation rates (SFRs) for 16 nonbarred SA galaxies and four weakly barred SAB galaxies with rings. For comparison, we combine our new observations with a re-analysis of previously published data on five SA, seven SAB, and 15 SB galaxies with rings, three of which are duplicates from our sample. With these data, we examine what role a bar may play in the star formation process in rings. Compared to barred ringed galaxies, we find that the inner ring SFRs and Hα+[N II] equivalent widths in nonbarred ringed galaxies show a similar range and trend with absolute blue magnitude, revised Hubble type, and other parameters. On the whole, the star formation properties of inner rings, excluding the distribution of H II regions, are independent of the ring shapes and the bar strength in our small samples. We confirm that the deprojected axis ratios of inner rings correlate with maximum relative gravitational force Q g ; however, if we consider all rings, a better correlation is found when a local bar forcing at the radius of the ring, Q r , is used. Individual cases are described and other correlations are discussed. By studying the physical properties of these galaxies, we hope to gain a better understanding of their placement in the scheme of the Hubble sequence and how they formed rings without the driving force of a bar.

  19. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...

  20. Remnants of black rings from gravity’s rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6th of October City, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha 13518 (Egypt); Faizal, Mir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Khalil, Mohammed M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University,El-Horreya Rd., Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)

    2014-12-29

    In this paper, we investigate a spinning black ring and a charged black ring in the context of gravity’s rainbow. By incorporating rainbow functions proposed by Amelino-Camelia, et al. in http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217751X97000566 http://dx.doi.org/10.12942/lrr-2013-5 in the metric of the black rings, a considerable modification happens to their thermodynamical properties. We calculate corrections to the temperature, entropy and heat capacity of the black rings. These calculations demonstrate that the behavior of Hawking radiation changes considerably near the Planck scale in gravity’s rainbow, where it is shown that black rings do not evaporate completely and a remnant is left as the black rings evaporate down to Planck scale.

  1. Beam Instrumentation for the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P. R.; Shea, T. J.; Connolly, R. C.; Kesselman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10 -4 . A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring

  2. Atomic-phase interference devices based on ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates: Two-ring case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.P.; Dholakia, K.; Wright, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the ground-state properties and quantum dynamics of a pair of adjacent ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates that are coupled via tunneling. This device, which is the analog of a symmetric superconducting quantum interference device, is the simplest version of what we term an atomic-phase interference device (APHID). The two-ring APHID is shown to be sensitive to rotation

  3. NANOGRAIN DENSITY OUTSIDE SATURN’S A RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Robert E. [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Tseng, Wei-Ling [National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Sec. 4, Tingzhou Road, Wenshan District, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Elrod, M. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Persoon, A. M., E-mail: rej@virginia.edu, E-mail: wltseng@ntnu.edu.tw, E-mail: meredith.k.elrod@nasa.gov, E-mail: ann-persoon@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The observed disparity between the radial dependence of the ion and electron densities measured by the Cassini plasma (CAPS) and radio (RPWS) science instruments are used to show that the region between the outer edge of Saturn’s main rings and its tenuous G ring is permeated with small charged grains (nanograins). These grains emanate from the edge of the A ring and from the tenuous F and G rings. This is a region of Saturn’s magnetosphere that is relatively unexplored, but will be a focus of Cassini ’s F ring orbits prior to the end of mission in 2017 September. Confirmation of the grain densities predicted here will enhance our ability to describe the formation and destruction of material in this important region of Saturn’s magnetosphere.

  4. Passive scalar transport mediated by laminar vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, R H; Rodríguez, G, E-mail: rohernan@ing.uchile.cl [LEAF-NL, Depto. Ingeniería Civil Mecánica, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-04-15

    Numerical simulations were used to study the dynamics of a passive conserved scalar quantity entrained by a self-propelling viscous vortex ring. The transport and mixing process of the passive scalar variable were studied considering two initial scalar distributions: (i) The scalar substance was introduced into the ring during its formation, further focusing in the shedding into the wake of the ring; (ii) A disk-like scalar layer was placed in the ring’s path where the entrainment of the scalar substance into the ring bubble was studied as a function of the ring strength. In both cases, the scalar concentration inside the vortex bubble exhibits a steady decay with time. In the second case, it was shown that the entrained scalar mass grows with both the Reynolds number of the ring and the thickness of the scalar layer in the propagation direction. The ring can be viewed as a mechanism for scalar transportation along important distances. (paper)

  5. Virtual Exploration of the Ring Systems Chemical Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visini, Ricardo; Arús-Pous, Josep; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2017-11-27

    Here, we explore the chemical space of all virtually possible organic molecules focusing on ring systems, which represent the cyclic cores of organic molecules obtained by removing all acyclic bonds and converting all remaining atoms to carbon. This approach circumvents the combinatorial explosion encountered when enumerating the molecules themselves. We report the chemical universe database GDB4c containing 916 130 ring systems up to four saturated or aromatic rings and maximum ring size of 14 atoms and GDB4c3D containing the corresponding 6 555 929 stereoisomers. Almost all (98.6%) of these ring systems are unknown and represent chiral 3D-shaped macrocycles containing small rings and quaternary centers reminiscent of polycyclic natural products. We envision that GDB4c can serve to select new ring systems from which to design analogs of such natural products. The database is available for download at www.gdb.unibe.ch together with interactive visualization and search tools as a resource for molecular design.

  6. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  7. Self-assembly of concentric quantum double rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Takaaki; Kuroda, Takashi; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Ochiai, Tetsuyuki; Tateno, Takahiro; Kim, Jongsu; Noda, Takeshi; Kawabe, Mitsuo; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Kido, Giyuu; Koguchi, Nobuyuki

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled formation of concentric quantum double rings with high uniformity and excellent rotational symmetry using the droplet epitaxy technique. Varying the growth process conditions can control each ring's size. Photoluminescence spectra emitted from an individual quantum ring complex show peculiar quantized levels that are specified by the carriers' orbital trajectories.

  8. Ring-Interferometric Sol-Gel Bio-Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory (Inventor); Cohen, David (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A biosensor embodying the invention includes a sensing volume having an array of pores sized for immobilizing a first biological entity tending to bind to a second biological entity in such a manner as to change an index of refraction of the sensing volume. The biosensor further includes a ring interferometer, one volumetric section of the ring interferometer being the sensing volume, a laser for supplying light to the ring interferometer, and a photodetector for receiving light from the interferometer.

  9. Evaluation of radiation-induced degradation of silicon '0' ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeshima, Yoshiaki; Shiraishi; Tadao; Sato, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Isao; Ichihashi, Yoshinori; Ito, Masayuki.

    1990-12-01

    Currently there is too few available data on mechanical properties of an 'O' ring made of organic material, which is used over an extensive period of time under actual Nuclear Reactor environmental conditions. The 'O' rings which were evaluated were made of Silicon Rubber, and are used to provide water tightness. The 'O' rings also served as a pressure boundary within the nozzle of the in-reactor tube in the Water Loop-2 (OWL-2) at the JMTR in Oarai, Ibaraki. The 'O' rings were subjected to a constant penetrating radiation (up to 3.46 kGy) over a period of thirteen (13) years. The effects on the mechanical properties of a Silicon Rubber 'O' Ring were evaluated after having been used over an extensive period of time in an actual in-reactor tube within a radiation environment; a full thirteen years in durations. In making comparison of the properties of other Silicon Rubber 'O' Rings. It was also found that these other 'O' rings were subject to Gamma Rays for a shorter period, but with the same amount of radiation as the 'O' rings in the reactor were supposedly to have received. The evaluation showed that a Silicon Rubber 'O' Ring could have been used for a period, as much as forty (40) years even with a (absorbed) dose of about 300 kGy, before the life expectancy of such an 'O' ring is fully met. It was also discovered that the mechanical properties of an Ethylene Propylene 'O' Rings (currently used in the new OWL-2 in-reactor tube) were much superior to those of the Silicon Rubber 'O' Rings. The Ethylene Propylene 'O' Rings had a live expectancy which was about three times that of a Silicon Rubber 'O' Rings. (author)

  10. The "g-2" Muon Storage Ring

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The "g-2" muon storage ring, shortly before completion in June 1974. Bursts of pions (from a target, hit by a proton beam from the 26 GeV PS) are injected and polarized muons from their decay are captured on a stable orbit. When the muons decay too, their precession in the magnetic field of the storage ring causes a modulation of the decay-electron counting rate, from which the muon's anomalous magnetic moment can be determined. In 1977, the "g-2" magnets were modified to build ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment), a proton and antiproton storage ring for testing stochastic and electron cooling. Later on, the magnets had a 3rd life, when the ion storage ring CELSIUS was built from them in Uppsala. For later use as ICE, see 7711282, 7802099, 7809081,7908242.

  11. Airpower, Chaos, and Infrastructure: Lords of the Rings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felker, Edward

    1998-01-01

    .... It focuses on the third ring (infrastructure) of John A. Warden III's theory of five strategic rings, which the author argues is often neglected in the debate over the importance of leadership (first ring...

  12. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  13. Damping Ring R&D at CESR-TA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, David L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2015-01-23

    Accelerators that collide high energy beams of matter and anti-matter are essential tools for the investigation of the fundamental constituents of matter, and the search for new forms of matter and energy. A “Linear Collider” is a machine that would bring high energy and very compact bunches of electrons and positrons (anti-electrons) into head-on collision. Such a machine would produce (among many other things) the newly discovered Higgs particle, enabling a detailed study of its properties. Among the most critical and challenging components of a linear collider are the damping rings that produce the very compact and intense beams of electrons and positrons that are to be accelerated into collision. Hot dilute particle beams are injected into the damping rings, where they are compressed and cooled. The size of the positron beam must be reduced more than a thousand fold in the damping ring, and this compression must be accomplished in a fraction of a second. The cold compact beams are then extracted from the damping ring and accelerated into collision at high energy. The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), would require damping rings that routinely produce such cold, compact and intense beams. The goal of the Cornell study was a credible design for the damping rings for the ILC. Among the technical challenges of the damping rings; the development of instrumentation that can measure the properties of the very small beams in a very narrow window of time, and mitigation of the forces that can destabilize the beams and prevent adequate cooling, or worse lead to beam loss. One of the most pernicious destabilizing forces is due to the formation of clouds of electrons in the beam pipe. The electron cloud effect is a phenomenon in particle accelerators in which a high density of low energy electrons, build up inside the vacuum chamber. At the outset of the study, it was anticipated that electron cloud effects would limit the intensity of the positron ring

  14. Influence of topology in a quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, A.L. Silva; Chesman, C.; Furtado, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we study the quantum rings in the presence of a topological defect. We use geometric theory of defects to describe one and two-dimensional quantum rings in the presence of a single screw dislocation. In addition we consider some potential in a two dimensional ring and calculate their energy spectrum. It is shown that the energy spectrum depend on the parabolic way on the burgers vectors of the screw dislocation. We also show that the presence of a topological defect introduces a new contribution for the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the quantum ring

  15. Topological matter, integrable models and fusion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeschansky, D.; Warner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    We show how topological G k /G k models can be embedded into the topological matter models that are obtained by perturbing the twisted N = 2 supersymmetric, hermitian symmetric, coset models. In particular, this leads to an embedding of the fusion ring of G as a sub-ring of the perturbed, chiral primary ring. The perturbation of the twisted N = 2 model that leads to the fusion ring is also shown to lead to an integrable N = 2 supersymmetric field theory when the untwisted N = 2 superconformal field theory is perturbed by the same operator and its hermitian conjugate. (orig.)

  16. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Pereira, Ricardo J; Wake, David B

    2012-03-12

    In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a handful of such taxa are known. We developed a topographic model to evaluate whether the geographic barriers that favor processes leading to ring species are common or rare, and to predict where other candidate ring barriers might be found. Of the 952,147 geographic barriers identified on the planet, only about 1% are topographically similar to barriers associated with known ring taxa, with most of the likely candidates occurring in under-studied parts of the world (for example, marine environments, tropical latitudes). Predicted barriers separate into two distinct categories: (i) single cohesive barriers (barriers - formed by groups of barriers (each 184,000 to 1.7 million km2) in close geographic proximity (totaling 1.9 to 2.3 million km2) - associated with taxa that differentiate at larger spatial scales (birds: Phylloscopus trochiloides and Larus (sp. argentatus and fuscus)). When evaluated globally, we find a large number of cohesive barriers that are topographically similar to those associated with known ring taxa. Yet, compared to cohesive barriers, an order of magnitude fewer composite barriers are similar to those that favor ring divergence in species with higher dispersal. While these findings confirm that the topographic conditions that favor evolutionary processes leading to ring speciation are, in fact, rare, they also suggest that many understudied natural systems could provide valuable demonstrations of continuous divergence towards the formation of new species. Distinct advantages of the model are that it (i) requires no a priori information on the relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii) can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii) generates spatially explicit hypotheses of

  17. Ring power balance observing plasma stability constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.B.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Ring power balance is performed for an E-ring stabilized tandem mirror reactor, taking into account constraints imposed by plasma stability. The two most important criteria are the stability of the core interchange and hot electron interchange modes. The former determines the ring thickness, the latter determines the minimum hot electron temperature; both quantities are important for power balance. The combination of the hot electron interchange constraint and the fact that the barrier density is low places the operating point on the synchrotron dominated branch of power balance. The reference case considered here requires a reasonable 34 MW of heating power deposited in the rings. We also have examined the sensitivity of the required ring power on uncertainties in the numerical coefficients of the stability constraints. We have found that the heating power is strongly affected

  18. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy CF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R Karl Malcolm, Susan M Fetherston, Clare F McCoy, Peter Boyd, Ian MajorSchool of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.Keywords: controlled release, sustained release, antiretroviral, dapivirine, SILCS diaphragm, silicone elastomer, thermoplastic

  19. Computerspil og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning og gamification er ord, der ofte optræder i forbindelse med computerspil og læring. Denne artikel vil analytisk undersøge, hvordan computerspil og læring går i forbindelse med hinanden. Artikel tager afsæt i Gregory Batesons læringsteori og læser denne igennem det kommercielle...

  20. Flux qubits on semiconducting quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M; Zipper, E

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the quantum state of a single electrons in a quantum ring made of a semiconductor is at the heart of recent developments towards a scalable quantum computer. A peculiar dispersion relation of quantum rings allows to steer the ground state properties by the magnetic flux and offers spin and orbital degrees of freedom for quantum manipulations. We show that such ring can be effectively reduced to the two-state system forming a qubit on orbital or spin degrees of freedom.

  1. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  2. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X-R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Guo Wu, Rui-Hua Wei, Ai-Hua Liu, Xiao-Xu Zhou, Guo-Ling Sun, Xiao-Rong LiTianjin Medical University Eye Center, Tianjin, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery.Methods: We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15. In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15. The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit.Results: Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01, and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures.Keywords: pars plana vitrectomy, contact lens, silicone ring, cataract surgery

  3. Analysis of axial behavior of three piece oil control ring; Kumiawase oil ring no jikuhoko kyodo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Y; Fujimura, K; Hitosugi, H [Nippon Piston Ring Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    It is considered that the reduction of oil control ring tension is a major problem in reducing the friction-loss of internal combustion engines. The authors have successfully developed a calculating method for the axial behavior prediction of a three piece type oil control ring as a method used in reduction of lube-oil consumption when lower tension ring is used. By means of the method, the authors found that the effect in reduction of lube-oil consumption was able to be expected by optimizing design parameters of the oil ring, the tension and the seating tab angle of expander-spacer, and the gas pressure on the 3rd land. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  4. O-Ring sealing arrangements for ultra-high vacuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyo; Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    An all metal reusable O-ring sealing arrangement for sealing two concentric tubes in an ultra-high vacuum system. An O-ring of a heat recoverable alloy such as Nitinol is concentrically positioned between protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes. The O-ring is installed between the tubes while in a stressed martensitic state and is made to undergo a thermally induced transformation to an austenitic state. During the transformation the O-ring expands outwardly and contracts inwardly toward a previously sized austenitic configuration, thereby sealing against the protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes.

  5. Light-Ring Stability for Ultracompact Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Berti, Emanuele; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We prove the following theorem: axisymmetric, stationary solutions of the Einstein field equations formed from classical gravitational collapse of matter obeying the null energy condition, that are everywhere smooth and ultracompact (i.e., they have a light ring) must have at least two light rings, and one of them is stable. It has been argued that stable light rings generally lead to nonlinear spacetime instabilities. Our result implies that smooth, physically and dynamically reasonable ultracompact objects are not viable as observational alternatives to black holes whenever these instabilities occur on astrophysically short time scales. The proof of the theorem has two parts: (i) We show that light rings always come in pairs, one being a saddle point and the other a local extremum of an effective potential. This result follows from a topological argument based on the Brouwer degree of a continuous map, with no assumptions on the spacetime dynamics, and, hence, it is applicable to any metric gravity theory where photons follow null geodesics. (ii) Assuming Einstein's equations, we show that the extremum is a local minimum of the potential (i.e., a stable light ring) if the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the null energy condition.

  6. Spirocyclopropane-type sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Rita; von Reuss, Stephan H; König, Wilfried A

    2010-08-01

    The essential oil of Schinus terebinthifolius fruits was reinvestigated using GC and GC-MS techniques. Apart from several known compounds three sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with a carbon skeleton exhibiting the rare spiro(cyclopropane) moiety could be isolated by a combination of column chromatography and GLC. Structure assignments were carried out by NMR spectroscopy. These natural products are 9-spiro(cyclopropa)-4,4,8-trimethyl-2-methylenbicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene (terebanene), 9-spiro(cyclopropa)-2,4,4,8-tetramethylbicyclo[4.3.0]nona-1,5-diene (teredenene), and (6R*,8R*)-9-spiro(cyclopropa)-2,4,4,8-tetramethylbicyclo[4.3.0]non-1-ene (terebinthene). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wavepacket revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez-Bolívar, Salvador; Cordero, Nicolás A; Romera, Elvira

    2013-06-12

    We have studied the existence of quantum revivals in graphene quantum rings within a simplified model. The time evolution of a Gaussian-populated wavepacket shows revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings. We have also studied this behavior for quantum rings in a perpendicular magnetic field. We have found that revival time is an observable that shows different values for monolayer and bilayer graphene quantum rings. In addition, the revival time shows valley degeneracy breaking.

  8. Corneal iron ring after conductive keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Naoumidi, Tatiana L; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-08-01

    To report formation of corneal iron ring deposits after conductive keratoplasty. Observational case report. Case report. A 54-year-old woman underwent conductive keratoplasty for hyperopia. One year after conductive keratoplasty, iron ring pattern pigmentation was detected at the corneal epithelium of both eyes. This is the first report of the appearance of corneal iron ring deposits following conductive keratoplasty treatment in a patient. It is suggested that alterations in tear film stability, resulting from conductive keratoplasty-induced changes in corneal curvature, constitute the contributory factor for these deposits.

  9. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  10. Device for monitoring electron-ion ring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Shalyapin, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is classified as the method of collective ion acceleration. The device for electron-ion ring parameters monitoring is described. The invention is aimed at increasing functional possibilities of the device at the expense of the enchance in the number of the ring controlled parameters. The device comprises three similar plane mirrors installed over accelerating tube circumference and a mirror manufactured in the form of prism and located in the tube centre, as well as the system of synchrotron radiation recording and processing. Two plane mirrors are installed at an angle of 45 deg to the vertical axis. The angle of the third plane mirror 3 α and that of prismatic mirror 2 α to the vertical axis depend on geometric parameters of the ring and accelerating tube and they are determined by the expression α=arc sin R K /2(R T -L), where R K - ring radius, R T - accelerating tube radius, L - the height of segment, formed by the mirror and inner surface of the accelerating tube. The device suggested permits to determine longitudinal dimensions of the ring, its velocity and the number of electrons and ions in the ring

  11. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.

  12. Ring rolling of AW5083 large rings for the external cylinder of CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Sgobba / EST

    2001-01-01

    Picture 1: The forged cylinder is engaged in the ring rolling plant. Picture 2: Vertical rolls allow for the reduction in the axial direction. Rolling is carried out at approx. 400 degrees C. Horizontal rolls (not shown) allow for the reduction in the radial direction. Picture 3: Handling of the ring, rolled at the internal diameter of approx. 7m, and transfer to the quenching both. All pictures have been taken during the visit of Mr. Sgobba at Dembiermont, Mobeuge (Bruxelles).

  13. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  14. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-01-01

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function

  15. Conceptual design of a moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C.; Carlson, G.A.; Ashworth, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    A design of a prototype moving-ring reactor was completed, and a development plan for a pilot reactor is outlined. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically field-reversed plasma (''compact toroids''). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three ''burn stations.'' Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for one-third of the total burn time at each station. Deuterium-tritium- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate that maintains constant radiated power. The fusion power per ring is approx. =105.5 MW. The burn time to reach a fusion energy gain of Q = 30 is 5.9 s

  16. Corneal iron ring after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Akata, F; Gürelik, G; Adigüzel, U; Akpinar, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    1999-05-01

    To report the incidence and course of corneal iron deposition after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Gazi University, Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey. Between January 1995 and December 1997, 62 eyes had PRK to correct hyperopia. Nine eyes developed corneal iron ring 5 to 8 months (mean 6.25 months +/- 1.3 [SD]) after PRK for hyperopia. The rings persisted during the mean follow-up of 19 +/- 11.09 months. The ring-shaped iron deposition after PRK for hyperopia must be differentiated from the Fleischer ring. Our results suggest that the slitlamp findings of peripheral corneal iron deposition in hyperopic PRK patients correlate with achieved correction.

  17. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wei, Rui-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Xu; Sun, Guo-Ling; Li, Xiao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15). In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15). The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit. Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01), and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05). This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures.

  18. The covariant chiral ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-23

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  19. A muon storage ring for neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Neuffer, D.

    1988-01-01

    A muon storage ring can provide electron and muon neutrino beams of precisely knowable flux. Constraints on muon collection and storage-ring design are discussed. Sample muon storage rings are presented and muon and neutrino intensities are estimated. Experimental use of the ν-beams, detector properties, and possible variations are described. Future directions for conceptual designs are outlined. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Acceptability of the vaginal contraceptive ring among adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Lekeisha R; Tanner, Amanda E; Hensel, Devon J; Blythe, Margaret J; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Although underutilized, the vaginal contraceptive ring has several advantages over other contraceptive methods that could benefit adolescents. We examined factors that may influence willingness to try the vaginal ring including: sexual and contraceptive history, genital comfort, and vaginal ring characteristics. Cross sectional Midwestern adolescent health clinics Adolescent women (N = 200; 14-18 years; 89% African-American) INTERVENTIONS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants received education about the vaginal ring and viewed pictures demonstrating insertion; they then completed a visual/audio computer-assisted self interview. The primary outcome variable, willingness to try the vaginal ring, was a single Likert-scale item. Over half the participants reported knowledge of the vaginal ring with healthcare providers identified as the most important source of contraceptive information. Comfort with one's genitals, insertion and removal, using alternative methods of insertion, and knowing positive method characteristics were significantly associated with willingness to try the vaginal ring. A decreased willingness to try the vaginal ring was related to concerns of the ring getting lost inside or falling out of the vagina. Willingness to try the ring was associated with positive feelings about genitals (e.g., comfort with appearance, hygiene, function). Thus, to increase willingness to try the vaginal ring among adolescents, providers should make it common practice to discuss basic female reproductive anatomy, raise awareness about female genital health and address concerns about their genitals. Providers can offer alternative insertion techniques (e.g., gloves) to make use more accessible. These strategies may increase vaginal ring use among adolescents. 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ring-Expansion/Contraction Radical Crossover Reactions of Cyclic Alkoxyamines: A Mechanism for Ring Expansion-Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Narumi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic polymers present an important class of macromolecules, displaying the reduced radius of gyration or impossibility to entangle. A rare approach for their synthesis is the ring expansion-controlled radical “vinyl” polymerization, starting from a cyclic alkoxyamine. We here describe ring-expansion radical crossover reactions of cyclic alkoxyamines which run in parallel to chain-propagation reactions in the polymerization system. The radical crossover reactions extensively occurred at 105–125 °C, eventually producing high molecular weight polymers with multiple inherent dynamic covalent bonds (NOC bonds. A subsequent ring-contraction radical crossover reaction and the second ring-expansion radical crossover reaction are also described. The major products for the respective three stages were shown to possess cyclic morphologies by the molecular weight profiles and the residual ratios for the NOC bonds (φ in %. In particular, the high φ values ranging from ca. 80% to 98% were achieved for this cyclic alkoxyamine system. This result verifies the high availability of this system as a tool demonstrating the ring-expansion “vinyl” polymerization that allows them to produce macrocyclic polymers via a one-step vinyl polymerization.

  2. Formation of ring-patterned nanoclusters by laser–plume interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivayoganathan, Mugunthan; Tan Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports for the first time a unique study performed to regulate the ring diameter of nanoclusters fabricated during femtosecond laser ablation of solids and a mechanism is proposed for the formation of those ring clusters. The ring nanoclusters are made out of nanoparticles with a range of 10–30 nm. Our experimental studies showed the synthesis of ring nanoclusters with random diameter distribution on metals, nonmetals, and semiconductors, such as titanium, aluminum, glasses, ceramics, graphite, and silicon. To regulate the ring size, the effects of laser parameters, such as wavelength, pulse duration, pulse energy, and repetition rate on the ring diameter are analyzed. The influence of ablated materials and the background gas on ring size is also elaborated in this article. The motion of plume species under the influence of ponderomotive force on free electrons possibly played a key role in the formation of the ring-patterned nanoclusters. This study could help to understand the fundamentals in laser ablative nanosynthesis as well as to produce nanostructures with organized ring diameter that controls the density and porosity of those 3D nanostructures.

  3. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  4. Wavepacket revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez-Bolívar, Salvador; Cordero, Nicolás A; Romera, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the existence of quantum revivals in graphene quantum rings within a simplified model. The time evolution of a Gaussian-populated wavepacket shows revivals in monolayer and bilayer graphene rings. We have also studied this behavior for quantum rings in a perpendicular magnetic field. We have found that revival time is an observable that shows different values for monolayer and bilayer graphene quantum rings. In addition, the revival time shows valley degeneracy breaking. (paper)

  5. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  6. Design of Hierarchical Ring Networks Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    -ring is designed connecting the metro-rings, minimizing fixed link establishment costs of the federal-ring. A branch-and-price algorithm is presented for the design of the bottom layer and it is suggested that existing methods are used for the design of the federal-ring. Computational results are given...

  7. Photometric Analysis of the Jovian Ring System and Modeling of Ring Origin and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully completed the work described in our proposal. The work supported by this grant resulted in the publication of the following paper: Brooks, S. M., L. W. Esposito, M. R. Showalter, and H. B. Throop. 2002. The size distribution of Jupiter's main ring from Galileo imaging and spectroscopy. Icarus, in press. This was also the major part of Dr. Shawn Brooks PhD dissertation. Dr. Brooks gave oral presentations on this work at the Lunar and Planetary Conference, the annual meetings of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, the annual meetings of the European Geophysical Society, the international Jupiter Conference in Boulder, the Jupiter after Galileo and Cassini Conference in Lisbon and to the Working Group in Non-Linear Dynamics in Potsdam, Germany. This work was reviewed in: Esposito, L. W. 2002. Planetary rings. Rep. hog. Phys. 65, 1741-1783. Planetary rings. LASP reprint 874. Online at http://stacks.iop.org/RoPP/65/1741. Dr. Esposito gave presentations at schools and over the internet on the results of this work. Dr. Brooks lectured in undergraduate and graduate classes on Jupiter's rings, and on the meaning of his research. In August 2003, Dr. Shawn Brooks received the Phd degree from the University of Colorado in Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences.

  8. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boling, Xi

    1995-05-18

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).

  9. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Boling.

    1995-01-01

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI)

  10. Reversible decay of ring dark solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toikka, L A; Suominen, K-A

    2014-01-01

    We show how boundary effects can cause a Bose–Einstein condensate to periodically oscillate between a (circular) array of quantized vortex–antivortex pairs and a (ring) dark soliton. If the boundary is restrictive enough, the ring dark soliton becomes long-lived. (paper)

  11. The PEP electron-positron ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The first stage of the positron-electron-proton (PEP) colliding-beam system which has been under joint study by a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory-Stanford Linear Accelerator Center team for the past two years, will be the electron-positron storage ring. The physics justification for the e + e/sup minus/ ring is summarized briefly and the proposed facility is described. The ring will have six arcs having gross radii of about 220 m and six interaction regions located at the centers of straight sections about 130 m long. The longitudinal distance left free for experimental apparatus at the intersection regions will be 20 m. The range of operating beam energies will be from 5 GeV to 15 GeV. The design luminosity at 15 GeV will be 10 32 cm/sup minus 2/s/sup minus 1/, and the luminosity will vary approximately as the square of the beam energy. Alternative methods under consideration for adjusting the beam cross-section are discussed. The designs of the storage ring subsystems and of the conventional facilities including the experimental halls at the interaction regions are described

  12. Unidirectional ring-laser operation using sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss for the...... where lossless second-order nonlinear materials are available. Numerical modeling and experimental demonstration of parametric-induced unidirectional operation of a diode-pumped solid-state 1342 nm cw ring laser are presented.......A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss...

  13. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  14. The Case for Massive and Ancient Rings of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of Voyager and Pioneer 11 results give a mass for Saturn's rings, M = 5 x 10-8 Msat. This is about the mass of Saturn's small moon Mimas. This has been interpreted as a lower limit to the ring mass (Esposito et al 1983), since the thickest parts of the rings were not penetrated by the stellar occultstion, and this calculation assumes an unvarying particle size throughout the rings. Because the rings are constantly bombarded by micrometeroids, their current composition of nearly pure water ice implies such low mass rings must have formed recently. The case is par-ticularly strong for Saturn's A ring, where the data are the best, implying the A ring is less than 10% of the age of the Saturn (Esposito 1986). Cassini results com-pound this problem. UVIS spectra are consistent with either young rings or rings about 10x as massive as the Voyager estimate (Elliott and Esposito (2011). CDA confirms the impacting mass flux is similar to that as-sumed for the pollution calculations (Kempf etal 2015). VIMS analysis of density wave signatures in the B ring gives a value of about 1/3 the Voyager value (Hedmann etal 2016). This VIMS result implies the rings are even younger! The problem is that young rings are very unlikely to be formed recently, meaning that we live in a very special epoch, following some unlikely recent origin… like disruption of a medium sized moon or capture of the fragments of a disrupted comet. This paradox (Charnoz etal 2009) is unre-solved. Alternative interpretations: To take the VIMS results at face value, Saturn's low mass rings must be very young. The optically thick B ring must be made of small, porous or fractal particles. This is hard to understand, since the particles are continually colliding every few hours and temporary aggregates will stir the collision velocities to higher values. An alternative is that we accept the higher mass interpretation of the Pioneer 11 results (Esposito etal 2008) using the granola bar model of Colwell

  15. Properties of tree rings in LSST sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.Y.; Tsybychev, D.; Nomerotski, A.

    2017-01-01

    Images of uniformly illuminated sensors for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope have circular periodic patterns with an appearance similar to tree rings. These patterns are caused by circularly symmetric variations of the dopant concentration in the monocrystal silicon boule induced by the manufacturing process. Non-uniform charge density results in the parasitic electric field inside the silicon sensor, which may distort shapes of astronomical sources. In this study we analyzed data from fifteen LSST sensors produced by ITL to determine the main parameters of the tree rings: amplitude and period, and also variability across the sensors tested at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Tree ring pattern has a weak dependence on the wavelength. However the ring amplitude gets smaller as wavelength gets longer, since longer wavelengths penetrate deeper into the silicon. Tree ring amplitude gets larger as it gets closer to the outer part of the wafer, from 0.1 to 1.0%, indicating that the resistivity variation is larger for larger radii.

  16. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  17. Rings Research in the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. A.; Tiscareno, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The study of planetary ring systems forms a key component of planetary science for several reasons: 1) The evolution and current states of planets and their satellites are affected in many ways by rings, while 2) conversely, properties of planets and moons and other solar system populations are revealed by their effects on rings; 3) highly structured and apparently delicate ring systems may be bellwethers, constraining various theories of the origin and evolution of their entire planetary system; and finally, 4) planetary rings provide an easily observable analogue to other astrophysical disk systems, enabling real “ground truth” results applicable to disks much more remote in space and/or time, including proto-planetary disks, circum-stellar disks, and even galaxies. Significant advances have been made in rings science in the past decade. The highest-priority rings research recommendations of the last Planetary Science Decadal Survey were to operate and extend the Cassini orbiter mission at Saturn; this has been done with tremendous success, accounting for much of the progress made on key science questions, as we will describe. Important progress in understanding the rings of Saturn and other planets has also come from Earth-based observational and theoretical work, again as prioritized by the last Decadal Survey. However, much important work remains to be done. At Saturn, the Cassini Solstice Mission must be brought to a successful completion. Priority should also be placed on sending spacecraft to Neptune and/or Uranus, now unvisited for more than 20 years. At Jupiter and Pluto, opportunities afforded by visiting spacecraft capable of studying rings should be exploited. On Earth, the need for continued research and analysis remains strong, including in-depth analysis of rings data already obtained, numerical and theoretical modeling work, laboratory analysis of materials and processes analogous to those found in the outer solar system, and continued Earth

  18. Small horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decking, W.

    2001-01-01

    The present TESLA damping ring is designed for a normalized horizontal emittance of 8x10 -6 m. γ-γ collisions at the TESLA linear collider will benefit from a further decrease of the horizontal emittance. This paper reviews the processes which limit the horizontal emittance in the damping ring. Preliminary estimates on the smallest horizontal emittance for the present TESLA damping ring design as well as an ultimate limit of the emittance reachable with the TESLA damping ring concept will be given

  19. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  20. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Mesmoudi

    Full Text Available How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called "the dual intertwined rings architecture" that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or "corticotopy". Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs are organized into two large families: 1 a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2 a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1 the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2 relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring. The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This "dual intertwined architecture" suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  2. Resting State Networks' Corticotopy: The Dual Intertwined Rings Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Perlbarg, Vincent; Rudrauf, David; Messe, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Hasboun, Dominique; Cioli, Claudia; Marrelec, Guillaume; Toro, Roberto; Benali, Habib; Burnod, Yves

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called “the dual intertwined rings architecture”) that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or “corticotopy”). Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs) are organized into two large families: 1) a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2) a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1) the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs) as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2) relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring). The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring) through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This “dual intertwined architecture” suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  3. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan William B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a handful of such taxa are known. We developed a topographic model to evaluate whether the geographic barriers that favor processes leading to ring species are common or rare, and to predict where other candidate ring barriers might be found. Results Of the 952,147 geographic barriers identified on the planet, only about 1% are topographically similar to barriers associated with known ring taxa, with most of the likely candidates occurring in under-studied parts of the world (for example, marine environments, tropical latitudes. Predicted barriers separate into two distinct categories: (i single cohesive barriers (2, associated with taxa that differentiate at smaller spatial scales (salamander: Ensatina eschscholtzii; tree: Acacia karroo; and (ii composite barriers - formed by groups of barriers (each 184,000 to 1.7 million km2 in close geographic proximity (totaling 1.9 to 2.3 million km2 - associated with taxa that differentiate at larger spatial scales (birds: Phylloscopus trochiloides and Larus (sp. argentatus and fuscus. When evaluated globally, we find a large number of cohesive barriers that are topographically similar to those associated with known ring taxa. Yet, compared to cohesive barriers, an order of magnitude fewer composite barriers are similar to those that favor ring divergence in species with higher dispersal. Conclusions While these findings confirm that the topographic conditions that favor evolutionary processes leading to ring speciation are, in fact, rare, they also suggest that many understudied natural systems could provide valuable demonstrations of continuous divergence towards the formation of new species. Distinct advantages of the model are that it (i requires no a priori information on the

  4. On (weakly precious rings associated to central polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A. Khashan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Let R be an associative ring with identity and let g(x be a fixed polynomial over the center of R. We define R to be (weakly g(x-precious if for every element a∈R, there are a zero s of g(x, a unit u and a nilpotent b such that (a=±s+u+b a=s+u+b. In this paper, we investigate many examples and properties of (weakly g(x-precious rings. If a and b are in the center of R with b-a is a unit, we give a characterizations for (weakly (x-a(x-b-precious rings in terms of (weakly precious rings. In particular, we prove that if 2 is a unit, then a ring is precious if and only it is weakly precious. Finally, for n∈ℕ, we study (weakly (xⁿ-x-precious rings and clarify some of their properties.

  5. Transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Ring Implantation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tanner, RE

    2018-05-01

    Failed surgical mitral valve repair using an annuloplasty ring has traditionally been treated with surgical valve replacement or repair1. For patients at high risk for repeat open heart surgery, placement of a trans-catheter aortic valve (i.e., TAVI valve) within the mitral ring (i.e., Mitral-Valve-in-Ring, MViR) has emerged as a novel alternative treatment strategy2-5 . We describe our experience of a failed mitral valve repair that was successfully treated with a TAVI valve delivered via the trans-septal approach, and summarise the data relating to this emerging treatment strategy.

  6. Nucleophilic ring opening reactions of aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rabia; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Saleem, Sameera

    2018-05-04

    Aziridine ring opening reactions have gained tremendous importance in the synthesis of nitrogen containing biologically active molecules. During recent years, a great effort has been put forward by scientists toward unique bond construction methodologies via ring opening of aziridines. In this regard, a wide range of chiral metal- and organo-catalyzed desymmetrization reactions of aziridines have been reported with carbon, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, halogen, and other nucleophiles. In this review, an outline of methodologies adopted by a number of scientists during 2013-2017 for aziridine ring opening reactions as well as their synthetic applications is described.

  7. New Main Ring control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs

  8. Ikt og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artiklerne i denne antologi er blevet til på baggrund af masterprojekter udarbejdet i forbindelse med afslutning af Masteruddannelsen i Ikt og læring (MIL). Ideen til antologien kom fra alumner, som fandt det relevant at sætte fokus på den iderigdom, kreativitet og nye viden, der skabes i...... af diverse typer af ikt viser bredden inden for dette spændende felt, som er i konstant udvikling. Antologien henvender sig derfor også bredt til alle, som interesserer sig for ikt og læring, hvad enten der er tale om teoretikere, praktikere, undervisere, studerende, arbejdsgivere og ansatte......, for hvem reflekteret brug af ikt er en del af den daglige praksis i et samfund, hvor livslang læring om noget er på dagsordenen....

  9. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  10. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  11. IAG ring test animal proteins 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Rhee, van de N.E.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The annual ring test for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy was organized by RIKILT - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information

  12. The Fine Structure of Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We study the geometric structure of the boundary of Herman rings in a model family of Blaschke products of degree 3 (up to quasiconformal deformation). Shishikura’s quasiconformal surgery relates the Herman ring to the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial. By studying the regularity properties...

  13. Ring recognition in the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.; Ososkov, G.; Hoehne, C.

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms of ring recognition, a standalone ring finder (using only RICH information) and an algorithm based on the information from vertex tracks are described. The fake ring problem and its solution using a set of two-dimensional cuts or an artificial neural network are discussed. Results of a comparative study are given. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and were then included into the CBM framework for common use

  14. Electronic properties of superlattices on quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, D R; Chaves, A; Ferreira, W P; Farias, G A; Ferreira, R

    2017-04-26

    We present a theoretical study of the one-electron states of a semiconductor-made quantum ring (QR) containing a series of piecewise-constant wells and barriers distributed along the ring circumference. The single quantum well and the superlattice cases are considered in detail. We also investigate how such confining potentials affect the Aharonov-Bohm like oscillations of the energy spectrum and current in the presence of a magnetic field. The model is simple enough so as to allow obtaining various analytical or quasi-analytical results. We show that the well-in-a-ring structure presents enhanced localization features, as well as specific geometrical resonances in its above-barrier spectrum. We stress that the superlattice-in-a-ring structure allows giving a physical meaning to the often used but usually artificial Born-von-Karman periodic conditions, and discuss in detail the formation of energy minibands and minigaps for the circumferential motion, as well as several properties of the superlattice eigenstates in the presence of the magnetic field. We obtain that the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of below-barrier miniband states are reinforced, owing to the important tunnel coupling between neighbour wells of the superlattice, which permits the electron to move in the ring. Additionally, we analysis a superlattice-like structure made of a regular distribution of ionized impurities placed around the QR, a system that may implement the superlattice in a ring idea. Finally, we consider several random disorder models, in order to study roughness disorder and to tackle the robustness of some results against deviations from the ideally nanostructured ring system.

  15. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  16. Small electrostatic storage rings; also for highly charged ions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.; Pedersen, U.V.

    2001-01-01

    Two years ago, a small electrostatic storage ring ELISA (electrostatic ion storage ring, Aarhus) was put into operation. The design of this small 7 m circumference ring was based on electrostatic deflection plates and quadrupoles. This is in contrast to the larger ion storage rings, which are based on magnetic focusing and deflection. The result is a small, relatively inexpensive, storage ring being able to store ions of any mass and any charge at low energy ( -11 mbar resulting in storage times of several tens of seconds for singly charged ions. The maximum number of singly charged ions that can be stored is a few 10 7 . Several experiments have already been performed in ELISA. These include lifetime studies of metastable ions and studies of fullerenes and metal-cluster ions. Lasers are also used for excitation of the circulating ions. Heating/cooling of the ring is possible. Cooling of the ring leads to significantly lower pressures, and correspondingly longer lifetimes. A change of the temperature of the vacuum chambers surrounding the ion beam also leads to a change of the spectrum of the black-body radiation, which has a significant influence on weakly bound negative ions. At the time of writing, at least two other electrostatic storage rings are being built, and more are planned. In the following, the electrostatic storage ring ELISA will be described, and results from some of the initial experiments demonstrating the performance will be shown. The relative merits of such a ring, as opposed to the larger magnetic rings and the smaller ion traps will be discussed. The potential for highly charged ions will be briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  17. Integrity assessment of stationary blade ring for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Yong; Chung, Yong Keun; Park, Jong Jin; Kang, Yong Ho

    2004-01-01

    The inner side between HP stationary blades in no.1 turbine of nuclear power plant A is damaged by the FAC(Flow Assisted Corrosion) which is exposed to moisture. For many years the inner side is repaired by welding the damaged part, however, the FAC continues to deteriorate the original material of the welded blade ring. In this study, we have two stages to verify the integrity of stationary blade ring in nuclear power plant A. In the stage I, replication of blade ring is performed to survey the microstructure of blade ring. In the stage II, the stress analysis of blade ring is performed to verify the structural safety of blade ring. Throughout the two stages analysis of blade ring, the stationary blade ring had remained undamaged

  18. Method of inspecting Raschig rings by neutron absorption counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.N.; Murri, R.L.; Hume, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron counting method for inspecting borosilicate glass Raschig rings and an apparatus designed specifically for this method are discussed. The neutron count ratios for rings of a given thickness show a linear correlation to the boron oxide content of the rings. The count ratio also has a linear relationship to the thickness of rings of a given boron oxide content. Consequently, the experimentally-determined count ratio and physically-measured thickness of Raschig rings can be used to statistically predict their boron oxide content and determine whether or not they meet quality control acceptance criteria

  19. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  20. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  1. Thomson's Jumping Ring over a Long Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2018-01-01

    The classic jumping ring apparatus consists of a coil with an iron core that extends out of the coil. A copper or aluminum ring placed over the iron core jumps upward when AC power is applied to the coil. In this paper we will examine a modified design of the jumping ring apparatus, called the "long-coil design." It allows the ring to…

  2. Ring-shaped functions and Wigner 6j-symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, L.G.; Erevanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Erevan

    2006-01-01

    The explicit expression for the ring-shaped matrix connecting the ring-shaped functions relating to different values of the axial parameter is obtained. The connection of this matrix with Wigner 6j-symbols is found out. The motion of quantum particle in the ring-shaped model with the zero priming potential is investigated. The bases of this model, which are factored in spherical cylindrical coordinates, are obtained. The formula generalizing the Rayleigh expansion of a plane wave with respect to spherical waves in the ring-shaped model is deduced [ru

  3. Cancer caused by radioactive gold rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callary, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent cases of skin cancer caused by radioactive gold rings are described. The gold was contaminated with radon daughters from hollow goldseeds used to hold radon, back in the 1930s or possibly later. Other radioactive gold rings are probably being worn. The Canadian AECB offers free testing

  4. Analysis of ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Chung, Yong In; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A total of 83 cases with ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography were radiologically analyzed to determine the specific CT findings of the primary and metastatic brain tumor, inflammatory disease, resolving hematoma, and cerebral infarction. The brief results are as follows. Glioblastoma multiform show a characteristic thick or thin irregular ring enhancement with significant mass effect and surrounding edema. Most of the metastatic tumors also show irregular thick or thin walled ring enhancement with significant surrounding edema. Tumoral hemorrhage was observed in the metastatic melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The brain abscess usually show characteristic thin regular and smooth ring enhancement with moderate peripheral edema. The parasitic cysts also show thin regular ring enhancement with different degree of surrounding edema. Ring enhancement in resolving hematomas and cerebral infarctions usually occurs about 10-30 days after the onset of symptoms, which shows thin and regular ring pattern without significant surrounding edema.

  5. Analysis of ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Chung, Yong In; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1980-01-01

    A total of 83 cases with ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography were radiologically analyzed to determine the specific CT findings of the primary and metastatic brain tumor, inflammatory disease, resolving hematoma, and cerebral infarction. The brief results are as follows. Glioblastoma multiform show a characteristic thick or thin irregular ring enhancement with significant mass effect and surrounding edema. Most of the metastatic tumors also show irregular thick or thin walled ring enhancement with significant surrounding edema. Tumoral hemorrhage was observed in the metastatic melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The brain abscess usually show characteristic thin regular and smooth ring enhancement with moderate peripheral edema. The parasitic cysts also show thin regular ring enhancement with different degree of surrounding edema. Ring enhancement in resolving hematomas and cerebral infarctions usually occurs about 10-30 days after the onset of symptoms, which shows thin and regular ring pattern without significant surrounding edema

  6. Electron beam depolarization in a damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.

    1993-04-01

    Depolarization of a polarized electron beam injected into a damping ring is analyzed by extending calculations conventionally applied to proton synchrotrons. Synchrotron radiation in an electron ring gives rise to both polarizing and depolarizing effects. In a damping ring, the beam is stored for a time much less than the time for self polarization. Spin flip radiation may therefore be neglected. Synchrotron radiation without spin flips, however, must be considered as the resonance strength depends on the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude which changes as the electron beam is radiation damped. An expression for the beam polarization at extraction is derived which takes into account radiation damping. The results are applied to the electron ring at the Stanford Linear Collider and are compared with numerical matrix formalisms

  7. New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P E; Kemp, J C; King, R; Parker, T E; Barbour, M S [Oregon Univ., Eugene (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1980-01-10

    Linear polarimetry of Saturn's rings, obtained through the period of the 1979 opposition, is presented. The polarisation clearly correlates in direction with the plane containing the Sun, planet and Earth, but not the ring plane. The results are consistent with local scattering on the surface of individual ring bodies, covered with frost.

  8. Dynamics of rings around elongated bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Leiva, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Santos Sanz, Pablo; Renner, Stefan; El Moutamid, Maryame; Berard, Diane; Desmars, Josselin; Meza, Erick; Rossi, Gustavo; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Camargo, Julio; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Colas, Francois; Maquet, Lucie; Bouley, Sylvain; Bath, Karl-Ludwig; Beisker, Wolfgang; Dauverge, Jean-Luc; Kretlow, Mike; Chariklo Occultations Team; Haumea Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    Dense and narrow rings are encountered around small bodies like the Centaur object Chariklo, and possibly Chiron. The rings and central bodies can be studied in great details thanks to stellar occultations, which accuracies at the km-level. Here we present new results from three high-quality occultations by Chariklo observed in 2017. They provide new insights on the ring geometry and Chariklo's shape. Data are currently being analyzed, but preliminary results are consistent with a triaxial model for Chariklo, with semi-axes a>b>c, where (a-b) may reach values as large as 10-15 km, depending on the model.Such large values induce a strong coupling between the body and an initial collisional debris disk from which the rings emerged. This coupling stems from Lindblad resonances between the ring particle mean motion and Chariklo's spin rate. We find that the resonances clear the corotation zone (estimated to lie at about 215 km from Chariklo's center) in very short time scales (centuries) and pushes the material well beyond the 3/2 resonance - that lies at an estimated radius of 280 km, thus consistent with the radius of Chariklo's main ring C1R, 390 km.Other cases will be examined in view of multi-chord stellar occultations by Trans-Neptunian Objects successfully observed in 2017, as they provide constraints for the presence of material around these bodies. Results and dynamical implications will be presented.Part of this work has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's H2020 2014-2020 ERC grant Agreement n°669416 "Lucky Star"

  9. The exotic exchange of smoke rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Antti J.

    2006-01-01

    Smoke rings are fascinating, to humans and animals alike. Experienced cigarette smokers blow them for entertainment while dolphins play with air-filled underwater rings that know how to puff. Smoke ring machines can be bought from science gadget shops and Lord Kelvin explains in a paper [Lord Kelvin, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VI (1867), p. 94; reprinted in Philos. Mag. Vol. XXXIV (1867), p. 15] how one can be constructed from a cardboard box. Even Mount Etna [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/696953.stm] and our Sun [http://spacescience.com/headlines/y2000/ast03feb 1 .htm] are known to be sources of huge smoke rings. But a smoke ring is not only fun to watch. It is also an organized structure with the ability to engage in complex acts, best exemplified by the leapfrogging motion of two smoke rings. Here we propose that the leapfrogging actually encodes very important Physics: It is a direct three dimensional generalization of the motion that in the two dimensional context is responsible for exotic exchange statistics which rules the properties of structures and materials such as quantum Hall systems and high-temperature superconductors. By employing very simple and universal concepts with roots in the hydrodynamical Euler equation, the universal law that describes the properties of fluids and gases, we argue that three dimensional exotic exchange statistics is commonplace. Our observations could have far reaching consequences in fluids and gases which are subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, from helium superfluids to Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases and even metallic hydrogen in its liquid phases. (author)

  10. Key cytokines of adaptive immunity are differentially induced in rainbow trout kidney by a group of structurally related geranyl aromatic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Beatriz; Obreque, Javiera; Soto-Aguilera, Sarita; Maisey, Kevin; Imarai, Mónica; Modak, Brenda

    2016-02-01

    Filifolinone is a semi-synthetic terpenoid derivative obtained from Heliotropium filifolium that increases the expression level of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in kidney cells of salmon. Because cytokines are produced in response to a foreign organism and by distinct other signals modulating immune responses, we further studied the potential immunomodulatory effects of a group of structural related terpenoid derivatives from H. filifolium on salmonids to determine the relationship between the chemical structure of the derivatives and their ability to modify cytokine expression and the lymphoid content. The resin and four 3H-spiro 1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane derivatives were tested in vivo in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by quantifying the transcript levels of antiviral and T helper-type cytokines and T and B cells in the kidney. Three of the four terpenoids differ only in the C-7'substituent of the cyclohexane and the presence of the ketone group at this position in Filifolinone appeared responsible of an important up-regulation of IFN-α1, IFN-γ, IL-4/13A and IL-17D in the kidney of the treated trout. In addition, the absence of a methoxy group in carbon 7 of the benzene ring, found in all compounds but not in Folifolinoic acid, produced a significant reduction of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4/13A transcripts. B cells were not affected by the compound treatment but Filifolinoic acid and the resin induced a significant reduction of T cells. Altogether, results showed that immunomodulating responses observed in the trout by effect of 3H-spiro 1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane derivatives is related to the presence of the ketone group in the carbon 7' and the methoxy group in carbon 7 of the benzene ring, being Filifolinone the most active immunostimulatory compound identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  12. Monopole-antimonopole and vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory supports the existence of monopoles, antimonopoles, and vortex rings. In this paper, we would like to present new exact static antimonopole-monopole-antimonopole (A-M-A) configurations. The net magnetic charge of these configurations is always -1, while the net magnetic charge at the origin is always +1 for all positive integer values of the solution's parameter m. However, when m increases beyond 1, vortex rings appear coexisting with these AMA configurations. The number of vortex rings increases proportionally with the value of m. They are located in space where the Higgs field vanishes along rings. We also show that a single-point singularity in the Higgs field does not necessarily correspond to a structureless 1-monopole at the origin but to a zero-size monopole-antimonopole-monopole (MAM) structure when the solution's parameter m is odd. This monopole is the Wu-Yang-type monopole and it possesses the Dirac string potential in the Abelian gauge. These exact solutions are a different kind of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions as they satisfy the first-order Bogomol'nyi equation but possess infinite energy due to a point singularity at the origin of the coordinate axes. They are all axially symmetrical about the z-axis

  13. Lifetime measurement of ATF damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, T.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Zimmermann, F.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the ATF damping ring is the development of technologies for producing a low emittance beam required in future linear colliders such as JLC. The lifetime of the damping ring is very short (typically a few minutes). It is limited by elastic beam-gas scattering along with a small dynamic aperture, and by single intra-beam scattering (Touschek effect). The Touschek lifetime strongly depends upon the charge density of the beam, especially, the size of the vertical emittance. In this paper, the authors report the results of beam lifetime measurements in the ATF damping ring and the estimation of the vertical emittance from these measurements

  14. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA,

  15. Ringed Accretion Disks: Evolution of Double Toroidal Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: daniela.pugliese@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate ringed accretion disks composed of two tori (rings) orbiting on the equatorial plane of a central supermassive Kerr black hole. We discuss the emergence of the instability phases of each ring of the macro-configuration (ringed disk) according to the Paczynski violation of mechanical equilibrium. In the full general relativistic treatment, we consider the effects of the geometry of the Kerr spacetimes relevant to the characterization of the evolution of these configurations. The discussion of ring stability in different spacetimes enables us to identify particular classes of central Kerr attractors depending on their dimensionless spin. As a result of this analysis, we set constraints on the evolutionary schemes of the ringed disks relative to the torus morphology and on their rotation relative to the central black hole and to each other. The dynamics of the unstable phases of this system is significant for the high-energy phenomena related to accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei and the extremely energetic phenomena in quasars, which could be observed in their X-ray emission.

  16. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  17. The earth's ring current - Present situation and future thrusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Particle distributions, currents, and the ring current situation prior to the August 1984 launch of the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) are discussed. CCE results which demonstrate the capability of these new measurements to pursue questions of ring current sources, energization, and transport are presented. Consideration is given to various ring current generation mechanisms which have been discussed in the literature, and a two-step generation process which to a certain extent unifies the previous mechanisms is presented. The first in-situ global observations of ring current decay as obtained through the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge exchange interactions between the ring current and hydrogen geocorona are discussed, as well as the possibility of using the detection of energetic neutral atoms to obtain global images of the earth's ring current.

  18. Persistent currents in an ensemble of isolated mesoscopic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altland, A.; Iida, S.; Mueller-Groelling, A.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the authors calculate the persistent current induced at zero temperature by an external, constant, and homogeneous magnetic field in an ensemble of isolated mesoscopic rings. In each ring, the electrons are assumed to move independently under the influence of a Gaussian white noise random impurity potential. They account for the magnetic field only in terms of the flux threading each ring, without considering the field present in the body of the ring. Particular attention is paid to the constraint of integer particle number on each ring. The authors evaluate the persistent current non-perturbatively, using a generating functional involving Grassmann integration. The magnetic flux threading each ring breaks the orthogonal symmetry of the formalism; forcing us to calculate explicitly the orthogonal-unitary crossover. 24 refs., 1 fig

  19. Estimates of CSR Instability Thresholds for Various Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We review the key predictions and conditions by several authors for the onset of longitudinal instabilities due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and evaluate them numerically for various storage rings, namely the KEKB High Energy Ring (HER) & Low Energy Ring (LER), SuperKEKB HER & LER, old and new designs of the SuperKEKB Damping Ring (DR), SuperB HER & LER, CLIC DR (2009 and 2010 design parameters), SLC DR, and ATF DR. We show that the theoretical uncertainty in the instability onset is at least at the level of 20-30% in bunch intensity. More importantly, we present some doubts about the general applicability for many of these storage rings of some commonly used formulae. To cast further light on these questions, an experiment at lower beam energy on the ATF Damping Ring is proposed.

  20. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  1. Low emittance electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Low-emittance electron (positron) beams are essential for synchrotron light sources, linear collider damping rings, and circular Crab Waist colliders. In this review, the principles and methods of emittance minimization are discussed, prospects for developing relativistic electron storage rings with small beam phase volume are assessed, and problems related to emittance minimization are examined together with their possible solutions. The special features and engineering implementation aspects of various facilities are briefly reviewed.

  2. Optimizing ring-based CSR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; De Santis, S.; Hao, Z.; Martin, M.C.; Munson, D.V.; Li, D.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.D.; Schoenlein, R.; Jung, J.Y.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is a fascinating phenomenon recently observed in electron storage rings and shows tremendous promise as a high power source of radiation at terahertz frequencies. However, because of the properties of the radiation and the electron beams needed to produce it, there are a number of interesting features of the storage ring that can be optimized for CSR. Furthermore, CSR has been observed in three distinct forms: as steady pulses from short bunches, bursts from growth of spontaneous modulations in high current bunches, and from micro modulations imposed on a bunch from laser slicing. These processes have their relative merits as sources and can be improved via the ring design. The terahertz (THz) and sub-THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies between the infrared and the microwave . This boundary region is beyond the normal reach of optical and electronic measurement techniques and sources associated with these better-known neighbors. Recent research has demonstrated a relatively high power source of THz radiation from electron storage rings: coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Besides offering high power, CSR enables broadband optical techniques to be extended to nearly the microwave region, and has inherently sub-picosecond pulses. As a result, new opportunities for scientific research and applications are enabled across a diverse array of disciplines: condensed matter physics, medicine, manufacturing, and space and defense industries. CSR will have a strong impact on THz imaging, spectroscopy, femtosecond dynamics, and driving novel non-linear processes. CSR is emitted by bunches of accelerated charged particles when the bunch length is shorter than the wavelength being emitted. When this criterion is met, all the particles emit in phase, and a single-cycle electromagnetic pulse results with an intensity proportional to the square of the number of particles in the bunch. It is this quadratic dependence that can

  3. Acceleration of compact torus plasma rings in a coaxial rail-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.

    1986-01-01

    They discuss here theoretical studies of magnetic acceleration of Compact Torus plasma rings in a coaxial, rail-gun accelerator. The rings are formed using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and are accelerated by injection of B/sub Theta/ flux from an accelerator bank. After acceleration, the rings enter a focusing cone where the ring is decelerated and reduced in radius. As the ring radius decreases, the ring magnetic energy increases until it equals the entering kinetic energy and the ring stagnates. Scaling laws and numerical calculations of acceleration using a O-D numerical code are presented. 2-D, MHD simulations are shown which demonstrate ring formation, acceleration, and focusing. Finally, 3-D calculations are discussed which determine the ideal MHD stability of the accelerated ring

  4. Acceleration of compact torus plasma rings in a coaxial rail-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss here theoretical studies of magnetic acceleration of Compact Torus plasma rings in a coaxial, rail-gun accelerator. The rings are formed using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and are accelerated by injection of B/sub theta/ flux from an accelerator bank. After acceleration, the rings enter a focusing cone where the ring is decelerated and reduced in radius. As the ring radius decreases, the ring magnetic energy increases until it equals the entering kinetic energy and the ring stagnates. Scaling laws and numerical calculations of acceleration using a O-D numerical code are presented. 2-D, MHD simulations are shown which demonstrate ring formation, acceleration, and focusing. Finally, 3-D calculations are discussed which determine the ideal MHD stability of the accelerated ring

  5. Collective effects in isochronous storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Kim, K.-J.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the collective instabilities in isochronous storage rings using a linac-type analysis. Simple criteria for avoiding the longitudinal and transverse instabilities are developed by employing a two-particle model. Numerical examples show that these conditions do not impose serious performance restrictions for two of the currently proposed isochronous storage rings

  6. Survey and alignment of the Fermilab recycler antiproton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arics, Babatunde O.O.

    1999-01-01

    In June of 1999 Fermilab commissioned a newly constructed antiproton storage ring, the 'Recycler Ring', in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline. The Recycler Ring is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring and is constructed of strontium ferrite permanent magnets. The 3319.4-meter-circumference Recycler Ring consists of 344 gradient magnets and 100 quadrupoles all of which are permanent magnets. This paper discusses the methods employed to survey and align these permanent magnets within the Recycler Ring with the specified accuracy. The Laser Tracker was the major instrument used for the final magnet alignment. The magnets were aligned along the Recycler Ring with a relative accuracy of ±0.25 mm. (author)

  7. Heat transfer behaviors in round tube with conical ring inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, P.

    2008-01-01

    To increase convection heat transfer in a uniform heat flux tube by a passive method, several conical rings used as turbulators are mounted over the test tube. The effects of the conical ring turbulator inserts on the heat transfer rate and friction factor are experimentally investigated in the present work. Conical rings with three different diameter ratios of the ring to tube diameter (d/D = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) are introduced in the tests, and for each ratio, the rings are placed with three different arrangements (converging conical ring, referred to as CR array, diverging conical ring, DR array and converging-diverging conical ring, CDR array). In the experiment, cold air at ambient condition for Reynolds numbers in a range of 6000-26,000 is passed through the uniform heat flux circular tube. It is found that the ring to tube diameter ratio and the ring arrays provide a significant effect on the thermal performance of the test tube. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of conical ring inserts leads to a higher heat transfer rate than that of the plain surface tube, and the DR array yields a better heat transfer than the others. The results are also correlated in the form of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and diameter ratio. An augmentation of up to 197%, 333%, and 237% in Nusselt number is obtained in the turbulent flow for the CR, DR and CDR arrays, respectively, although the effect of using the conical ring causes a substantial increase in friction factor

  8. Storage ring development at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Bittner, J.; Fauchet, A.M.; Johnson, E.D.; Keane, J.; Murphy, J.; Nawrocky, R.J.; Rogers, J.; Singh, O.V.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Transverse Beam Profile Monitor; Bunch Length Measurements in the VUV Storage Ring; Photoelectric Effect Photon Beam Position Monitors; RF Receivers for Processing Electron Beam Pick-up Electrode Signals; Real-Time Global Orbit Feedback Systems; Local Orbit Feedback; Active Interlock System for High Power Insertion Devices in the X-ray Ring; Bunch Lengthening Cavity for the VUV Ring; SXLS Storage Ring Design

  9. Vertically coupled double quantum rings at zero magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Malet, Francesc; Barranco, Manuel; Lipparini, Enrico; Pi, Ricardo Mayol Martí; Climente, Juan Ignacio; Planelles, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Within local-spin-density functional theory, we have investigated the `dissociation' of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum ring artificial molecules at zero magnetic field as a function of inter-ring distance. In a first step, the molecules are constituted by two identical quantum rings. When the rings are quantum mechanically strongly coupled, the electronic states are substantially delocalized, and the addition energy spectra of the artificial molecule resemble thos...

  10. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  11. An Archetype Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the generation of a novel resonator, termed Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP), that exhibits unique features, such as, its use of one plane mirror, allowing the SRFP to be easily fabricated as a symmetrical device. In addition to its unique features, it exhibits advantages of ring and Fabry-Perot resonators: 1) compared to a ring resonator that only allows a transmitted intensity, the Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) supports standing waves, allowing both a reflected and transmitted intensity; 2) the reflected light spectrum of the SRFP resonator is much narrower than similar Fabry-Perot, implying higher finesse.

  12. Lattice design for the CEPC double ring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Su, Feng; Bai, Sha; Zhang, Yuan; Bian, Tianjian; Wang, Dou; Yu, Chenghui; Gao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    A future Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) has been proposed by China with the main goal of studying the Higgs boson. Its baseline design, chosen on the basis of its performance, is a double ring scheme; an alternative design is a partial double ring scheme which reduces the budget while maintaining an adequate performance. This paper will present the collider ring lattice design for the double ring scheme. The CEPC will also work as a W and a Z factory. For the W and Z modes, except in the RF region, compatible lattices were obtained by scaling down the magnet strength with energy.

  13. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  14. A no-reference metric for perceived ringing artifacts in images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Klomp, N.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel no-reference metric that can automatically quantify ringing annoyance in compressed images is presented. In the first step a recently proposed ringing region detection method extracts the regions which are likely to be impaired by ringing artifacts. To quantify ringing annoyance in these

  15. Diamagnetic response in zigzag hexagonal silicene rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Qiao; Tian, Hongyu; Ding, Jianwen; Liu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal silicene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise along the rings. • The large diamagnetic moment is the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons. - Abstract: Hexagonal silicene rings with unusually large diamagnetic moments have been found in a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties. In the presence of effective spin–orbit coupling, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise exhibiting colossal diamagnetic moments, while the spin-down electrons flow clockwise exhibiting colossal paramagnetic moments along the rings. The large diamagnetic moment is thus the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can be modulated by spin–orbit coupling strength and exchange field.

  16. Diamagnetic response in zigzag hexagonal silicene rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: nxu@ycit.cn [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Tian, Hongyu [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Ding, Jianwen [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Liu, Junfeng, E-mail: liu.jf@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • Hexagonal silicene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise along the rings. • The large diamagnetic moment is the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons. - Abstract: Hexagonal silicene rings with unusually large diamagnetic moments have been found in a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties. In the presence of effective spin–orbit coupling, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise exhibiting colossal diamagnetic moments, while the spin-down electrons flow clockwise exhibiting colossal paramagnetic moments along the rings. The large diamagnetic moment is thus the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can be modulated by spin–orbit coupling strength and exchange field.

  17. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Version para el português del texto "One enters through one door and leaves then through another" de annette spiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Otondo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No ano de 2002 a arquiteta suíça Annette Spiro lança, pela Editora Niggli, um livro primoroso sobre a obra de Paulo Mendes, com 37 projetos publicados, fotos novas criadas pela autora e um ensaio crítico de sua autoria sobre o conjunto de projetos publicados, além de uma entrevista com o arquiteto e um simpático prefácio escrito pelo arquiteto Luigi Snozzi. O texto de Annette surpreende pela maneira inédita pela qual analisa as obras do arquiteto, por sua compreensão da cultura brasileira, o que acaba por ampliar o alcance dessa abordagem. O caminho escolhido para efetuar sua análise é a partir dos componentes constitutivos da obra arquitetônica: terreno, cobertura, balanços, pilotis, e constrói um raciocínio sobre a articulação desses elementos no espaço. E assim - apoiada, sobretudo, nos textos do autor inglês Colin Rowe - analisa os projetos sob a ótica da tradição clássica e sua ordenação espacial. Contudo, a autora não se restringe aos aspectos formais ou materiais dos edifícios: concreto aparente, rigor estrutural, apreço pela técnica, características que levariam a uma associação imediata, e talvez superficial, com estilos tais como brutalista, minimalista ou abstracionista. E, sim, explora a relação entre componentes fundamentais de cada projeto: planos horizontais e verticais, a relação com o terreno, a oposição entre cheios e vazios e a luz como elemento constitutivo do espaço.

  20. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  1. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2012-07-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in the same region of parameter space, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the bulk configurations was found to be lower than the microscopic entropy from the CFT. While it is possible that the difference in entropy is due to the bulk and boundary configurations being at different points in the moduli space, it is also possible that the bulk configurations embeddable within the STU model are not the most entropic. New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed in [2]. These black rings are not embeddable within the STU model. In this paper we investigate if these black rings can be entropically dominant over the STU model black rings. We find that the new black rings are always entropically subdominant to the STU-model black rings. However, for small fourth dipole charge these black rings continue to be dominant over the BMPV in a small region of parameters and are thus enigmatic.

  2. Kinetics of tracheid development explain conifer tree-ring structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Fournier, Meriem

    2014-09-01

    Conifer tree rings are generally composed of large, thin-walled cells of light earlywood followed by narrow, thick-walled cells of dense latewood. Yet, how wood formation processes and the associated kinetics create this typical pattern remains poorly understood. We monitored tree-ring formation weekly over 3 yr in 45 trees of three conifer species in France. Data were used to model cell development kinetics, and to attribute the relative importance of the duration and rate of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition on tree-ring structure. Cell enlargement duration contributed to 75% of changes in cell diameter along the tree rings. Remarkably, the amount of wall material per cell was quite constant along the rings. Consequently, and in contrast with widespread belief, changes in cell wall thickness were not principally attributed to the duration and rate of wall deposition (33%), but rather to the changes in cell size (67%). Cell enlargement duration, as the main driver of cell size and wall thickness, contributed to 56% of wood density variation along the rings. This mechanistic framework now forms the basis for unraveling how environmental stresses trigger deviations (e.g. false rings) from the normal tree-ring structure. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Space Weather Effects Produced by the Ring Current Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, Natalia; Jaynes, Allison; Liemohn, Michael

    2017-11-01

    One of the definitions of space weather describes it as the time-varying space environment that may be hazardous to technological systems in space and/or on the ground and/or endanger human health or life. The ring current has its contributions to space weather effects, both in terms of particles, ions and electrons, which constitute it, and magnetic and electric fields produced and modified by it at the ground and in space. We address the main aspects of the space weather effects from the ring current starting with brief review of ring current discovery and physical processes and the Dst-index and predictions of the ring current and storm occurrence based on it. Special attention is paid to the effects on satellites produced by the ring current electrons. The ring current is responsible for several processes in the other inner magnetosphere populations, such as the plasmasphere and radiation belts which is also described. Finally, we discuss the ring current influence on the ionosphere and the generation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC).

  4. SOR-RING: an electron storage ring dedicated to spectroscopy, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, H.; Miyahara, T.; Sato, S.; Watanabe, M.; Mitani, S.

    1976-01-01

    A 300 MeV electron storage ring to be used exclusively as a synchrotron radiation source for spectroscopy has been constructed in Institute for Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo, Tanashi. Its useful spectral range lies between 40 and 2200 A. The 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of INS currently being operated for high energy particle experiments serves as an injector. Electron beams are extracted from the synchrotron at 300 MeV, transported about twenty meters, and injected to the ring one pulse per second. In the test operation a current of 10 mA was stored with a lifetime of one hour, while the design goal determined by the Touschek effect is 100 mA with one hour, for operation in 300 MeV. Increase of operating energy up to 375 MeV is feasible with a minor modification of the present design. (auth.)

  5. COOL DUST IN THE OUTER RING OF NGC 1291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, J. L.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Skibba, R.; Montiel, E.; Crocker, A.; Calzetti, D.; Donovan Meyer, J.; Sandstrom, K.; Walter, F.; Groves, B.; Meidt, S. E.; Johnson, B. D.; Hunt, L.; Aniano, G.; Draine, B.; Murphy, E. J.; Armus, L.; Dale, D. A.; Galametz, M.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine Herschel Space Observatory images of one nearby prototypical outer ring galaxy, NGC 1291, and show that the ring becomes more prominent at wavelengths longer than 160 μm. The mass of cool dust in the ring dominates the total dust mass of the galaxy, accounting for at least 70% of it. The temperature of the emitting dust in the ring (T = 19.5 ± 0.3 K) is cooler than that of the inner galaxy (T = 25.7 ± 0.7 K). We discuss several explanations for the difference in dust temperature, including age and density differences in the stellar populations of the ring versus the bulge.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs. Prolonged seizure episodes known as non-convulsive status epilepticus also appear to be characteristic of ring chromosome ... K, Takahashi Y. Ring chromosome 20 and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. A new epileptic syndrome. Brain. 1997 Jun;120 ( ...

  7. Vortex formation in narrow ferromagnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaeui, M; Vaz, C A F; Lopez-Diaz, L; Bland, J A C

    2003-01-01

    The high-symmetry ring geometry is shown to exhibit a wide range of intriguing magnetostatic and magnetodynamic properties, which we survey in this topical review. We consider first the patterning and deposition techniques, which are used to fabricate ring structures (diameters between 0.1 and 2 μm) and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages. The results of direct nanoscale imaging of the novel magnetization configurations present in rings with different geometrical parameters (including discs) are discussed. These results give valuable insight into the influence of the magnetic anisotropies governing the magnetic states. The different types of domain walls that arise are compared quantitatively to micromagnetic simulations. The magnetodynamic switching between the different magnetic states is described in detail. In particular we elaborate on the different geometry-dependent magnetic switchings, since the different transitions occurring allow us to determine which energy terms govern the reversal process. We discuss a process by which fast (sub-ns) and controlled switching can be achieved, therefore making rings an attractive geometry for applications, in addition to studying fundamental issues of nanomagnetism. (topical review)

  8. 3′,6′-Bis(ethylamino-2′,7′-dimethyl-2-{2-(E-[(thiophen-2-ylmethylideneamino]ethyl}spiro[isoindoline-1,9′-xanthen]-3-one methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C33H34N4O2S·CH3OH, was prepared as a spirolactam ring formation of rhodamine 6 G dye for comparison with a ring-opened form. The xanthene and spirolactam rings are approximately planar [r.m.s. deviations from planarity = 0.122 (3 and 0.072 (6 Å, respectively]. The dihedral angles formed by the spirolactam and thiophene rings with the xanthene ring system are 89.7 (6 and 86.5 (2°, respectively. The crystal structure features N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  9. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  10. Electrically charged dilatonic black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling

  11. Dynamical black rings with a positive cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    We construct dynamical black ring solutions in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell system with a positive cosmological constant and investigate the geometrical structure. The solutions describe the physical process such that a thin black ring at early time shrinks and changes into a single black hole as time increases. We also discuss the multiblack rings and the coalescence of them.

  12. Rashba diamond in an Aharonov-Casher ring

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2011-10-07

    Spin interference due to Rashba spin-orbit interaction(SOI) in a ballistic two-dimensional electron gas ring conductor submitted to a bias voltage is investigated theoretically. We calculate the scattering matrices and differential conductance with lead-ring junction coupling as an adjustable parameter. Due to the interference of electronic waves traversing the ring, the differential conductance modulated by both bias voltage and SOI exhibits a diamond-shaped pattern, thus termed as Rashba diamond. This feature offers a supplementary degree of freedom to manipulate phase interference.

  13. Rashba diamond in an Aharonov-Casher ring

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Spin interference due to Rashba spin-orbit interaction(SOI) in a ballistic two-dimensional electron gas ring conductor submitted to a bias voltage is investigated theoretically. We calculate the scattering matrices and differential conductance with lead-ring junction coupling as an adjustable parameter. Due to the interference of electronic waves traversing the ring, the differential conductance modulated by both bias voltage and SOI exhibits a diamond-shaped pattern, thus termed as Rashba diamond. This feature offers a supplementary degree of freedom to manipulate phase interference.

  14. Proton storage ring summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.

    1977-10-01

    During the week of August 16, 1976 a Workshop was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) on the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNRF). Written contributions were solicited from each of the participants in the Workshop, and the contributions that were received are presented. The papers do not represent polished or necessarily complete work, but rather represent ''first cuts'' at their respective areas. Topics covered include: (1) background information on the storage ring; (2) WNRF design; (3) rf transient during filling; (4) rf capture; (5) beam bunch compression; (6) transverse space charge limits; (7) transverse resistive instability in the PSR; (8) longitudinal resistive instability; (9) synchrotron frequency splitting; (10) E Quintus Unum--off resonance; (11) first harmonic bunching in the storage ring; (12) kicker considerations; (13) beam extraction; (14) ferrite kicker magnets; and (15) E Quintus Unum: a possible ejection scheme

  15. Ring-enhancing spinal cord lesions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Nicholas L; Morris, Padraig P; Weinshenker, Brian G; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Guo, Yong; Pittock, Sean J; Krecke, Karl N; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Wingerchuk, Dean M; Kumar, Neeraj; Flanagan, Eoin P

    2017-03-01

    We assessed the frequency and characteristics of ring-enhancing spinal cord lesions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) myelitis and myelitis of other cause. We reviewed spinal cord MRIs for ring-enhancing lesions from 284 aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG seropositive patients at Mayo Clinic from 1996 to 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) AQP4-IgG seropositivity, (2) myelitis attack and (3) MRI spinal cord demonstrating ring-enhancement. We identified two groups of control patients with: (1) longitudinally extensive myelopathy of other cause (n=66) and (2) myelitis in the context of a concurrent or subsequent diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) from a population-based cohort (n=30). Ring-enhancement was detected in 50 of 156 (32%) myelitis episodes in 41 patients (83% single; 17% multiple attacks). Ring-enhancement was noted on sagittal and axial images in 36 of 43 (84%) ring enhancing myelitis episodes and extended a median of two vertebral segments (range, 1-12); in 21 of 48 (44%) ring enhancing myelitis episodes, the ring extended greater than or equal to three vertebrae. Ring-enhancement was accompanied by longitudinally extensive (greater than or equal to three vertebral segments) T2-hyperintensity in 44 of 50 (88%) ring enhancing myelitis episodes. One case of a spinal cord biopsy during ring-enhancing myelitis revealed tissue vacuolation and loss of AQP4 immunoreactivity with preserved axons. The clinical characteristics of ring-enhancing myelitis episodes did not differ from non-ring-enhancing episodes. Ring-enhancing spinal cord lesions were more common in NMOSD than other causes of longitudinally extensive myelopathy (50/156 (32%) vs 0/66 (0%); p≤0.001) but did not differ between NMOSD and MS (50/156 (32%) vs 6/30 (20%); p=0.20). Spinal cord ring-enhancement accompanies one-third of NMOSD myelitis episodes and distinguishes NMOSD from other causes of longitudinally extensive myelopathies but not from MS. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  16. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2016-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. Stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, that push the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like `straw' that can explain the halo morphology and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; this requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping explains both small and large particles at resonances. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating it as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries

  17. Plutonium in tree rings from France and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrec, J.-P.; Suzuki, T.; Mahara, Y.; Santry, D.C.; Miyahara, S.; Sugahara, M.; Zheng, J.; Kudo, A.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, along with other radionuclide concentrations, was measured in evergreen tree rings from two different locations. This was used as an information source for the past two centuries. Tree rings are a product of annual layers and thus chronological information is clearly visible. Three trees were harvested in 1988-1990: a French white fir (137 years old) and a spruce tree (177 years old) from the France-Germany border near Nancy, France and a sugi (78 years old) from Nagasaki, Japan. The highest 239 + 240 Pu concentration of 30.0 mBq/kg of dry wood was obtained from the tree rings from Nagasaki, located at the centre of the local fallout of the Pu A-bomb detonated in 1945. This concentration peak was, however, observed in tree rings of 1965-67. The concentration was only 2.9 mBq/kg for the tree rings of 1944-46. The contribution of the local fallout on the surface soils from the A-bomb was 181 mBq/cm 2 at the harvested area of the tree, while the contribution of global fallout by many weapons testing was 5.9 mBq/cm 2 (or 3.3% total fallout in the region). The reason for the over 20 year time lag of 239 + 240 Pu uptake by the tree rings is unknown because many factors influence the routes of Pu into the tree rings. Also the chemical form of Pu in surface soils may have been changed by the surrounding environment. The highest concentration in the tree rings from France was 9.4 mBq/kg which is about 31% of Nagasaki 239 + 240 Pu concentration. (author)

  18. Quantum communication through a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Jin, B.-Q.; Korepin, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate quantum communication between the sites of a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions can be achieved by a magnetic flux through the ring. We find that a nonzero twist can improve communication through finite odd-numbered rings and enable high-fidelity multiparty quantum communication through spin rings (working near perfectly for rings of five and seven spins). We show that in certain cases, the twist results in the complete blockage of quantum-information flow to a certain site of the ring. This effect can be exploited to interface and entangle a flux qubit and a spin qubit without embedding the latter in a magnetic field

  19. Ring rolling process simulation for geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Rodolfo; Del Prete, Antonio; Donatiello, Iolanda; Calabrese, Maurizio

    2017-10-01

    Ring Rolling is a complex hot forming process where different rolls are involved in the production of seamless rings. Since each roll must be independently controlled, different speed laws must be set; usually, in the industrial environment, a milling curve is introduced to monitor the shape of the workpiece during the deformation in order to ensure the correct ring production. In the present paper a ring rolling process has been studied and optimized in order to obtain anular components to be used in aerospace applications. In particular, the influence of process input parameters (feed rate of the mandrel and angular speed of main roll) on geometrical features of the final ring has been evaluated. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model for HRR (Hot Ring Rolling) has been implemented in SFTC DEFORM V11. The FEM model has been used to formulate a proper optimization problem. The optimization procedure has been implemented in the commercial software DS ISight in order to find the combination of process parameters which allows to minimize the percentage error of each obtained dimension with respect to its nominal value. The software allows to find the relationship between input and output parameters applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM), by using the exact values of output parameters in the control points of the design space explored through FEM simulation. Once this relationship is known, the values of the output parameters can be calculated for each combination of the input parameters. After the calculation of the response surfaces for the selected output parameters, an optimization procedure based on Genetic Algorithms has been applied. At the end, the error between each obtained dimension and its nominal value has been minimized. The constraints imposed were the maximum values of standard deviations of the dimensions obtained for the final ring.

  20. A note on derivations in semiprime rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vukman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove in this note the following result. Let n>1 be an integer and let R be an n!-torsion-free semiprime ring with identity element. Suppose that there exists an additive mapping D:R→R such that D(xn=∑j=1nxn−jD(xxj−1 is fulfilled for all x∈R. In this case, D is a derivation. This research is motivated by the work of Bridges and Bergen (1984. Throughout, R will represent an associative ring with center Z(R. Given an integer n>1, a ring R is said to be n-torsion-free if for x∈R, nx=0 implies that x=0. Recall that a ring R is prime if for a,b∈R, aRb=(0 implies that either a=0 or b=0, and is semiprime in case aRa=(0 implies that a=0. An additive mapping D:R→R is called a derivation if D(xy=D(xy+xD(y holds for all pairs x,y∈R and is called a Jordan derivation in case D(x2=D(xx+xD(x is fulfilled for all x∈R. Every derivation is a Jordan derivation. The converse is in general not true. A classical result of Herstein (1957 asserts that any Jordan derivation on a prime ring with characteristic different from two is a derivation. A brief proof of Herstein's result can be found in 1988 by Brešar and Vukman. Cusack (1975 generalized Herstein's result to 2-torsion-free semiprime rings (see also Brešar (1988 for an alternative proof. For some other results concerning derivations on prime and semiprime rings, we refer to Brešar (1989, Vukman (2005, Vukman and Kosi-Ulbl (2005.

  1. Development of high-performance sintered friction material for synchronizer ring; Koseino shoketsu synchronizer ring masatsu zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K; Fuwa, Y; Okajima, H; Yoshikawa, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Nakamura, M [Japan Powder Metallurgy Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Increasing vehicle speed and power, high-performance synchronizer ring of manual transmission is required. We develop double layer sintered synchronizer ring for high performance and cost reduction. The main structure is consisted of ferrous sinter for high strength. In this paper, friction materials of sintered synchronizer ring are studied. We can get the good friction and anti-wear property by means of hard particles (FeTi, ZrO2), solid lubricant (Graphite) and suitable porosity in brass sinter matrix. And we also achieve high joining strength between double layers adding Cu-P material. 6 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Radiation safety design for SSRL storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)]. E-mail: khater1@llnl.gov; Liu, James [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In 2003, the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) had upgraded its storage ring to a 3rd generation storage ring (SPEAR3). SPEAR3 is deigned to operate at 500-mA stored beam current and 3-GeV energy. The 234-m circumference SPEAR3 ring utilizes 60-cm-thick concrete lateral walls, 30-cm-thick concrete roof, as well as 60- or 90-cm-thick concrete ratchet walls. A total of 3.5x10{sup 15}e{sup -}/y will be injected into the ring with an injection power of 4W and an injection efficiency of 75%. Normal beam losses occur due to both injection and stored beam operations in the total of 20 low loss as well as 3 high loss limiting apertures. During the 6-min injection period, an instantaneous power loss of 0.05W occurs at each low loss aperture. When averaged over the operational year, the loss of both the injection and the stored beams is equivalent to an average loss of 2mW at each low loss aperture. On the other hand, the average losses in the high loss apertures are 16mW for the injection septum, 47mW for the beam abort dump, and 13mW for the ring stoppers. The shielding requirements for losses in the new ring were based on a generic approach that used both FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code and empirical computer codes and formulae.

  3. Mathematical simulation of bearing ring grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, I. I.; Gorbunova, T. N.; Tumanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests the method of forming a solid finite element model of the bearing ring. Implementation of the model allowed one to evaluate the influence of the inner cylindrical surface grinding scheme on the ring shape error.

  4. Dynamics of long ring Raman fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergey V.; Melnikov, Leonid A.; Mazhirina, Yulia A.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical model for dynamics of long fiber ring Raman laser is proposed. The model is based on the transport equations and Courant-Isaacson-Rees numerical method. Different regimes of a long ring fiber Raman laser are investigated.

  5. CT demonstration of chicken trachea resulting from complete cartilaginous rings of the trachea in ring-sling complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel; Brunelle, Francis; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    We report a 10-month-old infant who presented with tetralogy of Fallot and respiratory disease in whom the suspicion of a ring-sling complex was confirmed by high-resolution CT. CT demonstrated the typical association of left pulmonary artery sling and the ''chicken trachea'' resulting from complete cartilaginous rings of the trachea. (orig.)

  6. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-10-19

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10/sup 12/ antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-01-01

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10 12 antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Fourth-generation storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number

  9. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  10. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  11. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  12. Synthesis of the EF-ring of ciguatoxin 3C based on the [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement and ring-closing olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akiyoshi; Fujiwara, Kenshu; Kawai, Ayako; Kawai, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Takanori

    2007-12-20

    The EF-ring segment of ciguatoxin 3C, a causative toxin of ciguatera fish poisoning, was synthesized in three major steps: 1,4-addition for the C20O-C27 bond connection, chirality transferring anti selective [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement for the construction of the anti-2-hydroxyalkyl ether part, and ring-closing olefin metathesis for the F-ring formation.

  13. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  14. Variable area manifolds for ring mirror heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Albert; Senterfitt, Donald R.

    1988-05-01

    A laser ring mirror assembly is disclosed which supports and cools an annular ring mirror of a high powered laser with a cooling manifold which has a coolant flow design which is intended to reduce thermal distortions of the ring mirror by minimizing azimuthal variations in temperature around its circumference. The cooling manifold has complementary pairs of cooling passages each of which conduct coolant in opposite flow directions. The manifold also houses adjusters which vary the depth between the annular ring mirror and each cooling, and which vary the flow area of the cooling passage to produce a control over the cooling characteristics of the cooling manifold.

  15. Search for electric dipole moments in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenisa Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The JEDI collaboration aims at making use of storage ring to provide the most precise measurement of the electric dipole moments of hadrons. The method makes exploits a longitudinal polarized beam. The existence an electric dipole moment would generate a torque slowly twisting the particle spin out of plan of the storage ring into the vertical direction. The observation of non zero electric dipole moment would represent a clear sign of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Feasiblity tests are presently undergoing at the COSY storage ring Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany, to develop the novel techniques to be implemented in a future dedicated storage ring.

  16. Formalized Linear Algebra over Elementary Divisor Rings in Coq

    OpenAIRE

    Cano , Guillaume; Cohen , Cyril; Dénès , Maxime; Mörtberg , Anders; Siles , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a Coq formalization of linear algebra over elementary divisor rings, that is, rings where every matrix is equivalent to a matrix in Smith normal form. The main results are the formalization that these rings support essential operations of linear algebra, the classification theorem of finitely pre-sented modules over such rings and the uniqueness of the Smith normal form up to multiplication by units. We present formally verified algorithms comput-in...

  17. Linking heterometallic rings for quantum information processing and amusement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timco, Grigore A; Faust, Thomas B; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2011-06-01

    Linking polymetallic cages can be a method for creating new structures and new properties. In this tutorial review we use heterometallic anti-ferromagnetically coupled rings (AF-rings) as exemplars for three approaches that can be used to link cage compounds. The first of three routes involves an ion-pair interaction supported by hydrogen-bonding interactions, which allows the synthesis of hybrid rotaxanes among other materials. The second route involves functionalising the exterior of the AF-ring so that it will act as a Lewis base; complexes involving coordination of pyridine to bridging monometallic and dimetallic fragments are discussed. The third route involves creating a vacancy on one site of the AF-ring, and then using the ring as a Lewis acid. Di-imine ligands can then be used to link the AF-rings into dimers. A brief discussion of the physical properties of these systems is also included.

  18. Electronic de-multipliers II (ring-shape systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.

    1948-09-01

    This report describes a new type of ring-shape fast electronic counter (de-multiplier) with a resolution capacity equivalent to the one made by Regener (Rev. of Scientific Instruments USA 1946, 17, 180-89) but requiring two-times less electronic valves. This report follows the general description of electronic de-multipliers made by J. Ailloud (CEA--001). The ring comprises 5 flip-flop circuits with two valves each. The different elements of the ring are calculated with enough details to allow the transfer of this calculation to different valve types. (J.S.)

  19. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conference on Recent Advances in Commutative Ring and Module Theory & Conference on Rings and Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Sophie; Glaz, Sarah; Tartarone, Francesca; Zanardo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of articles highlighting recent developments in commutative algebra and related non-commutative generalizations. It also includes an extensive bibliography and lists a substantial number of open problems that point to future directions of research in the represented subfields. The contributions cover areas in commutative algebra that have flourished in the last few decades and are not yet well represented in book form. Highlighted topics and research methods include Noetherian and non-Noetherian ring theory, module theory and integer-valued polynomials along with connections to algebraic number theory, algebraic geometry, topology and homological algebra. Most of the eighteen contributions are authored by attendees of the two conferences in commutative algebra that were held in the summer of 2016: “Recent Advances in Commutative Ring and Module Theory,” Bressanone, Italy; “Conference on Rings and Polynomials”  Graz, Austria. There is also a small collection of invite...

  1. Supersymmetric rings in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Redi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of BPS string-like objects obtained by lifting monopole and dyon solutions of N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills theory to five dimensions. We present exact traveling wave solutions which preserve half of the supersymmetries. Upon compactification this leads to macroscopic BPS rings in four dimensions in field theory. Due to the fact that the strings effectively move in six dimensions the same procedure can also be used to obtain rings in five dimensions by using the hidden dimension

  2. Fano resonance and persistent current of a quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yongjian; Liang Xianting

    2004-01-01

    We investigate electron transport and persistent current of a quantum ring weakly attached to current leads. Assuming there is direct coupling (weakly or strongly) between two leads, electrons can transmit by the inter-lead coupling or tunneling through the quantum ring. The interference between the two paths yields asymmetric Fano line shape for conductance. In presence of interior magnetic flux, there is persistent current along the ring with narrow resonance peaks. The positions of the conductance resonances and the persistent current peaks correspond to the quasibound levels of the closed ring. This feature is helpful to determine the energy spectrum of the quantum ring. Our results show that the proposed setup provides a tunable Fano system

  3. CT demonstration of chicken trachea resulting from complete cartilaginous rings of the trachea in ring-sling complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel [University Paris Descartes, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris (France); Brunelle, Francis [University Paris Descartes, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Paris Descartes, Department of Paediatric Cardiovascular Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Paris Descartes, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris (France); University Paris Descartes, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2008-07-15

    We report a 10-month-old infant who presented with tetralogy of Fallot and respiratory disease in whom the suspicion of a ring-sling complex was confirmed by high-resolution CT. CT demonstrated the typical association of left pulmonary artery sling and the ''chicken trachea'' resulting from complete cartilaginous rings of the trachea. (orig.)

  4. Remodeling Mitral Annuloplasty Ring Concept with Preserved Dynamics of Annular Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Søren N; Røpcke, Diana M; Tjørnild, Marcell J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The configuration of the native annulus changes from nearly flat in the diastolic phase to saddle-shaped in the systolic phase. The present study was conducted to test a novel remodeling annuloplasty ring with built-in septal-lateral fixation and commissural axial flexibility so...... as to maintain the change in annular saddle shape. The study aim was to evaluate the in-vivo biomechanical performance of the novel annuloplasty ring, compared with the native valve and a semi-rigid and rigid annuloplasty ring. METHODS: All measurements were performed in vivo using a porcine model. A total of 28...... pigs (bodyweight ca. 80 kg) were randomized to four groups: (i) with no ring; (ii) with a novel remodeling ring; (iii) with a semi-rigid ring (Physio I Ring, Edwards Lifesciences); and (iv) with a rigid ring (Classic Annuloplasty Ring, Edwards Lifesciences). Force measurements were performed using...

  5. The Hi-Ring architecture for datacentre networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on a hierarchical ring-based network architecture (Hi-Ring) for datacentre and short-range applications. The architecture allows leveraging benefits of optical switching technologies while maintaining a high level of connection granularity. We discuss results...

  6. Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie; Manfreda, Allison; Mansour, Kamjou; Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong

  7. Mitral valve stenosis caused by abnormal pannus extension over the prosthetic ring and leaflets after Duran ring mitral annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Junji; Minato, Naoki; Katayama, Yuji; Sato, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    We treated a 61-year-old woman with mitral stenosis caused by pannus formation after Duran ring annuloplasty. Pannus overgrowth on the ring with extension onto both leaflets narrowed the mitral orifice and severely restricted the mobility of the valve leaflets. Mitral valve replacement with a St. Jude Medical mechanical heart valve prosthesis was successfully performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Patients undergoing Duran ring annuloplasty should be followed up with the consideration of possible mitral stenosis caused by pannus extension, as the cause for pannus formation remains unclear.

  8. Quantum lifetime in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1977-02-01

    One of the mechanisms which contribute to beam lifetime in electron storage rings is the quantum emission of energetic photons causing particles to be lost from the rf bucket. This quantum lifetime is among other things important in defining the required aperture in a storage ring. An approximate expression of quantum lifetime, predicted by a one-dimensional model which takes into account only the betatron motion, has been used in most storage ring designs. If the beam is aperture-limited at a position with nonzero dispersion, both the betatron and synchrotron motions have to be included and a two-dimensional model must be used. An exact expression of quantum lifetime for the one-dimensional case and an approximate expression for the two-dimensional case are given

  9. Quantum lifetime in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    One of the mechanisms which contributes to beam lifetime in electron storage rings is the quantum emission of energetic photons causing particles to be lost from the rf bucket. This quantum lifetime is among other things important in defining the required aperture in a storage ring. An approximate expression of quantum lifetime, predicted by a one-dimensional model which takes into account only the betatron motion, has been used in most storage ring designs. If the beam is aperture-limited at a position with nonzero dispersion, both the betatron and synchrotron motions have to be included, and a two-dimensional model must be used. An exact expression of quantum lifetime for the one-dimensional case and an approximate expression for the two-dimensional case are given

  10. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  11. Injection, compression and stability of intense ion-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in pulsed high power ion beam technology make possible the creation of intense ion-rings with strong self-magnetic fields by single pulse injection. Such ion rings have several uses in controlled fusion e.g., to produce a min parallel B parallel magnetic geometry with a mirror ratio much higher than is possible with external conductors. For even stronger ion rings a min parallel B parallel with closed lines of force (ASTRON type) can be created. For this purpose, since the ion energies required are much higher than are available from high power sources, magnetic compression can be utilized to increase the ion energy. The success of this scheme depends critically on the stability of the ion ring. The low frequency perturbations of the ring-plasma system is examined by means of a generalization of the energy principle which established sufficient conditions for stability. The high-frequency micro-instabilities and their nonlinear consequences are discussed in terms of conventional techniques

  12. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  13. Early Clinical Outcomes of Tricuspid Valve Repair with a Tri-Ad Annuloplasty Ring in Comparison with the Outcomes Using an MC³ Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woohyun Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the early clinical outcomes of tricuspid valve annuloplasty (TAP with the Tri-Ad annuloplasty ring for functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR. Methods: From January 2015 to March 2017, 36 patients underwent TAP with a Tri-Ad ring for functional TR. To evaluate the early clinical outcomes of TAP with the Tri-Ad ring, we conducted a propensity score-matched analysis comparing the Tri-Ad and MC³ tri-cuspid annuloplasty rings (n=34 in each group. The follow-up duration was 11.0±7.07 months. Results: There was 1 case of operative mortality (2.8% and no cases of late mortality. Postoperative complications occurred in 15 patients (41%, including acute kidney injury in 6 patients (16%, bleeding requiring reoperation in 4 patients (11%, and low cardiac output syndrome in 4 patients (11%. There were no ring-related complications, such as atrioventricular block or ring dehiscence. The TR grade decreased significantly (from 2.03±1.06 to 1.18±0.92, p<0.01, as did the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (from 43.53±13.84 to 38.00±9.72 mm Hg, p=0.03. There were no cases of severe residual TR, but moderate TR was observed in 3 patients, all of whom had severe TR preoperatively. Severe preoperative TR was also associated with moderate in the univariate analysis (p<0.01. In the propensity score-matched analysis comparing the Tri-Ad and MC³ rings, there was no significant difference in early clinical outcomes. Conclusion: TAP with the Tri-Ad ring corrected functional TR effectively and provided good early clinical and echocardiographic results without ring-related complications. However, severe preoperative TR was associated with moderate or severe residual TR in the immediate postoperative period. A follow-up study is necessary to confirm the stability of this procedure.

  14. Controllable continuous evolution of electronic states in a single quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk; Laroze, David

    2018-02-01

    An intense terahertz laser field is shown to have a profound effect on the electronic and optical properties of quantum rings where the isotropic and anisotropic quantum rings can now be treated on equal footing. We have demonstrated that in isotropic quantum rings the laser field creates unusual Aharonov-Bohm oscillations that are usually expected in anisotropic rings. Furthermore, we have shown that intense laser fields can restore the isotropic physical properties in anisotropic quantum rings. In principle, all types of anisotropies (structural, effective masses, defects, etc.) can evolve as in isotropic rings in our present approach. Most importantly, we have found a continuous evolution of the energy spectra and intraband optical characteristics of structurally anisotropic quantum rings to those of isotropic rings in a controlled manner with the help of a laser field.

  15. Composite correlation filter for O-ring detection in stationary colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G.

    2009-04-01

    O-rings are regularly replaced in aircraft and if they are not replaced or if they are installed improperly, they can result in catastrophic failure of the aircraft. It is critical that the o-rings be packaged correctly to avoid mistakes made by technicians during routine maintenance. For this reason, fines may be imposed on the o-ring manufacturer if the o-rings are packaged incorrectly. That is, a single o-ring must be packaged and labeled properly. No o-rings or more than one o-ring per package is not acceptable. We present an industrial inspection system based on real-time composite correlation filtering that has successfully solved this problem in spite of opaque paper o-ring packages. We present the system design including the composite filter design.

  16. Application of annual ring analyses to the detection of smoke damage. I. A methodical contribution to the treatment of annual ring analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1961-01-01

    Losses in growth of silvicultural stands caused by smoke can be measured by annual ring analysis. The method is advantageous mainly because the annual gains can be checked far into the past and thus compared with gains before the onset of the pollution. Experience gained in the Krusne Hory area of Czechoslovakia with the methodical processing of 2000 annual ring analyses is reviewed. The principal problem was that more than half the trees exposed to pollution failed to grow annual rings. At first no rings are added from the ground up to a certain height; then the defect spreads all the way into the crowns of the affected trees. This observation is of fundamental importance in the calculation of losses in growth gains due to industrial emissions because hitherto the last annual ring next to the bark was always identified with the test year, while in reality a number of annual rings might already have failed to grow due to the effects of pollution. Errors far exceeding permissible limits might have occurred in the analysis.

  17. Experience with a high-brightness storage ring: the NSLS 750 MeV vuv ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.

    1984-01-01

    The NSLS vuv ring is the first implementation of the proposals of R. Chasman and G.K. Green for a synchrotron radiation source with enhanced brightness: its lattice is a series of achromatic bends with two zero-gradient dipoles each, giving small damped emittance; and these bends are connected by straight sections with zero dispersion to accommodate wigglers and undulators without degrading the radiation damping properties of the ring. The virtues of the Chasman-Green lattice, its small betatron and synchrotron emittances, may be understood with some generality; e.g. the electron γm 0 c 2 energy and the number of achromatic bends M sets a lower limit on the betatron emittance of e/sub x/ > 7.7 x 10 -13 γ 2 /M meter-radians. There is strong interest in extrapolation of this type of lattice to 6 GeV and to 32 achromatic bends. The subject of this report is the progress toward achieving performance in the vuv ring limited by the radiation damping parameters optimized in its design. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Connections between Star Cluster Populations and Their Host Galaxy Nuclear Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; de Grijs, Richard; Ho, Luis C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear rings are excellent laboratories for probing diverse phenomena such as the formation and evolution of young massive star clusters and nuclear starbursts, as well as the secular evolution and dynamics of their host galaxies. We have compiled a sample of 17 galaxies with nuclear rings, which are well resolved by high-resolution Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging. For each nuclear ring, we identified the ring star cluster population, along with their physical properties (ages, masses, and extinction values). We also determined the integrated ring properties, including the average age, total stellar mass, and current star formation rate (SFR). We find that Sb-type galaxies tend to have the highest ring stellar mass fraction with respect to the host galaxy, and this parameter is correlated with the ring’s SFR surface density. The ring SFRs are correlated with their stellar masses, which is reminiscent of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. There are striking correlations between star-forming properties (i.e., SFR and SFR surface density) and nonaxisymmetric bar parameters, appearing to confirm previous inferences that strongly barred galaxies tend to have lower ring SFRs, although the ring star formation histories turn out to be significantly more complicated. Nuclear rings with higher stellar masses tend to be associated with lower cluster mass fractions, but there is no such relation for the ages of the rings. The two youngest nuclear rings in our sample, NGC 1512 and NGC 4314, which have the most extreme physical properties, represent the young extremity of the nuclear ring age distribution.

  19. The naked toy model of a jumping ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical model of the well-known jumping ring—in fact an improved version of that system--as well as the experimental results that validate the model. Particular attention is paid to the magnetic driving force, whose explicit dependences upon the phase, amplitude and frequency of the exciting current we manage to separate experimentally and plot, so that it becomes evident how the magnetic force on the ring actually arises and evolves in time. We are able to measure not only the large Foucault currents that arise in the ring, but also the magnetic field generated by the ring itself in spite of the presence of the comparable magnetic field in which the ring moves.

  20. Photochemical fate and eco-genotoxicity assessment of the drug etodolac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passananti, Monica [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand (ICCF) UMR 6296, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Lavorgna, Margherita [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Iesce, Maria Rosaria, E-mail: iesce@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); DellaGreca, Marina [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Brigante, Marcello [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand (ICCF) UMR 6296, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Criscuolo, Emma [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Cermola, Flavio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Isidori, Marina, E-mail: marina.isidori@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    The photochemical behavior of etodolac was investigated under various irradiation conditions. Kinetic data were obtained after irradiation of 10{sup −4} M aqueous solutions by UVB, UVA and direct exposure to sunlight. The Xenon lamp irradiation was used in order to determine the photodegradation quantum yield under sun-simulated condition (ϕ{sub sun}). The value was determined to be = 0.10 ± 0.01. In order to obtain photoproducts and for mechanistic purposes, experiments were carried out on more concentrated solutions by exposure to sunlight and to UVA and UVB lamps. The drug underwent photooxidative processes following an initial oxygen addition to the double bond of the five membered ring and was mainly converted into a spiro compound and a macrolactam. Ecotoxicity tests were performed on etodolac, its photostable spiro derivative and its sunlight irradiation mixture on two different aquatic trophic levels, plants (algae) and invertebrates (rotifers and crustaceans). Mutagenesis and genotoxicity were detected on bacterial strains. The results showed that only etodolac had long term effects on rotifers although at concentrations far from environmental detection values. A mutagenic and genotoxic potential was found for its derivative. - Highlights: • Photochemical transformation of etodolac occurs in the environment. • Etodolac was slightly toxic in the long term for some aquatic organisms. • A mutagenic and genotoxic potential was found for etodolac photostable derivative.

  1. The behavior of the planetary rings under the Kozai Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucerquia, M. A.; Ramírez, C. V.; Zuluaga, J. I.

    2017-07-01

    Rings are one of the main feature of almost all giant planets in the Solar System. Even though thousands of exoplanets have been discovered to date, no evidence of exoplanetary rings have been found despite the effort made in the development and enhancing of techniques and methods for direct or indirect detection. In the transit of a ringed planet, the dynamic of the ring itself could play a meaningful role due to the so called Kozai Mechanism (KM) acting on each particle of it. When some specific initial conditions of the ring are fulfilled (as a ring inclination greater than ˜ 39°), KM generates short periodic changes in the inclination and eccentricity of each particle, leading to a meaningful characteristic collective behavior of the ring: it changes its width, inclination and optical depth. These changes induce periodic variations on the eclipsed area of the parent star, generating slight changes in the observed transit signal. Under this mechanism, light curves depths and shapes oscillate according to the fluctuations of the ring. To show this effect we have performed numerical simulations of the dynamic of a system of particles to asses the ring inclination and width variations over time. We have calculated the expected variations in the transit depth and finally, we have estimated the effect on the light curve of a hypothetical ringed exoplanet affected by the KM. The detection of this effect could be used as an alternative method to detect/confirm exoplanetary rings, and also it could be considered as a way to explain anomalous light curves patterns of exoplanets, as the case of KIC 8462852 star.

  2. Superconducting proton ring for PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, E.

    1979-01-01

    A powerful new facility for colliding beam physics could be provided by adding a proton storage ring in the range of several hundred GeV to the electron-positron storage ring PETRA at DESY. This can be achieved in an economic way utilizing the PETRA tunnel and taking advantage of the higher magnetic fields of superconducting magnets which would be placed above or below the PETRA magnets. A central field of 4 Tesla in the bending magnets corresponds to a proton energy of 225 GeV. (orig.)

  3. Atmospheric effects on the photovoltaic performance of hybrid perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sheikh, Arif D.

    2015-06-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted lots of attention in the photovoltaic community due to their escalating efficiency and solution processability. The most efficient organometallic mixed-halide sensitized solar cells often employ 2,2′7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the hole-transporting material. In this work, we investigated the effect of different atmospheric storage conditions, particularly vacuum, dry nitrogen, and dry air, on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-MeOTAD solar cells. We found that spin coating of spiro-MeOTAD in an oxygen atmosphere alone was not adequate to functionalize its hole-transport property completely, and our systematic experiments revealed that the device efficiency depends on the ambient atmospheric conditions during the drying process of spiro-MeOTAD. Complementary incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE), light absorption and photoluminescence quenching measurements allowed us to attribute the atmosphere-dependent efficiency to the improved electronic characteristics of the solar cells. Furthermore, our Fourier transform infrared and electrical impedance measurements unambiguously detected modifications in the spiro-MeOTAD after the drying processes in different gas environments. Our findings demonstrate that proper oxidization and p-doping in functionalizing spiro-MeOTAD play a very critical role in determining device performance. These findings will facilitate the search for alternative hole-transporting materials in high-performance perovskite solar cells with long-term stability.

  4. Containing Ebola at the Source with Ring Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Merler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches. We find that ring vaccination can successfully contain an outbreak for values of the effective reproduction number up to 1.6. Through an extensive sensitivity analysis of parameters characterising the readiness and capacity of the health care system, we identify interventions that, alongside ring vaccination, could increase the likelihood of containment. In particular, shortening the time from symptoms onset to hospitalisation to 2-3 days on average through improved contact tracing procedures, adding a 2km spatial component to the vaccination ring, and decreasing human mobility by quarantining affected areas might contribute increase our ability to contain outbreaks with effective reproduction number up to 2.6. These results have implications for future control of Ebola and other emerging infectious disease threats.

  5. The Dynamical History of Chariklo and Its Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Jeremy [Hazard Community and Technical College, Community College Drive, Hazard, KY 41701 (United States); Horner, Jonti; Marsden, Stephen C. [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, West Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350 (Australia); Hinse, Tobias C., E-mail: jeremy.wood@kctcs.edu [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedukdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    Chariklo is the only small solar system body confirmed to have rings. Given the instability of its orbit, the presence of rings is surprising, and their origin remains poorly understood. In this work, we study the dynamical history of the Chariklo system by integrating almost 36,000 Chariklo clones backward in time for 1 Gyr under the influence of the Sun and the four giant planets. By recording all close encounters between the clones and planets, we investigate the likelihood that Chariklo’s rings could have survived since its capture to the Centaur population. Our results reveal that Chariklo’s orbit occupies a region of stable chaos, resulting in its orbit being marginally more stable than those of the other Centaurs. Despite this, we find that it was most likely captured to the Centaur population within the last 20 Myr, and that its orbital evolution has been continually punctuated by regular close encounters with the giant planets. The great majority (>99%) of those encounters within 1 Hill radius of the planet have only a small effect on the rings. We conclude that close encounters with giant planets have not had a significant effect on the ring structure. Encounters within the Roche limit of the giant planets are rare, making ring creation through tidal disruption unlikely.

  6. Understanding the Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite-Spirobifluorene Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Wentao; Liao, Cheng; Mei, Jun

    2017-11-03

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells with remarkable power conversion efficiency have attracted much attention in recent years. However, there still exist many problems with their use that are not completely understood, and further studies are needed. Herein, the hole-transport layer dependence of the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells is investigated in detail. It is found that devices freshly prepared using pristine 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) and Li-doped spiro-OMeTAD as hole-transport layers exhibit S-shaped current density-voltage curves with poor fill factors. The devices show progressively improved fill factors and efficiencies upon exposure to air, which is attributed to air-induced conductivity improvement in the spiro-OMeTAD layer. After introducing a cobalt salt dopant (FK209) into the spiro-OMeTAD layer, the corresponding devices show remarkable performance without the need of air exposure. These results confirm that the dopant not only increases the conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD layer, but also tunes the surface potential, which helps to improve charge transport and reduce the recombination loss. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....

  8. Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an n-dimensional local field in the sense of. Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case n = 0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  9. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  10. Ion-ion collisions and ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowat, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Improved understanding of fundamental ion-ion interactions is expected to emerge from research carried out with ion storage rings. In this short survey the significant advantages and unique features that make stored ions useful targets for collision experiments are reviewed and discussed. It is pointed out that improvements to existing ion-ion experiments, as well as qualitatively new experiments, should occur over the next few years as ion storage rings become available for atomic physics. Some new experiments are suggested which are difficult if not impossible with present-day technology, but which seem feasible at storage rings facilities. (orig.)

  11. Vanishing of cohomology over Cohen–Macaulay rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Winther; Holm, Henrik Granau

    2012-01-01

    A 2003 counterexample to a conjecture of Auslander brought attention to a family of rings—colloquially called AC rings—that satisfy a natural condition on vanishing of cohomology. Several results attest to the remarkable homological properties of AC rings, but their definition is barely operational......, and it remains unknown if they form a class that is closed under typical constructions in ring theory. In this paper, we study transfer of the AC property along local homomorphisms of Cohen–Macaulay rings. In particular, we show that the AC property is preserved by standard procedures in local algebra. Our...

  12. Plasma properties of quasi-one-dimensional ring

    CERN Document Server

    Shmelev, G M

    2001-01-01

    The plasma properties of the quasi-one-dimensional ring in the threshold cases of low and high frequencies, corresponding to the plasma oscillations and dielectric relaxation are studied within the frames of the classical approach. The plasma oscillations spectrum and the electron dielectric relaxation frequency in the quasi-one-dimensional ring are calculated. The plasmons spectrum equidistance is identified. It is shown , that in contrast to the three-dimensional case there takes place the dielectric relaxation dispersion, wherefrom there follows the possibility of studying the carriers distribution in the quasi-one-dimensional rings through the method of the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy

  13. ring i arbejdslivet – arbejdslivets pædagogik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2012-01-01

    kapitel på nogle årsager til den nye interesse for læring i arbejdslivet og på, hvordan denne læring relaterer sig til læring i formaliseret uddannelse. Læringsmulighederne i både det traditionelle industriarbejde og moderne vidensarbejde diskuteres. Endelig introduceres forskellige begreber om...

  14. On the tsunami model of the origin of multi-ring basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zengyuan; Zhang Bin; Chen Daohan.

    1990-03-01

    By use of the theory of shallow water waves generated by an impulsive pressure, the tsunami theory of the origin of multi-ring basins is rediscussed and an approximate formula used for calculating the ring location is derived. From the computed ring spacing of three multi-ring basins on the moon (Orientale, Moscoviense and Serenitatis South), it is shown that the tsunami model can only be applied to the area within the IV ring which signifies the rim of the excavated basin and the end of the fluidized region. In the frame of the tsunami model, no explanation for ring spacing is equally plausible for exterior rings as well as interior ones. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  15. Z ring as executor of bacterial cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajkovic, Alex; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2006-01-01

    It has become apparent that bacteria possess ancestors of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins. FtsZ, the ancestral homologue of tubulin, assembles into a cytoskeletal structure associated with cell division, designated the Z ring. Formation of the Z ring represents a major point of both spatial and temporal regulation of cell division. Here we discuss findings concerning the structure and the formation of the ring as well as its spatial and temporal regulation.

  16. A Bacon Tone Ring on an Open-Back Banjo

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Head taps on a new Goodtime banjo rim fitted with a reproduction Bacon Professional ff tone ring are contrasted with a new Goodtime, a 2002 Goodtime, and a 1999 Goodtime fitted with a 1/4′′ diameter brass ring. Conclusions: The 1/4" ring does what’s commonly imagined, the upgrades to the Goodtime over the years are not merely cosmetic, and the Bacon ring’s biggest effect is to damp head ringing and suppress high harmonics. Detailed comparisons of the new Goodtimes with and without the Bacon r...

  17. Conductance of closed and open long Aharonov-Bohm-Kondo rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Komijani, Yashar

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the finite temperature linear dc conductance of a generic single-impurity Anderson model containing an arbitrary number of Fermi liquid leads, and apply the formalism to closed and open long Aharonov-Bohm-Kondo (ABK) rings. We show that, as with the short ABK ring, there is a contribution to the conductance from the connected four-point Green's function of the conduction electrons. At sufficiently low temperatures this contribution can be eliminated, and the conductance can be expressed as a linear function of the T matrix of the screening channel. For closed rings we show that at temperatures high compared to the Kondo temperature, the conductance behaves differently for temperatures above and below vF/L , where vF is the Fermi velocity and L is the circumference of the ring. For open rings, when the ring arms have both a small transmission and a small reflection, we show from the microscopic model that the ring behaves like a two-path interferometer, and that the Kondo temperature is unaffected by details of the ring. Our findings confirm that ABK rings are potentially useful in the detection of the size of the Kondo screening cloud, the π /2 scattering phase shift from the Kondo singlet, and the suppression of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations due to inelastic scattering.

  18. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, V. A.; Karpunin, V. V.; Mironova, K. I.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings is investigated. An analytical expression for the magnetic moment as a function of the magnetic field flux through the one-dimensional quantum rings is obtained. This expression has the oscillation character. The oscillation period is equal to one flux quanta.

  20. Use of a marshmallow bolus for evaluating lower esophageal mucosal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, D J; Kelley, T F; Chen, M Y; Gelfand, D W; Wu, W C

    1991-07-01

    Sixty-three patients (35 women, 28 men; mean age 55 yr) with lower esophageal mucosal ring shown radiographically were examined with a semi-solid bolus consisting of a portion of a standard marshmallow. The most common symptom was dysphagia, present in 46 (73%) patients. Impaction of the marshmallow bolus by the ring occurred in 40 (63%) of the 63 patients, and produced symptoms in 27 (68%) of these 40 patients. Nine (14%) rings were detected radiographically only with a solid bolus; eight of these patients had dysphagia and seven rings were 20 mm or less in caliber. Impaction related to ring caliber, and was found in all 17 (100%) rings that were 13 mm or less in diameter, in 17/24 (71%) 14- to 19-mm rings, and in 6/22 (27%) rings 20 mm or more in caliber. Endoscopy in 23 patients detected 16 (70%) rings, and also depended on ring caliber: less than or equal to 13 mm, 6/6 (100%); 14-19 mm, 5/9 (56%); greater than or equal to 20 mm, 5/8 (63%). Marshmallow impaction occurred in 17 (74%) of 23 patients who had endoscopy; three of the 23 patients had normal endoscopy. In conclusion, radiographic examination supplemented by the use of a marshmallow bolus best detects lower esophageal mucosal ring.