Contemporary spirituality discourses tend to assume that a canopy of light and love overarches all spiritual pathways. Unfortunately, the dark side of humanity cannot be spirited away so easily, and aberrations of personal spiritual development, interpersonal spiritual relationships and new spiritual movements can often be traced to the denial, repression and return of our dark side. Transpersonal psychology offers a way of approaching, reframing and redeeming the unconscious depths of our psyche, with its metaphors of shadows and daimons on the one hand, and its therapeutic practices for symbolically containing and transcending polarities on the other. In its absence, any spirituality which eulogises holistic growth is likely to engender the reverse effect.
Bruce, Anne; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita
Despite growing interest in spiritual matters throughout society, definitions and descriptions of spirituality seem incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. In this article, the authors consider the possibility that such incompleteness is perhaps necessary and welcomed in addressing spirituality. In particular, they investigate the challenges of using metaphor and metonymic approaches to "languaging" spirituality. By exploring these figures of speech they hope to diversify how nurses articulate deeply personal and perhaps enigmatic human phenomena such as spirituality. Metaphoric language uses everyday structures to help make sense of complex, emotional, and abstract experience. Whereas metaphor creates substitutive relationships between things and provides insights into conceptualizing spirituality, metonymy and metonymic writing establish relationships of contiguity. Whereas metaphor functions to represent and facilitates understanding and feelings about spirituality, metonymy disrupts while opening possibilities of moving beyond binary thinking. Attending to language and its various ontological assumptions opens diverse and potentially more inclusive possibilities.
Idström, Anna; Falzett, Tiber FM
When the last speaker of a language dies, s/he takes to oblivion the memories, associations and the rich imagery this language community has once lived by. The cultural heritage encoded in conventional linguistic metaphors, handed down through generations, will be lost forever. This volume consists of fifteen articles about metaphors in endangered languages, from Peru to Alaska, from India to Ghana.The empirical data demonstrate that the assumptions of contemporary cognitive linguistic theory about "universal" metaphors and the underlying cognitive processes are still far from plausible, since
Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju
The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of death metaphors seen by 133 undergraduate nursing students through open questionnaires and collage artworks, using qualitative content analysis in Korea. The 4 themes emerged: "rest-physical," "fear-psychological," "separating-social," and "new life-spiritual."
Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Marshman, Sophia
Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most renowned and read sociologists in contemporary Continental European sociology. Throughout his lifelong work, he has provided the discipline with numerous outstanding and substantial theoretical analyses and interpretations of modernity and postmodernity......, globalisation and individualisation, the Holocaust and human suffering, etc. A relatively overlooked aspect of Bauman's sociology is his alternative methodological stance lingering somewhere between social science and literature. The most prominent feature of his methodological arsenal is the metaphor....... In this article, the authors delineate and discuss Bauman's metaphors and the contribution to sociology of these literary devices. Concomitantly, the present ‘case study' of Bauman's metaphors also raises more general discussions of the relationship between social science and literature, fact and faction, poetic...
up particular gendered subject positions. The Danish financial sector is one in which the traditional male occupation of top-managerial positions is being challenged by an increasing number of women. The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of how in the pursuit of a career, men...... and women in the financial sector metaphorically and discursively construct career possibilities and constraints as well as to assess the extent to which this may influence their chances of obtaining a managerial position. The data for the analysis consist of three sets of focus group data obtained...
Chinwe R. Ezeifeka
Full Text Available Abstract writing presents problems to budding academics, especially in keeping to the generic structure and the requisite word counts by the various publishers. The article focuses on grammatical metaphor as a systemic resource for achieving proficiency in research abstract writing. Borrowing from Halliday and Matthiessen’s semantic domains beyond the clause and Halliday’s theorizing of the language of science, the article explores the various forms of transferences made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements and things, involving downgrading of linguistic units from higher semantic domains to lower ones. The resulting nominalization is seen as the single most powerful resource for effecting grammatical metaphor of the ideational type through its capacity for lexical packing. The article analyzes five randomly selected undergraduate research abstracts that exhibited an obvious lack of awareness of this systemic resource. By focusing on the sequences of figures from each abstract, comprising various numbers of clause nexuses, the article demonstrates how the judicious use of nominalization can simultaneously achieve word economy and information density, which are obvious marks of proficiency in this academic genre, and strongly recommends this grammatical strategy for students and budding academics.
Ivie, Stanley D.
Metaphor is a critical tool for thought. Lying at the heart of every systematic body of knowledge are three root metaphors--mechanism, organism, and mind. Historically, schools of philosophy--realism, naturalism, and idealism--have grown up around these metaphors. The root metaphors and their corresponding philosophies provide the paradigms…
Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.
Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.
Grodal, Torben Kragh
The article analyzes the difference between vision-cued metaphors and language-cued metaphors and discusses how brain processes might provide different affordances for making verbal metaphors and making visual metaphors. Visual communication possess complex and concrete salient information whereas...... language is abstract and may need metaphors to provide qualia salience. Visual communication has difficulties in constructing salient metaphors. The point is demonstrated by analyses of a number of film metaphors....
Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A
Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.
Full Text Available Investigations of metaphorical meaning constitution and meaning (in- variance have revealed the significance of semantic and semiotic domains and the contexts within which they function as basis for the grounding of metaphorical meaning. In this article some of the current views concerning the grounding of metaphorical meaning in experience and embodiment are explored. My provisional agreement with Lakoff, Johnson and others about the “conceptual” nature of metaphor rests on an important caveat, viz. that this bodily based conceptual structure which lies at the basis of linguistic articulations of metaphor, is grounded in a deeper ontic structure of the world and of human experience. It is the “metaphorical” (actually “analogical” ontological structure of this grounding that is of interest for the line of argumentation followed in this article. Because Johnson, Lakoff and other’s proposal to ground metaphorical meaning in embodiment and neural processes is open to being construed as subjectivist and materialist, I shall attempt to articulate the contours of an alternative theory of conceptual metaphor, meaning and embodiment which counteracts these possibilities. This theory grounds metaphorical meaning and meaning change in an ontological and anthropological framework which recognises the presence and conditioning functioning of radially ordered structures for reality. These categorisations in which humankind, human knowledge and reality participate, condition and constrain (ground analogical and metaphorical meaning transfer, cross-domain mappings, and blends in cognition and in language, provide the basis for the analogical concepts found in these disciplines.
Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information
Marien van den Boom
In this paper we turn to the field of innovation management and the use of metaphors to address the question: what kind of alternative metaphors and narratives have some open-innovation organizations introduced highlighting and fostering knowledge-intensive organizational change? First we draw a
I. Boot (Inge)
textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the
Sandra Pereira Bernardo
Full Text Available Based on conceptual metaphor theory (LAKOFF, (2002 ; KÖVECSES, 2010b, metaphorical or potentially metaphorical expressions found in the Banco de Dados Interacionais (RONCARATI, 1996 a volume that contains transcripts of conversations recorded between November 1989 and January 1991 totaling about 270 minutes, are analyzed. Lasting between 5 and 30 minutes, the 13 conversations that make up this volume were segmented in 9927 intonational units (CHAFE, 1988; Du Bois et alii, 1992. Of these units, 82 metaphorical expressions were found that reveal source and target domains widely reported in the literature: PERSON, EMOTION, OBJECT, HUMAN BODY, ECONOMY and ANIMAL. This study confirms assumptions about the theory of conceptual metaphor, in their original linguistic manifestations (or not, with respect to the specifics of their conceptualization contexts in real talk.
On the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the first cognitive-semantic theory of metaphor – Metaphors We Live By (1980) – this paper presents a communication-oriented perspective on the practice of metaphor analysis. Through discussion of contemporary metaphor theories, it identifies a numb...
Crystal Meletiou; Johann-Albrecht Meylahn
Previous research conducted on the topic of workplace spirituality seems to indicate that workers often associate spirituality in the workplace with their personal religious orientations. This article, however, presents an alternative approach to the understanding of workplace spirituality. In this article, the contemporary hospitality industry is presented as two metaphorical stage worlds, a front-stage world and a back-stage world, where actors perform the play of hospitality. Each of these...
Carger, Chris Liska
The "patient" metaphor still thrives in teaching. Carl Rogers' concept of client, connoting a collaborative rather than directive relationship, may be more useful to conceptualize the relationship between teachers and students. (SK)
Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.
the biological sciences of their time. If we track the evolution of “economic biology” over time, it turns out that most extensions and elaborations of the metaphor carry subtle but strong traces of their approximate historical provenance. More generally, a historical perspective enables one to see the metaphors...... underlying economic reasoning as flexible and dynamic processes, rather than as fixed and static systems....
Rogers, Melanie; Wattis, John
Spirituality is an important aspect of holistic care that is frequently overlooked. This is because of difficulties in conceptualising spirituality and confusion about how it should be integrated into nursing care. This article explores what is meant by spirituality and spiritually competent practice. It examines attitudes to spirituality, describes factors that might affect the integration of spirituality into nursing care and offers practical guidance to equip nurses to incorporate spirituality into their practice.
This article explores the concept of embodied spirituality from early Celtic traditions through the British medieval mystic Julian of Norwich to the present day. A "high theology" of the body in early Christianity and early Christian understandings of the relation among body, soul and spirit gave way to the influences of Greek thought with its…
Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K.
Conceptual metaphor theory suggests that knowledge is structured around metaphorical mappings derived from physical experience. Segregated processing of object properties in sensory cortex allows testing of the hypothesis that metaphor processing recruits activity in domain-specific sensory cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging…
This paper presents an empirical study of metaphor recognition by means of an underlining task in a famous Bob Dylan song, "Hurricane". The paper develops a three-dimensional approach to metaphor processing, in which metaphors are assumed to have linguistic, conceptual, and communicative functions
Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.
Möring, Sebastian Martin
) but consists of abstract geometrical shapes instead. In Game Studies some authors tend to call the less detailed and more abstract aspects of simulation games “metaphorical” (e.g. Crawford 2003, 29–31; Salen and Zimmerman 2004, 423; Juul 2005, 170–175; Bogost 2011, 17). Most often they apply a distinction...... drawn from the field of rhetoric between literal and non-literal speech, of which the latter is often referred to as being metaphorical. Thus, one can say there seem to exist two different kinds of games: (a) detailed, realistic and mimetic simulations and (b) abstract and non-realistic metaphors....... This leads to the following question concerning the representation of love in The Marriage: if The Sims 3 is a more or less detailed and realistic simulation of love relationships, is The Marriage consequently a metaphor? How does The Marriage represent love? My hypothesis is that game love in the case...
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This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.
This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts
This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts
There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the 'classic textbook' algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes fo
This summary is based on a workshop discussion at the conference "Elusive Consumtion", Gothenburg, June 2002. The workshop took it point of departure in a keynote speech held by Richard Wilk, Indiana University, USA, on 'Morals and Metaphors'. Consumption is not an exact, but a fuzzy concept. Thus...
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
Hogan, Michael J.
It is a mistake to ignore the scientific study of spirituality. Research examining the structure and function of concepts such as "spirit" and "spirituality" is likely to reveal new insights into the relationship between a functional spirituality and other thinking skills, including creativity. The study of spirituality should not stand alone as a…
Full Text Available This article explores the primordial spirituality of the Bible, as expressed in names, narratives and prayers. It looks at the nomadic families of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob, Lea and Rachel, moving around from Mesopotamia via Canaan into Egypt and vice versa (see Gn 11:31–32; 12:4–5; 27:43; 28:10; 29:4; Gn 24 and 29–31. It analyses their experiences, covering the span between birth and death and listens to their parental concerns about education as survival. It also follows their journeys along the margins of the deserts. It shares their community life as it takes shape in mutual solidarity, mercy and compassion.
Today an increasing number of countries around the world have acquired almost the same metaphorical speech about teaching and learning. These theories grown in the Western world are largely produced within the framework of psychology and individualistic oriented educational philosophy and fits with the ever-expanding financial growth paradigm. This article gives a brief reference to an exchange that in the early 1900's took place between two different ways to go in American educational philosophy. Then selects John Dewey's route choice, which took a step away from attempts to create a rationalistic ultimate definition of teaching and learning. Instead, a couple of different metaphors for education are demonstrated that can be used as a basis for pragmatically organizing teaching toward specific purposes and consequences in relation to different cultural traditions.
This article explores the molecularisation of medicine thesis by investigating reports on genetics and molecular medicine in the New England Journal of Medicine. While there has indeed been a large increase in the number of references to molecules in the context of genetics over the last few decades these are mostly embedded in a framework of explanatory metaphors, namely (gene) expressivity, penetrance, regulation and pathways. As most of these metaphors are drawn from the social world it would appear that the molecularisation thesis - that social life is becoming dominated by the molecular - needs to be tempered by the ways in which understanding of that molecular world is itself a reflection of social life. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...... spoken of as a gardener, aguide, or even as a sage on the stage. Similarly, the metaphors of learning as acquisition and the learner as an almost empty vessel are very common concepts in relation to lecturing. Learning is also often understood as participation and collaboration, and these metaphors...
Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.
This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).
Johansen, Svein Tvedt; Espedal, Bjarne; Grønhaug, Kjell; Selart, Marcus
Paper presented at the FINT workshop on trust within and between organizations, Singapore, November 2013 In this article we argue that the experience and effects of trust are influenced by how people construe trust in specific situations – people are not merely passive receptacles of information but bring their own understanding of trust to social situations (Bandura, 1989). Drawing on the literature on conceptual metaphors we describe these as three trust-metaphors. These trust-metaphors ...
Julie A. Zaloudek
Full Text Available Researchers have examined how perceiving marriage as “sacred” or believing God is manifest in marriage is associated with marital functioning and satisfaction, but little is known about how biblical family metaphors (e.g., God is father inform Christians’ interpretations of family relationships. Few studies explore the perspective of individuals who believe in, interpret and apply these metaphors to their relationships. This study uses Hermeneutic Theory to examine how Evangelicals apply the metaphor of Jesus as husband and the church as bride to their intimate relationships and spirituality. Qualitative interviews with 15 Evangelicals explored the meaning, interpretations, and processes of marital relationships in light of the Christ-groom God image. Participants indicated many ways the metaphor was useful: value partners more; invest more in the relationship; strive to demonstrate love, patience, etc. toward partners; and guidance in relationship structuring. They discussed how their couple relationships opened positive and negative possibilities for relating to God. Gender hierarchy and implication that husbands are the “head” or “Christ” figure in marriage caused incongruence for some participants as did the difficulty of comparing a person or human relationship to a spiritual metaphor. Application, implications, and ideas for future research are discussed.
Paul H Thibodeau
Full Text Available The way we talk about complex and abstract ideas is suffused with metaphor. In five experiments, we explore how these metaphors influence the way that we reason about complex issues and forage for further information about them. We find that even the subtlest instantiation of a metaphor (via a single word can have a powerful influence over how people attempt to solve social problems like crime and how they gather information to make "well-informed" decisions. Interestingly, we find that the influence of the metaphorical framing effect is covert: people do not recognize metaphors as influential in their decisions; instead they point to more "substantive" (often numerical information as the motivation for their problem-solving decision. Metaphors in language appear to instantiate frame-consistent knowledge structures and invite structurally consistent inferences. Far from being mere rhetorical flourishes, metaphors have profound influences on how we conceptualize and act with respect to important societal issues. We find that exposure to even a single metaphor can induce substantial differences in opinion about how to solve social problems: differences that are larger, for example, than pre-existing differences in opinion between Democrats and Republicans.
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.
The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors.......The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors....
The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…
Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross
Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…
Conseptual Metaphor related to Emotion. This study investigates whether there are conceptual metaphors occuring in English representing emotion as a whole in British National Corpus (BNC. It analyzes the signals people use to express emotion, looking at the social and cultural functions of emotional language around the world. This study, furthermore, has an arrangement to find the rule of conceptualizing emotion and abstract concept which helps people grasp some difficult aspect, give colour, and make it move.The method used in this study is descriptive qualitative following the Causation Concepts and Force Dynamics principle. The method of analysis is to locate some conceptual metaphors deriving from metaphorical linguistic expressions where they appeared as natural linguistic phenomenon in the way people view and conceptualize the emotion. The data are in the form of written discourse cited from BNC. Results show that there are some conceptual metaphors in it. The study demonstrates that speaking, feeling, reflecting, and identifying are interrelated processes and shows how emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger and love are attached to language. Formally and functionally, the conceptual metaphors come out with the human thought processes, and are largely unconscious. It is a fundamental structure of reasoning that the mind utilizes to make sense of more complicated abstract aspect. Keywords: Concept, conceptual metaphor, emotion, metaphorical linguistic expressions
A spiritual experience for some means a mere fabrication of the mind. For others it is pathological and the consequence of psychiatric disturbances and psychological disorders. Others acknowledge that certain role-players are present when spiritual experiences occur. However, the identification of the involvement of these ...
In Chap. 2, Sharda Nandram provides an overview of issues on spirituality and some definitions of spirituality in both nonacademic settings and academic literature. She makes a distinction between inner and outer spirituality. She explains the types of knowledge based on the work of Sri Aurobindo
Ponds, Kenneth T.
Research on positive psychology indicates that spiritual strengths can be important in helping individuals overcome crisis and loss. Encounters with difficult challenges of life inspire people to think more deeply about their spiritual and religious beliefs and the meaning of life. Spirituality, faith, and religious roots have been shown to be…
Full Text Available Critical junctures in patients′ lives such as chronic illnesses and advanced diseases may leave the persons in a state of imbalance or disharmony of body, mind and spirit. With regard to spirituality and healing, there is a consensus in literature about the influence of spirituality on recovery and the ability to cope with and adjust to the varying and demanding states of health and illness. Empirical evidence suggests that spiritual support may act as an adjunct to the palliative care of those facing advanced diseases and end of life. In this article, the author draws from his empirical work on spirituality and culture to develop a discourse on palliative care and spirituality in both secular and non-secular settings. In doing so, this paper offers some understanding into the concept of spirituality, spiritual needs and spiritual care interventions in palliative care in terms of empirical evidence. Responding to spiritual needs could be challenging, but at the same time it could be rewarding to both healthcare practitioner (HCP and patient in that they may experience spiritual growth and development. Patients may derive great health benefits with improvements in their quality of life, resolutions and meaning and purpose in life. It is hoped that the strategies for spiritual support outlined in this paper serve as practical guidelines to HCPs for development of palliative care in South Asia.
McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte
Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.
Those matters that are judged to be spiritual are seen as especially valuable and important. For this reason it is claimed that nurses need to be able to offer spiritual care when appropriate and, to aid them in this, nurse theorists have discussed the nature of spirituality. In a recent debate John Paley has argued that nurses should adopt a naturalistic stance which would enable them to employ the insights of modern science. Barbara Pesut has criticized this thesis, especially as it is applied to palliative care. This paper re-examines this debate with particular attention to the meaning of 'spirituality' and the justification for accepting spiritual and religious theories. It is argued that when we take into consideration the great diversity among religious and spiritual ideas, the lack of rational means of deciding between them when they conflict, and the practicalities of nursing, we find that a spiritual viewpoint is less useful than a naturalistic one, when offering palliative care.
Ali reza mahmoodi
Full Text Available Abstract Tajziyat ol-Amsar and Tazjiyat ol-Asar which is called Vassaf’s History had been written by Adib Shahab od-Din Fazl ol-Lah Shirazi (born in 663 H. who was titled “Vassaf al-Hazra” and is known as “Vssaf”. The subject of this book is related to the history of “Ilkhanian”, the kings in Iran from 656 to 72 H., the author considers it as a complement for Jahangosha Jovaini’s Histiory. Vassaf’s History is a notable historical-artistic (technical literary work. Euphuism prose or artistic prose is an ornated prose which is a genethliacum according to the different figures of speech, spiritual ornament and speech amplification by various descriptions, illustration, poetry, Persian and Arabic evidences and the usage of different science expressions inter-textually. The artistic prose has a close relationship with poeticalness. Some literary researches equal it to poetry based on emotional and poetical aspects of artistic prose. Vassaf al-Hazra tried to compose Vassaf’s History in order to develop a historical book into a famous and valuable literary-historical text through a poetical language. He has tried to create an ornament, beautiful, poetical and historical- precise text by using figures of speech and literary devices. The goal of this paper is to show the literary beauties of this book. The author tried to show the usage of various metaphors and ambiguity through descriptive and analytic method and conventional eloquence. The result of this research shows the specific attention of Vassaf to the use of poetic image. This application includes extended metaphor, metaphoric prediction and explicit metaphor. The application of metaphor in addition to poetic images create an individual style, this style is not very obvious in other historical-artistic texts because of the position of poetic images, with figurative and unfamiliar words and a lot of evidences. The existence of precise specially in explicit
In the context of Western culture, the archetypical metaphor of life as a dream (or living in a dream) is firstly seen in the Bible as in “the grammar of literary archetypes” (Northrop Frye). It means the fragility of human life, the spiritual drowse or, on the contrary, the spiritual revelation (in the case of the prophetical dream). This article seeks to compare the functions of the metaphor in the works A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1595) by William Shakespeare, La vida es sueno (1635 ) by Pe...
Full Text Available This article investigates the intersection of psychology and spirituality as seen through the works of Thomas Merton, Carl Jung, Fritz Kunkel and Viktor Frankl. The themes of spirituality contextualised in human identity, psychological and spiritual transcendence, and the true self versus false self metaphor are traced through the works of all four thinkers. Epistemological flexibility and holistic thinking and being are suggested as methods for transforming interdisciplinary practitioners, such as pastoral counsellors, spiritual directors and spiritually oriented psychotherapists, in order that they can offer care in a less bifurcated and more integrated way. Practical applications, including a vignette and specific recommendations for broadening and deepening personal and professional integrative practice, are offered.
Full Text Available In response to Steven Shapin’s query in the 'London Review of Books', 'Why such homage?', 'I look at Darwin as a metaphor for creativity, and how Darwin, as evidenced in his own metaphysical notebooks, imagined and performed acts of creation in his pursuit of science. Many of Darwin’s ideas were first conceptualised imaginatively, instinctively almost. In this way, he created concepts, rather than simply discovering them. I include a brief discussion of my experience of rendering Darwin and his life into a portrait in 75 poems and also a discussion of the bio-pic Creation'. As species change over time, but are still related, so a portrait of Darwin is a descendent of the historical man and his words, but is no longer the historical man.
Ángel Martínez García-Posada
Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.
Hermann, Ismene; Haser, Verena; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Ebert, Dieter; Müller-Feldmeth, Daniel; Riedel, Andreas; Konieczny, Lars
This paper investigates automatic processing of novel metaphors in adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and typically developing controls. We present an experiment combining a semantic judgment task and a recognition task. Four types of sentences were compared: Literally true high-typical sentences, literally true low-typical sentences, apt metaphors, and scrambled metaphors (literally false sentences which are not readily interpretable as metaphors). Participants were asked to make rapid decisions about the literal truth of such sentences. The results revealed that AS and control participants showed significantly slower RTs for metaphors than for scrambled metaphors and made more mistakes in apt metaphoric sentences than in scrambled metaphors. At the same time, there was higher recognition of apt metaphors compared with scrambled metaphors. The findings indicate intact automatic metaphor processing in AS and replicate previous findings on automatic metaphor processing in typically developing individuals.
Full Text Available Examples of possible theological influences upon the development of mathematics are indicated. The best known connection can be found in the realm of infinite sets treated by us as known or graspable, which constitutes a divine-like approach. Also the move to treat infinite processes as if they were one finished object that can be identified with its limits is routine in mathematicians, but refers to seemingly super-human power. For centuries this was seen as wrong and even today some philosophers, for example Brian Rotman, talk critically about “theological mathematics”. Theological metaphors, like “God’s view”, are used even by contemporary mathematicians. While rarely appearing in official texts they are rather easily invoked in “the kitchen of mathematics”. There exist theories developing without the assumption of actual infinity the tools of classical mathematics needed for applications (For instance, Mycielski’s approach. Conclusion: mathematics could have developed in another way. Finally, several specific examples of historical situations are mentioned where, according to some authors, direct theological input into mathematics appeared: the possibility of the ritual genesis of arithmetic and geometry, the importance of the Indian religious background for the emergence of zero, the genesis of the theories of Cantor and Brouwer, the role of Name-worshipping for the research of the Moscow school of topology. Neither these examples nor the previous illustrations of theological metaphors provide a certain proof that religion or theology was directly influencing the development of mathematical ideas. They do suggest, however, common points and connections that merit further exploration.
Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens
and post-structuralism. The paper reports on an action research study of a strategy workshop with the strategic team of a Human Resource Management Department in a Danish Municipality. It identifies two structural dimensions and four generic spatial metaphors were identified. Thus, the paper shows......This paper explores the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making. I seek to unfold a conception of the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making that stresses their creative and critical capacity as well as their constraints on strategic thinking. In order to identify the power of spatial...... metaphors in the double meaning of enabling and constraining the commitments and decisions of strategy makers, the approach taken here does not subscribe to the common distinction between pragmatism and post-structuralism. Rather, it seeks a methodological mediation between insights developed by pragmatism...
How do people understand language in which verbs are used metaphorically? For example, how do people understand utterances such as He bathed in her beauty or She punctured his ego in everyday conversation...
María Laura Lupano Perugini
Full Text Available This work pretends to show the actual situation of women in relation to the possibility to gain leadership positions, as well as to explain the metaphors used to represent this situation. The metaphors analyzed are: the concrete wall, glass ceiling and labyrinth (Eagly & Carli, 2007. Also, this work tries to show the transformations which occurs in social groups, social roles and organizations, which favors women to gain the high level positions in those organizations.
The present paper investigates the use of metaphors in media discourse, in particular their role in the fashion magazine Vogue. The purpose of the research paper is to prove that metaphors are frequent stylistic devices that are used to enrich the language of journalistic articles in the fashion magazine Vogue and are central to the way we think about the world. The theoretical research methods comprise the explanation of media discourse in the context of fashion, the theory of functional lan...
I Dewa Putu Wijana
Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.
Brunjes, George B
Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.
Weaver, Meaghann S; Wratchford, Dale
Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years. By giving explicit attention to the contextual norms surrounding adolescence and still recognizing each adolescent-aged patient as unique, palliative care teams can help adolescents transition toward meaningful and sustainable spiritual growth. This paper reviews the clinical and research implications relevant to integrating adolescent spiritual health as part of comprehensive palliative care.
The aim of this work is to create a pedagogical concept of the education for spirituality. I try to map the various views of human spirituality. The spirituality is one of the important philosophy topics, so I dedicated this view most. Next is the psychology, within witch I strive to grab this term in a scientific way. I also notice the changes in the perception of the term spirituality, namely in the relation to the religion, as well as to the usage of this term, which is equivalent to the p...
Full Text Available In this article the concept of spirituality in the educational framework is discussed. The concepts of religion and spirituality are compared. The psychological view of spirituality is presented with a new suggested intelligence type: spiritual intelligence. The educational view emphasizes spiritual sensitivity as a universal human ability that needs to be developed through education. The sociological view of spirituality explores it as an expression of postsecular religiosity. Empirical studies indicate that an increasing number of people now prefer to call themselves ‘spiritual’ rather than ‘religious’. This trend seems to be more present in some European countries, for example, in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Finland. Empirical studies on spirituality are reviewed and discussed. A special emphasis is given to the Finnish research findings related to the spirituality of a new generation or young adults. It is argued that understanding spirituality as an expression of postsecular religiosity gives more room for young adults to participate in communicative action concerning religion. This would promote a discursive religiousness in the spirit of Jürgen Habermas, in which a plurality of religious beliefs and practices are acknowledged and a dialogical and inter-religious approach is advocated.
А А Горностаева
Full Text Available The article is aimed at revealing the current trends in the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, British and American political discourse. Given the diversity of political genres, which makes it difficult to classify them, the article draws on the division into primary, secondary and folklore genres (Bazylev 2005, Sheigal 2000. The study focuses on secondary and folklore genres, as, being informal, they presuppose the use of irony. The data was taken from the speeches of Russian, American and British political leaders (V. Putin, S. Lavrov, D. Trump, B. Obama, N. Farage, B. Johnson and others. Drawing on the works on po-litical discourse (Beard 2001, Budaev 2010, Charteris-Black 2005, Chudinov 2001, Lakoff 2003, Ponton 2016, Van Dijk 2009 and developing a discursive approach to the study of irony which is often conveyed through metaphor (Shilikhina 2008, Alba-Juez 2014, Attardo 2007, Giora 2003, Hutcheon 2005, we have identified the conceptual spheres that are the most active sources of modern metaphors. We have traced the link between the new political trends and new metaphors, as well as existing metaphors which acquire a new ironic meaning. The results of the conducted analysis show the frequency of ironic metaphors, includ-ing aggressive ones, and the diversity of their functions in modern political discourse. The comparative analysis made it possible to reveal some peculiarities of the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, English and American political discourse, which are presupposed by the speakers’ individual characteristics as well as culture specific discursive features.
Full Text Available Previous research conducted on the topic of workplace spirituality seems to indicate that workers often associate spirituality in the workplace with their personal religious orientations. This article, however, presents an alternative approach to the understanding of workplace spirituality. In this article, the contemporary hospitality industry is presented as two metaphorical stage worlds, a front-stage world and a back-stage world, where actors perform the play of hospitality. Each of these worlds observes an ultimate concern: the workers of the front-stage world observe an ultimate concern of unconditional hospitality and guest satisfaction, whereas the workers of the back-stage world observe an ultimate concern of profit. Because these two worlds have opposing ultimate concerns, the current spirituality of the contemporary hospitality industry is one of dissonance and unhappiness. However, as this article will show, there is a possibility for an alternative spirituality � a spirituality of hope and endless possibilities. This spirituality will come to be through the life-giving words of the entire community. The uniqueness of the front-stage world and the back-stage world lies in their respective constructions. Some of the dominant elements that affect each of these worlds are discussed in this article. It will also be shown that the language of religion plays a role in the construction of reality. Understanding these elements is important, for only when hospitality workers recognise the elements that influence the construction of the front-stage world and the back-stage world will they be able to deconstruct and reconstruct these two worlds.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article presents empirical research on the spirituality of the contemporary hospitality industry. The results indicate that the current spirituality of the hospitality industry is a spirituality of dissonance and unhappiness. This research
John R. Rankin
Full Text Available It is widely recognized that there is value in making use of modern Games Technology in Serious Games for educational purposes in the classroom and yet tools that enable teachers to construct such Educational Serious Games (ESGs with minimal programming, artistic, or GT skills are not yet widely available. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of employing the FPS game genre for teaching purposes in the classroom. This is done by starting with a typical FPS game and constructing metaphorical correspondences with the desired ESG category. This mapping highlights the mentality level of FPS games and what it would take to modify them towards the level for real knowledge acquisition as in ESGs. By changing the game world rules to correspond with a classroom study area, we create a metaphorical educational FPS game. In this paper we describe two metaphorical educational FPS games and report on preliminary testing of their use in education. If testing of these metaphorical educational FPS games indicates that they would be beneficial in school classes then we intend to pursue the design of software tools and tutorials to enable teachers to develop their own metaphorical educational FPS games in two months or less.
Vintges, K.; Taylor, D.
Spirituality is an idiosyncratic concept in the work of Foucault, which might best be characterized as an "intensity without a ‘spirit’". To understand Foucault's specific concept of spirituality, we have to take into account some basic themes of his oeuvre, especially of his later work, that is,
Full Text Available Frankl wrote that he needed to find meaning in his life so that he could sustain his life physically, psychologically, and spiritually. In other words, when an individual understands meaning in life, these three dimensions will be in a healthy interaction. The spiritual dimension and the other two dimensions have healing power. Therefore, it will become even easier for a person who is aware of the spiritual side and acts with this consciousness to find meaning. One of the most effective elements in finding meaning is spirituality. Studies have shown that spirituality helps people find meaning in their lives and even has an important effect in defeating the fear of death. In this respect, logotherapy does not reject spirituality and religion but rather encourages their use. This study examines the perspective of religion and spirituality in logotherapy and touches on the work done in this area. The spiritual point of view and applications of logotherapy, which center on finding meaning in the final analysis, are included in this study.
I Nyoman Dayuh
Full Text Available The education paradigm emhasizes the complete balance of intelectual, emotional, and spiritual potencies. The spiritual one becomes more importantwhen the influence of materialism, hedonism, and pragmatism have becoming significant. To face it self-control as taught in Yogasutra Patanjali is crucial.
. But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses...... changes too during the career of the metaphor. Whereas the standard scientific article is central in experimentally researching and explaining the metaphor, a mixture of more popular scientific genres dominate in the innovative conceptual development of the metaphor....
van Leeuwen, René; Schep-Akkerman, Annemiek; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.
Aim. To select 2 appropriate spiritual assessment tools and evaluate these by involving oncology nurses. Background. Spirituality is recognized as an important domain of cancer care. At admission, integration of spiritual assessment seems necessary. It is unclear what kind of spiritual assessment
Leeuwen, R. van; Schep-Akkerman, A.E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van
AIM.: To select 2 appropriate spiritual assessment tools and evaluate these by involving oncology nurses. BACKGROUND.: Spirituality is recognized as an important domain of cancer care. At admission, integration of spiritual assessment seems necessary. It is unclear what kind of spiritual assessment
Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan
Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations.
Full Text Available The paper studies metaphors used in common people’s passages about sadness on the internet site www.searchquotes.com/search/Sadness. The paper also investigates which sadness metaphors listed in Kövecses (2000 and Esenova (2011 are applied in sadness quotations on the site and finds only a small number of them. However, the quotations instantiate a number of other metaphors not listed by the two authors. The difference may be explained by the fact that linguistic expressions in Kövecses’s and Esenova’s corpora describe what people feel when they say they are sad, whereas sadness quotations present what people understand by the concept of sadness.
Scharenskaya Natalya Markovna
Full Text Available The article studies the implementation of the conceptual metaphor of life - in the structure of the novel by A.P. Chekhov “My Life”. It is analyzed the relationship with a number of other complexes of metaphorical story (life - road for the flight, sleep, traced their deployment in object-verbal part of the story and semantic plexus in complex linguistic fabric of the text. This method of the study facilitates the comprehension of the aesthetic values of linguistic units text and its deeper meaning. The analysis proves that the building metaphor in the novel “My Life” gives rise to one of the most important ways of life of public order. It shows the deployment of man’s place in public buildings, describing his lifestyle and determining the spiritual condition as a deathly, devoid of life. In a sign of the horizontal and static position in space it is connected with the metaphor of life - sleep, oblivion. With the introduction of life in the form of road construction metaphor enters into a relationship of opposition: they are differently based on whether the movement and its absence, as well as natural and artificial, life in its ontology and its phenomenology, as the embodiment of the object of human activity. Metaphors flow and flight - to a certain extent overlapping images of a person’s life non-self-managed - together with the idea of life as building a complete picture of real-life human life. It does not change in its essence with all the fullness of its social movements of different kinds of thoughts and ideas that come to replace one another.
conceptual or master metaphors: business as a war, as a game, as a machine, as a human being and as a plant. Each category has a graded structure, with some prototypical category members ... signs (Andersen 2000: 58). For instance, metaphors indicating trends, or up– down metaphors, are highly relevant to the field of ...
Grammatical metaphor is the term used by Halliday to refer to meaning transference in grammar. Instead of the congruent realization of a norm, the metaphorical representation has become the norm in many instances. Metaphorical modes of expression are characteristic of all adult discourses (Halliday, 1994). The shift from congruent to metaphorical…
As George Lakoff and Mark Johnson put it: 'It is as though the ability to comprehend experience through metaphor were a sense, like seeing or touching or hearing, with metaphors providing the only ways to perceive and experience much of the world. Metaphor is as much a part of our functioning as our sense of touch, and ...
Cross, Tracy L.
Metaphors influence one's perceptions and thinking, from fairly inconsequential concepts, to some of the most basic matters. A root metaphor is one that is foundational to other beliefs and conceptions. In this article, the author explores what she believes has become the dominant root metaphor of today's gifted youth. Here, she illustrates some…
This study examined the metaphors that were used by athletes, coaches, faculty members, and sport managers to describe the concept of "sport". Participants (N = 473) were asked to reveal the single metaphor they had in minds in the sense of the concept of sport by the prompt "Sport is like … because …" 22 valid metaphors were…
Metaphor has been understood and explained within at least two different theoretical frameworks. First, metaphor has been considered a special kind of poetic or rhetorical form. In the traditional view of the eighteenth century metaphor was conceived of as mainly a decorative trope, or “a sort of...
Thibodeau, Paul H; Boroditsky, Lera
Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.
Gielen, Joris; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Santosh K
Spiritual care is recognized as an essential component of palliative care (PC). However, patients' experience of spirituality is heavily context dependent. In addition, Western definitions and findings regarding spirituality may not be applicable to patients of non-Western origin, such as Indian PC patients. Given the particular sociocultural, religious, and economic conditions in which PC programs in India operate, we decided to undertake a systematic review of the literature on spirituality among Indian PC patients. We intended to assess how spirituality has been interpreted and operationalized in studies of this population, to determine which dimensions of spirituality are important for patients, and to analyze its ethical implications. In January of 2015, we searched five databases (ATLA, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed) using a combination of controlled and noncontrolled vocabulary. A content analysis of all selected reports was undertaken to assess the interpretation and dimensions of spirituality. Data extraction from empirical studies was done using a data-extraction sheet. A total of 39 empirical studies (12 qualitative, 21 quantitative, and 6 mixed-methods) and 18 others (10 reviews, 4 opinion articles, and 4 case studies) were retrieved. To date, no systematic review on spirituality in Indian PC has been published. Spirituality was the main focus of only six empirical studies. The content analysis revealed three dimensions of spirituality: (1) the relational dimension, (2) the existential dimension, and (3) the values dimension. Religion is prominent in all these dimensions. Patients' experiences of spirituality are determined by the specifically Indian context, which leads to particular ethical issues. Since spiritual well-being greatly impacts quality of life, and because of the substantial presence of people of Indian origin living outside the subcontinent, the findings of our review have international relevance. Moreover, our review illustrates
Crowther, Susan; Hall, Jennifer
Emerging evidence points to childbirth as a spiritually felt meaningful occasion. Although growing literature and development of guidelines charge the midwife to provide spiritual care felt spiritual experiences are not addressed. There is need to revisit contemporary approaches to spiritual care in midwifery lest something of significance becomes lost in policy rhetoric. The aim of this discussion paper is to bring to the surface what is meant by spiritual care and spiritual experiences, to increase awareness about spirituality in childbirth and midwifery and move beyond the constraints of structured defined protocols. The authors' own studies and other's research that focuses on the complex contextual experiences of childbirth related to spirituality are discussed in relation to the growing interest in spiritual care assessments and guidelines. There is a growing presence in the literature about how spirituality is a concern to the wellbeing of human beings. Although spirituality remains on the peripheral of current discourse about childbirth. Spiritual care guidelines are now being developed. However spiritual care guidelines do not appear to acknowledge the lived-experience of childbirth as spiritually meaningful. Introduction of spiritual care guidelines into midwifery practice do not address the spiritual meaningful significance of childbirth. If childbirth spirituality is relegated to a spiritual care tick box culture this would be a travesty. The depth of spirituality that inheres uniquely in the experience of childbirth would remain silenced and hidden. Spiritual experiences are felt and beckon sensitive and tactful practice beyond words and formulaic questions. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.
This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…
White, Margaret; Verhoef, Marja
The role of spirituality in patients' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches to cancer management has hardly been explored. To explore the role of spirituality in cancer management by men with prostate cancer who have declined conventional treatment and are using CAM. This qualitative analysis is part of a longitudinal study to assess decision making by men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use CAM. In-depth interviews were conducted at study entry (n = 29). Themes were presented to participants in focus groups to further explore and validate the interview results. For a subset of participants (n = 10), spirituality emerged as an important theme; therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of the interview data of these men to explore the role of spirituality in cancer management and decision making. Spirituality appeared to influence all aspects of the cancer experience. Most participants intensified their use of spiritual practice after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. These practices included spiritual ceremonies, indigenous healing, prayer, meditation, and use of spiritual imagery. Themes related to the role of spirituality in cancer management include beliefs about Western medicine, the role of spiritual beliefs in treatment decision making, the use of spiritual imager y and metaphor in healing, and the impact of cancer on spirituality. The discussion of these themes draws on quotes and case examples, illustrating how spirituality influenced study participants' response to diagnosis, treatment decision making, and cancer care. Two case examples provide a more in-depth understanding of how some participants incorporated spiritual imagery and metaphor into treatment decision making and cancer care. Ways in which cancer influenced spirituality are also discussed. Having prostate cancer appeared to influence their spirituality by strengthening their links with a spiritual community, increasing feelings of gratitude
Schoeneborn, Dennis; Blaschke, Steffen; Kaufmann, Ina Maria
In this article, the authors discuss critically the use of “anthropomorphic” metaphors in organization studies (e.g., organizational knowledge, learning, and memory). They argue that, although these metaphors are potentially powerful, because of frequent usage they are at risk of becoming taken......-sensitive use of metaphors in organization studies. They illustrate this approach by developing the new metaphor of organizational insomnia, which is informed by recent neuroscientific research on human sleep and its disruptions. The insomnia metaphor provides an alternative way of explaining deficits...... in organizational knowledge, learning, and memory, which originate in a state of permanent restlessness....
Boyd, Fenice B.; Bailey, Nancy M.
Censorship is about restriction and control of intellectual development, and the danger when educators fail to investigate what censorship truly means--for example, by attaching it to metaphors with abundant entailments--is that people will merely "shrug off" the removal of books from libraries and classrooms and fail to see challenges…
Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia
Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and…
Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…
Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating that metaphor is not simply a literary device, but an integral part of everyday language. The Theory of Conceptual Metaphor suggests that our conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical. Concepts arise from our everyday interaction with the world and semantic structure reflects the conceptual structure. Metaphor, therefore, is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Based on these assumptions, we analyzed a terminological dictionary on environmental law in order to find metaphorically used lexical items. Then, for every such item we tried to determine its most literal meaning in another context. In order to do so, we applied the method for identifying metaphor developed by the Pragglejaz Group (2007. The results confirm the pervasiveness of metaphor and indicate how polysemy is motivated. Moreover, there seems to be no clear boundaries between literal and figurative language.
Ekaterina Vladimirovna Isaeva
Full Text Available This work is performed as part of the cognitive-discursive paradigm of modern linguistics. The object of the investigation is the concept “computer virus” and its linguistic representation in a computer virology discourse. The research is based on the texts from the Corpus of Contemporary American English.The first stage of the linguistic and conceptual investigation of “computer virus” is based on Metaphor Investigation Process (MIPVU developed by the Metaphor Lab at VU University Amsterdam. The identification procedure includes the following main steps: reading the text/discourse, acquiring a general understanding of its meaning, selecting lexical units from the text/discourse, and establishing their contextual and contemporary meanings. If the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but can be understood in comparison with it, the lexical unit is marked as metaphorical (Pragglejaz Group 2007.The second stage of the investigation is based on the method of metaphorical modeling, which implies taxonomic categorization, developed by S. Mishlanova (Mishlanova 2002. On the basis of corpus analysis a metaphorical model “computer virus” was constructed. The model represents a taxonomic structure, which includes the basic taxons “man as a social subject,” “man as a biological creature,” and “animal.” The most representative areas of source domains included, “military operation” (represented by such linguistic metaphors as attack, strike, defeat, “diseases” (crippling, succumb, infected, and “interpersonal relations” (be angry at, enter into, want.At the current stage of computer virology development, metaphor plays a very important role as a universal tool for conceptualization and categorization of new knowledge that relies on the preceding experience of the person participating in the cognitive process. The structure of the concept "computer virus" is a hierarchical system, fixing the unscientific
Full Text Available The study assessed the quantity and quality of errors made by schizophrenia patients in understanding and interpretation of the same metaphors, to evaluate metaphor understanding and explanation depending on the type of presentation material, and to analyze the correlation of illness symptoms with metaphor comprehension and explanation. Two groups of participants were examined: a schizophrenia sample (40 participants and a control group (39 participants. Metaphor processing was assessed by the subtests of the Polish version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL. The patients were also evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Schizophrenia patients scored significantly lower in explanation of metaphors, making more incorrect literal and abstract mistakes or providing no answer more frequently. No differences were observed in understanding metaphors; no correlation between symptoms and metaphor processing was obtained. In both groups, picture metaphors were easier to comprehend and written metaphors were easier to comprehend than to explain.
Tiew, Lay Hwa; Creedy, Debra K; Chan, Moon Fai
To investigate nursing students' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Spirituality is an essential part of holistic care but often neglected in practice. Barriers to spiritual care include limited educational preparation, negative attitudes towards spirituality, confusion about nurses' role, perceptions of incompetence and avoidance of spiritual matters. There is limited knowledge about students' perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care. Previous studies have predominantly focused on educational approaches to enhance spirituality. The next generation of clinicians may have different worldviews, cultural beliefs and values about spirituality and spiritual care from current nurses. There is a need to understand students' views and how their spiritual development is shaped in order to inform pre-registration education. A cross-sectional survey of final-year students from three educational institutions in Singapore was conducted from April to August 2010. Data included demographic details and responses on a new composite tool, the Spiritual Care Giving Scale (SCGS). A response rate of 61.9% (n=745 out of 1204) was achieved. The lowest mean score was item 9, "Without spirituality, a person is not considered whole". Highest mean was item 2, "Spirituality is an important aspect of human being". Factor 5 (Spiritual Care Values) had the lowest mean with Factor 2 (Spirituality Perspectives) the highest. Participants considered spirituality as essential to being human; developmental in nature; and vital for individuals' state of well-being. Attributes important for spiritual care were identified. Multivariate analyses showed positive association between participants' scores and institution but not with other variables. Participating student nurses reported a high level of spiritual awareness that was not constrained by age. Students affirmed the importance of spiritual awareness in order to address the spiritual needs of patients. There was some congruence
Yuli Widiana; Roro Arielia Yustisiana
The research is aimed to describe kinds of political metaphors and their metaphorical meanings. Furthermore, the persuasive effect of political metaphors in mass media toward the readers is also analyzed based on certain parameters. The pragmatic equivalent method and the referential equivalent method are applied to analyze the data. The kinds of political metaphors include metaphors with nature as a parable, metaphors with plants as a parable, metaphors with terms from various fields, metaph...
Wittenberg, Elaine; Ragan, Sandra L; Ferrell, Betty
Although spiritual care is considered one of the pillars of palliative care, many health-care providers never receive formal training on how to communicate about spirituality with patients and families. The aim of this study was to explore the spiritual care experiences of oncology nurses in order to learn more about patient needs and nurse responses. A survey was circulated at a communication training course for oncology nurses in June 2015. Nurses recalled a care experience that included the initiation of a spiritual care topic and their response to the patient/family. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nurses reported that communication about spirituality was primarily initiated by patients, rather than family members, and spiritual topics commonly emerged during the end of life or when patients experienced spiritual distress. Nurses' experiences highlighted the positive impact spiritual conversations had on the quality of patient care and its benefit to families. Spiritual communication was described as an important nursing role at the end of patients' lives, and nonverbal communication, listening, and discussing patients' emotions were emphasized as important and effective nurse communication skills during spiritual care conversations. Approximately one-third of nurses in the sample reported sharing their own personal spiritual or religious backgrounds with patients, and they reported that these sharing experiences strengthened their own faith. It is evident that patients want to discuss spiritual topics during care. Study findings illustrate the need to develop a spiritual communication curriculum and provide spiritual care communication training to clinicians.
Smit, Talita C.
Full Text Available Recent research studies in cognitive linguistics (Gibbs, 1999; Kővecses, 2005; Lakoff, 1987; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999 have demonstrated that metaphor is not merely a figure of speech. The findings of these studies have shown that metaphor influences a good deal of how people think as it comprises a specific mental, cross-domain mapping in the conceptual system (Balaban, 1999; Ibarretxe-Antuňanu, 1999; Lakoff, 2006; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980. This article looks at whether employing different conceptual metaphors in different versions of the same business report will have an effect on reader comprehension. A small-scale research study was conducted with a group of second-year university students, in which they were given one of two texts concerning the recovery of the economy. Both texts were adapted from a newspaper report and seeded with metaphors and metaphoric expressions. The multiple-choice questions that followed aimed to determine to what extent the readers’ comprehension and interpretation of the report were influenced by the different conceptual metaphors used. The findings indicate that language that served to introduce the sources or targets directly into the content did not necessarily have an effect on the processing of subsequent metaphors involving these concepts; however, it appeared that the surface patterns of metaphorical discourse did affect the inferences drawn about the different conceptual metaphors. It can thus be concluded that a specific metaphoric framework in written discourse does influence the interpretation of the content.
Zakaria Kiaei, M; Salehi, A; Moosazadeh Nasrabadi, A; Whitehead, D; Azmal, M; Kalhor, R; Shah Bahrami, E
This study aimed to explore the perception of Iranian nurses concerning spiritual care and to reveal any confronted barriers. Although the context of spiritual care is a substantial aspect of holistic care, the delivery of spiritual care has been problematic due to lack of nurses' understanding of this concept. Nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care directly influence their performance as well as their relationships with patients. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with 259 nurses working in hospitals affiliated with Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data were collected using the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale alongside qualitative open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the quantitative data and content analysis for the qualitative data. The overall average for spirituality and spiritual care was 2.84 (score range: 1-4), indicating a moderate mean score. A significant relationship was found between education level and spiritual care. The majority of participants believed that they did not receive enough training in this aspect of care. The main obstacles regarding delivering spiritual care included busy working schedules, insufficient knowledge regarding spiritual care, low motivation, diversity of patients' spiritual needs and feeling 'unqualified' to provide spiritual cares. Consistent with the previous studies, this study has demonstrated that nurses had low confidence to meet the spiritual needs of patients due to lack of knowledge and training in this regard. Iranian nurses' perception of spirituality and spiritual care is moderate, reflecting that they do not receive sufficient training regarding spiritual care. Despite the attention focused on spiritual care in clinical settings in Iran, there remains a significant gap in terms of meeting the spiritual needs of patients in nursing practice. This finding assists nursing clinicians, educators and policy makers to more
patient is reduced to the organ which is diseased: the "kidney. f a i l u r e i n room 206" (Diekema 1989:20) o r the "pump or l i v e r in room 47" (Ibba 1991:607, ..... Radiotherapy uses the metaphors of aerial warfare: g are bombarded with toxic rays. Chemotherapy is chemical s^t^® g using poisons. Treatment aims to k i l l.
Full Text Available The explicit use of metaphor in the EFL classroom has been documented to enhance the communicative skills of learners (Cameron & Low, 1999; Cortazzi & Jin, 1999; Low, 1999; Littlemore & Low, 2006. ESP learners with a technical background, however, are not usually trained on the presence of metaphor in their knowledge field, or on its use. The aim of this paper is to analyze the unprompted use of metaphor in the verbal responses given by a group of Spanish civil engineering undergraduates when depicting visuals related to their area of expertise. The responses of the students were obtained from a questionnaire completed in the classroom which was later crosschecked with the answers given by a group of professional civil engineers. This was done to compare the occurrence of metaphor as a descriptive verbalizer in the academic and the professional contexts. The results confirm the use of general metaphor in both groups, and the use of field-specific metaphor particularly in the professional engineers (in order to avoid confusion with the engineer students group, which appears to suggest the evolving character of metaphor in the civil engineering discourse community. We conclude by highlighting the dynamicity of metaphor in the civil engineering context. From a pedagogic viewpoint, it would be advisable to concentrate on metaphor as a learning feature by considering three main dimensions: conceptual, linguistic and visual. This could be carried out by offering students corpora-driven examples of metaphor visibility in the different civil engineering genres, addressing non-verbal elements, such as sketches, drawings, designs and pictures where metaphor may be used. The theoretical framework for this study draws from conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual integration theory combined with a multimodal approach to metaphor (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Deignan, 2005; Steen, 2007; Fauconnier & Turner, 2008, Forceville, 2010; Kress, 2010.
Möring, Sebastian Martin
concepts in game studies such as simulation and procedural rhetoric? How do concepts and insights of contemporary metaphor theory affect the applicability of the notion of metaphor with regard to games? Drawing on concepts from metaphor theory (in particular the cognitive linguistic view on metaphor), play...... of representation and art which all influenced game studies and argues for an equiprimordial relation between these three concepts. Secondly, this thesis deals with what is termed the metaphor-simulation dilemma which accounts for the observation that in game studies the notion of metaphor is very often used......This doctoral dissertation critically investigates how the concept of metaphor is used with regard to games in game studies. The goal is to provide the field with a self-understanding of its metaphor discourse which has not been researched so far. The thesis departs from the observation...
Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.
Metaphors are approached from the perspective of visual rhetoric. In this paper, the origin of the rhetorical figures is first briefly outlined. Then, rhetorical figures are described and illustrated in relation with web pages. The rhetorical perspective suggests manners in which to express...... the most efficient statement. A web design strategy grounded in rhetoric has been initiated which can guide further research in this domain....
Full Text Available Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are variations of the same core algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms on two corpora of Reuters and the New York Times articles. The paper presents the most comprehensive study of metaphor identification in terms of scope of metaphorical phrases and annotated corpora size. Algorithms' performance in identifying linguistic phrases as metaphorical or literal has been compared to human judgment. Overall, the algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm with 71% precision and 27% averaged improvement in prediction over the base-rate of metaphors in the corpus.
Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WÜLFINGEN, 2007. Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current research on metaphor and gender and sketch the central topics of the cognitive theory of metaphor and develop a revision of this theory. It is hoped that this will enhance further research in metaphor analysis concerning the construction of gender. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167
However, educators seemed to be unprepared and have insufficient knowledge about how to include spirituality in teaching. This review aimed to systematically review previous literature from 2000 to 2013 regarding the content knowledge and teaching strategies used to teach spirituality and spiritual care in health ...
The contextuality or historicity of spirituality is not self-evident. Not until modern times, in Europe, did it become more or less normal to look at spirituality from a historical perspective. It is thus not strange that the historiography of spirituality arose from the nineteenth century. In that time, the historical perspective was ...
Nils G. Holm
Full Text Available How does the popular correspond to the grand terms of the title? Are not mysticism and spirituality something very exclusive, reserved for a few individuals? No they are not, as this presentation of both the author's own studies and the research of others will provide a different picture of these two concepts. Mysticism and spirituality are notions that are very difficult to define. Traditionally mysticism has been regarded as a way to reach the inner dimensions of human life, dimensions where man even achieves unity with the Divine Being. Such traditions have been found in all the major religions, and since the times of William James a hundred years ago, the features of mysticism in various religions have been analysed. Spirituality is a concept that can hold various meanings. It has often been associated with religious traditions where inner life and its growth are emphasized. These include, in particular, various schools, orders and movements that aim at cultivating a deeper spiritual life. In its more recent use, the term spirituality has, to a fairly large extent, been dissociated from religion and has become a notion that seeks to grasp the searching of modern man for ethics and norms in a globalised world, where pollution is accelerating and where stress and entertainment disrupt the inner harmony of people. Keywords
Kiran Lata DANGWAL
Full Text Available Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.
M A Parsons
Full Text Available International attention to scientific data continues to grow. Opportunities emerge to re-visit long-standing approaches to managing data and to critically examine new capabilities. We describe the cognitive importance of metaphor. We describe several metaphors for managing, sharing, and stewarding data and examine their strengths and weaknesses. We particularly question the applicability of a “publication” approach to making data broadly available. Our preliminary conclusions are that no one metaphor satisfies enough key data system attributes and that multiple metaphors need to co-exist in support of a healthy data ecosystem. We close with proposed research questions and a call for continued discussion.
Full Text Available Metaphor has been shown to play an important role in business science discourse. Yet, previous corpus-based studies only investigated a pre-selected list of metaphoric expressions, potentially rendering the analysis incomplete. Furthermore, some studies which only focused on lexis did not analyse how the lexical items may construct business concepts in terms of scenarios. The purpose of this research is to investigate metaphor used to construct business concepts in business research articles. 42 business research articles published in 2009-2010 from five journals ranked in the top-ten according to the 2007 journal impact factors (Thompson Reuters, 2008 constitute the data of this study. Semantic annotation software USAS (Rayson, 2008 was used to assist in the retrieval of metaphoric expressions. Furthermore, manual analysis of concordances was done to find metaphorical expressions that had not been captured by the semantic tags. The analysis of these metaphoric expressions was based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980 and Metaphor Scenario (Musolff, 2006. Data analysis indicates that metaphor constructs business concepts as scenarios which have participants performing actions to reach their goal according to the SOURCE-PATH-GOAL schema of the source domains. At the centre of these scenarios, the BOUNDED SPACE source domain serves as a conceptual space or a setting for each scenario. Other source domains, which are WAR, SPORT, GAME, JOURNEY, MACHINE, LIVING ORGANISM, BUILDING and PHYSICAL FORCES, project the scenarios onto the space, forming interconnected and coherent scenarios of business discourse
Full Text Available The metaphor is a multidisciplinary problem which has been addressed in linguistics as well as in philosophy, psychology, anthropology, etc. In linguistics, the problem of metaphor was dealt with in rhetorics, it occupied a special place in structural linguistics, and it was studied in diverse pragmatic, cognitive and textual analysis. In the present paper, metaphors in Slovene are analyzed from the linguistic point of view: grammatical and syntactic structure (monolexical/polylexical, in praesentia/in absentia, etc., semantic field and semantic transfer and degree of conventionality (ranging from innovative to lexicalized metaphors. The cases are taken from the unconventional linguistic corpus, Razvezani jezik, an online dictionary based on collaborative authorship. Authors can freely add new words (formal neologisms or new meanings of existing ones (semantic neologisms which makes it especially interesting for linguistic innovation research. The results show that zoomorphic metaphors are most common and that there is a significant number of reification metaphors (replacing a living being with an object. Phytomorphic metaphors (related to plants are also present, whereas anthropomorphic ones are scarce. These types of metaphors most often refer to character, personality or human behavior, but also to parts of human body, human actions, etc. The corpus is rich in both, lexicalized, conventional as well as in innovative, so called live metaphors, and it seems that Razvezani jezik, an online database for Slovene, is particularly suitable to register these diverse possibilities and usages.
Spirituality involves a sense of connectedness, meaning making and transcendence. There is abundant published research that focuses on the importance of spirituality to patients and their families during times of illness and distress. However over the last decade there has also been a growing awareness about the importance of considering the need to address peoples’ spiritual needs in the workplace. Engaging in ones own personal spirituality involves connecting with the inner self, becoming m...
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree
The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…
drs. Eelco van den Dool
A methodology for doing research into corporate spirituality should enable us to deal with the religious component of spirituality instead of trying to separate spirituality from religious beliefs, as the positivist school proposes. Waaijman’s phenomenological-dialogical research cycle enables us to
Afrikaner spirituality: A complex mixture. Erna Oliver. Department of Christian Spirituality. Church History and Missiology. University of South Africa. Abstract. The article argues that the perception that Afrikaner spirituality is and has always been founded mainly or only upon the Calvinistic tradition is a misconception.
Azarsa, Tagie; Davoodi, Arefeh; Khorami Markani, Abdolah; Gahramanian, Akram; Vargaeei, Afkham
Nurses' spiritual wellbeing and their attitude toward spirituality and competence of nurses in providing of spiritual care can affect the quality of care in nursing. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual wellbeing, attitude toward spiritual care and its relationship with the spiritual care competence among nurses. This was a correlational descriptive study conducted on 109 nurses working in the Intensive Care Units of Imam Reza and Madani hospitals in 2015, Tabriz, Iran. Data collection tools were a demographic data form and three standard questionnaires including Spiritual Wellbeing Scale, Spirituality and Spiritual Results: The mean score of the spiritual wellbeing was 94.45 (14.84), the spiritual care perspective was 58.77 (8.67), and the spiritual care competence was 98.51 (15.44). The linear regression model showed 0.42 variance between the spiritual care competence scores which were explained by the two aspects of spiritual wellbeing (religious health, existential health) and three aspects of spiritual care perspective (spirituality, spiritual care, personalized care). The spiritual care competence had a positive relationship with spiritual wellbeing and spiritual care perspective. Because of the nature of nursing and importance of close interaction of nurses with patients in ICUs, the higher nurses' SW and the more their positive attitude toward spiritual care, the more they can provide spiritual care to their patients.
Full Text Available The research is aimed to describe kinds of political metaphors and their metaphorical meanings. Furthermore, the persuasive effect of political metaphors in mass media toward the readers is also analyzed based on certain parameters. The pragmatic equivalent method and the referential equivalent method are applied to analyze the data. The kinds of political metaphors include metaphors with nature as a parable, metaphors with plants as a parable, metaphors with terms from various fields, metaphors with common things as a parable, metaphors with particular verbs, and metaphors with particular adjectives. The readers could comprehend political metaphors well although their interest in political news is low. Apparently, the persuasive effect of political metaphors on the public is high. It becomes a trigger for people to take action to create a better political atmosphere.
Avanesyan, Marina O.
Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.
Full Text Available Spirituality involves a sense of connectedness, meaning making and transcendence. There is abundant published research that focuses on the importance of spirituality to patients and their families during times of illness and distress. However over the last decade there has also been a growing awareness about the importance of considering the need to address peoples’ spiritual needs in the workplace. Engaging in ones own personal spirituality involves connecting with the inner self, becoming more self aware of ones humanity and limitations. Engaging with ones personal spirituality can also mean that people begin to greater find meaning and purpose in life and at work. This may be demonstrated in the workplace by collegial relationships and teamwork. Those who engage with their own spirituality also engage more easily with others through a connectedness with other staff and by aligning their values with the respective organization if they fit well with ones personal values. Workplace spirituality is oriented towards self-awareness of an inner life which gives meaning, purpose and nourishment to the employees’ dynamic relationships at the workplace and is eventually also nourished by meaningful work. Exercising ones personal spirituality contributes towards generating workplace spirituality. Essentially acting from ones own personal spirituality framework by being in doing can contribute towards a person becoming a healing and therapeutic presence for others, that is nourishing in many workplaces. Personal spirituality in healthcare can be enhanced by: reflection in and on action; role-modeling; taking initiative for active presence in care; committing oneself to the spiritual dimension of care; and, integrating spirituality in health caregivers’ education. As spirituality is recognized as becoming increasingly important for patients in healthcare, increasing educational opportunities are now becoming available for nurses internationally that
Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Achaso, Romeo H; Cachero, Geifsonne S; Mohammad, Mary Rose A
This study was to explore the perceptions of Filipino nurses' spirituality and the provision of spiritual nursing care. A descriptive, cross-sectional, and quantitative study was adopted for this study. The study was conducted in the Philippines utilizing a convenience sample of 245 nurses. Nurses' Spirituality and Delivery of Spiritual Care (NSDSC) was used as the main instrument. The items on NSDSC with higher mean scores related to nurses' perception of spirituality were Item 7, "I believe that God loves me and cares for me," and Item 8, "Prayer is an important part of my life," with mean scores of 4.87 (SD = 1.36) and 4.88 (SD = 1.34), respectively. Items on NSDSC with higher mean scores related to the practice of spiritual care were Item 26, "I usually comfort clients spiritually (e.g., reading books, prayers, music, etc.)," and Item 25, "I refer the client to his/her spiritual counselor (e.g., hospital chaplain) if needed," with mean scores of 3.16 (SD = 1.54) and 2.92 (SD = 1.59). Nurse's spirituality correlated significantly with their understanding of spiritual nursing care (r = .3376, p ≤ .05) and delivery of spiritual nursing care (r = .3980, p ≤ .05). Positive significant correlations were found between understanding of spiritual nursing care and delivery of spiritual nursing care (r = .3289, p ≤ .05). For nurses to better provide spiritual nursing care, they must care for themselves through self-awareness, self-reflection, and developing a sense of satisfaction and contentment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I
Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.
Spiritualita při léčbě závislosti Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment Lydie Kárová In my work, Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment, I focus on spirituality as a component of personality, which is involved in its formation and development. The work falls into three parts, in the first one I place spirituality into the Czech environment and present its definition, in the second part I look for the role of spirituality in the conception and treatment of addiction and in the third one I p...
Full Text Available This paper addresses two issues: (1 what it is for a metaphor to be either alive or dead and (2 what a metaphor must be in order to be either alive or dead. Both issues, in turn, bear on the contemporary debate whether metaphor is a pragmatic or semantic phenomenon and on the dispute between Contextualists and Literalists. In the first part of the paper, I survey examples of what I take to be live metaphors and dead metaphors in order to establish that there is a phenomenon here to be explained. I then propose an explanation of metaphorical vitality (and by implication of metaphorical death in terms of the dependence of the interpretation of a metaphor on a family or network of expressions specific to its context of utterance. I then argue that only a Literalist account of metaphor — one that posits metaphorical expressions (a la Stern (2000—and not Contextualist and Gricean approaches can accommodate this explanation. Finally, I discuss some objections to my Literalist account and sketch an explanation of types to counter Platonistic objections to my metaphorical expression types.
Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie
Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar  offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…
Although far from mainstream, the concept of spiritual-based leadership is emerging as an inclusive and yet highly personal approach to leadership that integrates a leader’s inner perspectives on identity, purpose, responsibility and success with her or his decisions and actions in the outer worl...
Full Text Available Spirituality is recognized as an important concept in the study and practice of medicine, including occupational therapy. This aligns with occupational therapy’s core value of treating people holistically—mind, body, and spirit. Currently, the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospital Organizations ( JCAHO requires that a spiritual assessment be given to patients on admission. To conduct effective spiritual assessments, occupational therapists must distinguish between religion and spirituality. They also must be aware of their own spiritual beliefs and practices and how those might influence their clinical interactions. This article presents spiritual assessment tools that occupational therapists can use in clinical practice; they range from history taking, to questionnaires, to observation scales. Guidelines are presented for selecting among several spiritual assessments. A case study is presented in which a patient’s faith tradition is being challenged, which could affect the outcome of therapy. Finally, treatment and intervention planning and ethical considerations are discussed.
any given theory rests upon the detailed elaboration of a metaphor which provides its own special brand of insights with regard to the nature of the phenomenon being studied (Morgan, 1979, Okojie 2001). Cybernetics is a metaphorical term deriving from the Greek word meaning “Steersman”, and following Wiener (1961) ...
To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists regarding glaciers were analysed. Students' conceptions were the result of teaching experiments whereby students received instruction about glaciers and ice ages and were then interviewed about their understandings. Scientists' conceptions were based on analyses of textbooks. Accordingly, four conceptual metaphors regarding the concept of a glacier were reconstructed: a glacier is a body of ice; a glacier is a container; a glacier is a reflexive body and a glacier is a flow. Students and scientists differ with respect to in which context they apply each conceptual metaphor. It was observed, however, that students vacillate among the various conceptual metaphors as they solve tasks. While the subject context of the task activates a specific conceptual metaphor, within the discussion about the solution, the students were able to adapt their conception by changing the conceptual metaphor. Educational strategies for teaching students about glaciers require specific language to activate the appropriate conceptual metaphors and explicit reflection regarding the various conceptual metaphors.
This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
This article aims to clarify and discuss the reasons and limits of three rather popular metaphors that are used to speak of today's complex social and cultural fabric, through references to cultural anthropology, biology and genetics. In her analysis, the author considers not only the linguistic and semantic dimension of each metaphor, but also…
Zimmerman, Judith A.
Metaphors are powerful in describing organizations (Morgan, 1986; 1998) and stories reveal the meaning of experiences (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). As an avid skier and school change leader, the author has drawn on her personal experiences and the literature to develop the idea of improving skiing as a metaphor for improving leadership, particularly…
Jansen, Sue Curry
This paper builds upon the poetics of scientific discourse which provide extraordinary insights into the workings of the scientific imagination and into the ways it is both colonized and liberated by the medium of social and ideological transfer--metaphor. The paper examines what constructivism is teaching us about the role metaphor plays in…
Irwin, Rita L.
Identifies and explains the metaphors of carnation and reincarnation that provide a visual portrayal of sharing, teaching, and practicing leadership for art educators. Highlights other metaphors in which women holding leadership roles are discussed. Conveys the importance of community and mentors in the creation of leaders. (CMK)
Jasper, Robert J.; Blaha, Leslie M.
To promote more interactive and dynamic machine learn- ing, we revisit the notion of user-interface metaphors. User-interface metaphors provide intuitive constructs for supporting user needs through interface design elements. A user-interface metaphor provides a visual or action pattern that leverages a user’s knowledge of another domain. Metaphors suggest both the visual representations that should be used in a display as well as the interactions that should be afforded to the user. We argue that user-interface metaphors can also offer a method of extracting interaction-based user feedback for use in machine learning. Metaphors offer indirect, context-based information that can be used in addition to explicit user inputs, such as user-provided labels. Implicit information from user interactions with metaphors can augment explicit user input for active learning paradigms. Or it might be leveraged in systems where explicit user inputs are more challenging to obtain. Each interaction with the metaphor provides an opportunity to gather data and learn. We argue this approach is especially important in streaming applications, where we desire machine learning systems that can adapt to dynamic, changing data.
This document contains three papers from a symposium on emotional intelligence, identity salience, and metaphors in human resource development (HRD). "Applying Client and Consultant Generated Metaphors in HRD: Lessons from Psychotherapy" (Darren Short) reviews some techniques that psychotherapists have devised for using their own…
Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie
A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…
Johannsen, Carl Gustav
How do library professionals talk about and refer to library users, and how is this significant? In recent decades, the library profession has conceived of users in at least five different ways, viewing them alternatively as citizens, clients, customers, guests, or partners. This book argues...... that these user metaphors crucially inform librarians' interactions with the public, and, by extension, determine the quality and content of the services received. The ultimate aim of the book is to provide library professionals with insights and tools for avoiding common pitfalls associated with false...... or professionally inadequate conceptions of library users....
Full Text Available The intention of this article is to demonstrate, within the framework of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, how slang words associated with substance abuse are conceptualized via metaphors. This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users’ language. The results of the data analysis effectively reveal that, within a thematic approach, classes of metaphor are coded to enable connections between metaphorical concepts and drug addicts’ physiological experiences in order to present their personal meanings and cognitive processes. The study also involves drug addicts’ narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences. Notably, it is argued within this research that figurative language use is also connected to the cultural background of users to a great extent.
Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad
This book presents the dispersion relation in heavily doped nano-structures. The materials considered are III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, Platinum Antimonide, stressed, GaSb, Te, II-V, HgTe/CdTe superlattices and Bismuth Telluride semiconductors. The dispersion relation is discussed under magnetic quantization and on the basis of carrier energy spectra. The influences of magnetic field, magneto inversion, and magneto nipi structures on nano-structures is analyzed. The band structure of optoelectronic materials changes with photo-excitation in a fundamental way according to newly formulated electron dispersion laws. They control the quantum effect in optoelectronic devices in the presence of light. The measurement of band gaps in optoelectronic materials in the presence of external photo-excitation is displayed. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, intense electric fields on the on the dispersion relation in heavily doped semiconductors and super-lattices are also disc...
Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J
Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Doka, Kenneth J
In this article, the author explores the ways that an individual's spirituality influences responses to life-threatening illness and dying. He begins by differentiating between religion and spirituality, and then delineates the spiritual issues that arise in a life-threatening illness including the spiritual needs that arise in the final phases of illness. Recommendations for spiritual assessments and interventions are offered.
W. George Scarlett
Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.
Ko, Il Sun; Choi, So Young; Kim, Jin Sook
This study was done to clarify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of spirituality. Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyze fifty seven studies from the literature related to spirituality as it appears in systematic literature reviews of theology, medicine, counseling & psychology, social welfare, and nursing. Spirituality was found to consist of two dimensions and eight attributes: 1) vertical dimension: 'intimacy and connectedness with God' and 'holy life and belief', 2) horizontal dimension: 'self-transcendence', 'meaning and purpose in life', 'self-integration', and 'self-creativity' in relationship with self, 'connectedness' and 'trust' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature. Antecedents of spirituality were socio-demographic, religious, psychological, and health related characteristics. Consequences of spirituality were positive and negative. Being positive included 'life centered on God' in vertical dimension, and among horizontal dimension 'joy', 'hope', 'wellness', 'inner peace', and 'self-actualization' in relationship with self, 'doing in love' and 'extended life toward neighbors and the world' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature. Being negative was defined as having 'guilt', 'inner conflict', 'loneliness', and 'spiritual distress'. Facilitators of spirituality were stressful life events and experiences. Spirituality is a multidimensional concept. Unchangeable attributes of spirituality are 'connectedness with God', 'self-transcendence', 'meaning of life' and 'connectedness with others·nature'. Unchangeable consequences of spirituality are 'joy' and 'hope'. The findings suggest that the dimensional framework of spirituality can be used to assess the current spiritual state of patients. Based on these results, the development of a Korean version of the scale measuring spirituality is recommended. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
S A Jafari
Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .
Baker, Bruce W.
Beaver (Castor canadensis) populations have declined or failed to recover in heavily browsed environments. I suggest that intense browsing by livestock or ungulates can disrupt beaver-willow (Salix spp.) mutualisms that likely evolved under relatively low herbivory in a more predator-rich environment, and that this interaction may explain beaver and willow declines. Field experiments in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, found the interaction of beaver and elk (Cervus elaphus) herbivory suppressed compensatory growth in willow. Intense elk browsing of simulated beaver-cut willow produced plants which were small and hedged with a high percentage of dead stems, whereas protected plants were large and highly branched with a low percentage of dead stems. Evaluation of a winter food cache showed beaver had selected woody stems with a lower percentage of leaders browsed by elk. A lack of willow stems suitable as winter beaver food may cause beaver populations to decline, creating a negative feedback mechanism for beaver and willow. In contrast, if browsing by livestock or ungulates can be controlled, and beaver can disperse from a nearby source population, then beaver may build dams in marginal habitat which will benefit willow and cause a positive riparian response that restores proper function to degraded habitat. In a shrub-steppe riparian ecosystem of northwestern Colorado, USA, rest from overgrazing of livestock released herbaceous vegetation initiating restoration of a beaver-willow community. Thus, competition from livestock or ungulates can cause beaver and willow to decline and can prevent their restoration in heavily browsed riparian environments, but beaver and willow populations can recover under proper grazing management.
The Spiritual Experience Index was developed to measure spiritual maturity in persons of diverse religious and spiritual beliefs. The scale was constructed from a developmental rather than a multidimensional conceptualization of faith. Initial findings from a religiously heterogeneous college sample indicated good reliability for the SEI and supported its use as a unidimensional measure. Higher scores on the SEI were significantly related to lower dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The SEI was also moderately related to higher religious participation and positively correlated with intrinsicness and quest. However, compared with the intrinsic and quest scales, the SEI emerged as the strongest indicator of adaptive spiritual functioning. Directions for future research are suggested.
JASNA K. SCHWIND
Full Text Available By exploring personal narratives through metaphoric images, students and nurses increase their understanding of who they are as persons and how that self-knowledge impacts their professional relationships with those in their care. In this article I share how I use metaphor-reflection in various aspects of my healthcare involvement. As a patient many years ago, metaphors helped me apprehend the meaning of cancer in my life. Today, as a nurse-teacher and researcher, I guide students through professional self-discovery using narrative reflective process that incorporates metaphors. In clinical practice I work with nurses as they explore how narrative reflection informs their caregiver-carereceiver interactions. With expanded self-awareness nurses have the potential to further assist their patients in exploring the meaning of their illness events through metaphors, thus enhancing the integration of that traumatic event into their respective lives. By working reflectively with metaphoric images, my hope for this writing is that my own engagement in narrative metaphor-reflection encourages the readers to story their own world in a more meaningful way.
Full Text Available Cognitive metaphor analysts comprehend metaphor as a convenient way of not only talking about real life events but also thinking about them: connecting ideas, explaining abstract ideas that are difficult to grasp, conveying messages and emotions, etc. Thus, metaphor in real-world discourse is increasingly becoming the focus of many cognitive studies. In political discourse, metaphor is seen as an ideological tool of deliberate attempts to influence, persuade and manipulate people. As Charteris-Black (2005: 16 put it, politicians try to establish themselves in a positive light or legitimize themselves, i.e., by presenting evidence that they are charismatic leaders who are capable of running their country efficiently. Legitimization goes hand in hand with delegitimization, i.e., negative other-presentation. Metaphor as a cognitive mechanism of ideology may serve both as positive self-representation and as a tool for fault-finding in others. Thus, the study focuses on how three Lithuanian socio-political groups (the leading party, the opposition, and the media legitimize themselves and delegitimize their opponents by using force metaphors to conceptualize the worldwide economic recession. The findings indicate that although the same conceptual metaphor is used for legitimization and delegitimization, its fulfilment scenario appears to be markedly different and it carries different rhetorical implications in the three discourses.
Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre
Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In recent decades, metaphors have attracted a great deal of interest within the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. The article takes the growing interest in epistemic metaphors as the starting point of a discussion of two conflicting motives prevalent in theories of metaphor and metaphoricity: On the one hand, metaphors are associated with the indeterminacy of scientific discovery and the emergence of new epistemic objects; and on the other hand, metaphors are said to provide a filter of possible meanings and vantage-points. It is argued that an approach, which aims to do justice to both tendencies, cannot exclusively rely on linguistic models but must expand its scope of inquiry to include the practical trajectories of a metaphor’s usage as well as the problematizations to which they respond, since both engender metaphorical meaning, albeit at the cost of semantic precision. The exemplary case discussed in the article, the psychologization of nervous shock in nineteenth century medical discourse, demonstrates that the incremental process of shock’s shifting semantics would be inadequately characterized as a metaphorical transfer. Instead, it is shown how the actualization of earlier meanings, in particular of shock as a state of altered consciousness, in novel professional and cultural contexts acted as a catalyst for the psychologization of shock and related nascent concepts such as psychic trauma. As a possible, and methodologically fruitful way of overcoming the one-sidedness of linguistic notions of metaphor, a combination of Jìrgen Link’s concept of inter-discourse with a philosophical metaphorology (Blumenberg) is discussed in the final section of the paper.
Ali reza mahmoodi
Full Text Available Abstract Tajziyat ol-Amsar and Tazjiyat ol-Asar which is called Â Vassafâs History Â had been written by Adib Shahab od-Din Fazl ol-Lah Shirazi (born in 663 H. who was titled âVassaf al-Hazraâ and is known as âVssafâ. The subject of this book is related to the history of âIlkhanianâ, the kings in Iran from 656 to 72 H., the author considers it as a complement for Jahangosha Jovainiâs Histiory. Vassafâs History is a notable historical-artistic (technical literary work. Euphuism prose or artistic prose is an ornated prose which is a genethliacum according to the different figures of speech, spiritual ornament and speech amplification by various descriptions, illustration, poetry, Persian and Arabic evidences and the usage of different science expressions inter-textually. The artistic prose has a close relationship with poeticalness. Some literary researches equal it to poetry based on emotional and poetical aspects of artistic prose. Â Â Vassaf al-Hazra tried to compose Vassafâs History in order to develop a historical book into a famous and valuable literary-historical text through a poetical language. He has tried to create an ornament, beautiful, poetical and historical- precise text by using figures of speech and literary devices. Â Â The goal of this paper is to show the literary beauties of this book. The author tried to show the usage of various metaphors and ambiguity through descriptive and analytic method and conventional eloquence. The result of this research shows the specific attention of Vassaf to the use of poetic image. This application includes extended metaphor, metaphoric prediction and explicit metaphor. The application of metaphor in addition to poetic images create an individual style, this style is not very obvious in other historical-artistic texts because of the position of poetic images, with figurative and unfamiliar words and a lot of evidences. The
Zeitler, Ullrich Martin Rudenko
’s Theory U (TU) provides the conceptual and methodological framework for operationalising spirituality in diaconal work. It is argued that the concept of “presencing” is an adequate way to express “spirituality”, and that, overall TU is an appropriate model to describe and develop the essential features...... of diaconal social work and diaconal leadership. I shall use the Danish Blue Cross as an example of an organisation that can be interpreted as working on the basis of TU....
Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...
Full Text Available The Whirling Dervishes (The Darwisy the Round and round or Sama’. The term used by the Maulawiyah or Jalaliyah adherents of this, by doing a dance around in circles, accompanied by drums and flute, in the devotions they are to reach ecstasy. Rumi and the legendary spiritual dance into a work of great almighty to fill in a drought spitual man approached the Creator.
Brunjes, George B
Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.
Full Text Available This article aims to show that the spiritual aspect must be noted in the leadership because every leader is always marked with oath of office in carrying out her/his position. So, how leaders are accountable, it is not only on the horizontal level but also at the vertical level. Research was done with phenomenological and literature studies about the practice of leadership faced with a number of theories about leadership and then to be synthesized the more authentic leadership than just imaging or false branding leadership. This article was based on the assumption that leadership (including in the political sphere was merely a sociological problem that kicked out spiritual aspects, while in the historical development of leadership, it had never been excluded from the spiritual dimension, whether in the form of manipulative (just because fed people understand that leadership came from the “sky”/gods. So then, a king acted tyrannical and led to the birth of authentic leadership as popularized as servant leadership. This article concluded that authentic leadership will give more benefit to develop the life system as well as the purpose of leadership itself rather than a merely apparent leadership which actually hurts the members (people because of the failure to meet the expectations of the members (people.
infiltrated every aspect of Greek life - even religion . In time Greece fell, and with it democracy, because it lacked the moral fiber and spiritual ...American way of life if there is no spiritual backbone? My research has convinced me more than ever that we need to look back and rediscover the...America’s sons and daughters, the strength of our armed forces, will be the big losers unless spiritual leadership becomes an essential quality of our
In this article, we set out, first, a general overview of metaphor and metaphorical thought research within cognitive psychology and developmental psychology. We claim that, although research efforts broadened perspectives that considered metaphors to be ornaments of poetic language, certain predominance of a linguistic point of view within investigations led to relatively little attention paid to (i) non-verbal and non-written metaphorical instantiations, and (ii) the pre-linguistic and cultural origins of metaphorical thought. Next, we attempt to delve into, and model, the ontogenetic origins of metaphor, taking into consideration social and cultural elements. To that end, we consider the Vygotskian perspective and contemporary research from the pragmatics of the object. We propose that metaphorical thought is an emerging result of a complex web of dynamic relationships between pre-linguistic and socioculturally regulated semiotic systems. The analysis undertaken shows the need for a research programme with a developmental orientation that considers metaphor to be a product of the intertwining between the individual and social dimensions of cognitive development. We suggest this programme should find its roots in the analysis of the semiotic skills that precede the acquisition of metaphorical language.
Clark, Clayton C; Hunter, Jennifer
Heart failure is a chronic and terminal disease that affects a significant portion of the U.S. It is marked by considerable suffering, for which palliative care has been recommended. Palliative care standards require the inclusion of spiritual care, but there is a paucity of literature supporting effective spiritual interventions for the heart failure population. A literature search resulted in 30 articles meeting the criteria for review of spirituality and spiritual coping in the heart failure population. Findings within this body of literature include descriptive evidence of the uniqueness of spirituality in this population, quantitative and qualitative approaches to inquiry, theoretical models of spiritual coping, and proposed interventions. The article concludes with implications for future research and practice.
McGovern, Thomas F; McMahon, Terry; Nelson, Jessica; Bundoc-Baronia, Regina; Giles, Chuck; Schmidt, Vanessa
The study collected data on the attitudes of residents toward religion and spirituality in their practice after taking part in a 3-year curriculum on spirituality during their residency. This is a descriptive, single-site study with psychiatry residents as subjects. A questionnaire was given to the residents at the end of their third year of residency (N = 12). The responses heavily endorsed the religiousness/spirituality curriculum to be helpful and meaningful. Residents consider addressing spiritual and religious needs of patients to be important (76.9%) and appropriate. For majority of the residents (69.2%), there is strong agreement in the management of addictions having spiritual dimensions. Residents also strongly agreed that treatment of suffering, depression, guilt, and complicated grief may require attention to spiritual concerns (92-100%). Regardless of cultural or religious background, the residents endorsed the curriculum as a worthwhile experience and increased their appreciation of the place of spirituality in the holistic care of patients with psychiatric conditions.
Ellington, Lee; Billitteri, Jacob; Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F
To provide a definition of spirituality, define the scope and nature of spiritual care communication, describe how to initiate communication about, and elicit, a spiritual history, and introduce the AMEN protocol to support patient/family hopes for a miracle. Literature review. Spiritual communication is important throughout cancer care. Nurses can assess and integrate patient and family caregivers' spiritual needs in clinical care by practicing self-awareness and engaging in spiritual care communication strategies. Spirituality is recognized as an essential component of quality care. Spiritual conversations can increase patients' satisfaction with care and improve well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Historia de la Espi- ritualidad, again in four volumes, partly made up for this lack: it re- flected awareness of extra-Christian forms of spirituality (Judaism, Islam, gnosis, Hellenism, and so forth) and of modern atheism (Flors 1969). The third bridgehead became apparent with the reference work entitled World spirituality ...
Markussen, Thomas; Özcan, Elif; Cila, Nazli
in product use. First, the notion of product metaphor usually accounts for how the visual form and appearance of a product might cue people to conceive of the product in terms of another conceptual source (e.g. a coffee maker as a butler), while leaving the role of cross-modal sensory experience in product...... meaning out of consideration. Secondly, like other theoretical frameworks in design semantics, the notion of product metaphor primarily accounts for the semantic operations that are involved in the first initial phase of product categorization and interpretation, while eschewing the question as to how...... metaphor. In order to remedy these limitations inherent in the theory of product metaphor we introduce a new semantic framework based upon Fauconnier & Turner’s theory of conceptual blends....
Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) is used as a basic framework for analysing and explaining the occurrence of metaphor in the terminology used by computer networking professionals in the information technology (IT) industry. An analysis of linguistic ...
Full Text Available In the context of Western culture, the archetypical metaphor of life as a dream (or living in a dream is firstly seen in the Bible as in “the grammar of literary archetypes” (Northrop Frye. It means the fragility of human life, the spiritual drowse or, on the contrary, the spiritual revelation (in the case of the prophetical dream. This article seeks to compare the functions of the metaphor in the works A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1595 by William Shakespeare, La vida es sueno (1635 by Pedro Calderon de la Barca and A Dream Play (1901 by August Strindberg, as well as in Lithuanian works by Zbignievas Morštynas, Vydūnas, Šatrijos Ragana. The conclusion is being made that the works by William Shakespeare, Pedro Calderon de la Barca and August Strindberg have in common their interest in the theological problematics of the free will. The works interpret the Christian doctrine of the free will in different ways and from different aspects. The works of Lithuanian literature also participate in the intertextual polylogue inspired by the metaphor of life as a dream. However, they have got another stresses, they foreground the meanings of the world’s fragility and human spirituality (as the negative of living in a dream.
Richard Goldschmidt famously rejected the notion of atomic and corpuscular genes, arranged on the chromosome like beads-on-a-string. I provide an exegesis of Goldschmidt's intuition by analyzing his repeated and extensive use of metaphorical language and analogies in his attempts to convey his notion of the nature of the genetic material and specifically the significance of chromosomal pattern. The paper concentrates on Goldschmidt's use of metaphors in publications spanning 1940-1955.
Kestenbaum, Allison; Fleischman, Catherine Anne; Dabis, Marta; Birnbaum, Bette; Dunn, Laura B
Objectives Spiritual support is an essential component to disaster response and recovery. The goals of this study were to (a) provide a qualitative examination of spiritual needs of recipients of disaster relief after Hurricane Sandy, as observed by spiritual care interns in "verbatims"; (b) demonstrate the feasibility of conducting research with providers of disaster spiritual care. Methods The study was accomplished through analysis (including codebook development and transcript coding) of written pastoral reports-aka "verbatims" ( n = 18)-as well as audio-recorded, transcribed seminars ( n = 23). Clinical Pastoral Education verbatims offer qualitative data in the form of confidential, anonymous reports of what the students do in the field. Results Analysis of coded transcripts yielded several themes and subthemes as results. Significance of Results Major themes include: (a) the feasibility of research for CPE students as subject; (b) the discussion of magnitude of the storm and aftermath, as a spiritual need in disaster; (c) the relationship between "normative crisis" and disaster; (d) the use of metaphors and images to describe disaster experiences.
Chris L. de Wet
Utilising the aspects of the methodology of Van der Watt on the dynamics of metaphor in the New Testament, the article contextualised Chrysostom’s understanding of spiritual rebirth within the progressive and climactic unfolding of human reproduction between prelapsarian and postlapsarian states. In the first instance, the reproductive shift from divine creation to human reproduction after the Fall of Adam and Eve was discussed. Thereafter followed a discussion of how the miraculous births of men by barren women in the Old Testament such as Sarah and Isaac,functioned as a typological device pointing towards spiritual rebirth. After this an analysis of Chrysostom’s understanding of the virgin birth of Jesus by Mary was given, showing againthat this birth event was yet another typological device that directed the faith of the believer towards spiritual rebirth. Finally, Chrysostom’s teaching on the nature of spiritual rebirth is discussed in light of this broader typological development. The result was that the notion of spiritual rebirth in Chrysostom’s thought could not be understood separately from his views on human birth and the progression back to aprelapsarian state of generation. The relevance of the article is that it presents a focused study both on Chrysostom’s theology and his soteriology, in particular as well as his social thought with regards to sexual morality and issues related to reproduction and birth.
Nerlich, B.; Hellsten, I.
This article charts the emergence and framing of anthropogenic climate change as risk through the lens of two metaphors: greenhouse effect and carbon footprint. We argue that the greenhouse effect metaphor provided the scientific basis for framing climate change as a risk, indeed it can be seen as part of risk assessment. The carbon footprint metaphor, in turn, can be seen as belonging to the domain of risk management, as through this and other related metaphors, such as carbon offsetting, ca...
This paper reports the findings of an unobtrusive research inquiry investigating the possible use and misuse of Alzheimer's disease in public policy debate on the legalization of euthanasia. The component of the study being reported identified the problematic use of five key metaphors: the Alzheimer metaphor, which in turn was reinforced by three additional metaphors--the epidemic metaphor, the military metaphor, and the predatory thief metaphor; and the euthanasia metaphor. All metaphors were found to be morally loaded and used influentially to stigmatize Alzheimer's disease and mediate public opinion supporting the legalization of euthanasia as an end-of-life 'solution' for people with the disease. It is contended that, in the interests of promoting intellectual honesty and giving proper recognition to the extraordinary complexity of the issue, the problematic use and influence of metaphoric thinking in the public debate about Alzheimer's disease and euthanasia needs to be made transparent, questioned and challenged.
Luokkanen, Matti; Huttunen, Suvi; Hildén, Mikael
We analyze how metaphors are used in presenting and debating novel technologies that could influence the climate and thereby also future climate change policies. We show that metaphors strengthen a policy-related storyline, while metaphors are rarer in purely descriptive accounts. The choice of metaphor frames the technologies. War metaphors are used equally in arguments that are for, against and neutral with respect to the further development of geoengineering, but differences arise in the use of metaphors related to controllability, health and mechanisms. Controllability metaphors are often used in justifying further research and development of good governance practices, whereas health metaphors tend to be used against the very idea of geoengineering by portraying technological interventions in the climate as an emblematic case of an unacceptable development. These findings suggest that metaphors are early indications of restrictions in the interpretative flexibility that influences future governance of geoengineering and geoengineering research. © The Author(s) 2013.
Roger Pérez Brufau
Full Text Available Ens proposem analitzar les principals metàfores que utilitzem els usuaris per a referir-nos a internet i a les activitats, els utensilis i les persones relacionats amb la xarxa en el marc de la teoria defensada per George Lakoff i Mark Johnson. La primera part del treball analitza la teoria de la metàfora conceptual d'aquests autors i la segona examina les diverses metàfores que utilitzem els usuaris per a referir-nos al món conceptual de la xarxa a partir del que s'ha exposat en la primera part.Aquest treball no solament hauria de servir per a adonar-nos del continu ontològico-estructural-orientacional que representa l'ús de metàfores que relacionen la xarxa, progressivament, amb un espai, amb un espai que és a dalt, amb un espai on hi ha coses, amb un espai que pren forma, normalment, de mar, de casa o de text, sinó que també hauria de servir per a adonar-nos que els motius pels quals fem servir aquestes metàfores i no unes altres són arrelats, successivament -tal com afirmen Lakoff i Johnson en els seus textos- en el nostre cos, la nostra interacció amb les coses del món i amb els altres en un context culturalment definit. Text complet (PDF We propose analysing the principal metaphors that we as users use to refer to the internet and to the activities, tools and people related to the web within the framework of the theory upheld by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The first part of the work analyses these authors' conceptual metaphor theory, while the second examines the various metaphors that we as users use to refer to the conceptual world of the web on the basis of what has been set out in the first part.This work should not only serve for us to take note of the ontological-structural-orientational continuum represented by the use of metaphors that relate the web, progressively, with a space, with a space that is above, with a space where there are things, with a space that takes the form, normally, of the sea, home or text
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
we must assign to the treatises concerning the spiritual life a very early date. .... Aside from the theory and history of spirituality, experimental psychology, pa- thology .... everyone in his or her mother's womb, causes them to be born and leads them throughout life. This is evident from their proper names, prayers, and stories.
van der Walt, Freda; de Klerk, Jeremias J
In order to obtain an improved understanding of behaviour at work, employees should be studied from physical, psychological, and spiritual dimensions. Although the physical and psychological dimensions of individuals at work have been studied extensively, the spiritual dimension has been neglected for many years. The objective of the current research was to determine the relationship between workplace spirituality and a positive attitude related to work, that is, job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 600 white-collar workers, chosen from two organizations in different industries in South Africa. The research results indicate that there is a positive relationship between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. These findings deepen the understanding of personal spirituality, organizational spirituality, and job satisfaction. They bring new insights into the significant role which spirituality plays in the context of the workplace. To survive in the 21st century, organizations need to be spiritually based. This, in turn, will lead to workers being satisfied with their entire work experience.
Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.
"Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the…
van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke
The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was
Wilson, Ruth A.
A misconception about spirituality is that it is tied to religion (i.e., belief in and reverence for a supernatural power). Yet, the term "spirituality" is derived from the word "spirit"--often defined as the vital principle or animating force within living things. This definition may reflect some overlap with what is generally covered in…
Medical students often face problems in using and understanding metaphors when communicating with a patient or reading a scientific paper. These figures of speech constitute an interpretative problem and students need key strategies to facilitate metaphor comprehension and disambiguation of meaning. This article examines how medical students'…
Metaphor is generally understood as the process of understanding one thing in terms of another. The activity described here is designed to make use of the principles of embodied cognition and meaning, and specifically the embodied nature of metaphor, to explore political discourse and communication. With high-school junior or senior students in…
Full Text Available The main theme of classic Turkish poetry is love. In this type of poetry we can find many kinds of poems, from concrete to spiritual, from material to meaning, from menial to sublime. The effect of religion and mysticism on all types of love in classic literature is great. It is inevitable that the feeling of love has lots of signs and connotations in a style of literature where love is studied intensively. Therefore, the treatment of the concept of beauty bears great importance for classical Ottoman poets. Undoubtedly it is the beloved that comes to mind first when beauty is concerned. The beloved is the most significant factor around whom love appears in classic literature. The most colorful dreams, meaningful words and concepts turn around the beloved. Moreover, the effect of Persian Literature is great on the formation of the features of the beloved in classic Turkish poems. Also, we cannot ignore the role of Turkish thought, Islam and mysticism in these poems. Through the end of 14th and 15th centuries the power of Islamic belief is very remarkable in Turkish poems. In this period, when describing the beloved a rich variety of religious images and metaphors are used. In the 16th and 17th centuries when the Ottoman Literature reached its peak, religious metaphors were used together with the beloved. However, when comparing first period texts with these texts many differences emerge. It is striking that uses of religious metaphors have decreased more since the 17th century than in the former centuries. In our research we try to show how religious words and concepts are used together with the beloved, especially with metaphors. Also, we investigate the areas in which these concepts are most often used and motivations for these patterns
Cecilia San Martín Petersen
Full Text Available Spirituality may be understood as a group of feelings, beliefs and actions that suppose a search for the transcendent, sacred or divine. As representations about an ultimate power, they contribute to the sense and purpose in life and orient peoples behavior, relationships, and ways to feel and think about reality and about themselves. Since either in the growing old process and in the evaluation of life that occurs when approaching to death it may emerge conflicts, confusion and suffering, people beliefs about what is beyond death, or the answers to the questions about what for and why of life, become determinants in elders well-being. Furthermore, considering that life expectancy has significantly increased, and that the ways of growing old are changing as well as what being old means, and this process advantages and disadvantages or problems, in it ́s different contexts, it ́s necessary to think old age over again, as well as the policies that affect the quality of life of this group of people. Therefore, every professional who assist elderly, specially mental health professionals, must consider the spiritual referents of the individual in order to give the best assistance in whatever problems may appear in the growing old process.
Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Bhugra, Dinesh
Sikhism has millions of followers in India and among the Indian diaspora. As a religion it is relatively young but carries with it unique perspectives which are often not well known. The holy book of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib, is not only the last Guru, but also remained a key text for this religion. Using descriptions of the religion and its followers we attempt to understand the context of spirituality within this religion and attempt to apply it to clinical settings. We explored various texts to understand the notions of spirituality and ethics and directions for living one's life. We studied both the Gurumukhi version as well as the English translation of the Sikh holy text. In the context of history of the Sikhs, various descriptions related to mental well being were identified. In this paper we describe the history, development and the core values of the religion and we also review their role on psychiatric and mental health settings for managing Sikh patients. Guru Granth Sahib offers a very useful insight into what is understood by the term equivalent to depression and its phenomenology. The notions of dukh (loosely translated as pain, but can also mean sadness or suffering) and maya (illusion) and their role in daily living are also discussed. In this paper these descriptions are explored further and their importance explained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Curry, Jennifer R.
The imperative to integrate spirituality in counseling has been well documented in the counseling literature. Developing spiritual timelines is one creative technique that may help clients with spiritual concerns. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review spirituality in counseling, describe the use of spiritual timelines as a creative…
Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H
Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Frame, Marsha Wiggins
Describes the spiritual genogram, a blueprint of family members' multigenerational religious and spiritual affiliations, events, and conflicts. Used as a tool in both training and supervision, the spiritual genogram enables students and supervisees to make sense of their own religious and spiritual heritage and to explore the ways in which their…
Current models of spiritual development suggest that adolescents have limited capacity for spirituality and spiritual experiences. Adolescents are seen to have immature moral and ethical judgment and be incapable of deep spiritual experience due to lack of cognitive development. This mixed-methods study explored the existence of spiritual…
Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…
Gallison, Barry S; Xu, Yan; Jurgens, Corrine Y; Boyle, Suzanne M
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers in providing spiritual care to hospitalized patients. A convenience sample (N = 271) was recruited at an academic medical center in New York City for an exploratory, descriptive questionnaire. The Spiritual Care Practice (SCP) questionnaire assesses spiritual care practices and perceived barriers to spiritual care. The SCP determines the percentage that provides spiritual support and perceived barriers inhibiting spiritual care. The participation rate was 44.3% (N = 120). Most (61%) scored less than the ideal mean on the SCP. Although 96% (N = 114) believe addressing patients spiritual needs are within their role, nearly half (48%) report rarely participating in spiritual practices. The greatest perceived barriers were belief that patient's spirituality is private, insufficient time, difficulty distinguishing proselytizing from spiritual care, and difficulty meeting needs when spiritual beliefs were different from their own. Although nurses identify themselves as spiritual, results indicate spirituality assessments are inadequate. Addressing barriers will provide nurses opportunities to address spirituality. Education is warranted to improve nurses' awareness of the diversity of our society to better meet the spiritual needs of patients. Understanding these needs provide the nurse with opportunities to address spirituality and connect desires with actions to strengthen communication and the nurse-patient relationship.
Helminiak, Daniel A.
Discusses spirituality as a spiritual phenomenon that is independent of, yet open to, matters of personal religion and belief in God. Proposes that an elaborated psychology of spirituality helps therapists focus the psychotherapeutically relevant and spiritual issues in the client's presentation; build on the client's healthy commitments; and…
Zhang, Fachun; Hu, Jianpeng
Metaphor is more a vehicle of cognizing the world than purely a rhetorical device. This paper first gives a brief review of traditional metaphor and modern metaphor in the West and then devotes a large space to elaborate on reasons for emergence of metaphor, characteristics of metaphor, working mechanism of metaphor, and then proposes suggestions…
Hufford, David J
This article presents an overview of the sleep paralysis experience from both a cultural and a historical perspective. The robust, complex phenomenological pattern that represents the subjective experience of sleep paralysis is documented and illustrated. Examples are given showing that, for a majority of subjects, sleep paralysis is taken to be a kind of spiritual experience. This is, in part, because of the very common perception of a non-physical 'threatening presence' that is part of the event. Examples from various cultures, including mainstream contemporary America which has no widely known tradition about sleep paralysis, are used to show that the complex pattern and spiritual interpretation are not dependent on cultural models or prior learning. This is dramatically contrary to conventional explanations of apparently 'direct' spiritual experiences, explanations that are summed up as the 'Cultural Source Hypothesis.' This aspect of sleep paralysis was not recognized through most of the twentieth century. The article examines the way that conventional modern views of spiritual experience, combined with medical ideas that labeled 'direct' spiritual experiences as psychopathological, and mainstream religious views of such experiences as heretical if not pathological, suppressed the report and discussion of these experiences in modern society. These views have resulted in confusion in the scientific literature on sleep paralysis with regard to its prevalence and core features. The article also places sleep paralysis in the context of other 'direct' spiritual experiences and offers an 'Experiential Theory' of cross-culturally distributed spiritual experiences.
Full Text Available The present paper will analyse manifestations of the journey metaphor from a critical discourse analytical perspective in order to observe how the journey metaphor is used as a discourse strategy in mediatized political speeches and interviews whereby political actors manipulate the second-frame interactional participants (the audience into sharing a (spurious sense of solidarity with them. There are three hypotheses that will be tested in the course of the analysis: the first is that a wide-variety of realjourney elements are exploited for the political metaphor of journey, and there is a concrete correspondence between journey vehicles and political scenarios. The second hypothesis is that journey metaphors that are used in political speeches, celebrity interviews and confrontational political interviews are of different types and complexity. The third hypothesis is that the manipulative intent behind the use of metaphors is exposed in the latter types of mediatized political discourse to varying degrees as a result of the different degrees of pragmatic accountability adhered to in the two subgenres. We argue that the first two hypotheses are confirmed on the basis of the qualitative analysis presented in the paper, whereas the third hypothesis is not borne out by the data.
Full Text Available Metaphor is a critical component of being an architect: it mediates the various stages involved in architectural design, motivates a large part of the jargon used in the discipline, and is consistently used as a rhetorical strategy in many of the genres articulating architectural communication. Given its importance in architectural practice and discourse, the teaching of metaphor should be included in the syllabi of English for Specific Purposes (ESP courses taught at polytechnic schools. The purpose of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, I describe how various metaphors inform architects’ practice – from the first design phase to the post-construction assessment distributed in one of the most popular genres in the community; that is, the architectural review. Drawing insights from cognitive and genre research into the role of metaphor in the discipline, I then suggest ways in which metaphorical competence can be fostered in ESP courses aiming at facilitating the students’ gradual enculturation process into their future community of practice.
W. George Scarlett
Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.
Full Text Available Celtic spirituality has a long and distinguished ancestry with its origins in pre-Christian times. It was inculturated amongst peoples in the far west of Europe, particularly in Ireland, Scotland and the north and south west of England. It was different from Roman Christianity in distinct ways until the mid-7th century CE when Roman Christianity became the norm in Britain. It has experienced various revivals during the history of Christianity, with two contemporary expressions in New Age spirituality and Christian spirituality. From its inception, it has been closely linked to the environment.
ga- Kgafela in particular, this paper develops this idea (from a linguistics perspective) and examines the use of metaphor in Patlo ceremonies (marriage negotiation) in traditional Tswana weddings and how such metaphors construct gendered ...
Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.
Judy E. Lam
Full Text Available Research on the use of the Song of Songs in spiritual direction is rare; yet, the Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles is a highly conducive case as it provides in nuce the poetics, lyrics, erotics, and aesthetics of human and divine love which is found nowhere else in Scripture. This article draws on these unique features, integrates the biblical and the experiential, and offers a poetics-praxis paradigm for use in contemporary spiritual praxis. With the poem’s metaphorical vineyard (a figurative term for the beloved herself serving as hermeneutical key, the beloved’s experience of love is interpreted through a multifaceted reading that is intrinsic to the poem, namely: eros [yearning]; mythos [searching]; mustikos [finding]; and kosmos [birthing]. In following the inner dynamism and dramatic tensions across the eight chapters of the Song, the fourfold reading traces the beloved’s transformation from a neglected vineyard (Can 1:6 to a generative vineyard (Can 8:12. The article concludes that transformation in love is a journey from depletion (the giving away of self towards deification (the giving of self in love, and suggests tending one’s own vineyard as a living testament to divine love and a living sacrament in the world.
We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different...... answers to what knowledge is. It could be outlined as a dichotomy between tacit and explicit knowledge, as a hierarchy from data over information to knowledge or as orders of reflection upon ones own knowledge in relation to the surrounding world. In this dissertation the focus is on knowledge...... as a metaphorical concept in groups of knowledge workers from creative start-ups. The research question of the dissertation is: How is knowledge conceptualized metaphorically in groups? This question is investigated from two methodological angles: through the analysis of metaphors in dynamic conversations...
Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Tavakoli, Marjaneh
The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested…
Barton's (1994) words, quoted above, neatly encapsulate the argument put forward in this paper- that it is important to seek an enabling metaphor for literacy. First, the nature of metaphors will be examined. Next, four possible metaphors for literacy will be explored and their implications for literacy practices in South Africa at ...
General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article ... to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps. Keywords: metaphor, definition, translation, cultural difference ...
Dr. Daan Andriessen
Metaphors are at the basis of our understanding of reality. Using the theory of metaphor developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) this paper analyses common metaphors used in the intellectual capital and knowledge management literatures. An analysis of key works by Davenport & Prusak (2000),
Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.
This article details a study of metaphor production by 64 same-gender dyads engaged in 2 persuasive conversations over chat software. Dyads were comprised of friends or strangers. Overall, men produced more metaphor than women, especially slang. Metaphor production differed by gender as a function of friendship status: Men produced the same amount…
Design metaphors play an important role in the development of many software projects. However, the influence of metaphors on project functionality, design methodology and the interactions among members of the development team is not well understood. This paper seeks insights into these issues by examining the experiences of a design team in building a system under the influence of a particularly strong design metaphor.
Zhao, Qian; Yu, Liang; Yang, Yanqing
Metaphoric competence is an essential part of language concept fluency and communicative competence. Since metaphor is pervasive in language, when Chinese second language (L2) learners are engaged in reading process, one of the barriers to influence their comprehension is metaphor. This paper aims to empirically investigate the relationship…
This essay is an account of an investigation of conceptual metaphors of LOVE in two albums by singer Mariah Carey. It also includes an investigation of if LOVE metaphors were used differently at the beginning of her career from how they are used twenty-four years later. The study is based on the singles of Carey's debut album and those of her latest album. The analysis showed that although the songs are separated by approximately twenty years the LOVE metaphors most reflected in the song lyri...
... the following: Religious denomination , if any. Beliefs or philosophy of life. Important spiritual practices or rituals . Using ... Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & ...
Biljana Mišić Ilić
Full Text Available The paper examines chess-related metaphorical expressions in English and Serbian from the cognitive linguistic perspective. These linguistic expressions stem from conceptual mapping from the source domain (chess to the target domain (life in general, or, more precisely, complex life situations. The paper tries to establish atopology of such mappings, based on the notions of event structure and inheritance hierarchies. From the contrastive point of view, the findings show a high correlation regarding this kind of metaphoric conceptualization between the two languages, which may suggest a considerable level of universality, at least in cultures familiar with the game of chess.
Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
During the Baroque period, artists worked in a style - encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the Council of Trent - that revealed the divine in natural forms and made religious experiences more accessible. Cosmas Damian Asam, painter and architect, and his brother Egid (Aegid) Quirin Asam, sculptor and stuccatore, were the principal exponents of eighteenth-century, southern-German religious decoration and architecture in the grand manner, the Gesamtkunstwerk. Cosmas Damian's visionary and ecstatic art utilized light, both physical and illusionistic, together with images of meteorological and astronomical phenomena, such as solar and lunar eclipses. This paper focuses on his representations of eclipses and demonstrates how Asam was galvanized by their visual, as well as metaphorical power and that he studied a number of them. He subsequently applied his observations in a series of paintings for the Benedictine order that become increasingly astronomically accurate and spiritually profound. From the evidence presented, especially in three depictions of St. Benedict's vision, the artist harnessed his observations to visualize the literary description of the miraculous event in the Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great, traditionally a difficult scene to illustrate, even for Albrecht Dürer. Asam painted the trio at Einsiedeln, Switzerland (1724-27); Kladruby, the Czech Republic (1725-27), where he captured the solar corona and the "diamond-ring effect"; and Weltenburg, Germany (1735), where he also depicted the diamond-ring effect at a total solar eclipse. We conclude that his visualizations were informed by his personal observations of the solar eclipses on 12 May 1706, 22 May 1724, and 13 May 1733. Asam may have also known the eclipse maps of Edmond Halley and William Whiston that were issued in advance. Astronomers did not start studying eclipses scientifically until the nineteenth century, making Asam's depictions all the more fascinating. So powerful was the
Christensen, Kirsten Haugaard; Turner, de Sales
Spiritual care perspectives of Danish Nurses The purpose of this study was to explore how Danish registered nurses understand the phenomenon of spiritual care and how their understanding impacts on their interventions with their patients. Nurses are responsible for the provision of care which...... would engage in provision of spiritual care. The participants acknowledged that their understanding of spirituality influenced their provision of spiritual care, which was recognized as a challenge requiring the nurse’s initiative and courage. Spirituality was primarily understood as a patient’s private...... respects patients’ values, religion, customs, and spiritual beliefs. Literature however revealed that the phenomenon of spiritual care is complex and variously interpreted, and that there seems to be a lack of conceptual clarity regarding what constitutes spiritual care. A phenomenological and hermeneutic...
Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M
Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chew, Brendan Wk; Tiew, Lay Hwa; Creedy, Debra K
To investigate acute care nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care and relationships with nurses' personal and professional characteristics. Spirituality and spiritual care are often neglected or absent in daily nursing practice. Nurses' perceptions of spirituality can be influenced by personal, professional and social factors and affect the provision of spiritual care. A cross-sectional, exploratory, nonexperimental design was used. All nursing staff (n = 1008) from a large acute care hospital in Singapore were invited to participate. Participants completed a demographic form and the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale. Completed surveys were received from 767 staff yielding a response rate of 76%. Descriptive statistics and General Linear Modelling were used to analyse data. Acute care nurses reported positive perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Religion, area of clinical practice and view of self as spiritual were associated with nurses' reported perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care. Nurses working in this acute care hospital in Singapore reported positive perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Respondents tended to equate religion with spirituality and were often unclear about what constituted spiritual care. They reported a sense of readiness to apply an interprofessional approach to spiritual care. However, positive perceptions of spirituality may not necessarily translate into practice. Spiritual care can improve health outcomes. Nurses' understanding of spirituality is essential for best practice. Interprofessional collaboration with clinicians, administrators, educators, chaplains, clergy and spiritual leaders can contribute to the development of practice guidelines and foster spiritual care by nurses. Further research is needed on the practical applications of spiritual care in nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Metaphors are pervasive in human thought and action, but have been an overlooked X-factor in projects and project management. This essay presents deliberate uses of metaphors classified into specific projects and frameworks for projects in order to stimulate explicit uses of metaphors in project...... management practice. The essay discusses practical implications where metaphors might be used to describe the project process as well the product produced at the project level - and might even be brought to the organizational level where organizations consider uses of metaphors deliberately in projects....
Roffman, Andrew E
The relationship between metaphor and the practice of utilization in therapy and hypnosis can be seen as dependent on metaphor's role in structuring experience. The work of Gregory Bateson and others is used to illustrate how metaphor functions. Bateson's comparison of two forms of syllogistic logic provides a background for distinguishing between the experiential effects of metaphor in contrast to the categorical thinking inherent in simile and analogy. Clinical examples are given to demonstrate how utilization is structured by metaphor, particularly as Bateson has described it in his analysis of the Syllogism in Grass.
Stein, Emma M; Kolidas, Evelyn; Moadel, Alyson
This study examines religion and spirituality among advanced cancer patients from an underserved, ethnically-diverse population by exploring patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, the role of religion and spirituality in coping with cancer, and patient interest in spiritual support. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who had participated in a study of a "mind-body" support group for patients with all cancer types. Analysis based on grounded theory was utilized to identify themes and theoretical constructs. With regard to patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, three categories emerged: (1) Spirituality is intertwined with organized religion; (2) Religion is one manifestation of the broader construct of spirituality; (3) Religion and spirituality are completely independent, with spirituality being desirable and religion not. Religion and spirituality played a central role in patients' coping with cancer, providing comfort, hope, and meaning. Patients diverged when it came to spiritual support, with some enthusiastic about interventions incorporating their spiritual values and others stating that they already get this support through religious communities. Spirituality plays a central role in the cancer experience of this underserved ethnically-diverse population. While spirituality seems to be a universal concern in advanced cancer patients, the meaning of spirituality differs across individuals, with some equating it with organized religion and others taking a more individualized approach. It is important that psychosocial interventions are developed to address this concern. Future research is needed to further explore the different ways that patients conceptualize spirituality and to develop spiritually-based treatments that are not "one size fits all."
Full Text Available Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1 Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., printed schedule; (2 Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., conditional schedule; and (3 novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., thin schedule. We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete versus abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings versus abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness.
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Carr, Drew; Boitor, Ciprian
Issues of spirituality and thriving are pertinent to the period of adolescence given the marked changes in body, mind, and relationships. In order to provide an overview of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and positive youth development, this chapter offers a developmental systems perspective and proposes a relational spirituality as a framework for understanding adolescent religious and spiritual development. In addition, the chapter examines various psychological mechanisms through which religion and spirituality may promote positive youth development. Existing empirical research on the relationships between adolescent religion, spirituality, thriving, and specific indicators of positive youth development is reviewed. Finally, future directions for continuing to build the field of study are discussed.
Rusko Nadiya Mykhaylivna
Full Text Available The article researches the concept of spirituality as a holistic phenomenon, characterises the current state of spirituality in Ukraine and reveal the basic ways of forming spiritual culture with the help of philosophical, cultural, theological, linguistic, pedagogical, and psychological approaches. Moreover, the crisis in the today’s spiritual culture is analysed, and the determinants of the negative processes in the modern society are examined. Therefore, we can state that education remains a priority area in the spiritual and cultural development of the society. In the current phase of state construction, the main educational objective is the development of the spiritual culture of personality.
Zainuddin, Zainul Ibrahim
This paper attempts to conceptualize Islamic spirituality in medical imaging that deals with the humanistic and technical dimensions. It begins with establishing an understanding concerning spirituality, an area that now accepted as part of patient-centred care. This is followed by discussions pertaining to Islamic spirituality, related to the practitioner, patient care and the practice. Possible avenues towards applying Islamic spirituality in medical imaging are proposed. It is hoped that the resultant harmonization between Islamic spirituality and the practice will trigger awareness and interests pertaining to the role of a Muslim practitioner in advocating and enhancing Islamic spirituality.
Giles, Timothy D
Examination of the work of scientific icons-Newton, Descartes, and others-reveals the metaphors and analogies that directed their research and explain their discoveries. Today, scientists tend to balk at the idea of their writing as rhetorical, much less metaphorical. How did this schism over metaphor occur in the scientific community? To establish that scientists should use metaphors to explain science to the public and need to be conscious of how metaphor can be useful to their research, this book examines the controversy over cloning and the lack of a metaphor to explain it to a public fearful of science's power.The disjunction between metaphor and science is traced to the dispensation of the Solar System Analogy in favor of a mathematical model. Arguing that mathematics is metaphorical, the author supports the idea of all language as metaphorical-unlike many rhetoricians and philosophers of science who have proclaimed all language as metaphorical but have allowed a distinction between a metaphorical use o...
Aneider Iza Ervitia
Full Text Available For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.
Barbieri, Thimoty; Paolini, Paolo
Cooperation Metaphors are sets of rules to support interaction and collaboration between users who want to explore complex content and information together. The rules determine how the collaborative community can be created and managed, how members of the community can operate on their own, or cooperate with other members. Different types of…
Hu, Chunyu; Chen, Zhi
Inflation is often regarded as a dangerous phenomenon which poses a potential threat to economies in the world. It is thus an entity that demands the constant attention of economists, policymakers and the general public. In order to make this abstract entry more concrete and vivid, a number of metaphorical expressions are used to depict inflation.…
Feasley, Florence G.
Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…
Pieters, Wolter; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret
The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept...... of navigation makes it easier to motivate and explain security investment to a wide audience, encouraging strategic security decisions....
Pieters, W.; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret; Heath, Claude P R; Probst, Christian W.; Verbij, Ruud
The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of
Pieters, Wolter; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret; Heath, Claude P.R.; Probst, Christian W.; Verbij, Ruud
The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of
Any effort to clarify the meaning of creativity, although productive, risks limiting this important concept to a singular definition at the exclusion of other valuable interpretations. This article presents generative redefinitions of creativity by surveying a range of metaphors that are used to describe creativity. To explore the polysemic…
closer look at their semantics, pragmatics and cognitive concepts and an overall knowledge of the language, culture, society, and environment. The semantic aspect considers their intrinsic and extended meanings. The recognition and interpretation of a metaphor requires attention to the particular pragmatic contexts under ...
Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten
. They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...
Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Noorelahi, Yasser M., E-mail: email@example.com; Ghosh, Shanchita, E-mail: Ghoshs1@umdnj.edu; Yang, Lily C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kasper, David J., E-mail: email@example.com
Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry.
Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.
Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand
Fox argues that the poetic function of language fulfils the human need to symbolise. Metaphor, simile and analogy provide examples of the ways in which symbolic language can be used creatively. The neural representations of these processes therefore provide a means to determine the neurological basis of creative language. Neuro-imaging has…
Cybernetics is the metaphorical term that describes and characterises the field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and machine. Broadly speaking, developments have occurred in two directions, one of which builds upon early cybernetic insights which sought to build machines upon ...
Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep
, as specific ways of framing and seeing organizational reality, to which it gives rise. While observations and evidence can always be adduced to challenge a particular set of metaphors, the endogenous force of the myth may sustain the overall project. This process is explained with a detailed analysis...
Full Text Available According to Ekman et al. (1972, happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. Kövecses (2000 claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.
Cairns, Robert B.
Evaluates the epigenetic landscape metaphor in light of behavioral development. Cites two common errors in integrated models of behavior and biology: (1) fixing behavior as structure, thereby robbing it of dynamics and plasticity; and (2) assuming that a single optimal trajectory applies to development of organisms or systems. (BC)
Rosenblatt, Paul C.
The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across…
Baker, Stephen R; Noorelahi, Yasser M; Ghosh, Shanchita; Yang, Lily C; Kasper, David J
To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article is a contribution to the recent interdisciplinary discourse between psychoanalysis, trauma theory and narrative by discussing the traumatic experiences of characters in the novel “Fugitive pieces” by Anne Michaels, with a specific focus on the metaphorical style of this novel. The article addresses the role of metaphor in the memory of trauma while comparing the relation between trauma, narrative and memory with reference to the work of Cathy Caruth, Van der Kolk and Margaret Wilkinson. Recent neurobiological research in the working of the brain during trauma and the insights of Borbelly in the role of metaphor during therapy are discussed. Insights of Lacan, Modell and Laplanche are integrated with those of psychologists like Knox, Borbelly and Van der Hart to counter arguments against the criticism brought against some of the metaphorical themes in “Fugitive pieces”. Metaphor is seen as one possible way of saying the inexpressible and the progression in the use of metaphor by patient and character alike is seen as one of the signs of healing from trauma.
Al-Azary, Hamad; Buchanan, Lori
Previous research suggests that metaphor comprehension is affected both by the concreteness of the topic and vehicle and their semantic neighbours (Kintsch, 2000; Xu, 2010). However, studies have yet to manipulate these 2 variables simultaneously. To that end, we composed novel metaphors manipulated on topic concreteness and semantic neighbourhood density (SND) of topic and vehicle. In Experiment 1, participants rated the metaphors on the suitability (e.g. sensibility) of their topic-vehicle pairings. Topic concreteness interacted with SND such that participants rated metaphors from sparse semantic spaces to be more sensible than those from dense semantic spaces and preferred abstract topics over concrete topics only for metaphors from dense semantic spaces. In Experiments 2 and 3, we used presentation deadlines and found that topic concreteness and SND affect the online processing stages associated with metaphor comprehension. We discuss how the results are aligned with established psycholinguistic models of metaphor comprehension.
Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper
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Abstract: General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article discusses the treatment of business metaphors in the PolyU Business Lexicon derived from the trilingual PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. During the process the concordances are grouped by senses, and then separated according to their literal and metaphorical meanings, which in turn lead to the decisions of sense order, word meaning and translation equivalents. Since different cultures have different 'bags' of metaphors, and metaphorical meanings also vary in different registers, the focus is primarily on the differences between Chinese and English in terms of culture, psychology, language and how such differences can be translated and presented in a corpus-based business lexicon with a minimum loss of their original connotations. Cultural transformations, such as direct translation, image substitution, explanatory notes and abandonment of the figure of speech, are suggested to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps.
Keywords: METAPHOR, DEFINITION, TRANSLATION, CULTURAL DIFFERENCE
Opsomming: Sakemetafore in 'n tweetalige sakewoordeboek. Woordeboeke vir algemene doeleindes bevoordeel gewone gebruikers op baie maniere, maar die definisies en voorbeelde mag dalk nie die uiteenlopende behoeftes van verskillende professionele gebruikers bevredig nie. Dit is veral waar van metafore. Die artikel bespreek die behandeling van sakemetafore in die PolyU Business Lexicon gebaseer op die drietalige PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. Gedurende die proses word die konkordansies deur betekenisse gegroepeer, en dan geskei volgens hul letterlike en metaforiese betekenisse, wat vervolgens lei tot die besluite oor betekenisorde, woordbetekenis, en vertaalsekwivalente. Aangesien verskillende kulture verskillende "sakke" metafore het, en
Haasz, Christine A.
This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…
This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…
A model for improving nurses' preparation in spiritual care includes development of spiritual self-awareness, knowledge of varied traditions of spirituality, and ability to implement a spiritual dimension in nursing practice using the skills of communication, trust building, and giving hope. (SK)
Crandall, Alan L
USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...
Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul
Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model.
White, Mary L; Peters, Rosalind; Schim, Stephanie Myers
The authors propose an integration of the concepts of spirituality and spiritual self-care within Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory as a critical step in theory development. Theoretical clarity is needed to understand the contributions of spirituality to health and well-being. Spirituality is the beliefs persons hold related to their subjective sense of existential connectedness including beliefs that reflect relationships with others, acknowledge a higher power, recognize an individual's place in the world, and lead to spiritual practices. Spiritual self-care is the set of spiritually-based practices in which people engage to promote continued personal development and well-being in health and illness.
Simon M. Tampubolon
Full Text Available The article discusses about how to develop spiritual intelligence of students in the college environment. This article describes pinciples of the application of the six ways of spiritual intelligence development into learning models, assignments, and campus life. The principles should be done by considering the meaning of the spiritual, developmental characteristics of students, and the characteristics of students’ spiritual development.
Singh, Darpan Kaur Mohinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak
Man has always yearned for a higher sense of belonging in life. Since ancient ages, human beings have tried to examine and evaluate the relationship between spirituality, religion and medicine. The interface of spirituality, quality of life and mental health is fascinating and sublime. Religion and spirituality play an essential role in the care giving of patients with terminal illnesses and chronic medical conditions. Patient′s needs, desires and perspectives on religion and spirituality sho...
Solange Coelho Vereza
Full Text Available Recent trends in metaphor studies have focussed on the cultural and ideological dimensions of the conceptualization of experience and its linguistic realization in discourse. Within this perspective, racism has been approached as the driving ideological force underlying the conceptual metaphor BAD IS DARKNESS, and more specific ones, such as DIFFICULT IS DARKNESS and IGNORANCE IS DARKNESS. These metaphors would, in turn, licence what has been referred to, in the literature, as ‘black metaphors’, i.e., metaphorical linguistic expressions which would evoke and, at the same time, perpetuate racism. The aim of this paper is to investigate an alternative hypothesis - without rejecting the ideologically-based one - to approach black metaphors, from the perspective of the sensorimotor experience with the physical phenomenon of darkness. This hypothesis is explored through an investigation of ‘black metaphors’ found in biblical texts. The choice of such corpus is justified, mostly, by the fact that racial discrimination, though clearly present in biblical times, did not seem to be so directly associated with skin colour as it has been more recently. The analysis looks firstly into the passages where the literal linguistic markers of the source domain are found, in order to investigate how the physical experiences with darkness are evaluated in the narratives. Secondly, the metaphorical uses of the same expressions are identified, and the target domains specified. The results of the analysis have confirmed the possibility of the conceptual projection from the sensorimotor experience with darkness onto negatively evaluated abstract notions. This seems to evidence the role of embodied cognition in metaphor, not just in its epistemic, but also in its evaluative function.
Full Text Available Postmodernists reject universal truth claims and brand them as violent impositions on a person by powerful institutions. Postmodernist spirituality seeks for a more subjective, life- experience based attitude towards values and truths of the Bible and relationship in community. Careful consideration should be given to the issues of community, knowledge/truth, faith, and faith experience. This article will show that, in his “Institutes”, Calvin gives ample attention to faith, the liberating truth about God as revealed in Jesus Christ, and to the Chris- tian’s intimate relationship with Him. Being in Christ, commu- nion with Christ or the “unio mystica cum Christo” through faith as a central theme in Calvin’s theology, needs to be redis- covered and re-applied to reformed spirituality as apologetic means in a postmodern world. This treasure should satisfy the kind of spirituality postmodernists yearn for.
Beaty, Roger E; Silvia, Paul J
Figurative language is one of the most common expressions of creative behavior in everyday life. However, the cognitive mechanisms behind figures of speech such as metaphors remain largely unexplained. Recent evidence suggests that fluid and executive abilities are important to the generation of conventional and creative metaphors. The present study investigated whether several factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence contribute to generating these different types of metaphors. Specifically, the roles of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and broad retrieval ability (Gr) were explored. Participants completed a series of intelligence tests and were asked to produce conventional and creative metaphors. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the contribution of the different factors of intelligence to metaphor production. For creative metaphor, there were large effects of Gf (β = .45) and Gr (β = .52); for conventional metaphor, there was a moderate effect of Gc (β = .30). Creative and conventional metaphors thus appear to be anchored in different patterns of abilities: Creative metaphors rely more on executive processes, whereas conventional metaphors primarily draw from acquired vocabulary knowledge.
Metaphor is probably the most useful linguistic tool in creative and imaginative literature. This is especially so with Gogol's Dead Souls. From micro images depicted in the submerged metaphor, compound metaphor, implicit metaphor and allusions, metaphorical images in the novel extend to straddle entire supra phrasal ...
Warnick, Bryan R.
This essay is an attempt to understand how technological metaphors, particularly computer metaphors, are relevant to moral education. After discussing various types of technological metaphors, it is argued that technological metaphors enter moral thought through their "functional descriptions." The computer metaphor is then explored by turning to…
Liefbroer, A.I.; Olsman, E.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Van Etten - Jamaludin, F.S.
Although knowledge on spiritual care provision in an interfaith context is essential for addressing the diversity of patients’ religious and spiritual needs, an overview of the literature is lacking. Therefore, this article reviews the empirical literature on interfaith spiritual care (ISC) in
The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.
Yob, Iris M.
The basic thesis explored in this paper is that rather than seeing spirituality as a byproduct of music, the other arts, and religion, music, the other arts, and religion might be seen as a byproduct of spirituality--hence, the proposition that music is a language of spirituality. If that is the case, there are twin dangers: talk of "wholism" can…
This article discusses various historiographies of spirituality as an indication of the influence of context on spirituality. It gives an overview of the most important historiographies of spirituality. Secondly, it describes the extremes of contextuality and noncontextuality, before finally reflecting on the dialectic tension between ...
This essay provides, first of all, a historical perspective on the nature of spirituality by investigating its early forms, followed by a discussion of two approaches in the last century. It then investigates three basic forms of spirituality, concluding with an overview of elements of spirituality.
Liefbroer, Anke I.; Olsman, Erik; Ganzevoort, R. Ruard; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S.
Although knowledge on spiritual care provision in an interfaith context is essential for addressing the diversity of patients' religious and spiritual needs, an overview of the literature is lacking. Therefore, this article reviews the empirical literature on interfaith spiritual care (ISC) in
The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...
Amanda Ienne; Rosa Aurea Quintella Fernandes; Ana Claudia Puggina
Abstract Objectives: To assess the spirituality of nurses and relate it to personal characteristics, sector of activity, and spiritual practices; to analyze the influence of spirituality of nurses in the record of a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs Module (WHOQOL-SRPB). Results: 132 nurses were included and most of them were women (81.8%)...
Jager Meezenbroek, Eltica; Garssen, Bert; Berg, Machteld; Dierendonck, Dirk; Visser, Adriaan; Schaufeli, Wilmar
textabstractSpirituality is an important theme in health research, since a spiritual orientation can help people to cope with the consequences of a serious disease. Knowledge on the role of spirituality is, however, limited, as most research is based on measures of religiosity rather than spirituality. A questionnaire that transcends specific beliefs is a prerequisite for quantifying the importance of spirituality among people who adhere to a religion or none at all. In this review, we discus...
Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers
René van Leeuwen
Full Text Available This paper shows similarities and differences in perceptions and competences regarding spirituality and spiritual care of nurses in different health care settings. Research on this specific topic is limited and can contribute towards a nuanced implementation of spiritual care in different nursing care settings. Four hundred forty nine nurses in different health care settings completed a questionnaire concerning spirituality and spiritual care, spiritual care competence, and personal spirituality. Respondents reported a generic (instead of more specific view of spirituality and spiritual care, and they perceived themselves to be competent in providing spiritual care. Compared to nurses in hospital settings, nurses in mental health care and home care have a more generic view of spirituality and spiritual care and report a higher level of competence. Next to this, they perceive themselves more as spiritual persons. Future research is needed to develop further understanding in setting specific factors and their influence on nurses’ views and competence regarding spiritual care. Nursing education and management should consider an emphasis on spiritual competence development related to working settings of nurses.
Ross, Linda; van Leeuwen, René; Baldacchino, Donia; Giske, Tove; McSherry, Wilfred; Narayanasamy, Aru; Downes, Carmel; Jarvis, Paul; Schep-Akkerman, Annemiek
Spiritual care is expected of nurses, but it is not clear how undergraduates can achieve competency in spiritual care at point of registration as required by nursing/midwifery regulatory bodies. To describe undergraduate nurses'/midwives' perceptions of spirituality/spiritual care, their perceived competence in delivering spiritual care, and to test out the proposed method and suitability of measures for a larger multinational follow-on study. Cross-sectional, multinational, descriptive survey design. Author administered questionnaires were completed by 86% of the intended convenience sample of 618 undergraduate nurses/midwives from 6 universities in 4 European countries in 2010. Students held a broad view of spirituality/spiritual care and considered themselves to be marginally more competent than not in spiritual care. They were predominantly Christian and reported high levels of spiritual wellbeing and spiritual attitude and involvement. The proposed method and measures were appropriate and are being used in a follow-on study. The following are worthy of further investigation: whether the pilot study findings hold in student samples from more diverse cultural backgrounds; whether students' perceptions of spirituality can be broadened to include the full range of spiritual needs patients may encounter and whether their competence can be enhanced by education to better equip them to deliver spiritual care; identification of factors contributing to acquisition of spiritual caring skills and spiritual care competency. © 2013.
Full Text Available Determination of the perceptions of the prospective teachers for the Information and Communications Technology (ICT terms have a remarkable potential to provide input for technology integration plans and ICT trainings. Within this context, the purpose of this study is to discover the metaphors constructed by prospective teachers for the ICT terms. Data were gathered from 180 prospective teachers through survey. 977 valid metaphors constructed by the participants were grouped into conceptual categories for the six ICT terms. The most common conceptual categories are “developing and changing” for technology, “making life easy” for computers and search engines, “limitless and endless” for the Internet, “means of communication” for social networks, and “addictive items” for video games. Future research should concentrate on investigating the match and mismatches between intended use of the ICT tools and the perception of the prospective teachers.
emphasizing that what is said about Yahweh must not be understood literally. Point 3. The metonymies underline that Yahweh relates to places or phenomena in this world without being bound to them or identified with them. And lastly point 4. The use of both metonymies and metaphors makes the psalm relevant...... in a variety of situations. Where the temple is physically in Jerusalem, the metonymic reference to Yahweh’s relation to Zion will be meaningful. When the temple is destroyed, or the worshipper lives far away, the metaphorical use of the rock will loosen the close connection between Yahweh and Zion....... Then Yahweh himself is regarded both as the rock and the dwelling-place for the worshipper....
Full Text Available This paper adopts the notion of metaphostruction (Wiliński 2015, the conceptual theory of metaphor (Kӧvecses 2002 and the corpus-based method geared specifically for investigating the interaction between target domains and the source domain lexemes that occur in them. The method, referred to as metaphostructional analysis (Wiliński 2015, is used to determine the degree of association between the target domain of business and the source domain lexemes derived from military terminology. The results of the metaphostructional analysis reveal that there are indeed war terms that demonstrate strong or loose associations with the target domain of business, and that these instantiate different metaphorical mappings.
Ida Bagus Mahardika
Full Text Available Cohesion and metaphor are the unique and interesting parts of language aspects in Andhabhuan text to research. They are quite dominant aspects in the story in developing its literature aesthetic. This research is based on the arts technical and analytical method. The result of the research on those two aspects shows that traditional aesthetic style in arts, as described in Andabhuana verses emphasize on the reference, meaning, selection and variation of words. The language parts used are aimed at bringing the text ideology to humanity perspective, especially the ?iwatattwa values as parts of Hindu teaching. Hence the cohesion and metaphor in Andabhuana text are semiotic description to transform to Balinese Hindus as most of them follow ?iwatattwa belief.
Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo; Cornelissen, Joep
Within organization studies, Morgan’s seminal book Images of Organization has laid the groundwork for an entire research tradition of studying organizational phenomena through metaphorical lenses. Within Morgan’s list of images, that of ‘organization as flux and transformation’ stands out in two...... important regards. First, it has a strong metonymic dimension, as it implies that organizations consist of and are constituted by processes. Second, the image invites scholars to comprehend organizations as a paradoxical relation between organization (an entity) and process (a non-entity). In this article......, we build on Morgan’s work and argue that flux-based images of organization vary in their ability to deal with the process-entity paradox, depending on the degree to which its metaphorical and metonymic dimensions are intertwined. We also examine three offsprings of the flux image: Organization...
Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl; Dubravka Papa
The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere) and timelessly (anytime) comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, ...
Climate scepticism in the sense of climate denialism or contrarianism is not a new phenomenon, but it has recently been very much in the media spotlight. When, in November 2009, emails by climate scientists were published on the internet without their authors’ consent, a debate began in which climate sceptic bloggers used an extended network of metaphors to contest (climate) science. This article follows the so-called ‘climategate’ debate on the web and shows how a paradoxical mixture of reli...
Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is a method of psychotherapy used to treat many psychological and psychiatric disorders and is based on cognitive model of emotional disorders. Throughout the therapy, it is important for the clients to be trained in their problems and to perceive the fact which is one of the fundamental actions of cognitive behavioral therapy, that the emotional state interacts not only with in the thoughts, but also physical functions and environment. . Besides employing cognitive behavioral methods and techniques to overcome clients’ problems, cognitive therapy is also an educational process that eventually aims to teach the patient to be his own therapist. If the methods and techniques of the therapy used during the process are clear and easy for the patients to understand, the therapeutic benefits will increase. For this reason, effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy depends on to a great extent both how much the client understands the therapist and how proper language and metaphors are used by the therapist while having therapeutic relations. In this sense, the metaphor is a method which makes it easy for the clients to perceive some abstract and the concepts which seem to the client complex. In this study, the situations in which metaphor is used for therapy have been dealt under nine headings. Objective: We have dealt with the concepts, in a metaphorical context, such as explanation of irrational and rational beliefs, which will be studied in the later stages of the therapy, explaining cognitive model and the characteristics of the therapy. Conclusion: This review can be considered as a start and a guide to researchers who want to do comprehensive studies about this subject.
N V Plotichkina
Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.
indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...... spoken of as a gardener, a guide, or even as a sage on the stage. Similarly, the metaphors of learning as acquisition and the learner as an almost empty vessel are very common concepts in relation to lecturing. Learning is also often understood as participation and collaboration, and these metaphors...
Full Text Available The article proposes an interpretation of metaphors and metaphoric discourse through the perspective of touch. The article first deals with metaphors of touch in the history of western philosophy (especially traditional metaphysics from Plato to Hegel in order to produce an operative category of touch that will allow, in the second step, to grasp the tactile quality of the metaphors. If metaphors are usually (rhetorics, politics, literature regarded as a specific form of language able to not only touch the subject matter in the most suitable way but also touch on the target subject (listener/reader, then it is precisely because there is a certain haptic quality involved in language itself, discernible especially in the discourse of those who know how to best exploit metaphors in their endeavours.
Sonya L. Armstrong
Full Text Available Metaphor analysis procedures for uncovering participant conceptualizations have been well-established in qualitative research settings since the early 1980s; however, one common criticism of metaphor analysis is the trustworthiness of the findings. Namely, accurate determination of the conceptual metaphors held by participants based on the investigation of linguistic metaphors has been identified as a methodological issue because of the subjectivity involved in the interpretation; that is, because they are necessarily situated in specific social and cultural milieus, meanings of particular metaphors are not universally constructed nor understood. In light of these critiques, this article provides examples of two different triangulation methods that can be employed to supplement the trustworthiness of the findings when metaphor analysis methodologies are used.
Full Text Available Theorists often associate certain “poetic” qualities with metaphor – most especially, producing an open-ended, holistic perspective which is evocative, imagistic and affectively-laden. I argue that, on the one hand, non-cognitivists are wrong to claim that metaphors only produce such perspectives: like ordinary literal speech, they also serve to undertake claims and other speech acts with propositional content. On the other hand, contextualists are wrong to assimilate metaphor to literal loose talk: metaphors depend on using one thing as a perspective for thinking about something else. I bring out the distinctive way that metaphor works by contrasting it with two other poetic uses of language, juxtapositions and “telling details,” that do fit the accounts of metaphor offered by non-cognitivists and contextualists, respectively.
spoken of as a gardener, a guide, or even as a sage on the stage. Similarly, the metaphors of learning as acquisition and the learner as an almost empty vessel are very common concepts in relation to lecturing. Learning is also often understood as participation and collaboration, and these metaphors...... indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...
This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.
Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl
Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere and timelessly (anytime comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, past, present and future, taps into dreams, myths and icons, inspiration, sensuality (sound, sight, smell, touch, taste, and intimacy (commitment, empathy, passion. Lovemark that, according to Roberts, «…reaches one's heart, as well as one's mind, and creates emotional connection to the consumer…» has been created and accepted in the business culture worldwide. In view of this, the paper points out the significance of metaphorical way of expressing in the language of branding as well as the irreplaceable role of language as the main factor in branding philosophy. The language analysis focuses on the metaphors of love influencing the shift of language of branding from material (brand to intangible (lovemark. It also highlights the fact that new ideas as incentives to language enrichment generate new lexemes like trustmark and lovemark.
Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.
Saide Cortés Jacob
Full Text Available The metaphorical expression has gained strength and has a special recognition in any field of science of language as a powerful means of communication, not only in terms of feelings, but also as a deep doctrinal content. The metaphor shines in all its fullness as beautiful instrument to develop a theological pragmatics, although the lived reality overcomes this incomparable verbal invitation. The Song of Songs is present in the Teresian writing. The seventh mansion can be read as a good summary of latent Teresian theological anthropology. Upon reaching at the main dwelling of “Castillo”, the person may have gained awareness of the process performed. The experience of giving himself love is what she calls “spiritual marriage”, that occurs when the mystery of grace and you can be life of others.
Metaphors are inevitable core elements of the conceptual schemes that shape our thinking and behavior. Traditionally, nature is interpreted in terms of agential metaphors such as ghosts, gods, witches and angels. Science, in contrast, is characterized by contra-intuitive, mechanistic thinking and machine metaphors. Modern societies nevertheless remain, to a certain extent, in the grip of powerful agential tropes. It will be argued that they are one of the obstacles that stand in the way of bo...
This matter intellect more devisal especially about motashabehat signs. Quran metaphors aren’t relative to language, society and date and in addition to, are ultra-linguistic, ultra-date and ultra-humanity. Reception conceptual metaphor conceptuality “Allaho noor os-Samavate val-arz” with aid component metaphors that in Quran, cabalas and philosopher locution’s and Gnostics, account equipollent’s of noor, become more easy for audience.
Reflecting on the guiding force of metaphors is a long-standing tradition in the German-speaking educational sciences. However, no connection is made to the theory of metaphor, which is derived from modern cognitive linguistics. This may in part be due to a lack of qualitative studies in the educational sciences on the subject of everyday reasoning. These three doctoral studies seek to fill the void, with Peter GANSEN producing detailed descriptions of how children use metaphors, whilst also ...
Tatyana V. Andryukhina
Full Text Available The article examines cross-cultural aspects of metaphorical framing in political discourse. The author notes the importance of conceptual metaphor in framing the conceptual domain of politics, political discourse as a whole, its perception as well as political reality itself. The author shares an opinion that the metaphorical structure of basic concepts of a nation always correlates with its fundamental cultural values. However, the examination of political discourse from the cross-cultural perspective reveals the cases of metaphor uses that don't meet the requirements of cultural coherence and may lead to negative cognitive and communicative consequences. Along with admitting a wide discrepancy between metaphorical models in western and oriental political discourse, the author gives some examples of metaphorical coherence as well as its violation in a number of basic metaphors in American, British and Russian political discourse. To illustrate how cross-cultural factors determine the specific character of metaphorical framing, the article analyses the dynamic character of metaphorical models that can realize diverse scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse. An observation is made about the dependence of metaphoric scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse on the cultural, historical, social and political components of the national cultural cognitive map. The latter is heterogeneous as it is structured by the objectified individual, group, and national verbal and nonverbal experience. This explains, for instance, why there are examples of similarity as well as discrepancy between metaphorical framing in ideologically different party varieties of political discourse within the national political discourse as well as in the rhetoric of politicians belonging to different generations. The observations are illustrated by cross-linguistic data proving the dynamic character of metaphorical models, their
Full Text Available Abstract Ian Marshall and Danah Zohar predicted theoretically that in the context of modern business will appear spirituality without religion as the moral basis of the business which he described as spiritual capital. But look at the phenomenon in Indonesia, sharia economic development is rapidly increasing which in fact appears based on religious values, then the theory Marshal and the Zohar indisputable. Spiritual entrepreneurship based on the Koran in Indonesia is growing; the ideas, thoughts, willingness (iradah, passion (ghirah and determination ('azm owned by an individual or group (community Muslims to strive in commerce (material or services that are based on the values of faith in God who taught the Koran. Spirituality entrepreneurship models based al-Qur'an that life (living values is very varied, among the models discussed in this paper are (1 spirituality entrepreneurship kaafah models, (2 spirituality entrepreneurship ukhuwah models, (3 spirituality entrepreneurship tareqat models, (4 spirituality entrepreneurship models keep ablution, (5 spirituality entrepreneurship models do not sell cigarettes, (6 the spirituality of entrepreneurship model- publication that profit to charity. Key Words : Spiritual, entrepreneurship, and models of bussines.
A patient has to cope with an illness on a physical, mental and spiritual level. There exists a difference between religiousness and spirituality even though the approach has a common foundation. Nonreligious spirituality relates to an inner experience, transcendent states of consciousness, meaningfulness, responsibility, sympathy, ethics, humanisation, faith. We encounter the spiritual point of view in humanistic psychotherapy, pastoral medicine, work of hospital chaplains, New Age, psychotherapies with religious and alternative aspects, transpersonal psychotherapy, psycho-spiritual crises, unusual states of consciousness, in meditation, Yoga, relaxation, kinesiology, ethicotherapy, reincarnation therapy, positive motivation, holotropic breathing, etc. There is description of different degrees of spiritual development, rational and irrational feeling of spirituality, Quantum Physics, spiritual intelligence, neuro-theology, physiological change, effects on improving adaptation during stress, drugs addiction, etc. Spirituality in relation with ethics is discussed in terms of socio-biology, evolution, emotions, aggressivity, genetics and social influence. The work analyses the effect of stressful situations on the deterioration of moral attitudes: during lack of time, obedience to authority and order. It is described how temperament and personality disorders can affect perception of spirituality, guilt feeling and conscience. Stressful situations, lack of time, relying only on the auxiliary objective methods leads to alienation of physician with a patient. Spirituality can partially improve the doctor-patient relationship, communication and sense of responsibility.
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Testerman, Nancy; Hart, Dynnette
Graduating nurses are required to know how to support patient spiritual well-being, yet there is scant literature about how spiritual care is taught in undergraduate programs. Typically spiritual content only is sporadically included; the authors recommend intergrating spiritual can thoughout the nursing curriculum. This article describes how one Christian nursing school integrates spiritual care content, supports student spiritual well-being throughout the program, and evaluates spiritual care instruction at graduation.
Jan 23, 2013 ... One of the themes that were identified by the research community, was that meaning in life is often associated with ... differed so much in terms of how God was 'storied', we decided to group the 'God stories' under the theme of ..... religion (and I assume also spirituality) into a psychological discussion would ...
This paper considers the often overlooked religious and educational works of the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). After outlining Tolstoy's life, religious and educational views, it is argued that Tolstoy has much to offer spiritual educators today. In particular, it suggests Tolstoy's insistence on the absolute and eternal nature of…
Adriana Mihaela MACSUT
Full Text Available Nowadays, the mankind is enthused about a real informational explosion but it the anxiety about the human mission also appears: “the humankind, enthused about its own discoveries and its power asks itself with anxiety which is its place and role in the Universe (Gaudim et Spes 3. Yesterday and today, the human being realized that he cannot “answer these fundamental questions which always have tormented his heart regarding the end and the beginning and hence his sense of existence” (Benedict XVI, Discourse, Pontifical Gregorian University Rome, the 4-th of November 2006. The 21st century is marked by a return to spirituality because the need for spirituality “reaffirms with power, so far that the observers... reach the conclusion attributed to Andre Malraux: «The 21st century will be religious or will not be at all»”.1 Nowadays, spirituality means searching for wisdom and there are questions as: who are the humans, where do they come from and where do they go. Under these circumstances, we have to establish some ethical benchmarks.2 This void makes place for the religious fundamentalism, a laic spirituality based of consumerism described as “a process through which goods are the services created, produced, used and exhausted”.3 But the human must switch from the state of consumer to the state of citizen.”4 Here is about “the necessity of surpassing a selfish ethics.”5
For some decades now, the supposedly egocentric character and subsequent lack of social engagement of adherents of new forms of spirituality is discussed without being resolved decisively, as chapter 1 shows. Therefore this empirical, quantitative study was started, with the main research question:
Waggoner, Michael D.
Though religion played a central role in the founding of U.S. higher education, over the centuries, its influence was diluted by competing secular emphases. In recent decades, religion has seen a resurgence in academic and co-curricular attention on campuses. In addition, a spirituality not based on religion has gained increasing attention. The…
Bakar, Abu; Nursalam; Adriani, Merryana; Kusnanto; Qomariah, Siti Nur; Hidayati, Laily; Pratiwi, Ika Nur; Ni'mah, Lailatun
Caring is a behavior of giving holistic assistance to individuals. In fact, this important behavior still has not routinely performed in current nursing practice. Personality and sipirituality are important factors in forming one's caring behavior. Spirituality is a passion or impulse to perform noble action. The objective of this study was to…
Singh, Darpan Kaur Mohinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak
Man has always yearned for a higher sense of belonging in life. Since ancient ages, human beings have tried to examine and evaluate the relationship between spirituality, religion and medicine. The interface of spirituality, quality of life and mental health is fascinating and sublime. Religion and spirituality play an essential role in the care giving of patients with terminal illnesses and chronic medical conditions. Patient's needs, desires and perspectives on religion and spirituality should be addressed in standard clinical care. Ongoing research in medical education and curriculum design points towards the inclusion of competence, communication and training in spirituality. There are structured and reliable instruments available for assessing the relationship between spirituality, religion and health in research settings. Intervention based scientific studies in the arena of spirituality and modern medicine are needed. Further research should be directed towards making modern medicine more holistic.
Internally focalized passages in narrative often employ metaphors to capture the experiential states of the focalizing character. My investigation of these metaphors - 'phenomenological metaphors', as I call them - has two important precedents in the fields of narratology and literary stylistics:
Hatice ÇOBAN KENEŞ
Full Text Available With the critical approaches in the study of rhetoric as well as critical approaches exhibited in cognitive semantic studies, metaphor has come to be interpreted not only as a means of language, meaning and adornment but also as a way of understanding and describing the World, and as a way of thinking. These studies offer a perspective on how metaphors do and can assume an ideological role in construction and maintenance of hegemonic meanings in the relationship between language, discourse and meaning; and also on how the ideological structure of a discourse can be systematically deciphered using metaphors. Based on the inputs of critical studies, this study aims to problematize the metaphors used to describe asylum seekers, migrants and refugees in newspapers play a role in the construction of discriminatory discourses. Within this scope, this study is based on the analysis of selected news stories regarding the entrance of first large groups of Syrians to Turkey in April 2011; the economic costs of their prolonged stay coupled with the arrival of new refugees especially in 2015; and the death of Ayan Kurdi, a three-year-old toddler who symbolized the ‘death trip’ of refugees on September 2, 2015. Within this framework, the study focuses on the use of metaphors contributing to the production and dissemination of discrimination against refugees through the analysis of news stories in Daily newspapers of Sabah, Posta,Hürriyet, Zaman ve Cumhuriyet,which represent different ideological strains and mind-sets of reporting. In these analyses, the study benefits from the conceptual framework on metaphors developed by Lakoff and Johnson as well as critical discourse analysis method of van Dijk
Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete
This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of…
For decades there has been awareness of the fact that the natural sciences and the language they use are not metaphor-free domains. This study draws together statements on this phenomenon made in a discourse context hitherto dominated by theoreticians and philosophers of science and points up new perspectives of an interdisciplinary nature discussed here primarily from the viewpoint of cognitive semantics. How do metaphors enter into a discourse with physics? To what extent are the methods used and the issues addressed in physics influenced by metaphors? How do the ubiquitous metaphors of ever
Full Text Available Learning a second language for Iranian students may not be simple at all parts, and it may be difficult for them, especially in some parts that is different from their first language principles. One of these parts is Metaphor, which is different in most languages according to their culture and history. This article is a kind of comparative study which aimed to describe some differences between English and Persian interpretation of animal metaphor. We have three categorization for animal metaphor and different examples according to cultures of both languages. Keywords: Animal metaphor, Contrastive analysis, Error analysis, Figurative language
Analyzing the power of metaphor in the rhetoric of science, this book examines the use of words to express complex scientific concepts. Metaphor and Knowledge offers a sweeping history of rhetoric and metaphor in science, delving into questions about how language constitutes knowledge. Weaving together insights from a group of scientists at the Santa Fe Institute as they shape the new interdisciplinary field of complexity science, Ken Baake shows the difficulty of writing science when word meanings are unsettled, and he analyzes the power of metaphor in science.
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Spiritual development is one of the most important aspects of socialization that has attracted the attention of researchers. It is needed to train nursing student and novice nurses to provide high-quality care for patients. There is ambiguity in the definition of spiritual development and its relations, especially in the eastern countries. To explore the concept of spiritual development in Iranian nurses. Qualitative content analysis approach. Data were gathered from semi-structured interviews. Participants and research context: The participants were 17 Iranian Muslim nurses selected using a purposeful sampling. The place of interviews was on their choice. Ethical considerations: Based on the principles of the Helsinki declaration, the focus was on preserving the participants' autonomy, confidentiality, and anonymity. The participants were told the study purposes and trends, and their rights were emphasized; they were then asked to sign written consent forms. Formal research approval was obtained from Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Ethical approval was granted by the University Ethics Committee before the study was conducted (K/92 etc). Three themes for spiritual development were defined: obligation to religion, commitment to ethics, and commitment to law. From the results, factors such as connection to the limitless divine power, personal and society-oriented ethical codes, and commitment to the law are proposed. There are some differences between these findings and previous study, especially in the relation of the spirituality, religion, and law. Some studies, mostly Iranian, support these findings partially. The results suggest that it is better to teach nursing education based on humanistic principles, ethics, and law to the new generation of nurses to improve community health and development. More studies are needed to examine the relation between these themes.
Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno
The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond (C:B) in 2004 and silicon (Si:B) in 2006 renew the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily-boron doped silicon carbide (SiC:B). The sample used for that study consists of cubic and hexagonal SiC ph...
Walton, Martin Neal
Spirituality has become a popular term in chaplaincy and health care settings, but is defined in such a myriad of ways and in such broad terms that, as a term, it threatens to become unfit for clinical practice. Several prominent conceptualizations of spirituality are analyzed in an attempt to recover the distinctiveness of spirituality. An adequate understanding of spirituality for clinical use should run close to the lived spirituality of persons in their unique individuality, differing contexts and various persuasions. In the second place a distinct discourse on spirituality needs to be sensitive to characteristic experiences of that which is other.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed. PMID:22654611
Jankowiak, Katarzyna; Rataj, Karolina; Naskręcki, Ryszard
Though metaphoric language comprehension has previously been investigated with event-related potentials, little attention has been devoted to extending this research from the monolingual to the bilingual context. In the current study, late proficient unbalanced Polish (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals performed a semantic decision task to novel metaphoric, conventional metaphoric, literal, and anomalous word pairs presented in L1 and L2. The results showed more pronounced P200 amplitudes to L2 than L1, which can be accounted for by differences in the subjective frequency of the native and non-native lexical items. Within the early N400 time window (300-400 ms), L2 word dyads evoked delayed and attenuated amplitudes relative to L1 word pairs, possibly indicating extended lexical search during foreign language processing, and weaker semantic interconnectivity for L2 compared to L1 words within the memory system. The effect of utterance type was observed within the late N400 time window (400-500 ms), with smallest amplitudes evoked by literal, followed by conventional metaphoric, novel metaphoric, and anomalous word dyads. Such findings are interpreted as reflecting more resource intensive cognitive mechanisms governing novel compared to conventional metaphor comprehension in both the native and non-native language. Within the late positivity time window (500-800 ms), Polish novel metaphors evoked reduced amplitudes relative to literal utterances. In English, on the other hand, this effect was observed for both novel and conventional metaphoric word dyads. This finding might indicate continued effort in information retrieval or access to the non-literal route during novel metaphor comprehension in L1, and during novel and conventional metaphor comprehension in L2. Altogether, the present results point to decreased automaticity of cognitive mechanisms engaged in non-native and non-dominant language processing, and suggest a decreased sensitivity to the levels of
Full Text Available Though metaphoric language comprehension has previously been investigated with event-related potentials, little attention has been devoted to extending this research from the monolingual to the bilingual context. In the current study, late proficient unbalanced Polish (L1-English (L2 bilinguals performed a semantic decision task to novel metaphoric, conventional metaphoric, literal, and anomalous word pairs presented in L1 and L2. The results showed more pronounced P200 amplitudes to L2 than L1, which can be accounted for by differences in the subjective frequency of the native and non-native lexical items. Within the early N400 time window (300-400 ms, L2 word dyads evoked delayed and attenuated amplitudes relative to L1 word pairs, possibly indicating extended lexical search during foreign language processing, and weaker semantic interconnectivity for L2 compared to L1 words within the memory system. The effect of utterance type was observed within the late N400 time window (400-500 ms, with smallest amplitudes evoked by literal, followed by conventional metaphoric, novel metaphoric, and anomalous word dyads. Such findings are interpreted as reflecting more resource intensive cognitive mechanisms governing novel compared to conventional metaphor comprehension in both the native and non-native language. Within the late positivity time window (500-800 ms, Polish novel metaphors evoked reduced amplitudes relative to literal utterances. In English, on the other hand, this effect was observed for both novel and conventional metaphoric word dyads. This finding might indicate continued effort in information retrieval or access to the non-literal route during novel metaphor comprehension in L1, and during novel and conventional metaphor comprehension in L2. Altogether, the present results point to decreased automaticity of cognitive mechanisms engaged in non-native and non-dominant language processing, and suggest a decreased sensitivity to the levels
Aneider Iza Ervitia
Full Text Available For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.
For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.
Full Text Available Background: As two of the most prominent cultural components, spirituality and religion give sense to our human values, conducts, and experiences. The spiritual dimension is one of the four significant aspects of holistic care. However, the diversity of views has resulted in different interpretations of the reality of spirituality and its origins and consequences. Aim: This study aimed to examine the available approaches and paradigms in the realm of spirituality. Method: In the present integrative review, the initial search was performed in national and international databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Sage, Medline, Wiley, SID, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc, using the keyword, "spirituality", without considering any time limits. Articles relevant to the objectives of the study were then fully reviewed. Results: Since ancient times, spirituality has been sporadically discussed in human intellectual and artistic artifacts. This concept was expanded as an independent, systematic, and conscious movement since the second half of the 19th century in Europe, USA, and Canada. The three prominent approaches to spirituality include religious, secular, and holistic health perspectives. Implications for Practice: Despite the growing interest in research on spirituality, it is difficult to reach a unanimous decision about this concept. However, it should be noted that spiritual concerns cannot be disregarded, considering the holistic perspective to humanity as the building block of holistic nursing care. Overall, every patient is a unique human being whose spiritual needs are affected by his/her cultural beliefs and values.
Sri Padma Sari
Full Text Available Introduction: Spirituality has been reported to have benefits for recovery and quality of life for people with mental disorders including patients with schizophrenia. Spiritual can also be a coping strategy for patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to explore the importance of spirituality among patients with schizophrenia. Method: This study uses descriptive phenomenological approach. There are 9 participants in this study, 7 participants are patients who diagnosed of schizophrenia and 2 participants are the caregivers. The data were analyzed by phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Results: Two main themes emerge from this study are 1 the meaning of spirituality is closed with Allah and the improvement of the spiritual practice and 2 the benefits of spirituality is recovery from the illness, symptoms management, behavioral change, emotional change and hope. Discussion: Spirituality has an important role for patients with schizophrenia including helping the recovery process and hope. The results of this study are expected to give an overview of the spiritual need among patients with schizophrenia so that the nurses can give religion and or spiritual activity in the nursing intervention. Key words: schizophrenia, spirituality, recovery
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural 'top-down' effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness.
Weathers, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Geraldine; Coffey, Alice
The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of spirituality for future nursing research. Previous concept analyses of spirituality have mostly reviewed the conceptual literature with little consideration of the empirical literature. The literature reviewed in prior concept analyses extends from 1972 to 2005, with no analysis conducted in the past 9 years. Rodgers' evolutionary framework was used to review both the theoretical and empirical literature pertaining to spirituality. Evolutionary concept analysis is a formal method of philosophical inquiry, in which papers are analyzed to identify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature. Three defining attributes of spirituality were identified: connectedness, transcendence, and meaning in life. A conceptual definition of spirituality was proposed based on the findings. Also, four antecedents and five primary consequences of spirituality were identified. Spirituality is a complex concept. This concept analysis adds some clarification by proposing a definition of spirituality that is underpinned by both conceptual and empirical research. Furthermore, exemplars of spirituality, based on prior qualitative research, are presented to support the findings. Hence, the findings of this analysis could guide future nursing research on spirituality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141
Best, Megan; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian
A previous survey of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) members found low frequency of spiritual care provision. We hypothesized that physicians with special training in palliative medicine would demonstrate an increased sense of responsibility for and higher self-reported adequacy to provide spiritual care to patients than health professionals with general training. We surveyed members of the Australian and New Zealand Palliative Medicine Society (ANZSPM) to ascertain their spiritual care practices. We sent 445 e-mails on four occasions, inviting members to complete the online survey. Tabulated results were analyzed to describe the results. One hundred and fifty-eight members (35.5 %) responded. Physicians working primarily in palliative care comprised the majority (95 %) of the sample. Significantly more of the ANZSPM than MASCC respondents had previously received training in spiritual care and had pursued training in the previous 2 years. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to interest in and self-reported ability to provide spiritual care. Those who believed it was their responsibility to provide spiritual care were more likely to have had training, feel they could adequately provide spiritual care, and were more likely to refer patients if they could not provide spiritual care themselves. Training in spiritual care was more common in healthcare workers who had received training in palliative care. ANZSPM members gave higher scores for both the importance of spiritual care and self-reported ability to provide it compared to MASCC members.
Dennis, Dixie L.; Dennis, Brent G.
Suggests a unique mental health prevention strategy that focuses on spiritual education in public schools, defining spirituality, describing the spirituality-mental health connection, highlighting educators' responsibility toward spiritual education, and offering specific activities and strategies for enhancing students' spirituality suitable for…
McSherry, Wilfred; Jamieson, Steve
To provide an opportunity for members to express their understandings of spirituality and spiritual care. The role and place of spirituality within nursing have been contested by academics and wider society. One argument posited is supporting patients with their spiritual needs is not the responsibility of nurses. This is despite a clear professional requirement for nurses to achieve competence in the delivery of spiritual care. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) conducted an online survey of its membership to ascertain their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care identifying current practice. This article presents the findings from the final part of the survey that asked respondents to use a free-text facility to add comments on the subjects of spirituality and spiritual care. Overall, 4054 RCN members responded, of these 2327 provided additional comments. These comments were analysed using keyword and content/thematic analysis. Five broad themes emerged: (1) theoretical and conceptual understanding of spirituality, (2) fundamental aspects of nursing, (3) notion of integration and integrated care, (4) education and professional development and (5) religious belief and professional practice. Findings suggest that nurses have diverse understandings of spirituality and the majority consider spirituality to be an integral and fundamental element of the nurses' role. Generally, nurses had a broad, inclusive understanding of spirituality considering this to be 'universal'. There was some uncertainty and fear surrounding the boundaries between personal belief and professional practice. Respondents advocated formal integration of spirituality within programmes of nurse education. The concept of spirituality and the provision of spiritual care are now recognised as fundamental aspects of the nurse's role. There is a need for greater clarity between personal and professional boundaries to enable nurses to feel more confident and competent in delivering spiritual
Full Text Available Nurses and health care professionals should have an active role in meeting the spiritual needs of patients in collaboration with the family and the chaplain. Literature criticizes the impaired holistic care because the spiritual dimension is often overlooked by health care professionals. This could be due to feelings of incompetence due to lack of education on spiritual care; lack of inter-professional education (IPE; work overload; lack of time; different cultures; lack of attention to personal spirituality; ethical issues and unwillingness to deliver spiritual care. Literature defines spiritual care as recognizing, respecting, and meeting patients’ spiritual needs; facilitating participation in religious rituals; communicating through listening and talking with clients; being with the patient by caring, supporting, and showing empathy; promoting a sense of well-being by helping them to find meaning and purpose in their illness and overall life; and referring them to other professionals, including the chaplain/pastor. This paper outlines the systematic mode of intra-professional theoretical education on spiritual care and its integration into their clinical practice; supported by role modeling. Examples will be given from the author’s creative and innovative ways of teaching spiritual care to undergraduate and post-graduate students. The essence of spiritual care is being in doing whereby personal spirituality and therapeutic use of self contribute towards effective holistic care. While taking into consideration the factors that may inhibit and enhance the delivery of spiritual care, recommendations are proposed to the education, clinical, and management sectors for further research and personal spirituality to ameliorate patient holistic care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although spirituality is usually considered a positive resource for coping with illness, spiritual distress may have a negative influence on health outcomes. Tools are needed to identify spiritual distress in clinical practice and subsequently address identified needs. This study describes the first steps in the development of a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods A three-step process was used to develop the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT: 1 Conceptualisation by a multidisciplinary group of a model (Spiritual Needs Model to define the different dimensions characterizing a patient's spirituality and their corresponding needs; 2 Operationalisation of the Spiritual Needs Model within geriatric hospital care leading to a set of questions (SDAT investigating needs related to each of the defined dimensions; 3 Qualitative assessment of the instrument's acceptability and face validity in hospital chaplains. Results Four dimensions of spirituality (Meaning, Transcendence, Values, and Psychosocial Identity and their corresponding needs were defined. A formalised assessment procedure to both identify and subsequently score unmet spiritual needs and spiritual distress was developed. Face validity and acceptability in clinical practice were confirmed by chaplains involved in the focus groups. Conclusions The SDAT appears to be a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalised persons. Studies are ongoing to investigate the psychometric properties of the instrument and to assess its potential to serve as a basis for integrating the spiritual dimension in the patient's plan of care.
Egan, Richard; MacLeod, Rod; Jaye, Chrystal; McGee, Rob; Baxter, Joanne; Herbison, Peter
Spiritual matters naturally arise in many people who have either a serious illness or are nearing end-of-life. The literature shows many examples of spiritual assessments, interventions and care; however, there is a lack of focus on organisational support for spiritual care. We aimed to ascertain the structural and operational capacity of New Zealand's hospices to attend to the spiritual needs and concerns of patients, families and staff. As part of a larger study, a mail out cross-sectional survey was distributed to 25 New Zealand hospices and asked details from staff about facilities, practices and organisational aspects of spiritual care. Data were collated by creating a 'hospice setting spiritual score' based on an aggregate of eight items from the survey. There was a 66% response rate. Summary scores ranged from 2 to 7 indicating that while sites delivered a range of spiritual services, all could improve the level of spiritual care they provide. The two most common items missing were 'spiritual professional development' and 'formal spiritual assessment.' This simple setting spiritual score provides a snapshot of a hospice's commitment to spiritual care. It could be used as a preliminary auditing tool to assist hospices in identifying organisational and operational aspects that could be improved to enhance spiritual care delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine Turkish nursing students’ knowledge, practices and perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographics. This study was a descriptive survey conducted at a nursing school providing degree-level education in the city of Manisa, in the western part of Turkey. The sample of the study consisted of the 400 nursing students. A nursing student sociodemographic form, a form on nursing students’ knowledge and practices of spirituality and spiritual care, and the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale were used to collect the data. Half of the students could meet patients’ or individuals’ spiritual needs, and the spiritual care that they gave was most frequently listening, empathy, and psychological support. The research findings were that nursing students’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care were “sufficiently” although not “very sufficiently” defined. Being female, being in the second year of education and seeing spiritual care education as necessary were determinants of their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care.
McSherry, Wilfred; Gretton, Mark; Draper, Peter; Watson, Roger
There is a professional requirement for student nurses to achieve competence in the delivery of spiritual care. However, there is no research exploring students nurses perceptions of being educated in these matters. This paper explores the ethical basis of teaching student nurses about the concepts of spirituality and spiritual care by reporting the findings from the first year of a 3 year investigation. An exploratory longitudinal design was used to obtain student nurses perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care as they progressed through a 3 year programme. A questionnaire incorporating the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale was distributed to 176 pre-registration nursing students undertaking either the Advanced Diploma or Bachelor of Science degree programmes. A response rate of 76.7% was obtained. Findings reveal that the majority of student nurses perceived spirituality to be a universal phenomenon of a type that can be associated with existentialism. Some students were very uncertain and apprehensive about being instructed in spiritual matters. A cohort of student nurses held similar understandings of spirituality to those presented in the nursing literature. However the results also suggest an overwhelming majority felt it was wrong for spirituality to imply that some people are better than others and most were uncertain whether spirituality was related to good and evil. RELEVANCE TO NURSE EDUCATION: The investigation reveals that there are a number of ethical concerns surrounding the teaching of spirituality to student nurses that need to be resolved.
Bailey, Maria E
This study aims to describe nurses\\' experiences of delivering spiritual support in a palliative care setting in the Republic of Ireland. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 nurses working in the area of specialist palliative care. A content analysis of the transcriptions revealed five sub-themes: understanding spirituality; the art of nursing in spiritual care; education and learning; the challenge of spiritual caring; and the dimensions of time. The resulting creation of a spiritual tapestry provided an overall theme. Nurses in this study were spiritually self-aware and placed a high value on the spiritual element of their caring role. Nurses described their individual understanding of spirituality and discussed how they recognized and addressed a patient\\'s spiritual needs. Time was described as essential to the provision of spiritual support and appeared to be a significant resource challenge to the provision of spiritual care. The challenges of assessing spiritual needs and measuring outcomes of care were also reported. Participants in this study described the creation of a spiritual tapestry that \\'weaves\\' together care and compassion with skills and knowledge in their nursing practice.
Bolt, Wilko; Tieman, Alexander F.
A common feature in two-sided markets is the prevalence of heavily skewed pricing strategies in which price markups are much higher on one side of the market than the other. We show that maximal skewed pricing is profit maximizing under constant elasticity of demand. The most elastic side of the
The results of the investigation indicated that the optimum amount of cement required to achieve the minimum UCS of 3.0 MPa as specified in ERA and AACRA pavement design standards for heavily trafficked base course without adding fine soils is found to be 7% cement. However, this high cement requirement was ...
Full Text Available This article explores the significance of metaphors in the creative work of second language learners of English. Metaphor, as viewed in this article, is not only a poetic device or a literary tool, but is recognised as a crucial part of our everyday thinking and meaning making. Essay writing is a genre of discourse that lends itself to sharing thoughts and reflecting on life and important issues. Teaching and assessment practices in creative writing are studied against the background of the apparent difficulty learners experience with English as their second language. The article argues that recognition should be given to the particular ways in which learners are able to express themselves and to create meaning in a second language by means of metaphor. An analysis was undertaken of the metaphors created by learners in their second language as an expression of their life worlds. The implications for teaching and assessment of learners’ creative writing work suggest a move away from reading only for errors towards recognising learners’ ability to create meaning.
Magdalena Anna Zawisławska
Full Text Available SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse This article describes the preliminary premises of metaphor annotation in SYNAMET - the developing microcorpus of synesthetic metaphors. The analysis is based on the CLST theory (Context-Limited Simulation Theory put forward by D. Ritchie. According to this theory, the metaphor’s vehicle may activate various types of associations between words: semantic relations, perceptual sensations, or emotional simulations. The range of potential associations evoked by the vehicle is limited by the topic, i.e. the lexical context in which the metaphor appears. The relations between the vehicle and the topic may be presented in the form of a semantic frame. To reconstruct the frames within the project, linguistic works devoted to sensory perception- vision, hearing, smell and taste- will be utilized. The corpus annotation will consist of the following stages: 1 metaphor identification, 2 indication of the metaphor cluster (CM - a phrase or a passage of the text, centered around one referent, 3 isolation of the metaphorical units (MU - word forms or phrases combining lexemes primarily belonging to different perceptual frames. The outcome of the MU analysis will include: a general metaphorical scheme of the MU, lexical items activating the frame of the MU (together with their grammatical description, a detailed metaphor scheme of the MU, and the semantic and grammatical categorization of the MU. SYNAMET – mikrokorpus metafor synestezyjnych. Wstępne założenia opisu metafory w dyskursie Artykuł opisuje wstępne założenia anotacji metafor w powstającym mikrokorpusie metafor synestezyjnych SYNAMET. Podstawą metody opisu będzie teoria CLST (Context-Limited Simulation Theory D. Ritchie’go. W myśl tej teorii nośnik metafory (vehicle może aktywować różne typy powiązania między wyrazami: semantyczne, zmysłowe lub emocjonalne
Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov
Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook
.... This includes caring for the patient's spiritual needs. It is well documented in the health care literature that a patient's sense of spiritual well-being can have a positive outcome on health care and the quality of life...
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over the life course. A hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the interviews was performed and provided insights into the nature of their “lived experience” allowing for the understanding of the essence of their spirituality. The results are presented as an interpretation of the participants’ perceptions of their spirituality and spiritual experiences. For the women in this study, the essence of their spirituality lies in: being profoundly grateful; engaging in complete acceptance; and having a strong sense of assuredness, while stressing the linkages and importance of spirituality. Implications for understanding spirituality for older adults are considered. PMID:23185856
Smith, Ruth C.; Eisenberg, Eric M.
Uses metaphor analysis to illuminate recent conflicts at Disneyland. Discusses a 30-year change of emphasis of root-metaphors from "drama" to "family" that reflects fundamental differences between management and employees, along with the implications of this confrontation for the future of Disneyland. (NKA)
This study examined an emerging trend in Internet discourse as metaphorical constructs used by individuals for communication online. The Internet meme is an evolving trend used for satirical illustrations and expression of intents in multimodal ways. While previous studies have focused on verbal metaphors signaled by ...
Novikova, Eleonora G; Janyan, Armina; Tsaregorodtseva, Oksana V
The study aimed to explore processing difference between a literal phrase and a metaphoric one. Unlike artificially created stimuli in most experimental research, an artistic text with an ambiguous binary metaphoric phrase was used. Eye tracking methodology was applied. Results suggested difference between the two types of phrases in both early and late processing measures. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jones, Jean Grace
Finds that, to examine the challenges new faculty members face, it is helpful to use three "survival metaphors": a new marriage; going to work on an assembly line; and being given "15 to 20" in the state penitentiary. Compares professional duties to each metaphor in turn. (PA)
van Ments, L.; Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.
In this paper, a social agent model is presented for the influence of cognitive metaphors on joint decision making processes. The social agent model is based on mechanisms known from cognitive and social neuroscience and cognitive metaphor theory. The model was illustrated in particular for two
Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.
Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…
Describes use of collaborative metaphorical discussions, mind mapping, and imaginative visual thinking by the faculty of the Rider University School of Education to produce an idealistic vision of the college's future. This vision is expressed as a fanciful metaphorical drawing surrounded by a mind map and accompanied by a story connecting symbols…
Wernecke, Ulrike; Schwanewedel, Julia; Harms, Ute
Energy transfer in ecosystems is an abstract and challenging topic for learners. Metaphors are widely used in scientific and educational discourse to communicate ideas about abstract phenomena. However, although considered valuable teaching tools, metaphors are ambiguous and can be misleading when used in educational contexts. Educational…
Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.
We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to
Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to determine the frequency and types of metaphors in a corpus of titles from a single medical journal collected over one year. The frequency of metaphor tokens (4.6% was highest among editorials and other opinion articles and consisted predominantly of primary metaphors, which require explanation using a visual, cultural or other physical vehicle. When the metaphor was used only in the title and not in the body of the text, as was common in letters to the editor or in editorials, the metaphor may constitute a para-textual device used for engaging the reader. Other metaphors among research article titles were present not only in the title, but also used repeatedly in the body of the text. Among these research articles, metaphors were frequently used to endow the focus words of the metaphor with a precise and meaningful significance which, when used repeatedly in the text, may constitute a mechanism by which sub-technical language or internal jargon may arise. Being syntactically simple but endowed with a high communicative import, titles as a text type may help improve academic literacy, among beginners.
Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…
Among the metaphors that Freud used to describe psychoanalysis, the surgical is possibly the most deplored. It is considered an anachronistic remnant of a dubious medical ideology that psychoanalysis has largely renounced. However, while analysts today avoid surgical analogies, their patients continue to produce surgical fantasies about analytic treatment. This fact alone requires a serious consideration of the meanings that surgical metaphors have for them. A second reason for reconsidering the role of the surgical metaphor, from the analyst's perspective, lies in its creative revival by W. R. Bion. Disregarding the shift away from surgical analogizing, Bion employed the metaphor to vividly portray various aspects of the analytic situation and the patient's experience of them. A brief historical overview of the surgical metaphor in psychoanalysis is provided, followed by an account of the reasons for its demise and by a review of the criticisms that continue to be leveled at it. Bion's use of surgical metaphors toward the end of his life is then explored. Finally, illustrations are given of the various ways in which patients use spontaneous surgical metaphors to depict transference and the analytic process. Though the analyst should not deliberately adopt surgical metaphors, it is important to remain open to these transference portrayals.
Ahrens, Kathleen; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lee, Chia-Ying; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fang, Shin-Yi; Hsu, Yuan-Yu
This study looks at whether conventional and anomalous metaphors are processed in different locations in the brain while being read when compared with a literal condition in Mandarin Chinese. We find that conventional metaphors differ from the literal condition with a slight amount of increased activation in the right inferior temporal gyrus. In…
Barnes, Erica M.; Oliveira, Alandeom W.
Elementary students are expected to use various features of informational texts to build knowledge in the content areas. In science informational texts, scientific metaphors are commonly used to make sense of complex and invisible processes. Although elementary students may be familiar with literary metaphors as used in narratives, they may be…
Madsen, Mathias W.
One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are…
Kadi, Aysegül; Beytekin, Osman Ferda
It is necessary to know how the members of a school perceive their school management to investigate how they are related to their organizations. In this case, we can refer to metaphors, which are excellent tools for people to express their subconscious thoughts and perceptions about their organizations. On the other hand, metaphors help us to…
Discusses a cognitive model that is an alternative to Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum, developed and based on the metaphor that the mind's knowledge base is a lattice. States that the lattice metaphor offers an understanding of cognition but some questions still remained unanswered. (CMK)
fact a subjective reality is created by human perception of the world and the processing of this perception. Metaphorical expressions ... metaphors as structuring devices of human thought into its larger framework as single-scope networks, the input whose frame is ...... follows its instinct (urge). It takes up other entities within ...
Aysegul, Derman; Serdar, Derman
The aim of this study is to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions of the concept of science by asking them to use metaphors to describe it. A metaphor elicitation method was employed in this study. The data obtained from the study were considered with both quantitative and qualitative (Content Analysis) analyses. The study determined the…
This paper aims to clarify and discuss the reasons and limits of three rather popular metaphors that are used to speak of today's complex social and cultural fabric, through references to cultural anthropology, biology and genetics. In her analysis, the author considers not only the linguistic and semantic dimension of each metaphor, but also the…
Bounegru, L.; Forceville, C.
Lakoff and Johnson (1980) claim that metaphors play a crucial role in systematically structuring concepts, not just language. Probing the validity of this far-reaching claim requires investigating multimodal discourse. In this paper we analyse the 25 metaphors that structure a sample of 30 political
The paper examines the metaphorical and metonymic structure of the heart in Akan (a Kwa language in West Africa,) and English, within the framework of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), formulated by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). My aim is to explore the ways in which akoma, 'the heart', is used in Akan to express ...
Byrum, C. Stephen
This discussion of "dominant metaphors" characterizing the nation's history focuses specifically on the period of metaphor change surrounding the ascent of the National Football League. The terms AGON and PAIDIA, used by the ancient Greeks to describe two dimensions of sports activities, provide the framework for a discussion of the athletic…
Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet
The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…
Forceville, C.; Fahlenbrach, K.
Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) pioneering work claimed that human beings think metaphorically, thereby initiating a remarkable revival of the scholarly interest in this queen of tropes. This interest reigned at first primarily among linguists. Since then, however, metaphor research has considerably
Daniel J. García López
Full Text Available The article analyzes the survival of the organic metaphor in the beginning of Modernity, against the Bobbio’thesis: the organicism disappears with Modernity. From the thought of Hobbes, Rousseau, Beccaria and Sieyès, we show the connection between the old metaphor and the modern immune paradigm.
Rouwhorst, Gerard; Duyndam, Joachim; Korte, Anne-Marie; Poorthuis, Marcel
In Early Christianity the term 'sacrifice' was understood in a metaphorical way. The key to this metaphorical was to be found in the life and the death of Jesus Christ which which was interpreted as a self-offering and, for its part, constituted the model of the Christian way of life. Although this
Siltanen, Susan A.
A study was conducted to replicate and extend an earlier investigation of the persuasive effects of extended, intense concluding sex and death metaphors by using a more controlled design and by mixing metaphors. Fifty-eight high school students completed pretests assessing their attitudes toward a speech topic (legalization of marijuana). Two…
the road. Gogol himself describes it as a no3Ma (poem) because of its complex and elevated thoughts encapsulated mostly in the use of the metaphor. 1. Introduction. Gogol's epic novel Dead Souls has ..... of similarity. The road for example serves as a physical web as well as a metaphorical artery linking the various towns.
A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER frame in Swami Vivekananda's Complete Works : A corpus-driven study in light of conceptual metaphor theory. ... Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the Complete Works. The data were then tagged ...
Dr. Daan Andriessen
Metaphors are common phenomena intellectual capital and knowledge management theories and practice. An important question to ask is: what are the ‗best‘ metaphors we can use in our theorizing on intellectual capital and knowledge management? This paper addresses the question of the aptness of
Krauss, Herbert H
Every new field of investigation requires a guiding scheme or frame. Its purpose is to provide a heuristic for discovery and a structure for organizing information. Neither the World Health Organization's public health nor a biosocial model of violence are adequate for providing a protoscientific frame for conceptualizing violent acts. This essay suggests a master metaphor--Burke's Dramatism--through which to deepen and expand our knowledge of violence and what must be done to reduce its toll. An illustrative example is presented.
Full Text Available The article is an attempt at – yet once again – finding a source of more fitting metaphor for the study of consciousness inside the framework of quantum mechanics. It starts by doubting into the possibility of the naturalization of research of experience. Proceeding from that it searches for a more adequate way to implement Varela’s idea about a balanced bridging the explanatory gap. By comparing certain positions of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena with the properties of introspection, it tries to point out that there might exist better epistemic positions for understanding consciousness than the ones most frequently used today.
Marschark, M; Nall, L
Consideration of the age-related changes in children's language and cognitive development suggests qualitative changes in their creative language use. Many, if not most, researchers in the area have argued that some metaphoric competence emerges far earlier than would be expected on the basis of explanation or interpretation tasks alone. These same researchers, however, appear largely to have neglected consideration of the cognitive prerequisites for such abilities and differences between what is nonliteral for the adult and nonliteral for the child. If figurative language is defined as involving intentional violation of conceptual boundaries in order to highlight some correspondence, one must be sure that children credited with that competence have (1) the metacognitive and metalinguistic abilities to understand at least some of the implications of such language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Nelson, 1974; Nelson & Nelson, 1978), (2) a conceptual organization that entails the purportedly violated conceptual boundaries (Lange, 1978), and (3) some notion of metaphoric tension as well as ground. Having stacked the definitional cards, we doubt that many investigators would assert that 2-year-old children at nonverbal symbolic play are doing anything that is literally metaphorical in our terms. But neither will we deny that one can observe creative components in the verbal and nonverbal play of the young child that are precursors of later nonliteral language skills (see McCune-Nicolich, 1981, for discussion). We simply do not see these creative abilities as specific to language in any way that justifies calling them metaphoric competence. Rather, the child's abilities to deal flexibly with the world, to "play" with possible alternative organizations of it, and to see similarity in diversity represent the bases of subsequent cognitive as well as language development. Far from being an exceptional aspect of development, apparently nonliteral language should be considered a
Garen, David C.
I would like to continue the discussion ofpoints raised in William Carter's response toRobert Frodeman's Eos Forum article Carter,2006; Frodeman, 2005. I have appreciatedFrodeman's work and feel that perspectiveson science deriving from humanities, philosophy,and religion can add depth, insight,and meaning to our endeavors. I would liketo broaden the discussion beyond just spacepolicy to include the relationship betweenscience in general and these, what I wouldcall, spiritual issues.
Tirgari, Batool; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Ali Cheraghi, Mohammad; Arefi, Ali
Spiritual care is an essential component in nursing practice and strongly influenced by the sociocultural context. This article aimed to elucidate the meaning of nurses' experiences of giving spiritual care in southeast of Iran. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach influenced by Ricoeur was used. Eleven staff nurses who were currently working in the 3 major hospitals under the umbrella of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences were interviewed. The meaning of spiritual care was comprehensively understood as meeting patient as a unique being. This can be divided into 3 themes: meeting patient as a being in relationship, meeting patient as a cultural being, and meeting patient as a religious being. The results in this study suggest that education about spirituality and spiritual care should be included in the continuous and in-service education of registered nurses. Spiritual and cultural assessment criteria should be included in this education to improve the provision of holistic care.
Prater, Lyn S; Riley, Cheryl; Garner, Shelby L; Spies, Lori A
There is a philosophical connection between elements of travel and elements of spirituality. Nurses can develop spiritual intelligence, hone transcultural skills, and develop cultural humility through travel. Concepts of spiritual intelligence are incorporated to distinguish spirituality from religion. This discussion is to describe the spiritual attributes of travel through exploration of unique cultural sameness and differences, stepping out of one's routine, experiences of solitude, and the application to nursing. Venues such as study abroad, mission trips, cultural exchange opportunities, and service learning projects all can provide meaningful times of transformation, spiritual growth, learning new ways of doing things, and of being in the world. Nurses who integrate these practices into the care they provide daily will be enriched personally and rewarded with improved outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Holland, Karen J; Lee, Jerry W; Marshak, Helen H; Martin, Leslie R
Intimacy is an essential part of marital relationships, spiritual relationships, and is also a factor in well-being, but there is little research simultaneously examining the links among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations among the latent variables-spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, spiritual meaning, and well-being-in a cross-sectional study of 5,720 married adults aged 29-100 years ( M = 58.88, SD = 12.76, 59% female). All participants were from the Adventist Health Study-2, Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study. In the original structural model, all direct associations between the three latent variables of spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being were significantly positive indicating that there was a significant relationship among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. When spiritual meaning was added as a mediating variable, the direct connections of spiritual intimacy to marital intimacy and to well-being became weakly negative. However, the indirect associations of spiritual intimacy with marital intimacy and with well-being were then strongly positive through spiritual meaning. This indicates that the relationship among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being was primarily a result of the meaning that spiritual intimacy brought to one's marriage and well-being, and that without spiritual meaning greater spirituality could negatively influence one's marriage and well-being. These findings suggest the central place of spiritual meaning in understanding the relationship of spiritual intimacy to marital intimacy and to well-being.
Full Text Available Metaphorical language plays an important role in spreading and popularising scientific information. However, little is known about the process through which sober scientific research is transformed into colourful or even sensational news. This paper examines the main metaphor scenarios used to explain nutritional discoveries, generally related to the overarching metaphors of “combat” and “maintenance”, and explores how they are developed and distributed across institutional press releases, online news reports, and magazines/blogs. Most of the metaphor scenarios seem to arise first in the press release, but these are considerably extended and embellished by the other media. Only occasionally are new metaphor scenarios engaged, which reflect societal discourses concerning science and nutrition.
Emmeche, Claus; Hoffmeyer, Jesper Normann
of a program, written in a formal language in the computer. Other versions of the semiotic or "nature-as-language" metaphor uses other formal or informal aspects of language to comprehend the specific structural relations in nature as explored by molecular and evolutionary biology. This intuitively appealing......The development of form in living organisms continues to challenge biological research. The concept of biological information encoded in the genetic program that controls development forms a major part of the semiotic metaphor in biology. Development is here seen in analogy to an execution...... complex of related ideas, which has a long history in the philosophy of nature and biology, is critically reviewed. The general nature of metaphor in science is considered, and different levels of metaphorical transfer of signification is distinguished. It is argued, that the metaphors may...
To analyse the way in which a public health metaphor has been incorporated into Australian political practice to justify the exclusion or mistreatment of unwelcome non-citizens, giving particular attention to recent asylum seekers. Starting with a personal experience of working in an immigration detention centre and then drawing on media reports and published scholarship, I critique political rhetoric and policy on asylum seekers, arguing that the significance of a public health metaphor lies in its effectiveness in persuading the public that refugees and asylum seekers are a moral contaminant that threatens the nation and has to be contained. Acceptance of the metaphor sanctions humanly degrading inferences, policies and actions. Public health professionals therefore have a responsibility to challenge the political use of public health and associated metaphors. Substituting the existing metaphor for one that is more morally acceptable could help to redefine refugees and asylum seekers more positively and promote compassion in political leaders and the community.
Pesut, Barbara; Fowler, Marsha; Taylor, Elizabeth J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sawatzky, Richard
To discuss some of the challenges of conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare practice. With the growing interest in spirituality in healthcare, has come the inevitable task of trying to conceptualise spirituality, a daunting task given the amorphous nature of spirituality, the changing understandings of spirituality among individuals and the diverse globalised society within which this task is taking place. Spirituality's relationship to religion is a particularly challenging point of debate. Critical review. Three social and historical conditions - located in the context of Western thought - have contributed to current conceptualisations of spirituality and religion: the diminishment of the social authority of religion as a result of the Enlightenment focus on reason, the rise of a postmodern spirituality emphasising spiritual experience and current tensions over the ideological and political roles of religion in society. The trend to minimise the social influence of religion is a particular Western bias that seems to ignore the global megatrend of the resurgence of religion. Current conceptualisations are critiqued on the following grounds: that they tend to be ungrounded from a rich history of theological and philosophical thought, that a particular form of elitist spirituality is emerging and that the individualistic emphasis in recent conceptualisations of spirituality diminishes the potential for societal critique and transformation while opening the door for economic and political self interest. Constructing adequate conceptualisations of spirituality and religion for clinical practice entails grounding them in the wealth of centuries of philosophical and theological thinking, ensuring that they represent the diverse society that nursing serves and anchoring them within a moral view of practice.
Brian A. DeVries
This article examines the use of spiritual gifts for church growth, particularly in relation to the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. The article begins with a definition of spiritual gifts and by highlighting their purpose for growing the church. This is followed by two practical considerations: How should Christian believers use spiritual gifts for church growth, and how should church leaders motivate gift use for this purpose? Since the Holy Spirit works though believers to build up the b...
Full Text Available Eating disorders are some of the most severe and destructive of all psychological conditions. They are associated with restricted capacities in cognitive, emotional, physical, and spiritual development. This paper provides an examination of the practical application of Christian spirituality as a force for recovery from an eating disorder. Specifically, it expounds the transformative potential in the spiritual qualities of hope, trust, acceptance, surrender, and courage underpinning engagement with evidence-based therapeutic models of care in eating disorder recovery.
van Dover, Leslie; Pfeiffer, Jane Bacon
This paper reports the development of a substantive theory to explain the process parish nurses use to provide spiritual care to parishioners in Christian churches in a context where patients and nurses share a common set of values. Despite a surge of interest in spirituality and spiritual care in nursing, consensus is lacking on how care should be conceptualized and provided. Grounded theory method was used to explore and describe the processes 10 American parish nurses experienced and used as they gave spiritual care. Data were collected between 1998 and 2001. Participants were interviewed and audiotapes transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative methods were used to analyse more than 50 separate incidents reported by the nurses. From its initial emergence as the core category, 'Bringing God Near' became a Basic Social Process theory of giving spiritual care for these parish nurses. This Basic Social Process became a theory through writing theoretical memos that described how the 'main concern' of the nurses to give spiritual care was resolved. Phases within the process include: trusting God, forming relationships with the patient/family, opening to God, activating/nurturing faith and recognizing spiritual renewal or growth. The essence is bringing God near to people as they face health challenges. Findings from the study and spiritual care literature are integrated in the discussion. The parish nurses' spiritual challenge is to respond to what God is directing the nurse to be and do to strengthen people spiritually. This spiritual care can help restore the patient's sense of well-being, and encourage growth in faith. Those interested in providing and teaching spiritual care in the church context will find this theory useful as a conceptual guide.
Jafari, Najmeh; Loghmani, Amir; Puchalski, Christina M
Spirituality is increasingly recognized as an essential element of care. This article investigates the role of spirituality in Iranian health care system and provides some guidelines to integrate spirituality in routine health care practice in Iran.
de Souza, Marian
This article is written in response to Lingley's (2016) concept of spiritually responsive pedagogy. To begin with, the word "spiritual", when applied to education, still attracts varied responses. Therefore, I have begun by examining contemporary understandings of spirituality as reflected in current research and literature, which…
Historically underpinning principles of the English curriculum framework for children from birth to five years explicitly acknowledged a spiritual dimension to children's uniqueness and well-being. Yet spirituality receives scant reference in the discourse of creative learning and teaching. This paper considers the relationship of spirituality to…
Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.
In "Democratic Foundations of Spiritually Responsive Pedagogy," Lingley worried that talk of spirituality is taboo in U.S. public school classrooms. Lingley pointed out that the dominant narrative demands silence on the topic. She wanted to make the case for spiritually responsive pedagogy as vital to an inclusive democracy. I begin this…
E. de Jager Meezenbroek (Eltica); B. Garssen (Bert); M. van den Berg (Machteld); D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); A. Visser (Adriaan); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)
textabstractSpirituality is an important theme in health research, since a spiritual orientation can help people to cope with the consequences of a serious disease. Knowledge on the role of spirituality is, however, limited, as most research is based on measures of religiosity rather than
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available For many patients confronted with chronic diseases, spirituality/religiosity is an important resource for coping. Patients often report unmet spiritual and existential needs, and spiritual support is also associated with better quality of life. Caring for spiritual, existential and psychosocial needs is not only relevant to patients at the end of their life but also to those suffering from long-term chronic illnesses. Spiritual needs may not always be associated with life satisfaction, but sometimes with anxiety, and can be interpreted as the patients’ longing for spiritual well-being. The needs for peace, health and social support are universal human needs and are of special importance to patients with long lasting courses of disease. The factor, Actively Giving, may be of particular importance because it can be interpreted as patients’ intention to leave the role of a `passive sufferer´ to become an active, self-actualizing, giving individual. One can identify four core dimensions of spiritual needs, i.e., Connection, Peace, Meaning/Purpose, and Transcendence, which can be attributed to underlying psychosocial, emotional, existential, and religious needs. The proposed model can provide a conceptual framework for further research and clinical practice. In fact, health care that addresses patients’ physical, emotional, social, existential and spiritual needs (referring to a bio-psychosocial-spiritual model of health care will contribute to patients’ improvement and recovery. Nevertheless, there are several barriers in the health care system that makes it difficult to adequately address these needs.
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels
WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....... psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total...
Daaleman, Timothy P
Physicians are confronted with new information from the popular media, peer-reviewed journals, and their patients regarding the association of religious and spiritual factors with health outcomes. Although religion and spirituality have become more visible within health care, there are considerable ethical issues raised when physicians incorporate these dimensions into their care. Spiritualities are responsive to patient needs by offering beliefs, stories, and practices that facilitate the creation of a personally meaningful world, a constructed "reality" in the face of illness, disability, or death. It is largely through narrative that physicians incorporate into the health care encounter the spiritualities that are central to their patients' lived experience of illness and health.
Sinclair, Shane; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; Chochinov, Harvey; Hagen, Neil; McClement, Susan
This study explores the provision of spiritual care by healthcare professionals working at the end of life. Qualitative-ethnographic inquiry. Phase 1: five Canadian sites; phase 2: a residential hospice in Alberta, Canada. Phase 1: six palliative care leaders; phase 2: 24 frontline palliative care clinicians. Data were collected over a 12-month period with analysis of findings occurring concurrently. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 11 themes, organised under five overarching categories, emerged from the data. Five bedside skills were identified as essential to spiritual care: hearing, sight, speech, touch and presence. The integration of these bedside skills with the intrinsic qualities of healthcare professionals, including their values and spiritual beliefs, appeared to be essential to their application in spiritual care. Spiritual care primarily involved the tacit qualities of healthcare professionals and their effect on patient's spiritual well-being, rather than their explicit technical skill set or expert knowledge base. Participants identified spiritual care as both a specialised care domain and as a philosophy of care that informs and is embedded within physical and psychosocial care. Hearing, sight, speech, touch and presence were identified as the means by which healthcare professionals impacted patients' spiritual well-being regardless of clinician's awareness or intent. An empirical framework is presented providing clinicians with a pragmatic way of incorporating spiritual care into clinical practice.
Ronel, Natti; Ben Yair, Y
Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known. Our aim here is to present a complementary perspective; that is, spiritual criminology that emerges from the spiritual perspective. Following a description of the state-of-the-art in criminological research concerning spirituality and its impact upon individuals, we focus on Jewish criminology as an illustrative case study, and present a spiritual Jewish view on good and evil, including factors that lead to criminality, the issue of free choice, the aim of punishment and societal response, crime desistance, rehabilitation, and prevention. The proposed establishment of spiritual criminology can be further developed by including parallel schools of spirituality, to create an integrated field in criminology.
Full Text Available In this contribution, the nature of �Biblical Spirituality� as an academic discipline is reviewed from a methodological perspective. Two core aspects are indicated: the importance of ancient expressions of faith (spiritualities in the Bible, and the importance of modern expressions of faith (spiritualities as they draw on the Bible. Based on this framework, as a first application of such a nature within the field of Biblical Spirituality, the relevant publications of an Old Testament scholar are evaluated; in this case, those of J.H. Eaton. Such an analysis opens an arena for discussion on whether this model of Biblical Spirituality holds promise for wider application.
Brian A. DeVries
Full Text Available This article examines the use of spiritual gifts for church growth, particularly in relation to the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. The article begins with a definition of spiritual gifts and by highlighting their purpose for growing the church. This is followed by two practical considerations: How should Christian believers use spiritual gifts for church growth, and how should church leaders motivate gift use for this purpose? Since the Holy Spirit works though believers to build up the body of Christ, advocates of biblical church growth should seek to employ his means to motivate spiritual giftedness in the church.
Within the hospice literature, spirituality and religion are usually defined in opposition to one another, with religion negatively associated with the external, authoritarian doctrines of Christianity and spirituality positively associated with the free search for truth, meaning, and authenticity. According to survey data, however, most Americans integrate spirituality and traditional religious commitments. The hospice literature is promoting spirituality to its own detriment by alienating potential patients and depriving religious patients of the resources that religious traditions and their affiliated religious communities have to offer.
Full Text Available The author has used - in his paper - two different expressions related to spirituality in its entirety: that is, spirituality (the spiritual sphere in superficial sense and meaning and spiritualism (the spiritual sphere in deep sense and meaning. The author presented selected different definitions and manifestations of spirituality and spiritualism.
White, Donna M; Hand, Mikel
The failure of nursing schools to integrate spiritual nursing care education into the curriculum has contributed to a lack in nurses' spiritual care ability. Developing, integrating, and testing a Spiritual Care Nursing Education strategy in an Associates of Science nursing program significantly increased the perceived spiritual care competence of student nurses. Utilizing a faculty team to develop learning activities to address critical spiritual care attributes offers a method to integrate spiritual nursing care content throughout the curriculum in ASN and BSN programs.
Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Sahu, Vikrant; Grover, Sonia; Tulachan, Brindan; Sharma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Roy, Manas; Saxena, Manav; Sethy, Niroj; Bhargava, Kalpana; Philip, Deepu; Kim, Hansung; Singh, Gurmeet; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Sharma, Raj Kishore
Doping of graphene with nitrogen is of much interest, since it improves the overall conductivity and supercapacitive properties. Besides conductivity, nitrogen doping also enhances the pseudo-capacitance due to fast and reversible surface redox processes. In this work, we have developed a cheap and easy process for synthesizing heavily nitrogen doped graphene (15% nitrogen) from non-mulberry silk cocoon membrane (Tassar, Antheraea mylitta) by pyrolyzing the cocoon at 400 °C in argon atmosphere. Further we have investigated the performance of this heavily ‘nitrogen doped graphene’ (NDG) in a supercapacitor device. Our results suggest that NDG obtained from cocoon has improved supercapacitor performance. The improved performance is due to the high electronegativity of nitrogen that forms dipoles on the graphene surface. These dipoles consequently enhance the tendency of graphene to attract charged species to its surface. This is a green and clean synthesis approach for developing electronic materials for energy applications
Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno
Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.
Kriener, Markus; Muranaka, Takahiro; Kato, Junya; Ren, Zhi-An; Akimitsu, Jun; Maeno, Yoshiteru
The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.
Genus Metaphor .........................................................................84 a. Challenges for the Genus Metaphor...Subordination of individual interest to general interest—through firmness, example, fair agreements, and constant supervision. Equity —based on kindness and...advanced. B. ALTERNATIVE APPLICATIONS 1. The Genus Metaphor The living organism metaphor presented in Chapter IV offers an alternative to the
Tuffuor, Akosua N; Payne, Richard
Health care providers have much to learn from Albert Camus' great novel, The Plague. The Plague tells the story of a bubonic plague epidemic through the lens of doctor-narrator Rieux. In addition to Rieux, this essay also focuses on the perspective of Father Paneloux, a Jesuit priest, who provides important religious commentary on the epidemic, before falling victim to it and dying. Camus' masterful engagement of the metaphor of isolation and its profound impact on suffering emphasizes the important role of community and spiritual perspectives of patients and providers in coping with serious illness, death, and dying. The Plague is relevant today, particularly given the challenges of distancing, alienation, and isolation imposed by not only disease but also by technology and clinical and administrative practices that have unintended consequences of incentivizing separation between patient and healer, thus engendering greater stress and suffering in both. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Clotilde Almeida
Full Text Available Following our comprehensive study of conceptual metaphor occurrences in the Portuguese sports newspaper A Bola (ALMEIDA, 2013 and the research on multimodal metaphor (Forceville, 2008, 2009, 2012, the present paper aims to analyse multimodal metaphors, depicting Cristiano Ronaldo on the covers of this very same newspaper. We wish to uncover conceptual affinities or differences between monomodal and multimodal metaphors as far as their source domains are concerned, namely those of WAR and RELIGION (ALMEIDA, 2013. Upon confronting monomodal and multimodal metaphors, we have unveiled that source domains of multimodal metaphors appear to be more restrictive in comparison to the vast panoply of source domains in monomodal metaphors (ALMEIDA, 2013.
Santana, Eduardo; de Vega, Manuel
This study investigates whether understanding up/down metaphors as well as semantically homologous literal sentences activates embodied representations online. Participants read orientational literal sentences (e.g., she climbed up the hill), metaphors (e.g., she climbed up in the company), and abstract sentences with similar meaning to the metaphors (e.g., she succeeded in the company). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to perform a speeded upward or downward hand motion while they were reading the sentence verb. The hand motion either matched or mismatched the direction connoted by the sentence. The results showed a meaning-action effect for metaphors and literals, that is, faster hand motion responses in the matching conditions. Notably, the matching advantage was also found for homologous abstract sentences, indicating that some abstract ideas are conceptually organized in the vertical dimension, even when they are expressed by means of literal sentences. In Experiment 3, participants responded to an upward or downward visual motion associated with the sentence verb by pressing a single key. In this case, the facilitation effect for matching visual motion-sentence meaning faded, indicating that the visual motion component is less important than the action component in conceptual metaphors. Most up and down metaphors convey emotionally positive and negative information, respectively. We suggest that metaphorical meaning elicits upward/downward movements because they are grounded on the bodily expression of the corresponding emotions.
Benedek, Mathias; Beaty, Roger; Jauk, Emanuel; Koschutnig, Karl; Fink, Andreas; Silvia, Paul J; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
Neuroscience research has thoroughly studied how nonliteral language is processed during metaphor comprehension. However, it is not clear how the brain actually creates nonliteral language. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigates the neural correlates of metaphor production. Participants completed sentences by generating novel metaphors or literal synonyms during functional imaging. Responses were spoken aloud in the scanner, recorded, and subsequently rated for their creative quality. We found that metaphor production was associated with focal activity in predominantly left-hemispheric brain regions, specifically the left angular gyrus, the left middle and superior frontal gyri-corresponding to the left dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC) cortex-and the posterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, brain activation in the left anterior DMPFC and the right middle temporal gyrus was found to linearly increase with the creative quality of metaphor responses. These findings are related to neuroscientific evidence on metaphor comprehension, creative idea generation and episodic future thought, suggesting that creating metaphors involves the flexible adaptation of semantic memory to imagine and construct novel figures of speech. Furthermore, the left DMPFC may exert executive control to maintain strategic search and selection, thus facilitating creativity of thought. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harris, John M
There is agreement that the complex relationship between medicine and society is best described as a metaphorical social contract and that professionalism is the medical profession's contribution to this contract. Metaphors can help clarify abstract concepts, but they can also be abused if the counterfactual attributes of a metaphor become attributed to its subject. This seems to be happening with medical professionalism, which has sometimes been reduced to a contracted deliverable and a bargaining chip. The undesirable attributes of the social contract metaphor may be hindering efforts to understand and teach medical professionalism.Despite its theoretical weaknesses, the social contract metaphor has historical credibility because of its alleged association with the 1847 Code of Medical Ethics and the subsequent ascension of regular (allopathic) medicine in the early 20th century. However, the record does not support an argument that the intended purpose of the 1847 Code was to create a social contract or that one ever arose. The alternative account that a contract did arise, but physicians were poor partners, is neither satisfying nor explanatory.As now used, medicine's social contract metaphor has serious theoretical and historic weaknesses. Medical educators should remove this narrow and overworked metaphor from their discussions of professionalism. By doing this, educators and the profession in general would only lose the ability to threaten themselves with the cancellation of their social contract. In return they would open the door to a more complex and fruitful consideration of medical professionalism and medicine's relationship with society.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To assess the spirituality of nurses and relate it to personal characteristics, sector of activity, and spiritual practices; to analyze the influence of spirituality of nurses in the record of a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs Module (WHOQOL-SRPB. Results: 132 nurses were included and most of them were women (81.8%, married (56.8%, with an average age of 34 years (± 6.8. Most nurses believe in God or in a superior force (99.2% and have never recorded a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis (78.8%. There was no association of spirituality with the sector of activity; the variable "marital status" was significant in six out of the eight factors of spirituality, and the variable "willingness to talk about spirituality" was significant in seven out of the eight factors. Conclusion: The spirituality of nurses does not interfere with the recording of a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis.
Cooper, Katherine L; Chang, Esther; Sheehan, Athena; Johnson, Amanda
Spiritual care is an important component of holistic care. In Australia competency statements relating to nursing practice emphasise the need to provide care that addresses the spiritual as well as other aspects of being. However, many nurses feel they are poorly prepared to provide spiritual care. This is attributed largely to lack a of spiritual care education provided in undergraduate nursing programmes. A few higher education providers have responded to this lack of spiritual care education by incorporating specific content related to this area into their undergraduate nursing programme. Minimal international studies have investigated the impact of spiritual care education on undergraduate nursing students and no Australian studies were identified. This review explores spiritual care education in undergraduate nursing programmes and identifies the need for an Australian study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davo, M C; Alvarez-Dardet, C
The new genetics, or the impetus given to this discipline by the Genome Project, aims to a change of paradigm of the Health Sciences. This change is postulated from a phenotypic approach to a genotypic one, thereby excluding the influence of the environment, which could seriously undermine the grounds for the development and exercise of Public Health. Since the beginning of the genome project, information on genetic discoveries has frequently been reported in the mass media. Metaphors are often used by geneticists and journalists to convey the complex concepts of genetic research for which there are no equivalents in the lay language. The media do not merely shape the social agenda but also provide the space in which health culture is constructed. We present the results of a preliminary study exploring the metaphors used in the three most widely-read national daily newspapers in Spain, namely ABC, El Pais and El Mundo, when reporting news of the new genetics. The possible consequences of the natural history of these metaphors, or the process through which figurative terms acquire a literal meaning, are discussed. A preliminary taxonomy for the metaphors identified was developed. Fifty-one out of 342 identified headings (14.8%) contained metaphors. Strategic metaphors such as program, control, code, map, and puzzle, were the most commonly used, followed by teleological ones such as mystery or God language and finally war-like metaphors such as attack, defeat, and capture. The three groups of metaphors are characterized by an attempt to giving intentionality to genes. Strategic metaphors predominated over teleological and war-like ones and thus a technocratic perspective could form the basis of the future construction of health culture.
Spirituality is enacted between 1. the human person and 2. the basic inspiration that moves someone. This process is influenced by 3. the spirit of the time in its own way. Kees Waaijman, following M. de Certeau, explains this influence as a dialectic one. Continuity and discontinuity between spirituality are extremes in a field.
Říčan, Pavel; Janošová, Pavlína; Tyl, J.
Roč. 51, č. 2 (2007), s. 153-160 ISSN 0009-062X Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK379/2005/A-PP/HTF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : spirituality * spiritual experience * religiosity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.133, year: 2007
Japar, Muhammad; Purwati
Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…
Markle, D. Thomas
Currently, little is known about the influence classroom learning has on the spiritual beliefs of students. Despite this fact, decisions on educational policy, parental home schooling, and even whether to bring legal actions against school districts, often rest on the assumption that education can induce spiritual belief change. To begin the…
Wachholtz, Amy B; Pargament, Kenneth I
Migraine headaches are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety (Waldie and Poulton Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 72: 86-92, 2002) and feelings of low self-efficacy (French et al. Headache, 40: 647-656, 2000). Previous research suggests that spiritual meditation may ameliorate some of the negative traits associated with migraine headaches (Wachholtz and Pargament Journal of behavioral Medicine, 30: 311-318, 2005). This study examined two primary questions: (1) Is spiritual meditation more effective in enhancing pain tolerance and reducing migraine headache related symptoms than secular meditation and relaxation? and, (2) Does spiritual meditation create better mental, physical, and spiritual health outcomes than secular meditation and relaxation techniques? Eighty-three meditation naïve, frequent migraineurs were taught Spiritual Meditation, Internally Focused Secular Meditation, Externally Focused Secular Meditation, or Muscle Relaxation which participants practiced for 20 min a day for one month. Pre-post tests measured pain tolerance (with a cold pressor task), headache frequency, and mental and spiritual health variables. Compared to the other three groups, those who practiced spiritual meditation had greater decreases in the frequency of migraine headaches, anxiety, and negative affect, as well as greater increases in pain tolerance, headache-related self-efficacy, daily spiritual experiences, and existential well being.
This essay sets out to argue that postsecular spirituality is about the quest for hypergoods within today's mass populist- and consumerist-oriented world. It shows that people who consider themselves to be spiritual not only have many values in their lives, but rank some values higher than others, with some being ranked as ...
Attempts a redefinition of spirituality and an incorporation of this into art education. Argues that symbolic and spiritual consciousness plays a crucial role in the works of artists as disparate as William Blake and Frida Kahlo. Criticizes the preeminence of scientific theory as a modern belief system. (MJP)
Johnson, Peggy; Mutschelknaus, Mike
Noting that at Saint Mary's University (where the authors teach) the issue of spirituality is in the forefront of education and is seamlessly woven into required courses throughout four years of college in an attempt to "enhance students' spiritual and personal lives," this paper positions writing centers as a place for student inquiries…
New Zealand has had free, state, secular education since 1877, but just what is meant by secularism is changing. Since the 1980s the growth of Maori education initiatives has mushroomed and these place emphasis on Maori values and beliefs, including spirituality. In addition, in 1999 a definition and statement on spirituality appeared in the…
... spiritual pain and suffering. Spiritual pain and suffering is as real and powerful as physical or emotional pain. There ... guilt, denial, hope, joy, peace. Expression of feelings is important in dealing with ... such as “It’s part of God’s plan” or “Everything happens for a reason” often ...
Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit
Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…
Zweiback, Yoshi; Kaplan, Sandra N.; Manzone, Jessica
This paper addresses the question of spirituality in a religious setting, and prayer as an expression of ultimate values, as a discipline which inspires empathy, as an instrument for connecting us with nature, and as a compass pointing us toward God, meaning, and purpose. Spirituality in the general education setting will also be discussed, as…
Gallo, Laura L.
Spirituality is an area that has not received a great deal of attention in supervision, yet it can have substantial effects on the counseling process. A definition of spirituality that allows for a variety of worldviews can be useful to both counselor and client as it helps strengthen the counseling relationship and lessen differences between…
May 1, 2008 ... The purpose of this paper is to examine authentic leadership and spiritual capital as key elements for the successful building of quality management and effective organizations. It highlights the nexus between authentic leadership and spiritual capital, describes the common features of authentic leadership.
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of…
The term “secular spirituality” is meant to convey the contemporary phenomenon of spirituality as experienced in different spheres not associated with structured, institutionalised religion. An outline is given of the relation between secular reality (the natural realm) and religious/spiritual reality (the supernatural realm), as it ...
Full Text Available This article offers a linguistic analysis of the conceptual metaphors of Brexit, in which the source and the target belong to the same semiotic mode or to different ones. It is shown that the variation of high-level cognitive models underpinning metaphoric images of Brexit reflects the author’s stance towards the event. Phases of Brexit are associated with different image-schematic cognitive models, and this impinges on the range of those metaphors of Brexit that involve low-level concepts.
Full Text Available Sustainability of the school in the long term can be predicted from the values that espoused and used as share value. The process of selecting the virtue value that will be the foundation’s vision and mission for the school has been developing very dynamically with a model that is very varied. These models can be only as part of a school strategy or model that implements the noble values with pure consciousness. The values of spirituality seems increasingly been the trend as the noble values espoused school to ensure its long-term performance.
Steinhorn, David M; Din, Jana; Johnson, Angela
Spirituality plays a prominent role in the lives of most palliative patients whether or not they formally adhere to a specific religion and belief. As a result, the palliative care team is frequently called upon to support families who are experiencing their "dark night of the soul" and struggling to make sense of their lives during a healthcare crisis. While conventional religious practices provide a source of comfort and guidance for many of our patients, a significant number of our patients do not have a strong religious community to which to turn. Over the last two decades, more people in Western countries identify themselves as spiritual but not religious and do not belong to an organized faith community. For those patients who express a strong spiritual connection or sense of 'something greater' or 'a higher power', encouraging the exploration of those feelings and beliefs through chaplains, clergypersons, or members of the interdisciplinary palliative care team can help provide context, meaning and purpose in their lives impacted by serious illness. One of the goals of effective palliative care is the facilitation of personal growth and psychological resilience in dealing with one's health challenges. Integrative medicine, also referred to as complementary and alternative medicine, provides a set of tools and philosophies intended to enhance wellness and a sense of wellbeing. Many of the modalities are derived from disciplines such as massage, acupuncture, Rei Ki, aromatherapy, and dietary supplements. The use of integrative medicine in North America is widespread and frequently not shared with one's clinician due to many patients' concerns that clinicians will disapprove of the patient's use of them. In addition to its efficacy in reducing symptoms commonly experienced by patients receiving palliative care (e.g., nausea, pain, depression, and existential suffering), integrative medicine offers non-verbal, non-cognitive avenues for many to achieve a peaceful
Research has shown an increase in suicides by military veterans and law enforcement officers in the United States. Etiologic research elucidates warrior culture and subculture as contributing factors of this pathology. This paper examines the idiosyncratic nature and influence of warrior culture and subculture and offers recommendations to promote culture change. Faith-based spirituality and prayer are examined as adjunct modalities for stress management and emotional healing. Further research is recommended to assess the associated hidden cost factors and long-term financial impact of warrior culture on society.
This paper addresses the growing diversity and complexity of spirituality in society and within families. This requires a broadly inclusive, multifaith approach in clinical training and practice. Increasingly, individuals, couples, and families seek, combine, and reshape spiritual beliefs and practices--within and among faiths and outside organized religion--to fit their lives and relationships. With rising faith conversion and interfaith marriages, the paper examines challenges in multifaith families, particularly with marriage, childrearing, and the death of a loved one. Clinical guidelines, cautions, and case examples are offered to explore the role and significance of spiritual beliefs and practices in couple and family relationships; to identify spiritual sources of distress and relational conflict; and to draw potential spiritual resources for healing, well-being, and resilience, fitting client values and preferences. 2010 © FPI, Inc.
Full Text Available This article is about art and science and a certain parallelism between them in the evolution of Western culture, particularly over the last 150 years. I will try to describe what changes have taken place in our society’s operational schema and our shared paradigm. My construct will be one of art, though a strong influence from science will be evident. I propose that we have been living through a second renaissance provoked by a profound change in the definition and representation of reality by both art and science. Throughout the 20th century, the ideas put forth by both have been extremely unconventional and the two have interacted in ways not always obvious, providing new metaphors, new patterns for defining the future shape of our culture.
Hui, David; Zhukovsky, Donna S; Bruera, Eduardo
Serious illness conversations can influence the direction of care by supporting decision-making compatible with the patient's goals. Effective use of core communication techniques, such as active listening and empathic statements, allows for a deeper understanding of the patients' goals, concerns, communication preferences, and questions. Metaphors can be used to augment end-of-life care planning. Used inappropriately, metaphors can cause misunderstandings and confusion. Applied skillfully, metaphors can personalize challenging discussions, improving patient comprehension and helping patients and their families to plan ahead. The art of communication is to use the right tool for the right person at the right time. Discussions with patients about serious illness concerns are especially challenging for the oncologist. This article provides guidance for preparing for such conversations, including examples of the use of metaphors to personalize and improve communication. © AlphaMed Press 2018.
C. Linda Laing
Full Text Available This paper examines the social impact of the 'student-as-customer' metaphor on the role of academic leadership and objectivity of the assessment process in the higher education sector. A hybrid approach is used in which Deconstruction seeks to render visible the Foucauldian constructs of power and privilege. The paper draws on the existing literature to explore the problematic relationship between the student as customer metaphor, academic leadership, and student assessment. The paper raises awareness of the inherent tensions with the present reliance on the student as customer metaphor and the resulting negative impact on both students and academic staff. This addresses a gap in the literature in regards to the effect that the use of the student-as- customer metaphor has on academic leadership and assessment in higher education.
metaphorical thinking dan kelas yang mendapatkan pembelajaran dengan cara konvensional tidak terdapat perbedaan, serta tidak terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara pendekatan pembelajaran dengan kemampuan awal matematis terhadap kemampuan disposisi matematis siswa.
This paper outlines a theoretical framework for interaction with sound in music mixing. Using cognitive linguistic theory and studies exploring the spatiality of recorded music, it is argued that the logic of music mixing builds on three master metaphors—the signal flow metaphor, the sound stage...... metaphor and the container metaphor. I show how the metaphorical basis for interacting with sound in music mixing has changed with the development of recording technology, new aesthetic ideals and changing terminology. These changes are studied as expressions of underlying thought patterns that govern how...... music producers and engineers make sense of their actions. In conclusion, this leads to suggestions for a theoretical framework through which more intuitive music mixing interfaces may be developed in the future....
Madsen, Mathias W
One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are foundational obstacles to defining a coherent and cognitively valid concept of "metaphor" and "concrete meaning," and some general problems with singling out certain domains of experience as more immediate than others. I conclude from these considerations that whatever the facts are about the comprehension of individual metaphors, the available evidence is incompatible with the notion of an underlying conceptual structure organized according to the immediacy of experience. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
BOYKO ANNA KONSTANTINOVNA
Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to explore the relationship between metaphor and comic effect in order to achieve the understanding of those cognitive processes that are updated during the implementation of evaluative meanings in dialogical discourse. Analysis of dialogical speech produced in the framework of this publication, indicated that the estimated metaphor acquires comic effect, causes laughter of the participants of communication, when their attention is focused on two concepts directly involved in the modeling metaphor. Speaking subject - intentionally or unintentionally - separates the domains that are relevant for the initiation of this metaphor, specially emphasizing the differences of these domains. This creates a voltage between the two input spaces are denoted by their borders, which, in turn, leads to comic effect.
Vlasblom, J.P.; Steen, van der J.T.; Knol, D.L.; Jochemsen, H.
Despite the fact that spiritual care is an essential part of nursing care according to many nursing definitions, it appears to be quite different in practice. A spirituality training for nurses may be necessary to give spiritual care the attention it deserves. In a trial a pre-tested “spirituality
Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.
Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…
Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.
This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…
Osborn, Debra; Street, Sue; Bradham-Cousar, Michelle
This study examined the self-reported value of spirituality, types of spiritual practices, and values of 69 counselor education students. It also examined counseling students' ideas for how to increase their comfort with incorporating spirituality into counseling practice. Implications for implementing spirituality training in counselor education…
Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.
The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste
Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s metaphoric image in the German press. As a result of analysis 8 binary metaphorical constructions, verbalized by two components, one of which is positively marked (PM, the other one have been negatively (NM identified. Statistical analysis of the linguistic material allowed to conclude that the assessment of Merkel is ambivalently with a slight predominance of positive estimation.
Heinrich, K T
Nurses negotiating professional transitions, whether they are entering an academic program or assuming a new role in the workplace, often feel like impostors. The metaphor of the hero can serve as an "antidote" to the impostor syndrome. The author describes an educational experience shaped around the impostor and hero metaphors that integrates feminist process with expressive methods to transform nurses' perceptions of themselves from impostors into heroes.
Full Text Available This article analyzes individual metaphors as a fundamental component of the artistic worldview. The research discusses the correlation between the individual metaphor and interdiscourse markedness that allows identifying some peculiarities of cultural identity of the English-language literary text. The central place belongs to the propositions connected with the ways of reality conceptualization in the minds of the English-speaking mentality, which are necessary for correct interpretation of the cultural-specific information.
Full Text Available Background:All employees of the company or government employees will in time retire. Upon enteringthe age of 56 years, the employee or civil servant to retire. Retirement is a stage of life characterized bythe presence of transition and change in psychosocial rolethat causes stress. Retirement impact on thephysical, social and spiritual individual. Physical disorders includes activity inhibited activity. Socialproblems cause individuals less participate in social activities. Less of spiritual needs fulfillment are morelikely to cause the individual less activity in religious.Objective:To identify the correlation between spiritual fulfillment and civil servants retirement anxiety inSleman.Methods:This study was a cross cectional design study. Statistical tests using correlationKendal Tauwith significance level p=0.05. Samples were taken using simple random sampling involved 55respondents. The research instrument used questionnaires spiritual needs and anxiety questionnaires.Results:The results showed that the civils servant unmet spiritual needs (98.2% and 68.4% retirementin the category of moderate anxiety. Kendal Tau test showed p=0.042, indicating there was a relationshipbetween the spiritual fulfillment with retirement anxiety indicating on civil servant with r=-0.274 showedweak relationship.Conclusion:civil servant who had fulfilled spiritual needs would have moderate to mild levels of anxiety.
Davis, Don E; Rice, Kenneth; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Choe, Elise; Worthington, Everett L
Most measures of spirituality privilege religious spirituality, but people may experience spirituality in a variety of ways, including a sense of closeness, oneness, or connection with a theistic being, the transcendent (i.e., something outside space and time), oneself, humanity, or nature. The overall purpose of the present 4 studies was to develop the Sources of Spirituality (SOS) Scale to measure these different elements of spirituality. In Study 1, we created items, had them reviewed by experts, and used data from a sample of undergraduates (N = 218) to evaluate factor structure and inform initial measurement revisions. The factor structure replicated well in another sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 2), and in a sample of community adults (N = 140; Study 3). In a sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 4), we then evaluated evidence of construct validity by examining associations between SOS Scale scores and religious commitment, positive attitudes toward the Sacred, and dispositional connection with nature. Moreover, based on latent profile analyses results, we found 5 distinct patterns of spirituality based on SOS subscales. We consider implications for therapy and relevance of the findings for models of spirituality and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Dudley A. Schreiber
Full Text Available At first glance, the postmodern spiritual �scene� appears �sociologically messy, experiential, multifaceted, ecological, provisional and collective� (Petrolle 2007 and of uncertain epistemic provenance. Here, I ask: can Roland Benedikter�s (2005 conception of postmodern dialectic and spiritual turn, help us understand postmodern spirituality and can it assist in a construction of a postmodern epistemology of spirituality? The current argument constitutes a meta-theoretical exploration of:� Deconstruction and neo-essentialism as representing the significant dialectic in philosophical postmodernism. Deconstruction is presented as an apophatic moment in Western thought about �knowing� and �being� whilst postmodern neo-essentialism, though contextualised by antirealism and ambiguity, palpably suggests itself. � Postmodern trends which derive from the dialectic. � How these epistemic trends influence methodology in the study of spirituality. � How a trans-traditional (anthropological spirituality might incorporate insights about transformation from a complex of epistemologies in which, theories of �self� abound.In the conclusion an attempt is made to describe how postmodern spirituality expresses itself in society.�
Full Text Available This contribution investigates the use of the concepts of place, space and (restriction of movement in the spiritual education of religious women living in Third Order communities in the diocese of Utrecht (Netherlands. Through the study of institutional sources, in particular the Third Order statutes, and literary texts written and used in Third Order convents (the Informieringheboeck by Jan de Wael and the Jhesus Collacien, the article will discuss the allegedly binary oppositions “inside-outside” and “safety of the convent-dangers of the world” that pervade the text of the statutes and form the backbone of the spiritual instruction of cloistered women.Esta contribución tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de los conceptos de lugar, espacio y (restricción de movimiento en la educación espiritual de las mujeres religiosas que vivían en comunidades de la Tercera Orden en la diócesis de Utrecht (Países Bajos. A través del estudio de las fuentes institucionales, en particular los estatutos de la Orden Tercera, y los textos literarios escritos y utilizados en los conventos de la Tercera Orden (la Informieringheboeck de Jan de Wael y el Jhesus Collacien, el artículo discutirá las supuestas oposiciones binarias “dentro/ fuera” y “seguridad de los conventos/ peligros del mundo” que impregnan el texto de los estatutos y forman la columna vertebral de la enseñanza espiritual de las mujeres enclaustradas.
Full Text Available Reflecting on the guiding force of metaphors is a long-standing tradition in the German-speaking educational sciences. However, no connection is made to the theory of metaphor, which is derived from modern cognitive linguistics. This may in part be due to a lack of qualitative studies in the educational sciences on the subject of everyday reasoning. These three doctoral studies seek to fill the void, with Peter GANSEN producing detailed descriptions of how children use metaphors, whilst also developing a theory for an "educational metaphorology." Sabine MARSCH, on the other hand, shows how metaphors shape subjective theories of teaching and can open or close active learning. Kai NIEBERT's work focuses on an analysis and comparison of metaphors used by both climate change theorists and everyday observers, whilst also building didactical bridges. Although the three studies differ in terms of methodology and thematic focus, they open up the field of metaphor analysis in the educational sciences, hopefully providing stimulus for further work in this area. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103195
Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Koeda, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deficits of metaphor and sarcasm comprehension in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as pragmatic interpretation such as metaphor and sarcasm comprehension is required in social communication. A total of 31 young normal controls, 104 aged normal controls (ANC), 42 patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 30 patients with mild AD were evaluated by Metaphoric and Sarcastic Scenario Test, which consists of 5 metaphoric and 5 sarcastic questions with 5 answer choices. Scores were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis of variance (metaphor/sarcasm vs 4 participant groups). Sarcasm comprehension, which requires second-order Theory of Mind (ToM), started to deteriorate in ANC, and metaphor comprehension, which requires first-order ToM, started to deteriorate in aMCI, and both deteriorated as disease progressed. Literal interpretation of pragmatic language is characteristic in patients with mild AD. Such misinterpretation would result in social miscommunication, even if they still retained semantic-lexical competence.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how a group of Chinese university teachers developed their cognitive models by using “English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers” metaphors. The research method includes an open-ended questionnaire, a checklist questionnaire, and verbal reports. The goal for this research is twofold. First, we will present those metaphors we believe to be the most frequently used or most central in shaping the thoughts or ideas they have had for EFL teaching and learning. Second, we will provide a description of their internal process of developing cognitive models, as well as factors that could account for such models. The findings showed that (a most of us had three ways of understanding EFL teachers in terms of the educational journey metaphor, the educational building metaphor, and the educational conduit metaphor; (b we used such a cluster of converging cognitive models as the instructor model, the transmitter model, and the builder model to construct definitions for EFL teachers, with the instructor model as a central model; and (c metaphor can actually serve as a useful, effective, and analytic tool for making us aware of the cognitive model underlying our conceptual framework.
Halem Shah Dil Froz Jan Sayed
Full Text Available This paper looks at the Aminuddin Baki’s Torch Movement Speech 3 (Ceramah Gerakan Obor 3. It’s is to identify the type of metaphors used and how the metaphors are conveyed in the Torch Movement Speech 3 on ‘Adaptation’ of the Malays. The study hopes to identify the direction of the ‘Adaptation’ metaphor which is liken banana tree and its offsprings. Many studies have been carried out on the biographical portion of Aminuddin Baki but none on all his Torch Movement Speeches that he had made on the progression and development of the Malays. A qualitative method was used through a rhetorical analysis. A Neo-Aristotelian Criticism is used in the analysis of speech of which this study demonstrates the relevance in the application of ancient Malay metaphors in the modern day communication interaction among the Malays.
The characteristic direction of psychological and theological interpretations of spirituality is very important. The traditional psychological approach to the spiritual sphere is characterised by reductionism, which consists in reducing spiritual experiences to mental experiences, or even biological processes. The studies in the field of religion psychology led to distinguish between two types of spirituality. The first one is theocentric spirituality, where human being places God in the cent...
Ødbehr, Liv Skomakerstuen
Background: Spiritual care is included in nurses’ holistic care. Descriptions of spirituality in research highlight humans search for the sacred, experiences of self-transcendence and connectedness (to self, to others and to God/a deity), with the end-point being the human experience of meaning. Nurses report spiritual care as being difficult to carry out, and that they lack knowledge in relation to what a spiritual dimension to nursing means and implies, and how to practise spiritual care in...
Schonfeld, Toby L; Schmid, Kendra K; Boucher-Payne, Deborah
Researchers are beginning to collect empiric data about coping mechanisms of health science students. Yet, there is an important aspect of coping with stress that is only partially addressed in health sciences curricula: students' spiritual well-being. In this essay, we describe a course in spirituality and health care that we offered to fourth-year medical students, as well as a small empirical study we conducted to assess students' spiritual needs and practices. We then offer reflections on the broad applicability of this work to students in the health sciences more generally, including suggestions for curriculum interventions that may ensure students' success.
B. Keith Putt
Full Text Available This essay examines Ricœur’s mimetic and transfigurative perspective on non-objective art and adopts it as an idiom for examining Mark Rothko’s artistic intention in the multiform canvases of his “classical” period from 1949 until his death in 1970. Rothko unequivocally denied being an abstractionist, a colorist, or a formalist, insisting, on the contrary, that he desired to communicate discrete dimensions of experience and emotions to his viewers, specifically, experiences of the sacred and the spiritual. His large canvases, with their blurred edges, force the spectator into an intimacy of experience that opens the potentiality of heterogeneous interpretations. In other words, one might consider his paintings to be metaphors of dense meanings that imitate reality, not through facile representation, but through a Kierkegaardian repetition of worlds that track Ricœur’s own ideas of prefiguration, configuration, and re-figuration. I contend in this essay that Rothko’s “abstract expressionism” adequately illustrates Ricœur’s contention that non-figurative art succeeds far better than representational art in refiguring new worlds of meaning.
Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.
Florence F Folami
Full Text Available Background: Spiritual care is an important aspect of holistic care in nursing, and as a result, some nursing schools have begun offering courses in spirituality. Even at that, studies in some countries have shown that nursing students' perception on spirituality and spiritual care was not sufficient and most professional nurses still feel inadequately prepared to provide spiritual care, showing the inadequacy of the education that was received, thus, hindering the patients from receiving holistic care. Objectives: This study has the broad objective of identifying the perception of spirituality and spiritual care and barriers to the provision of spirituality care among undergraduate nurses in the College of Medicine, University of Lagos. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, utilizing stratified random sampling technique. A total of 117 out of 157 students of the nursing department, University of Lagos, ranging from 200 level to 500 level participated in the study. Data were collected using structured self-administered questionnaire, with a reliability coefficient of 0.509, which was validated using face and content method. Analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Services version 14 and presented using tables, percentages, and pie chart. Results: Result shows that of the respondents, 67.9% scored <50% of the questions pertaining to perception on spirituality and spiritual care. This shows that nurses had poor perception regarding spirituality and spiritual care, with majority (68.7% of them perceiving spirituality as religion. Barriers to the provision of spirituality care were also identified with “lack of confidence” being the most common. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that nursing students' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care was poor which had no relationship with their academic level or kind of religion, thus, showing that the education being provided on this
Full Text Available Infertility is a worldwide public health issue that exerts an in-depth impact on couples, families, communities and the individual. This reproductive health condition, along with fertility treatments, often forces couples to question their purpose and meaning in life, and to begin a spiritual journey. Nursing and midwifery literature describes the care of those living with infertility, but often lacks a clear approach of the spiritual dimension, and diagnosis and interventions may not be effectively addressed. In this paper, we present a discussion about spirituality and the assessment of spiritual needs such as hope, beliefs, meaning and satisfaction in life. In addition, spiritual needs are defined, for both nurses and midwives, and spiritual interventions are proposed for promoting couples’ resilience and spiritual well-being. Spirituality should be considered from the beginning to the end of life. It is necessary to translate this into the development and implementation of both specific policies regarding a spiritual approach and advanced education and training programs for nurses and midwives who care for infertile couples.
Werheit, Helmut; Gerlach, Guido
The FIR reflectivity spectra of boron carbide, measured down to ω~10 cm(-1) between 100 and 800 K, are essentially determined by heavily damped plasma vibrations. The spectra are fitted applying the classical Drude-Lorentz theory of free carriers. The fitting Parameter Π=ωp/ωτ yields the carrier densities, which are immediately correlated with the concentration of structural defects in the homogeneity range. This correlation is proved for band-type and hopping conductivity. The effective mass of free holes in the valence band is estimated at m*/me~2.5. The mean free path of the free holes has the order of the cell parameters.
Zhu, Xiongfeng; Tung, Kuan-Wen; Chiou, Pei-Yu
A hemispherically shaped, heavily doped (N++) silicon electrode is proposed to overcome the challenges of dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation using a conventional metal electrode operating in high conductivity media. An N++ electrode decouples the strong electric field region from the electrode interface and provides a large interface capacitance to prevent surface charging in high conductivity media, thereby effectively suppressing electrochemical reactions. Compared to a conventional metal electrode, an N++ electrode can provide 3 times higher threshold voltage and a corresponding 9-fold enhancement of maximum DEP force in 1× phosphate-buffered saline buffer with an electrical conductivity of 1 S/m. Furthermore, an N++ silicon electrode has excellent thermal conductivity and low electrical impedance, ideal for powering massively parallel DEP manipulation in high conductivity media across a large area.
Full Text Available This article makes a literary review to the linguistic research in the use of metaphor in didactic discourse; especially the religious one. Acknowledging Conceptual Metaphor Theory as the primary theory in the field, the researcher embarks upon how metaphor is perceived and analysed in discourse in order to pertain its persuasive function. The article presents different approaches to metaphor analysis and their interconnection. The implications of these approaches are later deduced and interpreted within the scope of Islamic religious discourse as an example of didactic discourses. Keywords: Metaphors, Metaphor Analysis, Didactic Discourse, Persuasion
Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.
Vaillant, George E
This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
spiritual reality (the ... closely related to the cardinal problems that preoccupy a culture. In every context worldview should be ..... 13 Paradoxically, the whole notion of virtual reality and cyberspace represents the non- corporeal. Aupers & Houtman ...
Borges, Moema da Silva; Santos, Marília Borges Couto; Pinheiro, Tiago Gomes
to identify the social representations about the concepts of spirituality and religion of of health teachers. exploratory and descriptive study, based on a qualitative approach. 25 subjects participated in it. The following instruments were used to collect data: questionnaire to identify the profile; questionnaire of free association, whose inducing words were religion and spirituality, and an interview based on the scale FICA (Puchalski, 2006). the representations about religion and spirituality, for professors, are forged around the faith in God and it gives them meaning and purpose to deal with the challenges of personal and professional living. there are still barriers that need to be overcome with a view to a comprehensive care. For this, it is essential to incorporate spirituality in the process in the curricula of health courses.
T V Chkhikvadze
Full Text Available The correlation of the structure of the spirituality is analyzed in the article, gender differences and differences between students of natural-science and humanitarian direction are investigated.
Full Text Available Celtic spirituality has a long and distinguished ancestry with its origins in pre-Christian times. It was inculturated among peoples in the far west of Europe, particularly in Ireland, Scotland and the north and south-west of England. It was different from Roman Christianity in distinct ways until the mid-7th century CE when Roman Christianity became the norm in Britain and Ireland. This spirituality has endured throughout the centuries and has experienced a revival from the latter half of the 20th century. From its inception, it has been closely linked to the environment. Over the years many key aspects of Celtic spirituality have been integrated in many religious traditions and shows similarities with and can contribute to a new ethical perspective on environmental issues. This article investigates the current environmental crisis from a faith perspective and attempts to draw lessons from Celtic traditions of spirituality in a scientific age.
What motivates organizational leaders in their search for spirituality? They seek to integrate their inner journey with their day-to-day professional roles. This article describes how a course in spirituality for executives has provided tools to analyze and clarify intentions, avoid the traps of excessive greed and power, and make decisions that are both compassionate and effective. André L. Delbecq, DBA, the Thomas J. and Kathleen L. McCarthy Professor at the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University in California, offers seminars in spirituality for organizational leadership through the MBA program and the Center for Executive Development. Delbecq is the first to admit his surprise at the number of executives who have repeatedly asked for courses in spirituality. He talks about how his seminars have helped CEOs and other top executives achieve greater effectiveness in leading organizations.
Solomon, Jeffrey; Hunter, Jeremy
Using Howard Gardner's concept of existential intelligence along with others such as Jerome Bruner, explores the psychology of spirituality and leadership. Describes how famous film director uses meditation in his work. Draws implications for educational leadership. (PKP)
Full Text Available The analogy between the activity of poet and that of a blacksmith or builder characterizes the origin of aesthetics in western culture and influences the idea of kósmos, as structure ordered solely with the purpose of the effect of beauty. Although the metaphor of poet-blacksmith occurs only after the 5th century BC, the image of poet-architect or builder dates back to the Indo-European period. Archaic poets (Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, etc. already described their method of procedure through the comparison with techniques of naval carpentry and building construction: this association is applied both to production and reception of the text, as it is useful to illustrate structural order together with emotional and illusionistic effects of a work. In the classical age, the analogy can be found, in a more pervasive and explicit form, in the treatises of rhetoric which deal with stylistic composition, formulating doctrines which were to influence Vitruvian precepts. The centuries-old validity of comparison between poetry and architecture is also shown by the role which the notion of composition has in Medieval (for example in Dante poetics and Renaissance poetics, and also in the reflections of contemporary poets (such as Pound, Valéry.
The economic crises in the recent past have led to a renewed interest in exploring the role of spirituality in business management. However there are several challenges in understanding what “spirituality” means in an operational sense of business management. This article first traces the research in the area of spirituality as applied to business and in the second part, reports on the beliefs of Suresh B. Hundre, Chairman and MD of Polyhydron Pvt. Ltd, Belgaum, India, as practised in Polyhyd...
Panzini, Raquel Gehrke; Mosqueiro, Bruno Paz; Zimpel, Rogério R; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Rocha, Neusa S; Fleck, Marcelo P
Spirituality has been identified as an important dimension of quality-of-life. The objective of this study was to review the literature on quality-of-life and spirituality, their association, and assessment tools. A search was conducted of the keyterms 'quality-of-life' and 'spirituality' in abstract or title in the databases PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline between 1979-2005, complemented by a new search at PUBMED from 2006-2016. Quality-of-life is a new concept, which encompasses and transcends the concept of health, being composed of multiple domains: physical, psychological, environmental, among others. The missing measure in health has been defined as the individual's perception of their position in life in the context of culture and value system in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. There is consistent evidence of an association between quality-of-life and religiosity/spirituality (R/S), through studies with reasonable methodological rigour, using several variables to assess R/S (e.g. religious affiliation, religious coping, and prayer/spirituality). There are also several valid and reliable instruments to evaluate quality-of-life and spirituality. Further studies are needed, however, especially in Brazil. Such studies will provide empirical data to be used in planning health interventions based on spirituality, seeking a better quality-of-life. In the last 10 years, research is consistently growing about quality-of-life and spirituality in many countries, and also in many areas of health research.
In his late work Michel Foucault stressed the importance of parrhesia (libertas, franc-parler, frankness of speech) in the philosophical practices of the Anciens, through a broader reflection on "spirituality" inspired chiefly by the work of Pierre Hadot. The notion of parrhesia emerges as an interesting matter also in a approach of Montaigne's Essays, where we can recognize a series of "spiritual exercises", in the sense given to the expression by Hadot: practices, not only intellectual, int...
Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira
Difficulties with figurative language comprehension were documented in adult dyslexia (DYS). In the present research, we investigated the comprehension and generation of metaphors in 37 children, 35 adolescents, and 34 adults with and without DYS. We also tested the contribution of executive function to metaphor processing. A multiple-choice questionnaire with conventional and novel metaphors was used to assess comprehension; a concept-explanation task was used to test conventional and novel metaphor generation (verbal creativity). The findings indicated differences between the dyslexic children and the control group in conventional metaphor comprehension. However, both groups performed similarly in the novel metaphor comprehension test. Furthermore, although children and adolescents with DYS showed similar performance in metaphor generation as their typically developing peers, adults with DYS generated more metaphors than controls. While scores on tests of verbal knowledge and mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, scores on non-verbal tests and mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor generation. Our findings suggest that individuals with DYS are not impaired in novel metaphor comprehension and metaphor generation and that metaphor comprehension and generation utilize different cognitive resources. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Golshaie, Ramin; Golfam, Arsalan
Research on the psycholinguistic processing of conceptual metaphors has produced contrasting results in recent years. There have also been criticisms that in experimental studies of metaphor processing, linguistic stimuli are mostly intuition-based and not designed objectively based on the original language use data. To address these issues, we studied the processing of conventional metaphoric expressions in Persian language using corpus data. A reading time experiment was designed to test whether conventional metaphoric expressions activated conceptual metaphors. A corpus of 50 million word tokens was used to study the conventional patterns of metaphoric expressions usages and construct experimental items. Fifty five Persian speakers read a set of scenarios containing non-conventional metaphor, conventional metaphor and non-metaphor expressions on computer and the reading times of the following novel target sentence in each condition were recorded by DMDX stimulus presenter program. Comparing mean reading times using one-way ANOVA revealed that reading target sentence after conventional metaphor scenarios had been significantly faster than non-metaphor scenarios, but slower than non-conventional scenarios. The results show that conventionality has a weakening effect on the strength of metaphoric expressions to activate conceptual metaphors.
Patrick Jennings, Mary Kay
Apollonian selves by means of a descent into a quantum- like space from which they emerge enlightened and ready to encounter an absolutely new order of existence-one in which their spiritual identity is retained and the constraints of physical existence which ends in entropy and death is transcended. Increasingly in Thomas Pynchon's novels is the idea that loss of self and interconnectedness is necessary for spiritual transformation which has ramifications far beyond the transformation of the individual. In his most recent novel, Mason & Dixon, the novel's protagonist is a dual-natured Orpheus consisting of both Mason and Dixon who are finally inseparable, joined as they are by the Line they drew. The Golden Mean is the point at which connections occur and distinctions between seemingly mutually exclusive extremes begin to blur. Each extreme is ameliorated by the Golden Mean even as it remains part of a larger pattern that can be glimpsed at and articulated through metaphor, the most human of connecting devices. In Pynchon's Metaphor the Golden Mean suggests a way back to connectedness with that which is larger than oneself and offers the possibility of spiritual redemption and continued existence after death.
Spirituality is an idea that has sustained significant interest in nursing over the past quarter century. Extensive conceptual work has generated robust critique around clarity and professional jurisdictional claims. However, less attention has been paid to the challenges nursing has faced that have contributed to the spirituality quest. Reflecting on my own experiences as a scholar writing in this literature over the past decade, I suggest three challenges that spirituality has attempted to redress: to relate across difference in a globalized world, to be good in a world of uncertain morality and to find meaning in a disenchanted world. The idea of spirituality could be viewed as resistance against othering, against law based ethics, and against politics and power. But the impact of the idea of spirituality has yet to be determined and caution is in order. As important as this resistance is, nursing must refrain from creating a new world of insiders and outsiders and from minimizing the role of religious ethics in a globalized world. Spirituality, like its predecessor religion, will likely continue to play an enduring role in providing fundamental meaning for nursing work. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Roser, Traugott; Jobin, Guy
This article elaborates on the hazards of spiritual history taking. It provides expert insights to consider before entering the field. In summer 2012, a group of spiritual care experts were invited to discuss the complexity of taking spiritual histories in a manner of hermeneutic circle. Thematic analysis was applied to define the emerging themes. The results demonstrate that taking a spiritual history is a complex and challenging task, requiring a number of personal qualities of the interviewer, such as 'being present', 'not only hearing, but listening', 'understanding the message beyond the words uttered', and 'picking up the words to respond'. To 'establish a link of sharing', the interviewer is expected 'to go beyond the ethical stance of neutrality'. The latter may cause several dilemmas, such as 'fear of causing more problems', 'not daring to take it further', and above all, 'being ambivalent about one's role'. Interviewer has to be careful in terms of the 'patient's vulnerability'. To avoid causing harm, it is essential to propose 'a follow-up contract' that allows responding to 'patient's yearning for genuine care'. These findings combined with available literature suggest that the quality of spiritual history taking will remain poor unless the health-care professionals revise the meaning of spirituality and the art of caring on individual level.
Full Text Available Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4. Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001, depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01, and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01. Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly.
White, Mary L; Schim, Stephanie Myers
Development of a valid, reliable instrument to measure spiritual self-care practices of patients with heart failure. African American patients (N = 142) with heart failure participated in the study. Spiritual advisors from several religious groups reviewed the Spiritual Self-Care Practices Scale (SSCPS) for content validity. Construct validity was determined using a principal components factor analysis. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Religious advisors provided suggestions to improve content validity. Four factors consistent with spiritual practices (personal spiritual practices, spiritual practices, physical spiritual practices, and interpersonal spiritual practices) emerged from the factor analysis. The alpha coefficient was moderate at 0.64. Results indicated the SSCPS was reliable and valid for measuring spiritual self-care practices among African Americans with heart failure. Additional testing is needed to confirm results in other patient groups with chronic illnesses.
Reinert, Katia Garcia; Koenig, Harold G
To discuss the definition of spirituality and its limitations for nursing research. It proposes a definition that will capture more accurately the role of spirituality in health outcomes. Studies have increasingly examined spirituality in nursing research as a coping mechanism attenuating the negative impact of traumatic stress on mental health. Existing definitions of spirituality in nursing research include elements of positive emotional states (meaning, purpose, general well-being) which confound mental health outcomes. Medline and CINAHL databases were searched from 2007-2011 for research articles examining spirituality definitions and measures used by nurse researchers. An analysis of the definitions of spirituality in nursing research reveals inconsistencies and confounding mental health concepts. The authors propose defining spirituality in the context of religious involvement when conducting research, while using a broader definition of spirituality when providing spiritual care. They argue such definition provides a more appropriate method of measuring this concept in research aimed at evaluating mental health outcomes while preserving the currently used patient-defined definition of spirituality when providing spiritual care. A consistent definition of spirituality in nursing research evaluating mental health outcomes, distinct from 'spiritual care' in a clinical setting, is essential to avoid tautological results that are meaningless. Appropriate definitions will enable nursing researchers to more clearly identify resilience mechanisms and improved health outcomes in those exposed to traumatic stress. A definition of spirituality that focuses on religious involvement provides a more uniform and consistent measure for evaluating mental health outcomes in nursing research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hermann, C P
To identify dying patients' definitions of spirituality and their spiritual needs. Descriptive, qualitative. Participants' places of residence. 19 hospice patients (10 females and 9 males), mean age 72, with a range of length of time as a hospice patient of 2 weeks to 12 months. Semistructured interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed to reduce data into codes and themes. Data were coded by extracting verbatim phrases used to describe spirituality and spiritual needs. Themes emerged from the data as commonalities among the codes developed. Meaning of "spiritual" and perceived spiritual needs. Participants initially defined spiritual as relating to God or religion; however, as interviews progressed, it was apparent that their spirituality was a part of their total existence. Twenty-nine unique spiritual needs were identified and grouped into six themes: need for religion, need for companionship, need for involvement and control, need to finish business, need to experience nature, and need for positive outlook. Participants perceived spirituality as a broad concept that may or may not involve religion. Spiritual needs were likewise broad in scope and were linked closely to purpose and meaning in life. Spiritual care of dying patients is within the scope of nursing practice. Spiritual needs are quite varied and encompass more than religion. If nurses are to enhance the quality of life of dying patients, spiritual needs must be addressed.
Ahmed Sahib Jabir Mubarak
Full Text Available The paradox in the offensive humor lies in the assumption that what evokes laughter can be harmful for someone. Linguistically, the offense can be expressed directly and indirectly, additionally, humor, including riddles is one of the most effective ways to show offense or aggression toward someone. Humor, on the other hand, is mostly expressed indirectly. Metaphoric forms are said to be one of the most appealing strategies of humor language. The present study aims at applying a critical metaphor analysis of some randomly selected American offensive humorous riddles related to various aspects of offense like race and nation. In this approach to critical discourse analysis, the cognitive aspect is added for the sake of analyzing figurative forms like metaphor which is considered as an important part of ideology. Thus, critical metaphor analysis covers both social and cognitive aspects. It is concluded that offensive jokes (namely funny riddles can be used as a tool to measure the aggressiveness towards certain social aspects like race; on the other hand, metaphors afford indications of facets of power, inequality and people ideologies in American society.
Full Text Available This article identifies, describes and analyzes specific instances of metaphors used to represent and explain ten “frame elements” in popularized scientific articles devoted to the Ebola disease or virus, within the overall “health frame”. The descriptive and explanatory metaphors studied derive from culturally salient objects or experiences which allow scientists, medical professionals and journalists to effectively communicate scientific information and knowledge about Ebola to non-experts in less complex, understandable and down-to-earth terms. Apart from the identification and characterization of specific instances of Ebola metaphors (corresponding to general framings such as EBOLA IS WAR or RECOVERY IS A ROAD, this work also focuses on the purposes, functions and effects that these metaphors, usually considered as reformulation techniques (Jacobi, 1994, have in the popularization of such an important health threat which has quite recently caused general hysteria and almost a global crisis. By “popularization” we mean the communicative function that metaphor plays in approaching a scientific issue to the world population or to society in general, or the process of bringing science to everyday life (Väliverronen, 1993. For such purposes, a sample of articles from Scientific American has been considered.
Full Text Available This paper presents the qualitative findings from the first national survey of New Zealand nurses’ views on spirituality and spiritual care. The importance of spirituality as a core aspect of holistic nursing care is gaining momentum. Little is currently known about New Zealand nurses’ understandings, perceptions and experience of spirituality. Design: A descriptive online survey. Method: A random sample of 2000 individuals resident in New Zealand whose occupation on the New Zealand electoral roll suggested nursing was their current or past occupation were invited via postcard to participate in an online survey. This paper reports on the free response section of the survey. Findings: Overall, 472 invitees responded (24.1%. From the respondents, 63% completed at least one of the optional free response sections. Thematic analysis generated three metathemes: ‘The role of spirituality in nursing practice’, ‘Enabling best practice’, and ‘Creating a supportive culture’. Conclusions: Spirituality was predominantly valued as a core aspect of holistic nursing care. However, clarity is needed surrounding what constitutes spiritual care and how this intersects with professional responsibilities and boundaries. Participants’ insights suggest a focus on improving the consistency and quality of spiritual care by fostering inter-professional collaboration, and improved provision of resources and educational opportunities.
Promotion of students' spiritual development is one of the goals of pastoral care in schools. The heritage of Chinese calligraphy is traditionally used as a way to enhance an individual's self-reflection and cultivation, and has an educational value in spiritual development. This study aims to examine the cultural meaning of Chinese calligraphy…
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over…
Adams, Kate; Bull, Rebecca; Maynes, Mary-Louise
Early years education is a holistic endeavour, with some education policies including spiritual development as part of that approach. However, studies exploring the spirituality of young children are scarce, which limits understanding of the phenomenon and its full application in educational settings. Furthermore, nurturing children's spiritual…
This article argues relational consciousness of Self and Other is influenced by multiple significant relationships--what are termed "Spiritual Friends". The research on which this article is based explores the spirituality of children within the context of British urban secondary education, and identifies significant relationships in…
Roesler, Glenn R.
Assesses the unaccepted use of figurative language in science and technical writing, especially, objections to metaphor's imputed ambiguity. Proposes that metaphor play a stronger role in conceptualization of scientific and technical ideas. (MS)
Rataj, Karolina; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; van der Lubbe, Rob H.J.
Novel metaphoric sentences have repeatedly evoked larger N400 amplitudes than literal sentences, while investigations of the late positive complex (LPC) have brought inconsistent results, with reports of both increased and reduced amplitudes. In two experiments, we examined novel metaphor