Manley, Paula R.
Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to describe the perception of growth in spiritual development of undergraduate students attending an Assemblies of God affiliated university by examining the differences in the perception of spiritual development between freshmen and seniors. This quantitative study used a survey…
Prater, Lyn S; Riley, Cheryl; Garner, Shelby L; Spies, Lori A
There is a philosophical connection between elements of travel and elements of spirituality. Nurses can develop spiritual intelligence, hone transcultural skills, and develop cultural humility through travel. Concepts of spiritual intelligence are incorporated to distinguish spirituality from religion. This discussion is to describe the spiritual attributes of travel through exploration of unique cultural sameness and differences, stepping out of one's routine, experiences of solitude, and the application to nursing. Venues such as study abroad, mission trips, cultural exchange opportunities, and service learning projects all can provide meaningful times of transformation, spiritual growth, learning new ways of doing things, and of being in the world. Nurses who integrate these practices into the care they provide daily will be enriched personally and rewarded with improved outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Frame, Marsha Wiggins
Describes the spiritual genogram, a blueprint of family members' multigenerational religious and spiritual affiliations, events, and conflicts. Used as a tool in both training and supervision, the spiritual genogram enables students and supervisees to make sense of their own religious and spiritual heritage and to explore the ways in which their…
Woods, Jennifer L; Hensel, Devon J
Religion and spirituality are known influences on medical providers' care of patients, but no studies have assessed resident beliefs related to patient perception of clinical care. The main objective of our study was to assess resident religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality in relation to self-efficacy and communication with patients during adolescent clinic visits. We found that religious affiliation and religiosity appear to affect patient perception of communication with residents during adolescent visits; spirituality had little noted effect. Further research is warranted, especially regarding resident and patient gender correlations and differences in religious affiliation effects on patient perception of care.
Spiritual character traits and leadership in the school workplace: An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and school leadership in some private and religiously affiliated schools in South Africa
Jaco S. Dreyer
Full Text Available The South African educational system is in a crisis. This situation places huge demands on school principals and school management teams, and raises many theoretical and empirical questions. Transformational leadership is needed to deal with these challenges and complexities. Not all school leaders show the same level of transformational leadership. Some leaders conform more to other leadership styles. The aim of this article is to explore the relation between spiritual character traits and leadership styles from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The theoretical part focuses on the conceptualisation of leadership (styles and spirituality. The empirical research consists of a web-based survey conducted in some private and religiously affiliated schools in South Africa in 2011–2012. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ and Cloninger’s shortened Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140 were used to measure leadership styles and spiritual traits respectively. Statistical procedures included confirmatory factor analysis, correlation (Pearson rho and regression analysis. Key findings are that leaders of private schools in South Africa mostly conform to a transformative leadership style, disagree with corrective leadership and strongly disagree with passive-avoidant leadership. Regarding the spiritual character traits they agree with self-transcendence and strongly agree with self-directedness. Spiritual character traits are strong predictors for transformational and passive-avoidant leadership. Higher levels of self-transcendence and self-directedness are strong predictors for transformational leadership. Our research suggests that traditional religious variables are less important as predictors of leadership style than spiritual character traits.
Maley, Christine M; Pagana, Nicole K; Velenger, Christa A; Humbert, Tamera Keiter
This systematic literature review analyzed the construct of spirituality as perceived by people who have experienced or are experiencing a major life event or transition. The researchers investigated studies that used narrative analysis or a phenomenological methodology related to the topic. Thematic analysis resulted in three major themes: (1) avenues to and through spirituality, (2) the experience of spirituality, and (3) the meaning of spirituality. The results provide insights into the intersection of spirituality, meaning, and occupational engagement as understood by people experiencing a major life event or transition and suggest further research that addresses spirituality in occupational therapy and interdisciplinary intervention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Mancha, Brent E.; Brown, Qiana L.; Eaton, William W.
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,071 community dwelling adults from East Baltimore, Maryland who participated in the fourth (2004–2005) wave of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The 20-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20) was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between negative life events and distress as well as to measure the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the association between psychological distress and negative events while adjusting for demographic variables, past distress and social support from friends and relatives. Results In pooled analysis, negative events were significant predictors of distress, b = 1.00, β = 0.072, p spirituality did not affect or modify the association between negative events and distress. However, religious attendance was inversely associated with distress with higher frequency of attendance associated with lower distress after controlling for demographic and social support factors, b = −2.10, β = −.110, p spirituality, b = 1.23, β = 0.092, p spirituality; the association between religious attendance and decreased distress was true only for those scoring high in spirituality. Social support accounted for some of the inverse association between religious and distress. Conclusion Religious attendance and spirituality may play a role in how people experience and deal with difficult life situations. PMID:23732707
Kidwai, Rubeena; Mancha, Brent E; Brown, Qiana L; Eaton, William W
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,071 community dwelling adults from East Baltimore, Maryland who participated in the fourth (2004-2005) wave of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The 20-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20) was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between negative life events and distress as well as to measure the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the association between psychological distress and negative events while adjusting for demographic variables, past distress and social support from friends and relatives. In pooled analysis, negative events were significant predictors of distress, b = 1.00, β = 0.072, p spirituality did not affect or modify the association between negative events and distress. However, religious attendance was inversely associated with distress with higher frequency of attendance associated with lower distress after controlling for demographic and social support factors, b = -2.10, β = -.110, p spirituality, b = 1.23, β = 0.092, p spirituality; the association between religious attendance and decreased distress was true only for those scoring high in spirituality. Social support accounted for some of the inverse association between religious and distress. Religious attendance and spirituality may play a role in how people experience and deal with difficult life situations.
Jose, Mini M
Compassion is a language that is understood across cultures, religions, and nations. Being compassionate and empathetic is a basic responsibility of health care providers responding to disasters. Compassion and empathy cannot be operationalized unless providers show culturally competent, ethically right, and spiritually caring behavior. In addition to being accepting of cultures other than their own, providers must read literature and familiarize themselves with the predominant cultures of the affected population. Ethically right decision making is essentially an act of balancing the risks and benefits to the entire society. Spiritual care is an important dimension of total health, and therefore recognition and resolution of the spiritual needs of disaster victims is an essential role of health care providers. Disaster management is teamwork and therefore requires that health care providers draw on the expertise and support of other team members; coordinating efforts with local religious, social governmental organizations, and NGOs to deal with the intangible effects of the cultural and spiritual impact of a disaster and to prevent further demoralization of the affected community is imperative. Disasters occur, and the only thing that can ameliorate their devastating effects is to improve disaster preparedness and respond collectively and courageously to every catastrophic event. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.
This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n=206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included. PMID:24041186
Smith, Tracy; Gordon, Tom
The Marie Curie Cancer Care (2003) Spiritual and Religious Care Competencies for Specialist Palliative Care provide a common language for healthcare practitioners in the nebulous area of spiritual care. The development of a pilot blended learning event, as described in this paper, sought to integrate the competencies into practice by providing opportunities both online and in the classroom to explore this aspect of holistic care in depth. In the planning stages, multiprofessional focus groups determined the level of delivery, and emerging themes shaped the content. Self-awareness and reflection were key features and part of the overall process to improve competency. The features of the virtual learning environment (VLE) used were video, facilitated asynchronous discussion and direct links to key articles and documents, while interactive classroom activities built on prior learning. Evaluation covered all aspects of the course design from participant and facilitator perspectives. Participant comments were overwhelmingly positive in relation to the content and chosen delivery methods with concerns about online learning proving unfounded.
Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B
This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.
This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...
Nathaniel A. Fernandez
Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates an association between religiousness, spirituality, and generosity in adolescents, but few studies have tested the mechanisms by which religion might facilitate the development of generosity in real-world contexts. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented describing the potential mechanisms by which engagement in transformational contexts (i.e., participating in charity marathon training may lead to the development of generosity in adolescents. Participation in charity sporting events is theorized to increase generosity through both higher-order mechanisms, such as sanctification and the development of transcendent identity, and lower-order mechanisms, such as increased entitativity, positive emotions, and dissonance reduction. An empirical strategy for testing the model is presented; suggested methods for inquiry are longitudinal mixed method designs incorporating observations, questionnaires, and qualitative interviewing. Additionally, a case study of ongoing research on adolescents running with Team World Vision is described as an application of the model to an actual research context.
Zakaria Kiaei, M; Salehi, A; Moosazadeh Nasrabadi, A; Whitehead, D; Azmal, M; Kalhor, R; Shah Bahrami, E
This study aimed to explore the perception of Iranian nurses concerning spiritual care and to reveal any confronted barriers. Although the context of spiritual care is a substantial aspect of holistic care, the delivery of spiritual care has been problematic due to lack of nurses' understanding of this concept. Nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care directly influence their performance as well as their relationships with patients. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with 259 nurses working in hospitals affiliated with Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data were collected using the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale alongside qualitative open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the quantitative data and content analysis for the qualitative data. The overall average for spirituality and spiritual care was 2.84 (score range: 1-4), indicating a moderate mean score. A significant relationship was found between education level and spiritual care. The majority of participants believed that they did not receive enough training in this aspect of care. The main obstacles regarding delivering spiritual care included busy working schedules, insufficient knowledge regarding spiritual care, low motivation, diversity of patients' spiritual needs and feeling 'unqualified' to provide spiritual cares. Consistent with the previous studies, this study has demonstrated that nurses had low confidence to meet the spiritual needs of patients due to lack of knowledge and training in this regard. Iranian nurses' perception of spirituality and spiritual care is moderate, reflecting that they do not receive sufficient training regarding spiritual care. Despite the attention focused on spiritual care in clinical settings in Iran, there remains a significant gap in terms of meeting the spiritual needs of patients in nursing practice. This finding assists nursing clinicians, educators and policy makers to more
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Wachelder, E M; Moulaert, V R M P; van Heugten, C; Gorgels, T; Wade, D T; Verbunt, J A
Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have cognitive and emotional problems. As a cardiac arrest is also an obvious life-threatening event, other psychological sequelae associated with surviving such as spirituality may also affect quality of life. To determine the relationship between spirituality, coping and quality of life in cardiac patients both with and without a cardiac arrest. In this retrospective cohort study, participants received a questionnaire by post. The primary outcome measure was quality of life (LiSat-9). Secondary outcome measures were spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp12), coping style (UPCC), emotional well-being (HADS, IES), fatigue (FSS) and daily activities (FAI). Statistical analyses included multiple regression analyses. Data were available from 72 (60% response rate) cardiac arrest survivors and 98 (47%) patients with a myocardial infarction. Against our hypothesis, there were no differences in spirituality or other variables between the groups, with the exception of more depressive symptoms in patients with myocardial infarction without arrest. Analysis of the total data set (170 participants) found that a better quality of life was associated with higher levels of meaning and peace in life, higher levels of social and leisure activities, and lower levels of fatigue. Quality of life after a cardiac arrest and after a myocardial infarction without arrest are not different; fatigue, a sense of meaning and peace, and level of extended daily activities are factors related to higher life satisfaction. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.
Within the hospice literature, spirituality and religion are usually defined in opposition to one another, with religion negatively associated with the external, authoritarian doctrines of Christianity and spirituality positively associated with the free search for truth, meaning, and authenticity. According to survey data, however, most Americans integrate spirituality and traditional religious commitments. The hospice literature is promoting spirituality to its own detriment by alienating potential patients and depriving religious patients of the resources that religious traditions and their affiliated religious communities have to offer.
The history of science is often a reflection of the evolution of scientific ideas. Once in a while, one encounters a discovery that drastically alters the rate of this evolution. The discovery of the laws of heredity by Gregor Mendel is one such event in the history of biology. Unfortunately, being far ahead of time, the laws had very ...
Ko, Il Sun; Choi, So Young; Kim, Jin Sook
This study was done to clarify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of spirituality. Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyze fifty seven studies from the literature related to spirituality as it appears in systematic literature reviews of theology, medicine, counseling & psychology, social welfare, and nursing. Spirituality was found to consist of two dimensions and eight attributes: 1) vertical dimension: 'intimacy and connectedness with God' and 'holy life and belief', 2) horizontal dimension: 'self-transcendence', 'meaning and purpose in life', 'self-integration', and 'self-creativity' in relationship with self, 'connectedness' and 'trust' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature. Antecedents of spirituality were socio-demographic, religious, psychological, and health related characteristics. Consequences of spirituality were positive and negative. Being positive included 'life centered on God' in vertical dimension, and among horizontal dimension 'joy', 'hope', 'wellness', 'inner peace', and 'self-actualization' in relationship with self, 'doing in love' and 'extended life toward neighbors and the world' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature. Being negative was defined as having 'guilt', 'inner conflict', 'loneliness', and 'spiritual distress'. Facilitators of spirituality were stressful life events and experiences. Spirituality is a multidimensional concept. Unchangeable attributes of spirituality are 'connectedness with God', 'self-transcendence', 'meaning of life' and 'connectedness with others·nature'. Unchangeable consequences of spirituality are 'joy' and 'hope'. The findings suggest that the dimensional framework of spirituality can be used to assess the current spiritual state of patients. Based on these results, the development of a Korean version of the scale measuring spirituality is recommended. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Fuchs, Felipe C; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Fuchs, Flávio D; Wainstein, Marco V; Bergoli, Luis C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Zen, Vanessa; Kerkhoff, Alessandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Fuchs, Sandra C
The importance of coronary anatomy in predicting cardiovascular events is well known. The use of traditional anatomical scores in routine angiography, however, has not been incorporated to clinical practice. SYNTAX score (SXscore) is a scoring system that estimates the anatomical extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Its ability to predict outcomes based on a baseline diagnostic angiography has not been tested to date. To evaluate the performance of the SXscore in predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for diagnostic angiography. Prospective cohort of 895 patients with suspected CAD referred for elective diagnostic coronary angiography from 2008 to 2011, at a university-affiliated hospital in Brazil. They had their SXscores calculated and were stratified in three categories: no significant CAD (n = 495), SXscoreLOW-INTERMEDIATE: anatomia coronariana na predição de eventos cardiovasculares é bem conhecida. O uso de escores anatômicos tradicionais na cineangiocoronariografia de rotina, entretanto, não foi incorporado à prática clínica. O SYNTAX escore (SXescore) é um sistema de escore que estima a extensão anatômica da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Sua capacidade para predizer desfechos com base na cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica de base ainda não foi testada. Avaliar o desempenho do SXescore para predizer eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (MACE) em pacientes encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica. Coorte prospectiva de 895 pacientes com suspeita de DAC encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica eletiva de 2008 a 2011, em hospital universitário no Brasil. Os pacientes tiveram seus SXescores calculados e foram estratificados em três categorias: 'sem DAC significativa' (n = 495); SXescoreBAIXO-INTERMEDIÁRIO: < 23 (n = 346); e SXescoreALTO: ≥ 23 (n = 54). O desfecho primário foi composto de morte cardíaca, infarto do miocárdio e revascularização tardia. Os desfechos secund
Mako, Caterina; Galek, Kathleen; Poppito, Shannon R
The large body of empirical research suggesting that patients' spiritual and existential experiences influence the disease process has raised the need for health care professionals to understand the complexity of patients' spiritual pain and distress. The current study explores the multidimensional nature of spiritual pain, in patients with end-stage cancer, in relation to physical pain, symptom severity, and emotional distress. The study combines a quantitative evaluation of participants' intensity of spiritual pain, physical pain, depression, and intensity of illness, with a qualitative focus on the nature of patients' spiritual pain and the kinds of interventions patients believed would ameliorate their spiritual pain. Fifty-seven patients with advanced stage cancer in a palliative care hospital were interviewed by chaplains. Overall, 96% of the patients reported experiencing spiritual pain, but they expressed it in different ways: (1) as an intrapsychic conflict, (2) as interpersonal loss or conflict, or (3) in relation to the divine. Intensity of spiritual pain was correlated with depression (r = 0.43, p spiritual pain did not vary by age, gender, disease course or religious affiliation. Given both the universality of spiritual pain and the multifaceted nature of pain, we propose that when patients report the experience of pain, more consideration be given to the complexity of the phenomena and that spiritual pain be considered a contributing factor. The authors maintain that spiritual pain left unaddressed both impedes recovery and contributes to the overall suffering of the patient.
Rogers, Melanie; Wattis, John
Spirituality is an important aspect of holistic care that is frequently overlooked. This is because of difficulties in conceptualising spirituality and confusion about how it should be integrated into nursing care. This article explores what is meant by spirituality and spiritually competent practice. It examines attitudes to spirituality, describes factors that might affect the integration of spirituality into nursing care and offers practical guidance to equip nurses to incorporate spirituality into their practice.
This article explores the concept of embodied spirituality from early Celtic traditions through the British medieval mystic Julian of Norwich to the present day. A "high theology" of the body in early Christianity and early Christian understandings of the relation among body, soul and spirit gave way to the influences of Greek thought with its…
Hufford, David J
This article presents an overview of the sleep paralysis experience from both a cultural and a historical perspective. The robust, complex phenomenological pattern that represents the subjective experience of sleep paralysis is documented and illustrated. Examples are given showing that, for a majority of subjects, sleep paralysis is taken to be a kind of spiritual experience. This is, in part, because of the very common perception of a non-physical 'threatening presence' that is part of the event. Examples from various cultures, including mainstream contemporary America which has no widely known tradition about sleep paralysis, are used to show that the complex pattern and spiritual interpretation are not dependent on cultural models or prior learning. This is dramatically contrary to conventional explanations of apparently 'direct' spiritual experiences, explanations that are summed up as the 'Cultural Source Hypothesis.' This aspect of sleep paralysis was not recognized through most of the twentieth century. The article examines the way that conventional modern views of spiritual experience, combined with medical ideas that labeled 'direct' spiritual experiences as psychopathological, and mainstream religious views of such experiences as heretical if not pathological, suppressed the report and discussion of these experiences in modern society. These views have resulted in confusion in the scientific literature on sleep paralysis with regard to its prevalence and core features. The article also places sleep paralysis in the context of other 'direct' spiritual experiences and offers an 'Experiential Theory' of cross-culturally distributed spiritual experiences.
Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.
Günther, Andreas; Baumann, Klaus; Frick, Eckhard; Jacobs, Christoph
Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS). Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies. PMID:23843867
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
Hogan, Michael J.
It is a mistake to ignore the scientific study of spirituality. Research examining the structure and function of concepts such as "spirit" and "spirituality" is likely to reveal new insights into the relationship between a functional spirituality and other thinking skills, including creativity. The study of spirituality should not stand alone as a…
Full Text Available This article explores the primordial spirituality of the Bible, as expressed in names, narratives and prayers. It looks at the nomadic families of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob, Lea and Rachel, moving around from Mesopotamia via Canaan into Egypt and vice versa (see Gn 11:31–32; 12:4–5; 27:43; 28:10; 29:4; Gn 24 and 29–31. It analyses their experiences, covering the span between birth and death and listens to their parental concerns about education as survival. It also follows their journeys along the margins of the deserts. It shares their community life as it takes shape in mutual solidarity, mercy and compassion.
Panzini, Raquel Gehrke; Mosqueiro, Bruno Paz; Zimpel, Rogério R; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Rocha, Neusa S; Fleck, Marcelo P
Spirituality has been identified as an important dimension of quality-of-life. The objective of this study was to review the literature on quality-of-life and spirituality, their association, and assessment tools. A search was conducted of the keyterms 'quality-of-life' and 'spirituality' in abstract or title in the databases PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline between 1979-2005, complemented by a new search at PUBMED from 2006-2016. Quality-of-life is a new concept, which encompasses and transcends the concept of health, being composed of multiple domains: physical, psychological, environmental, among others. The missing measure in health has been defined as the individual's perception of their position in life in the context of culture and value system in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. There is consistent evidence of an association between quality-of-life and religiosity/spirituality (R/S), through studies with reasonable methodological rigour, using several variables to assess R/S (e.g. religious affiliation, religious coping, and prayer/spirituality). There are also several valid and reliable instruments to evaluate quality-of-life and spirituality. Further studies are needed, however, especially in Brazil. Such studies will provide empirical data to be used in planning health interventions based on spirituality, seeking a better quality-of-life. In the last 10 years, research is consistently growing about quality-of-life and spirituality in many countries, and also in many areas of health research.
A spiritual experience for some means a mere fabrication of the mind. For others it is pathological and the consequence of psychiatric disturbances and psychological disorders. Others acknowledge that certain role-players are present when spiritual experiences occur. However, the identification of the involvement of these ...
In Chap. 2, Sharda Nandram provides an overview of issues on spirituality and some definitions of spirituality in both nonacademic settings and academic literature. She makes a distinction between inner and outer spirituality. She explains the types of knowledge based on the work of Sri Aurobindo
Ponds, Kenneth T.
Research on positive psychology indicates that spiritual strengths can be important in helping individuals overcome crisis and loss. Encounters with difficult challenges of life inspire people to think more deeply about their spiritual and religious beliefs and the meaning of life. Spirituality, faith, and religious roots have been shown to be…
Goldschmidt, Simon; Junghagen, Sven; Harris, Uri
resources once fully active in this area. This book focuses on how to build long term relationships with online partners, while gaining value and optimizing resources. As such, it should be of special interest to academics and students of management, marketing and business. Online advertisers and online......In this guide for both practitioners and academics on how to approach affiliate marketing, the authors explain the core values as well as challenging and combining established marketing theories in the light of new online marketing activities, taking into account the characteristics of the Internet...... and interactions among various participants and agents. Rather than arguing the rights and wrongs in absolute terms, this book presents a strategy for engaging in affiliate marketing. The authors also examine what considerations should be taken into account before doing so, as well as investigating how to optimize...
Cavendish, Roberta; Edelman, Maryann; Naradovy, Linda; Bajo, Maryann McPartlan; Perosi, Irene; Lanza, Melissa
This descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explicate pastoral care providers' perceptions of nurses as spiritual providers. Spirituality is especially meaningful in contemporary society as a whole with spiritual care an expectation of hospitalized patients. Spiritual care given by nurses is grounded in nursing's history, inherent in its philosophical framework, and supported by research and professional mandates. In hospitals today, the primary responsibility for the spiritual care of patients resides with pastoral care providers. Collaboration between pastoral care providers and nurses may improve patients' spiritual care outcomes. Before collaboration can occur, it is important to learn whether pastoral care providers recognize nurses as spiritual providers. Guided by qualitative research methods, participants were sought until data saturation occurred. This qualitative study consisted of 8 participants who were experienced, full-time pastoral care providers from general and religious-affiliated hospitals. Data were collected through audiotaped open-ended interviews, a demographic data form, and exploratory questions or probes. The analysis included concurrent data collection, constant examination of conceptual interactions, linkages, and the conditions under which they occurred. Themes emerged: quest, conscious response, and essence of caring. Pastoral care providers perceive nurses as spiritual providers. Few felt comfortable initiating collaboration. Study findings are not generalizable.
Rassouli, Maryam; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Alireza
Although nurses acknowledge that spiritual care is part of their role, in reality, it is performed to a lesser extent. The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses' and patients' experiences about the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in the oncology units of Tabriz. This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in the oncology units of hospitals in Tabriz. Data were collected through purposive sampling by conducting unstructured interviews with 10 patients and 7 nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Three categories emerged from the study: (1) "perceived barriers for providing spiritual care" including "lack of preparation for spiritual care," "time and space constraints," "unprofessional view," and "lack of support"; (2) "communication: A way for Strengthening spirituality despite the limitations" including "manifestation of spirituality in the appearances and communicative behaviors of nurses" and "communication: Transmission of spiritual energy"; and (3) "religion-related spiritual experiences" including "life events as divine will and divine exam," "death as reincarnation," "trust in God," "prayer/recourse to Holy Imams," and "acceptance of divine providence." Although nurses had little skills in assessing and responding to the patients' spiritual needs and did not have the organizational and clergymen's support in dealing with the spiritual distress of patients, they were the source of energy, joy, hope, and power for patients by showing empathy and compassion. The patients and nurses were using religious beliefs mentioned in Islam to strengthen the patients' spiritual dimension. According to the results, integration of spiritual care in the curriculum of nursing is recommended. Patients and nurses can benefit from organizational and clergymen's support to cope with spiritual distress. Researchers should
Full Text Available Critical junctures in patients′ lives such as chronic illnesses and advanced diseases may leave the persons in a state of imbalance or disharmony of body, mind and spirit. With regard to spirituality and healing, there is a consensus in literature about the influence of spirituality on recovery and the ability to cope with and adjust to the varying and demanding states of health and illness. Empirical evidence suggests that spiritual support may act as an adjunct to the palliative care of those facing advanced diseases and end of life. In this article, the author draws from his empirical work on spirituality and culture to develop a discourse on palliative care and spirituality in both secular and non-secular settings. In doing so, this paper offers some understanding into the concept of spirituality, spiritual needs and spiritual care interventions in palliative care in terms of empirical evidence. Responding to spiritual needs could be challenging, but at the same time it could be rewarding to both healthcare practitioner (HCP and patient in that they may experience spiritual growth and development. Patients may derive great health benefits with improvements in their quality of life, resolutions and meaning and purpose in life. It is hoped that the strategies for spiritual support outlined in this paper serve as practical guidelines to HCPs for development of palliative care in South Asia.
Those matters that are judged to be spiritual are seen as especially valuable and important. For this reason it is claimed that nurses need to be able to offer spiritual care when appropriate and, to aid them in this, nurse theorists have discussed the nature of spirituality. In a recent debate John Paley has argued that nurses should adopt a naturalistic stance which would enable them to employ the insights of modern science. Barbara Pesut has criticized this thesis, especially as it is applied to palliative care. This paper re-examines this debate with particular attention to the meaning of 'spirituality' and the justification for accepting spiritual and religious theories. It is argued that when we take into consideration the great diversity among religious and spiritual ideas, the lack of rational means of deciding between them when they conflict, and the practicalities of nursing, we find that a spiritual viewpoint is less useful than a naturalistic one, when offering palliative care.
Peirano, Amanda H.; Franz, Randall W.
Limb amputation is a life-changing event that signifies long-term physical, social, psychological, and environmental change. Spiritual well-being in patients plays a significant role in coping and may affect outcomes of patients with limb loss. The objective of this study was to describe the role of spirituality in individuals with limb amputation and to determine whether spirituality is related to the quality of life (QOL) in this sample. Study participants were recruited through prosthetist...
Coffey, J.F. [Aquila Energy Corp., Omaha, NE (United States)
The regulation of affiliated power marketers (APM) is discussed. Any electric utility affiliates that own or control generation must not have market power in the relevant market, which is defined as the utility`s first-tier markets. One can prove that its affiliates do not have generation dominance by: (a) showing that its entire generating capacity is committed under long term contract, (b) showing that its affiliates already are authorized to sell at market-based rates, or (c) submitting a market analysis which demonstrates that the affiliates do not possess generation market power. The electric utility affiliates must have a transmission tariff on file which provides for comparable transmission services. The APM must agree not to buy power from, or sell power to its electric utility affiliate without prior approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The APM must notify FERC if it sells power to, buys power from, or obtains transmission service from a utility that has any business relationship with any affiliates. Any non-sales services provided by the utility affiliates must not be priced below market value. Procedures must ensure that market information is not shared between the utility and the APM, or shared on a comparable basis with non-affiliates. A continuing obligation exists for the APM to notify FERC of any change in these criteria occurring after approval is granted. Concerns with these provisions and suggested improvements are discussed.
Veloza-Gómez, Mónica; Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Guevara-Armenta, Claudia; Mesa-Rodríguez, Sandra
Explore what spiritual care means to nurses who work in emergency care units. Nine nursing professionals from an emergency care unit at a private health institution affiliated with the Universidad de La Sabana participated in this descriptive qualitative study. Nonparticipant observation, field notes, and in-depth interviews with a question guide were used to collect the data, which were analyzed by means of content analysis. Three themes and their corresponding subthemes were identified with respect to the significance of spiritual care: (1) interpretation of spiritual care, (2) the patient and the family in spiritual care, and (3) the role of the nurse in spiritual care. These findings provide a deeper understanding of spiritual care in terms of its significance. They also acknowledge its importance to nursing practice in emergency care units. The significance of spiritual care is based on theoretical, scientific, and humanistic points of reference (the discipline of nursing) that strengthen the therapeutic relationship between the patient/family-nurse dyad. The study also offers evidence for holistic nursing practice that requires theoretical-academic, administrative, and assistance support. © The Author(s) 2016.
Brunjes, George B
Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.
Weaver, Meaghann S; Wratchford, Dale
Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years. By giving explicit attention to the contextual norms surrounding adolescence and still recognizing each adolescent-aged patient as unique, palliative care teams can help adolescents transition toward meaningful and sustainable spiritual growth. This paper reviews the clinical and research implications relevant to integrating adolescent spiritual health as part of comprehensive palliative care.
The aim of this work is to create a pedagogical concept of the education for spirituality. I try to map the various views of human spirituality. The spirituality is one of the important philosophy topics, so I dedicated this view most. Next is the psychology, within witch I strive to grab this term in a scientific way. I also notice the changes in the perception of the term spirituality, namely in the relation to the religion, as well as to the usage of this term, which is equivalent to the p...
Full Text Available In this article the concept of spirituality in the educational framework is discussed. The concepts of religion and spirituality are compared. The psychological view of spirituality is presented with a new suggested intelligence type: spiritual intelligence. The educational view emphasizes spiritual sensitivity as a universal human ability that needs to be developed through education. The sociological view of spirituality explores it as an expression of postsecular religiosity. Empirical studies indicate that an increasing number of people now prefer to call themselves ‘spiritual’ rather than ‘religious’. This trend seems to be more present in some European countries, for example, in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Finland. Empirical studies on spirituality are reviewed and discussed. A special emphasis is given to the Finnish research findings related to the spirituality of a new generation or young adults. It is argued that understanding spirituality as an expression of postsecular religiosity gives more room for young adults to participate in communicative action concerning religion. This would promote a discursive religiousness in the spirit of Jürgen Habermas, in which a plurality of religious beliefs and practices are acknowledged and a dialogical and inter-religious approach is advocated.
Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.
This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…
Vintges, K.; Taylor, D.
Spirituality is an idiosyncratic concept in the work of Foucault, which might best be characterized as an "intensity without a ‘spirit’". To understand Foucault's specific concept of spirituality, we have to take into account some basic themes of his oeuvre, especially of his later work, that is,
Full Text Available Frankl wrote that he needed to find meaning in his life so that he could sustain his life physically, psychologically, and spiritually. In other words, when an individual understands meaning in life, these three dimensions will be in a healthy interaction. The spiritual dimension and the other two dimensions have healing power. Therefore, it will become even easier for a person who is aware of the spiritual side and acts with this consciousness to find meaning. One of the most effective elements in finding meaning is spirituality. Studies have shown that spirituality helps people find meaning in their lives and even has an important effect in defeating the fear of death. In this respect, logotherapy does not reject spirituality and religion but rather encourages their use. This study examines the perspective of religion and spirituality in logotherapy and touches on the work done in this area. The spiritual point of view and applications of logotherapy, which center on finding meaning in the final analysis, are included in this study.
I Nyoman Dayuh
Full Text Available The education paradigm emhasizes the complete balance of intelectual, emotional, and spiritual potencies. The spiritual one becomes more importantwhen the influence of materialism, hedonism, and pragmatism have becoming significant. To face it self-control as taught in Yogasutra Patanjali is crucial.
van Leeuwen, René; Schep-Akkerman, Annemiek; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.
Aim. To select 2 appropriate spiritual assessment tools and evaluate these by involving oncology nurses. Background. Spirituality is recognized as an important domain of cancer care. At admission, integration of spiritual assessment seems necessary. It is unclear what kind of spiritual assessment
Leeuwen, R. van; Schep-Akkerman, A.E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van
AIM.: To select 2 appropriate spiritual assessment tools and evaluate these by involving oncology nurses. BACKGROUND.: Spirituality is recognized as an important domain of cancer care. At admission, integration of spiritual assessment seems necessary. It is unclear what kind of spiritual assessment
The purpose of this article is to bring to focus an historical perspective to the subject of spirituality in nurse education. In doing so, the historical roots of spirituality in nursing are traced and commented. Whilst acknowledging the emerging perspectives on spirituality (Simsen 1986, Burnard 1986, 1987, Narayanasamy 1991, 1993, Harrison 1993, Bradshaw 1994, Ross 1995, Oldnall 1996, McSherry & Draper 1998) this paper attempts to address its historical dimension, which is presently lacking in the nursing literature. In order to address this historical gap in spirituality, this paper begins by looking at the spiritual influences of nursing in ancient civilizations like Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Palestine, India, Greece and Rome and then examines the influence of Christianity. After this, the spiritual dimension of nursing is portrayed as it was in the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries. Finally, the emerging nursing theories and their positions on spirituality (including those of humanists) are reviewed and commented. It is hoped that this paper, through a brief review of events, has begun to highlight the significance of the precursor to spirituality in nursing from an historical perspective. It is concluded that contemporary literature suggests there is scope for development of educational programmes to better equip nurses to meet patients' spiritual needs.
Crowther, Susan; Hall, Jennifer
Emerging evidence points to childbirth as a spiritually felt meaningful occasion. Although growing literature and development of guidelines charge the midwife to provide spiritual care felt spiritual experiences are not addressed. There is need to revisit contemporary approaches to spiritual care in midwifery lest something of significance becomes lost in policy rhetoric. The aim of this discussion paper is to bring to the surface what is meant by spiritual care and spiritual experiences, to increase awareness about spirituality in childbirth and midwifery and move beyond the constraints of structured defined protocols. The authors' own studies and other's research that focuses on the complex contextual experiences of childbirth related to spirituality are discussed in relation to the growing interest in spiritual care assessments and guidelines. There is a growing presence in the literature about how spirituality is a concern to the wellbeing of human beings. Although spirituality remains on the peripheral of current discourse about childbirth. Spiritual care guidelines are now being developed. However spiritual care guidelines do not appear to acknowledge the lived-experience of childbirth as spiritually meaningful. Introduction of spiritual care guidelines into midwifery practice do not address the spiritual meaningful significance of childbirth. If childbirth spirituality is relegated to a spiritual care tick box culture this would be a travesty. The depth of spirituality that inheres uniquely in the experience of childbirth would remain silenced and hidden. Spiritual experiences are felt and beckon sensitive and tactful practice beyond words and formulaic questions. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.
This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…
Tiew, Lay Hwa; Creedy, Debra K; Chan, Moon Fai
To investigate nursing students' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Spirituality is an essential part of holistic care but often neglected in practice. Barriers to spiritual care include limited educational preparation, negative attitudes towards spirituality, confusion about nurses' role, perceptions of incompetence and avoidance of spiritual matters. There is limited knowledge about students' perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care. Previous studies have predominantly focused on educational approaches to enhance spirituality. The next generation of clinicians may have different worldviews, cultural beliefs and values about spirituality and spiritual care from current nurses. There is a need to understand students' views and how their spiritual development is shaped in order to inform pre-registration education. A cross-sectional survey of final-year students from three educational institutions in Singapore was conducted from April to August 2010. Data included demographic details and responses on a new composite tool, the Spiritual Care Giving Scale (SCGS). A response rate of 61.9% (n=745 out of 1204) was achieved. The lowest mean score was item 9, "Without spirituality, a person is not considered whole". Highest mean was item 2, "Spirituality is an important aspect of human being". Factor 5 (Spiritual Care Values) had the lowest mean with Factor 2 (Spirituality Perspectives) the highest. Participants considered spirituality as essential to being human; developmental in nature; and vital for individuals' state of well-being. Attributes important for spiritual care were identified. Multivariate analyses showed positive association between participants' scores and institution but not with other variables. Participating student nurses reported a high level of spiritual awareness that was not constrained by age. Students affirmed the importance of spiritual awareness in order to address the spiritual needs of patients. There was some congruence
Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...
Tees, Bob; Budd, Jennifer
The article describes how music has been integrated into spiritual and supportive care for palliative care patients at Brantford General Hospital (Ontario). Numerous case examples illustrate how a song or piece of music can play a vital role in the spiritual dimension of end of life care. The article expands the concept of the "living human document" by positing that a life story has an accompanying soundtrack: a musical memory and sensorial attunement that can be energized when music is offered at the bedside. The writers suggest that music provides an alternate spiritual language for patients whether or not they have a religious affiliation.
Full Text Available The most important issues of psychology is psychosomatic disease. This study aimed to compare spiritual intelligence and emotional expression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, coronary heart disease and asthma. This research was a post-event descriptive study. The statistical population included patients with coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma that attended Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran. The participants consisted of 150 participants (86 women, 64 men with irritable bowel syndrome (n=50, coronary heart disease (n=50 and asthma (n=50. They answered King and Emmons’ emotional expressiveness questionnaire and King’s spiritual intelligence questionnaire. The results showed a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and emotional expressiveness subscales and a low level of spiritual intelligence and emotional expressiveness in all three groups of patients. Comparing the three groups showed that spiritual intelligence and emotional expression were low in all of them and coronary heart disease was the lowest in three group of patient.
Wittenberg, Elaine; Ragan, Sandra L; Ferrell, Betty
Although spiritual care is considered one of the pillars of palliative care, many health-care providers never receive formal training on how to communicate about spirituality with patients and families. The aim of this study was to explore the spiritual care experiences of oncology nurses in order to learn more about patient needs and nurse responses. A survey was circulated at a communication training course for oncology nurses in June 2015. Nurses recalled a care experience that included the initiation of a spiritual care topic and their response to the patient/family. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nurses reported that communication about spirituality was primarily initiated by patients, rather than family members, and spiritual topics commonly emerged during the end of life or when patients experienced spiritual distress. Nurses' experiences highlighted the positive impact spiritual conversations had on the quality of patient care and its benefit to families. Spiritual communication was described as an important nursing role at the end of patients' lives, and nonverbal communication, listening, and discussing patients' emotions were emphasized as important and effective nurse communication skills during spiritual care conversations. Approximately one-third of nurses in the sample reported sharing their own personal spiritual or religious backgrounds with patients, and they reported that these sharing experiences strengthened their own faith. It is evident that patients want to discuss spiritual topics during care. Study findings illustrate the need to develop a spiritual communication curriculum and provide spiritual care communication training to clinicians.
Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Riccardi, Ilaria; Carmassi, Claudia; Piccinni, Armando; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro
This study investigated the rate of suicidal intention and its relationship with the features of religious involvement in a non-clinical sample of the adult population exposed to the L'Aquila earthquake. The study population was composed of 426 people who had experienced the earthquake (188 males and 238 females). For comparison, 522 people were recruited from nearby unaffected areas. The sample was investigated for suicidal intention screening, distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) subjects from Positive (SSP) subjects. Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) and Impact of Event Scale (IES) assessments were administered. More SSP subjects were observed in the population exposed to the earthquake (Odds Ratio 3.54). A higher proportion of females showed suicidal ideation. Multivariate analysis showed overall significance for the between-subject factor. Univariate F tests for each BMMRS variable that contributed to significant overall effect showed that negative spiritual coping was significantly different. No differences were observed for IES scores between the two groups, but correlations with negative spiritual coping were found. The samples are relatively small and data are based on self-reports. Negative religious coping such as expression of conflict and doubt regarding matters of faith, as well as a feeling of being punished or abandoned by God, can prevail in response to prolonged stress without relief, as was experienced by the population exposed to the earthquake. These features are more associated with suicide ideation. Degree of religious affiliation and commitment examination by mental health practitioners can be useful when suicidal ideation is investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gaillard, Desmedt Sandra; Shaha, Maya
Spirituality addresses the need to give meaning to life events and is characterized by the relationship with oneself, others and the universe. This article aims to provide an overview of the empirical knowledge, and the prevailing thoughts about spirituality in nursing and suggest perspectives for future directions. The literature review was conducted using the main databases; 36 articles, published between 2008-2013, were selected. The themes covered include the definitions of the spirituality, the spiritual care and the spiritual well-being. Spirituality differs from, yet is not opposed to religion and takes different forms in multicultural and secular societies. Cancer incites existential questions and impacts quality of life, and spiritual well-being is recognized as a good indicator of quality of life for people living with cancer. Professional caregivers are concerned about the needs and spiritual well-being of their patients and often consider interventions to address them. This article reflects the depth of thought and research in nursing and touches on both discipline-specific and interdisciplinary issues.
Contemporary spirituality discourses tend to assume that a canopy of light and love overarches all spiritual pathways. Unfortunately, the dark side of humanity cannot be spirited away so easily, and aberrations of personal spiritual development, interpersonal spiritual relationships and new spiritual movements can often be traced to the denial, repression and return of our dark side. Transpersonal psychology offers a way of approaching, reframing and redeeming the unconscious depths of our psyche, with its metaphors of shadows and daimons on the one hand, and its therapeutic practices for symbolically containing and transcending polarities on the other. In its absence, any spirituality which eulogises holistic growth is likely to engender the reverse effect.
Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail
This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (pspirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts.
Swinton, Marilyn; Giacomini, Mita; Toledo, Feli; Rose, Trudy; Hand-Breckenridge, Tracy; Boyle, Anne; Woods, Anne; Clarke, France; Shears, Melissa; Sheppard, Robert; Cook, Deborah
The austere setting of the intensive care unit (ICU) can suppress expressions of spirituality. To describe how family members and clinicians experience and express spirituality during the dying process in a 21-bed medical-surgical ICU. Reflecting the care of 70 dying patients, we conducted 208 semistructured qualitative interviews with 76 family members and 150 clinicians participating in the Three Wishes Project. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed by three investigators using qualitative interpretive description. Participants characterize dying as a spiritual event. Spirituality is an integral part of the life narrative of the patient before, during, and after death. Experiences and expressions of spirituality for patients, families, and clinicians during end-of-life care in the ICU are supported by eliciting and implementing wishes in several ways. Eliciting wishes stimulates conversations for people of diverse spiritual orientations to respond to death in personally meaningful ways that facilitate continuity and closure, and ease emotional trauma. Soliciting wishes identifies positive aspirations, which provide comfort in the face of death. The act of soliciting wishes brings clinician humanity to the fore. Wishing makes individual spiritual preferences and practices more accessible. Wishes may be grounded in spiritual goals, such as peace, comfort, connections, and tributes; they may seek a spiritually enhanced environment or represent specific spiritual interventions. Family members and clinicians consider spirituality an important dimension of end-of-life care. The Three Wishes Project invites and supports the expression of myriad forms of spirituality during the dying process in the ICU.
However, educators seemed to be unprepared and have insufficient knowledge about how to include spirituality in teaching. This review aimed to systematically review previous literature from 2000 to 2013 regarding the content knowledge and teaching strategies used to teach spirituality and spiritual care in health ...
The contextuality or historicity of spirituality is not self-evident. Not until modern times, in Europe, did it become more or less normal to look at spirituality from a historical perspective. It is thus not strange that the historiography of spirituality arose from the nineteenth century. In that time, the historical perspective was ...
Nils G. Holm
Full Text Available How does the popular correspond to the grand terms of the title? Are not mysticism and spirituality something very exclusive, reserved for a few individuals? No they are not, as this presentation of both the author's own studies and the research of others will provide a different picture of these two concepts. Mysticism and spirituality are notions that are very difficult to define. Traditionally mysticism has been regarded as a way to reach the inner dimensions of human life, dimensions where man even achieves unity with the Divine Being. Such traditions have been found in all the major religions, and since the times of William James a hundred years ago, the features of mysticism in various religions have been analysed. Spirituality is a concept that can hold various meanings. It has often been associated with religious traditions where inner life and its growth are emphasized. These include, in particular, various schools, orders and movements that aim at cultivating a deeper spiritual life. In its more recent use, the term spirituality has, to a fairly large extent, been dissociated from religion and has become a notion that seeks to grasp the searching of modern man for ethics and norms in a globalised world, where pollution is accelerating and where stress and entertainment disrupt the inner harmony of people. Keywords
Kiran Lata DANGWAL
Full Text Available Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.
Spirituality involves a sense of connectedness, meaning making and transcendence. There is abundant published research that focuses on the importance of spirituality to patients and their families during times of illness and distress. However over the last decade there has also been a growing awareness about the importance of considering the need to address peoples’ spiritual needs in the workplace. Engaging in ones own personal spirituality involves connecting with the inner self, becoming m...
Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Gong, Fang; Takeuchi, David
Data from structured interviews with 2,285 respondents for the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey (FACES) were used to examine help-seeking for emotional distress among Filipino Americans. The influence of religious affiliation, religiosity, and spirituality upon help-seeking from religious clergy and mental health professionals…
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree
The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…
drs. Eelco van den Dool
A methodology for doing research into corporate spirituality should enable us to deal with the religious component of spirituality instead of trying to separate spirituality from religious beliefs, as the positivist school proposes. Waaijman’s phenomenological-dialogical research cycle enables us to
Afrikaner spirituality: A complex mixture. Erna Oliver. Department of Christian Spirituality. Church History and Missiology. University of South Africa. Abstract. The article argues that the perception that Afrikaner spirituality is and has always been founded mainly or only upon the Calvinistic tradition is a misconception.
Azarsa, Tagie; Davoodi, Arefeh; Khorami Markani, Abdolah; Gahramanian, Akram; Vargaeei, Afkham
Nurses' spiritual wellbeing and their attitude toward spirituality and competence of nurses in providing of spiritual care can affect the quality of care in nursing. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual wellbeing, attitude toward spiritual care and its relationship with the spiritual care competence among nurses. This was a correlational descriptive study conducted on 109 nurses working in the Intensive Care Units of Imam Reza and Madani hospitals in 2015, Tabriz, Iran. Data collection tools were a demographic data form and three standard questionnaires including Spiritual Wellbeing Scale, Spirituality and Spiritual Results: The mean score of the spiritual wellbeing was 94.45 (14.84), the spiritual care perspective was 58.77 (8.67), and the spiritual care competence was 98.51 (15.44). The linear regression model showed 0.42 variance between the spiritual care competence scores which were explained by the two aspects of spiritual wellbeing (religious health, existential health) and three aspects of spiritual care perspective (spirituality, spiritual care, personalized care). The spiritual care competence had a positive relationship with spiritual wellbeing and spiritual care perspective. Because of the nature of nursing and importance of close interaction of nurses with patients in ICUs, the higher nurses' SW and the more their positive attitude toward spiritual care, the more they can provide spiritual care to their patients.
Huguelet, P; Brandt, P-Y; Mohr, S
There is evidence that psychiatrists are rarely aware of how religion may intervene in their patient's life. That is particularly obvious concerning patients with psychosis. Yet, even for patients featuring delusions with religious content, religious activities and spiritual coping may have a favourable influence. Indeed, patients with psychosis can use religion to cope with life difficulties related to their psychotic condition, in a social perspective but also in order to gain meaning in their lives. Also, religion may be part of explanatory models about their disorder with, in some cases, a significant influence on treatment adhesion. This paper describes a prospective randomized study about a spiritual assessment performed by the psychiatrists of patients with schizophrenia. The outpatient clinics in which the sample was collected are affiliated with the department of psychiatry at the university hospitals of Geneva. Eighty-four outpatients with psychosis were randomized into two groups: an experimental group receiving both traditional treatment and spiritual assessment with their psychiatrist and a control group of patients receiving only their usual treatment. Psychiatrists were supervised by a clinician (PH) and a psychologist of religions (PYB) for each patient in the spiritual assessment group. Data were collected from both groups before and after 3 months of clinical follow-up. Spiritual assessment was well-tolerated by all patients. Moreover, their wish to discuss religious matters with their psychiatrist persisted following the spiritual assessment. Even though clinicians acknowledged the usefulness of the supervision for some patients, especially when religion was of importance for clinical care, they reported being moderately interested in applying spiritual assessments in clinical settings. Compared to the control group, there were no differences observed in the 3 months' outcome in terms of primary outcome measures for satisfaction with care, yet
Igor V. Karyakin
Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.
Full Text Available Spirituality involves a sense of connectedness, meaning making and transcendence. There is abundant published research that focuses on the importance of spirituality to patients and their families during times of illness and distress. However over the last decade there has also been a growing awareness about the importance of considering the need to address peoples’ spiritual needs in the workplace. Engaging in ones own personal spirituality involves connecting with the inner self, becoming more self aware of ones humanity and limitations. Engaging with ones personal spirituality can also mean that people begin to greater find meaning and purpose in life and at work. This may be demonstrated in the workplace by collegial relationships and teamwork. Those who engage with their own spirituality also engage more easily with others through a connectedness with other staff and by aligning their values with the respective organization if they fit well with ones personal values. Workplace spirituality is oriented towards self-awareness of an inner life which gives meaning, purpose and nourishment to the employees’ dynamic relationships at the workplace and is eventually also nourished by meaningful work. Exercising ones personal spirituality contributes towards generating workplace spirituality. Essentially acting from ones own personal spirituality framework by being in doing can contribute towards a person becoming a healing and therapeutic presence for others, that is nourishing in many workplaces. Personal spirituality in healthcare can be enhanced by: reflection in and on action; role-modeling; taking initiative for active presence in care; committing oneself to the spiritual dimension of care; and, integrating spirituality in health caregivers’ education. As spirituality is recognized as becoming increasingly important for patients in healthcare, increasing educational opportunities are now becoming available for nurses internationally that
Martinez, Anne-Marie; Legault, Alain
In North American society people have diverse cultural and religious affiliations. The nursing profession underlines the importance of including patients’ spirituality in giving holistic care. However, studies suggest that the majority of nurses do not include the spiritual dimension on a regular basis. Therefore, we thought it important to focus on undergraduate nurses’ understanding of spirituality as well as on their perception of the nurse’s role in this area. We conducted a quantitative and descriptive cross-sectional study, which gave us an overall view of the students’ perceptions. Three hundred and forty-five students answered an online survey which included French translations of the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale and the Students Survey of Spiritual Care. Analysis of the results indicated that the students’ perception of spirituality is a contemporary one. The majority agree that nurses should include spirituality in their care but do not feel equipped to do so adequately. A comparative analysis showed that the students’ answers differed significantly depending on their cultural affiliation as well as on their affiliation or not with a religion. Recommendations for teaching purposes will also be presented.
Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Achaso, Romeo H; Cachero, Geifsonne S; Mohammad, Mary Rose A
This study was to explore the perceptions of Filipino nurses' spirituality and the provision of spiritual nursing care. A descriptive, cross-sectional, and quantitative study was adopted for this study. The study was conducted in the Philippines utilizing a convenience sample of 245 nurses. Nurses' Spirituality and Delivery of Spiritual Care (NSDSC) was used as the main instrument. The items on NSDSC with higher mean scores related to nurses' perception of spirituality were Item 7, "I believe that God loves me and cares for me," and Item 8, "Prayer is an important part of my life," with mean scores of 4.87 (SD = 1.36) and 4.88 (SD = 1.34), respectively. Items on NSDSC with higher mean scores related to the practice of spiritual care were Item 26, "I usually comfort clients spiritually (e.g., reading books, prayers, music, etc.)," and Item 25, "I refer the client to his/her spiritual counselor (e.g., hospital chaplain) if needed," with mean scores of 3.16 (SD = 1.54) and 2.92 (SD = 1.59). Nurse's spirituality correlated significantly with their understanding of spiritual nursing care (r = .3376, p ≤ .05) and delivery of spiritual nursing care (r = .3980, p ≤ .05). Positive significant correlations were found between understanding of spiritual nursing care and delivery of spiritual nursing care (r = .3289, p ≤ .05). For nurses to better provide spiritual nursing care, they must care for themselves through self-awareness, self-reflection, and developing a sense of satisfaction and contentment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I
Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.
Spiritualita při léčbě závislosti Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment Lydie Kárová In my work, Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment, I focus on spirituality as a component of personality, which is involved in its formation and development. The work falls into three parts, in the first one I place spirituality into the Czech environment and present its definition, in the second part I look for the role of spirituality in the conception and treatment of addiction and in the third one I p...
Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie
Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar  offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…
Although far from mainstream, the concept of spiritual-based leadership is emerging as an inclusive and yet highly personal approach to leadership that integrates a leader’s inner perspectives on identity, purpose, responsibility and success with her or his decisions and actions in the outer worl...
Turner, Erlanger A; Llamas, Jasmín D
This study examined the impact of therapy fears, ethnicity identity, and spirituality on the use of mental health service among Latino college students. Participants were 83 Latino college students (78% female) recruited from a university in Central Texas. Analyses of the results indicated that previous mental health services use was negatively correlated with spirituality. Previous use of mental health services was positively correlated with participants' views that their ethnic community and religious affiliation did not influence their decisions to seek services. Additionally, ethnic identity was positively correlated with spirituality. Furthermore, participants' views that their ethnic community did not influence their decisions to seek services were correlated with religious affiliation. Therapy fears were positively correlated with participants' views that their ethnic community and religious affiliation did not influence their decisions to seek services. MANOVA analyses indicated that only spirituality (not therapy fears or ethnic identity) significantly impacted Latino college students' decisions to seek counseling services. Finally, regression analyses indicated that spiritual meaning and religious affiliation predicts service use. Implications for research and practice in college counseling centers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Spirituality is recognized as an important concept in the study and practice of medicine, including occupational therapy. This aligns with occupational therapy’s core value of treating people holistically—mind, body, and spirit. Currently, the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospital Organizations ( JCAHO requires that a spiritual assessment be given to patients on admission. To conduct effective spiritual assessments, occupational therapists must distinguish between religion and spirituality. They also must be aware of their own spiritual beliefs and practices and how those might influence their clinical interactions. This article presents spiritual assessment tools that occupational therapists can use in clinical practice; they range from history taking, to questionnaires, to observation scales. Guidelines are presented for selecting among several spiritual assessments. A case study is presented in which a patient’s faith tradition is being challenged, which could affect the outcome of therapy. Finally, treatment and intervention planning and ethical considerations are discussed.
Toivonen, Kristiina; Charalambous, Andreas; Suhonen, Riitta
Spirituality is defined as a search for answers to existential questions about the meaning of life and the individual's relationship with the sacred or transcendent. This relationship may or may not involve affiliation with a specific religion. Studies on spirituality have focused on palliative care, and there are limited studies into the spirituality in the care of older people with dementia. To describe the experiences of nurses supporting spirituality in the care of older people living with dementia. This study, informed by Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology, was conducted in 2014/15. Data were collected by interviewing a purposive sample of 17 nurses. Supporting the spirituality of older people with dementia was seen as understanding their spirituality within a framework of person-centeredness and individuality. The participants came to understand the spiritual needs of older people with dementia through both verbal and nonverbal expression and by learning about older people's individual spiritual backgrounds. Meeting spiritual needs meant approaching the person with dementia as a valuable human as well as paying attention, to and supporting, his/her personal philosophy of life within nursing care. Learning and developing an understanding of the spiritual needs of older people with dementia is challenging. The nurses offered person-centred, spiritual care, to people with dementia from a variety of perspectives, which is important in the provision of comprehensive care. There is a need to find usable tools to help nurses to learn and understand the individual spiritual needs of older people with dementia and to explore how these older adults experience having their spirituality supported within their nursing care. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Snowdon, C T
Affiliative behavior is often expressed through communication, and the nature of affiliative interactions affects the ontogeny of communication. I presented three phenomena that demonstrate the importance of affiliation in vocal development in marmosets and tamarins, but the results have parallels in many other species including birds, dolphins, and humans. Pygmy marmosets use trill-like vocalizations to maintain contact with other group members. Individuals change subtle aspects of call structure when they encounter new social groups or acquire a new mate. This process of vocal accommodation is common in many other species. Infant pygmy marmosets go through a stage of "babbling." producing long sequences of vocalizations that have several similarities to the babbling of human infants. Babbling infants receive more social attention than nonbabbling infants, and these social interactions may shape vocalizations towards more adult forms. In adult cotton-top tamarins, food-associated vocalizations communicate the presence and quality of food. However, reproductively inhibited juveniles and subadults use many other types of calls in feeding situations and display a high proportion of imperfect forms of adult food-associated calls. When subadult monkeys are paired with new mates and change their reproductive status, they rapidly (within 3-6 weeks) display both adult structure and adult usage of food-associated calls, suggesting that affiliative processes can both facilitate and inhibit vocal ontogeny. Three mechanisms of how social interactions affect communication (multimodal stimulation, attentional focus, and reinforcement) were proposed and illustrated through examples of parrots learning English labels for objects and attributes and infant cotton-top tamarins acquiring food-associated vocalizations.
Chang, Bei-Hung; Stein, Nathan R; Skarf, Lara M
Although combat experiences can have a profound impact on individuals' spirituality, there is a dearth of research in this area. Our recent study indicates that one unique spiritual need of veterans who are at the end of life is to resolve distress caused by combat-related events that conflict with their personal beliefs. This study sought to gain an understanding of chaplains' perspectives on this type of spiritual need, as well as the spiritual care that chaplains provide to help veterans ease this distress. We individually interviewed five chaplains who have provided spiritual care to veterans at the end of life in a Veterans Administration hospital. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed based on "grounded theory." Chaplains reported that they frequently encounter veterans at the end of life who are still suffering from thoughts or images of events that occurred during their military career. Although some veterans are hesitant to discuss their experiences, chaplains reported that they have had some success with helping the veterans to open up. Additionally, chaplains reported using both religious (e.g., confessing sins) and nonreligious approaches (e.g., recording military experience) to help veterans to heal. Our pilot study provides some insight into the spiritual distress that many military veterans may be experiencing, as well as methods that a chaplain can employ to help these veterans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to examine the value of integrating the chaplain service into mental health care for veterans.
Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J
Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Doka, Kenneth J
In this article, the author explores the ways that an individual's spirituality influences responses to life-threatening illness and dying. He begins by differentiating between religion and spirituality, and then delineates the spiritual issues that arise in a life-threatening illness including the spiritual needs that arise in the final phases of illness. Recommendations for spiritual assessments and interventions are offered.
W. George Scarlett
Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.
Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Chiang, Hui-Ying; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Su-Hui
Numerous studies have indicated an association between spirituality and health outcomes. However, little information is available about interventions that have been shown to enhance spiritual health and decrease stress. This study examined the effects of a spiritual learning program (SLP) on nursing student-perceived spiritual health and clinical practice stress. A convenience sample of nursing students currently enrolled at a nursing school in northern Taiwan were recruited to participate in this quasiexperimental study as participants to experimental and control groups via simple random sampling. Results from a spiritual health scale and a perceived clinical practice stress scale, together with the score for clinical nursing practice, were compared between the groups. Baseline data were collected from all participants. The experimental group participated in 8 weeks of 50-minute per week SLP, which included lectures, discussion, reflection, and spiritual practices. A second data set was collected from all participants after the intervention. A third data set was collected after all participants had performed 4 weeks of nursing clinical practice. Participants were all women. Average age was 19.4 years (SD = 1.3 years). Generalized estimating equation analysis showed SLP to have a significant short-term effect on improving the total score for spiritual health (p < .01). Significantly greater improvement in clinical practice stress scores was also seen in the experimental group as compared with the control group (all p < .05). The experimental group obtained a higher score of the final clinical practice than the control group (t = 3.771, p < .001). The SLP may encourage participants to see stressors as meaningful events that are connected to individual life purposes. The program developed in this study may be used to improve spiritual health and reduce stress in nursing students' clinical practice. This SLP may be referenced when designing similar spirituality
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The Spiritual Experience Index was developed to measure spiritual maturity in persons of diverse religious and spiritual beliefs. The scale was constructed from a developmental rather than a multidimensional conceptualization of faith. Initial findings from a religiously heterogeneous college sample indicated good reliability for the SEI and supported its use as a unidimensional measure. Higher scores on the SEI were significantly related to lower dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The SEI was also moderately related to higher religious participation and positively correlated with intrinsicness and quest. However, compared with the intrinsic and quest scales, the SEI emerged as the strongest indicator of adaptive spiritual functioning. Directions for future research are suggested.
Litwinczuk, Kathleen M; Groh, Carla J
Research has shown that spirituality has a positive effect on mental and physical health; however, few studies have explored the influence of spirituality on purpose in life and well-being in persons living with HIV. This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to examine the relationship between spirituality, purpose in life, and well-being in a sample of 46 HIV-positive men and women. Spirituality was measured using the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale-Revised (SIBS-R), purpose in life was measured using the Purpose in Life (PIL) test, and well-being was measured using the General Well-Being (GWB) Schedule. Demographic data on gender, age, length of time living with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, employment status, and religious affiliation were also collected. Spirituality was reported to be significantly correlated with purpose in life (r = .295, p = .049) but not with well-being (r = .261, p = .084). Additionally, the SIBS-R, PIL, and GWB had alpha coefficients greater than .83, suggesting they are reliable and valid measures for this population of HIV-positive persons. The result that spirituality and purpose in life were significantly correlated offers the potential for designing nursing interventions and care delivery approaches that support psychological adaptation to HIV. Further studies with larger and more diverse samples are needed to better understand the role of well-being in healing.
Salomé, Geraldo Magela; de Almeida, Sergio Aguinaldo; Mendes, Bruno; de Carvalho, Maiume Roana Ferreira; Bueno, José Carlos; Massahud, Marcelo Renato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
To evaluate levels of spirituality and hope in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) according to sociodemographic factors. This was a primary, prospective, descriptive, analytical, and clinical study. Questionnaires assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the Spirituality Self-rating Scale (SSRS), and the Herth Hope Index (HHI) were administered to all participants. University-affiliated skilled nursing center and outpatient wound care clinic in Pouso Alegre, Brazil. Fifty adult patients with DFUs participated in the study. Patients with ischemic diabetic foot and mixed ulcers were excluded from the study. On average, patients with DFUs had low levels of spirituality (mean SSRS score, 12.6) and low hope for cure (mean HHI, 16.5). Patients younger than 60 years reported significantly lower levels of spirituality (mean SSRS scores, 11.0), and those older than 70 years had significantly lower hope for cure (mean HHI, 12.5) than other age groups (P = .040). Level of spirituality was significantly lower among women (P = .015) and those living with an ulcer for more than 2 years, who also reported significantly lower hope for cure (P = .029) compared with patients having an ulcer for less than 2 years. On average, patients with DFUs, especially women and older adults, had a low sense of hope and spirituality. Except for gender, age, and ulcer duration, other sociodemographic and ulcer characteristics had no significant effect on the study population's spirituality and hope.
Pesut, Barbara; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl
Despite increasingly diverse, globalized societies, little attention has been paid to the influence of religious and spiritual diversity on clinical encounters within healthcare. The purpose of the study was to analyze the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality in clinical encounters, and the social, gendered, cultural, historical, economic and political contexts that shape that negotiation. Qualitative: critical ethnography. The study was conducted in Western Canada between 2006 and 2009. Data collection occurred on palliative, hospice, medical and renal in-patient units at two tertiary level hospitals and seven community hospitals. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball technique. Twenty healthcare professionals, seventeen spiritual care providers, sixteen patients and families and twelve administrators, representing diverse ethnicities and religious affiliations, took part in the study. Data collection included 65 in-depth interviews and over 150h of participant observation. Clinical encounters between care providers and recipients were shaped by how individual identities in relation to religion and spirituality were constructed. Importantly, these identities did not occur in isolation from other lines of social classification such as gender, race, and class. Negotiating difference was a process of seeing spirituality as a point of connection, eliciting the meaning systems of patients and creating safe spaces for the expression of that meaning. The complexity of religious and spiritual identity construction and negotiation raises important questions about language and about professional competence and boundaries in clinical encounters where religion and spirituality are relevant concerns. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeitler, Ullrich Martin Rudenko
’s Theory U (TU) provides the conceptual and methodological framework for operationalising spirituality in diaconal work. It is argued that the concept of “presencing” is an adequate way to express “spirituality”, and that, overall TU is an appropriate model to describe and develop the essential features...... of diaconal social work and diaconal leadership. I shall use the Danish Blue Cross as an example of an organisation that can be interpreted as working on the basis of TU....
Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...
Full Text Available The Whirling Dervishes (The Darwisy the Round and round or Sama’. The term used by the Maulawiyah or Jalaliyah adherents of this, by doing a dance around in circles, accompanied by drums and flute, in the devotions they are to reach ecstasy. Rumi and the legendary spiritual dance into a work of great almighty to fill in a drought spitual man approached the Creator.
Brunjes, George B
Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.
Full Text Available This article aims to show that the spiritual aspect must be noted in the leadership because every leader is always marked with oath of office in carrying out her/his position. So, how leaders are accountable, it is not only on the horizontal level but also at the vertical level. Research was done with phenomenological and literature studies about the practice of leadership faced with a number of theories about leadership and then to be synthesized the more authentic leadership than just imaging or false branding leadership. This article was based on the assumption that leadership (including in the political sphere was merely a sociological problem that kicked out spiritual aspects, while in the historical development of leadership, it had never been excluded from the spiritual dimension, whether in the form of manipulative (just because fed people understand that leadership came from the “sky”/gods. So then, a king acted tyrannical and led to the birth of authentic leadership as popularized as servant leadership. This article concluded that authentic leadership will give more benefit to develop the life system as well as the purpose of leadership itself rather than a merely apparent leadership which actually hurts the members (people because of the failure to meet the expectations of the members (people.
infiltrated every aspect of Greek life - even religion . In time Greece fell, and with it democracy, because it lacked the moral fiber and spiritual ...American way of life if there is no spiritual backbone? My research has convinced me more than ever that we need to look back and rediscover the...America’s sons and daughters, the strength of our armed forces, will be the big losers unless spiritual leadership becomes an essential quality of our
This article investigates the eschatology of 1 Thessalonians from the perspective of its spirituality. It first analyses the way in which eschatology suits and reflects its Thessalonian context and the conversion of the Thessalonians. Secondly, it analyses how past events are presented in light of their final spiritual journey.
Clark, Clayton C; Hunter, Jennifer
Heart failure is a chronic and terminal disease that affects a significant portion of the U.S. It is marked by considerable suffering, for which palliative care has been recommended. Palliative care standards require the inclusion of spiritual care, but there is a paucity of literature supporting effective spiritual interventions for the heart failure population. A literature search resulted in 30 articles meeting the criteria for review of spirituality and spiritual coping in the heart failure population. Findings within this body of literature include descriptive evidence of the uniqueness of spirituality in this population, quantitative and qualitative approaches to inquiry, theoretical models of spiritual coping, and proposed interventions. The article concludes with implications for future research and practice.
Chaves, Lindanor Jacó; Gil, Claudia Aranha
Increased life expectancy and the prospect of longevity lead to reflection on the importance of spirituality while aging. This article aims to investigate and analyze the concepts that older people have of spirituality and how this concept affects their quality of life. It is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative-qualitative study, with a sample of 12 participants over the age of 60. The following tools were used: semi-structured interviews, social-demographic questionnaires and WHOQOL (Bref, SRPB and Domain VI). The statistical program SPSS 21.0, and Content Analysis, were used in the analysis. The average score on the Psychological Health and Social Relationship domains was high, and the WHOQOL-SRPB showed high averages in all facets, and positive association with the Bref domains. Content analysis showed a relationship between Quality of Life and Spirituality. The latter is conceptualized as: Support, Relationship with the Sacred, and Transcendence; and is distinguished from Religion, which is defined by Religious Affiliation, Cultural Affiliation, and Dogmas. The relationship between spirituality and old age takes place through the capacity to bear the limitations, difficulties and losses inherent to the process; thus, the nature of living a spiritual life was observed to be heterogeneous, while all had in common the recognition of its importance and its significance for living an old age with Quality of Life.
Ellington, Lee; Billitteri, Jacob; Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F
To provide a definition of spirituality, define the scope and nature of spiritual care communication, describe how to initiate communication about, and elicit, a spiritual history, and introduce the AMEN protocol to support patient/family hopes for a miracle. Literature review. Spiritual communication is important throughout cancer care. Nurses can assess and integrate patient and family caregivers' spiritual needs in clinical care by practicing self-awareness and engaging in spiritual care communication strategies. Spirituality is recognized as an essential component of quality care. Spiritual conversations can increase patients' satisfaction with care and improve well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Historia de la Espi- ritualidad, again in four volumes, partly made up for this lack: it re- flected awareness of extra-Christian forms of spirituality (Judaism, Islam, gnosis, Hellenism, and so forth) and of modern atheism (Flors 1969). The third bridgehead became apparent with the reference work entitled World spirituality ...
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad Jjm
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality and of well-being among patients with cancer, by determining a) the divergent validity of the subscales of the SAIL compared with a well-being questionnaire and b) the differences in their associations to changes in pain and fatigue, and the occurrence of negative life events. Our findings suggest that a sense of trust that one is able to cope with difficulties of life belongs to the realm of well-being, instead of spirituality. Other aspects, such as a sense of meaning in life, seem more similar to spirituality than to well-being. These results can bring researchers a step further toward constructing "pure" spirituality and well-being measures, which will allow them to investigate the (causal) relationship between these constructs.
Peirano, Amanda H; Franz, Randall W
Limb amputation is a life-changing event that signifies long-term physical, social, psychological, and environmental change. Spiritual well-being in patients plays a significant role in coping and may affect outcomes of patients with limb loss. The objective of this study was to describe the role of spirituality in individuals with limb amputation and to determine whether spirituality is related to the quality of life (QOL) in this sample. Study participants were recruited through prosthetists, physicians, amputee support groups, the Amputee Coalition of America, and amputee listserv discussion groups in the United States and Canada. Participants completed questionnaires containing measures of satisfaction with life, general health, mobility, and social integration. A quantitative descriptive research design was used to examine the relationships between existential spirituality (belief that one's life is meaningful or has purpose) and religious spirituality and QOL among individuals with limb amputation. A prospective study of 108 patients with a history of limb amputation was performed. The study population consisted of 66.3% males and 33.7% females. Most patients were Caucasian (96.2%). Of the 108 participants, 86 (79.6%) were 41 years of age or older with a mean of 18 years since amputation. The most frequent cause of amputation was trauma (55.6%) and the most common location of amputation was below-the-knee (49.1%). Existential spirituality, female gender, and age above 50 years related to higher QOL in patients with a history of limb amputation. The findings of this research confirmed that amputees use spirituality to cope with limb amputation. Existential spirituality was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life, general health, and social integration.
Kathol, Nicole; Sgoutas-Emch, Sandra
Developing interventions to address the problem of college drinking requires the identification of contributing factors to drinking behavior. It is believed that religion and spirituality (R/S) play a role, but the mechanism is unclear. Using a multi-dimensional R/S measure, an alcohol behavior inventory, and a religious affiliation proscription question, this study was designed to dive deeper into this connection. This study found that religious singing/chanting and reading sacred text were the best predictors of lower alcohol consumption. Furthermore, participants who perceive their religious tradition to be proscriptive reported less alcohol consumption and higher religious/spiritual profiles.
Fosnacht, Kevin; Broderick, Cynthia
This study investigated the correlates of two measures that capture students' perception of the religious and spiritual campus climate. It focuses on how the factors, religious identity and attending a religiously affiliated institution, influence students' perception of the respect for their beliefs and comfort in expressing their views on…
Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian; Thompson, Andrea; Sisley, Richard; Doherty, Iain; Hawken, Susan J
The present study investigated the connections between religious affiliation, quality of life (QOL) and measures of academic performance. Participants (n = 275) were recruited from the School of Medicine within a New Zealand university. Religious affiliation was classified according to three subcategories: Christian (n = 104), Eastern religion (n = 34) and non-religious (n = 117). The participants completed the World Health Organisation quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organisation Spiritual, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs questionnaire immediately before their lecture time. The main findings of the study indicated that participants from different religious affiliations expressed different spiritual QOL perceptions. However, these different expressions did not translate into their perceptions related to hours of study and academic achievement. In addition, the QOL measures did not relate to academic achievement estimation but did predict hours of study. Greater hours of study were related to greater physical health but lower psychological health and poorer engagement in developing social relationships. Data from a small focus group (n = 4) revealed that these students believed that having a belief system assisted them when coping with the academic learning environment, although little difference could be found between external religious orientations and internal belief systems.
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
we must assign to the treatises concerning the spiritual life a very early date. .... Aside from the theory and history of spirituality, experimental psychology, pa- thology .... everyone in his or her mother's womb, causes them to be born and leads them throughout life. This is evident from their proper names, prayers, and stories.
van der Walt, Freda; de Klerk, Jeremias J
In order to obtain an improved understanding of behaviour at work, employees should be studied from physical, psychological, and spiritual dimensions. Although the physical and psychological dimensions of individuals at work have been studied extensively, the spiritual dimension has been neglected for many years. The objective of the current research was to determine the relationship between workplace spirituality and a positive attitude related to work, that is, job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 600 white-collar workers, chosen from two organizations in different industries in South Africa. The research results indicate that there is a positive relationship between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. These findings deepen the understanding of personal spirituality, organizational spirituality, and job satisfaction. They bring new insights into the significant role which spirituality plays in the context of the workplace. To survive in the 21st century, organizations need to be spiritually based. This, in turn, will lead to workers being satisfied with their entire work experience.
Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.
"Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the…
van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke
The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was
Wilson, Ruth A.
A misconception about spirituality is that it is tied to religion (i.e., belief in and reverence for a supernatural power). Yet, the term "spirituality" is derived from the word "spirit"--often defined as the vital principle or animating force within living things. This definition may reflect some overlap with what is generally covered in…
Albert B R Janse van Rensburg
Full Text Available Background. It was important to develop South African guidelines in view of the extent of local and worldwide religious affiliation, rapid growth of academic investigation, guidelines provided by other associations (e.g. Royal College of Psychiatrists, the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP’s own position statements on culture, mental health and psychiatry, the appropriate definition of spirituality, the need for an evolutionary and anthropological approach, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-V’s cultural formulation, local legislation, ongoing research, and teaching requirements. Objective. To report on the outcome of the peer-reviewed process that was followed to draft local guidelines for psychiatric training and practice. Methods. During 2013, comments by members of the SASOP on a framework for guidelines on the role of spirituality in psychiatry practice and training were collated and subsequently submitted to the SASOP board for approval. Results. Guidelines were compiled in terms of: (i integrating spirituality in clinical care and service provision; (ii integrating spirituality in psychiatric training; (iii ethically integrating spirituality within the professional scope of practice; and (iv appropriate referral between psychiatrists and spiritual advisors. Conclusions. Integrating spirituality in the approach to practice and training cannot be ignored by local psychiatrists in the multicultural, multireligious and spiritually diverse South African context.
Ivtzan, Itai; Chan, Christine P L; Gardner, Hannah E; Prashar, Kiran
Research largely shows that religion and spirituality have a positive correlation to psychological well-being. However, there has been a great deal of confusion and debate over their operational definitions. This study attempted to delineate the two constructs and categorise participants into different groups based on measured levels of religious involvement and spirituality. The groups were then scored against specific measures of well-being. A total of 205 participants from a wide range of religious affiliations and faith groups were recruited from various religious institutions and spiritual meetings. They were assigned to one of four groups with the following characteristics: (1) a high level of religious involvement and spirituality, (2) a low level of religious involvement with a high level of spirituality, (3) a high level of religious involvement with a low level of spirituality, and (4) a low level of religious involvement and spirituality. Multiple comparisons were made between the groups on three measures of psychological well-being: levels of self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. As predicted, it was discovered that, aside from a few exceptions, groups (1) and (2) obtained higher scores on all three measures. As such, these results confirm the importance of spirituality on psychological well-being, regardless of whether it is experienced through religious participation.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. Discrete Event Simulation. Matthew Jacob ... Keywords. Simulation; modelling; computer programming. Author Affiliations. Matthew Jacob1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.
Cecilia San Martín Petersen
Full Text Available Spirituality may be understood as a group of feelings, beliefs and actions that suppose a search for the transcendent, sacred or divine. As representations about an ultimate power, they contribute to the sense and purpose in life and orient peoples behavior, relationships, and ways to feel and think about reality and about themselves. Since either in the growing old process and in the evaluation of life that occurs when approaching to death it may emerge conflicts, confusion and suffering, people beliefs about what is beyond death, or the answers to the questions about what for and why of life, become determinants in elders well-being. Furthermore, considering that life expectancy has significantly increased, and that the ways of growing old are changing as well as what being old means, and this process advantages and disadvantages or problems, in it ́s different contexts, it ́s necessary to think old age over again, as well as the policies that affect the quality of life of this group of people. Therefore, every professional who assist elderly, specially mental health professionals, must consider the spiritual referents of the individual in order to give the best assistance in whatever problems may appear in the growing old process.
Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Bhugra, Dinesh
Sikhism has millions of followers in India and among the Indian diaspora. As a religion it is relatively young but carries with it unique perspectives which are often not well known. The holy book of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib, is not only the last Guru, but also remained a key text for this religion. Using descriptions of the religion and its followers we attempt to understand the context of spirituality within this religion and attempt to apply it to clinical settings. We explored various texts to understand the notions of spirituality and ethics and directions for living one's life. We studied both the Gurumukhi version as well as the English translation of the Sikh holy text. In the context of history of the Sikhs, various descriptions related to mental well being were identified. In this paper we describe the history, development and the core values of the religion and we also review their role on psychiatric and mental health settings for managing Sikh patients. Guru Granth Sahib offers a very useful insight into what is understood by the term equivalent to depression and its phenomenology. The notions of dukh (loosely translated as pain, but can also mean sadness or suffering) and maya (illusion) and their role in daily living are also discussed. In this paper these descriptions are explored further and their importance explained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Curry, Jennifer R.
The imperative to integrate spirituality in counseling has been well documented in the counseling literature. Developing spiritual timelines is one creative technique that may help clients with spiritual concerns. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review spirituality in counseling, describe the use of spiritual timelines as a creative…
Current models of spiritual development suggest that adolescents have limited capacity for spirituality and spiritual experiences. Adolescents are seen to have immature moral and ethical judgment and be incapable of deep spiritual experience due to lack of cognitive development. This mixed-methods study explored the existence of spiritual…
Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…
Gallison, Barry S; Xu, Yan; Jurgens, Corrine Y; Boyle, Suzanne M
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers in providing spiritual care to hospitalized patients. A convenience sample (N = 271) was recruited at an academic medical center in New York City for an exploratory, descriptive questionnaire. The Spiritual Care Practice (SCP) questionnaire assesses spiritual care practices and perceived barriers to spiritual care. The SCP determines the percentage that provides spiritual support and perceived barriers inhibiting spiritual care. The participation rate was 44.3% (N = 120). Most (61%) scored less than the ideal mean on the SCP. Although 96% (N = 114) believe addressing patients spiritual needs are within their role, nearly half (48%) report rarely participating in spiritual practices. The greatest perceived barriers were belief that patient's spirituality is private, insufficient time, difficulty distinguishing proselytizing from spiritual care, and difficulty meeting needs when spiritual beliefs were different from their own. Although nurses identify themselves as spiritual, results indicate spirituality assessments are inadequate. Addressing barriers will provide nurses opportunities to address spirituality. Education is warranted to improve nurses' awareness of the diversity of our society to better meet the spiritual needs of patients. Understanding these needs provide the nurse with opportunities to address spirituality and connect desires with actions to strengthen communication and the nurse-patient relationship.
Helminiak, Daniel A.
Discusses spirituality as a spiritual phenomenon that is independent of, yet open to, matters of personal religion and belief in God. Proposes that an elaborated psychology of spirituality helps therapists focus the psychotherapeutically relevant and spiritual issues in the client's presentation; build on the client's healthy commitments; and…
Krägeloh, Christian U; Henning, Marcus A; Billington, Rex; Hawken, Susan J
This study investigated the effects of spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs on the quality of life (QOL) of medical students affiliated with a religious faith and those without affiliation. Using a cross-sectional design, 275 medical students (78 % response rate) in their fourth and fifth year of study completed the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life instrument and the WHOQOL-SRPB module for spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs. For religious students, a larger range of characteristics of existential beliefs were positively related to quality of life. For all students, hope and optimism and meaning of life predicted higher scores on psychological. For religious and nonreligious medical students, reduced meaning in life and hope were the strongest indicators of psychological distress. Interventions to improve the mental well-being of medical students may be more effective if aimed at teaching students how to find meaning and purpose in their lives and how to foster an enduring sense of hope and optimism.
W. George Scarlett
Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.
Full Text Available Celtic spirituality has a long and distinguished ancestry with its origins in pre-Christian times. It was inculturated amongst peoples in the far west of Europe, particularly in Ireland, Scotland and the north and south west of England. It was different from Roman Christianity in distinct ways until the mid-7th century CE when Roman Christianity became the norm in Britain. It has experienced various revivals during the history of Christianity, with two contemporary expressions in New Age spirituality and Christian spirituality. From its inception, it has been closely linked to the environment.
Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T; Smith, Pam A
The study reported in this paper explores how infertile women cope with infertility using their religious and spiritual beliefs. In total, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity and Islam were interviewed in the UK and Iranian fertility clinics using grounded theory. The categories which emerged included governing ones' 'Self' through gaining control of emotions, adopting religious coping strategies, and handling the burden of infertility peacefully, which all related to the core category of 'relying on a higher being'. We argue that infertile women employ a variety of religious and spiritual coping strategies which are associated with adaptive health outcomes. Further scientific inquiry is required to investigate how religion and spirituality promote adaptation to infertility.
Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Weinberger, Jennifer P
Homelessness among older African American women is emerging as a serious social problem. The increasing cost of living, diminishing community resources, and shrinking retirement benefits, as well as reduced social services are resulting in greater numbers of older minority women becoming homeless. This investigation explores the relevance of faith and spirituality to an advocacy assessment designed to help participants resolve issues that operate as barriers to their leaving and staying out of homelessness. A substudy of a larger research and development project was undertaken, in which qualitative interview methods were used to illuminate the role of faith and spirituality resources in the lives of 84 older homeless African American women. Comparative thematic analysis of illustrative cases was undertaken to better understand the role of faith and spirituality in the women's lives and in how they used faith and spirituality in coping with homelessness. Five dimensions of faith and spirituality, (a) identity and beliefs; (b) affiliation and membership; (c) involvement; (d) practices; and (e) benefits, served as promising resources in understanding life spaces of homeless minority women and identified promising advocacy strategies. Two cases describe the realities of homelessness for older minority women endeavoring to transition out of homelessness and illustrate how faith and spirituality can buffer stress, facilitate coping, and sustain motivation. How older homeless African American women use their faith and spiritual resources to cope with demands of homelessness, challenges of transition, and recovery from the multiple traumas resulting from being homeless makes the assessment of faith and spirituality an important part of the advocacy process.
... the following: Religious denomination , if any. Beliefs or philosophy of life. Important spiritual practices or rituals . Using ... Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & ...
Eileen O Dareng
Full Text Available Whereas systematic screening programs have reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries, the incidence remains high in developing countries. Among several barriers to uptake of cervical cancer screening, the roles of religious and cultural factors such as modesty have been poorly studied. Knowledge about these factors is important because of the potential to overcome them using strategies such as self-collection of cervico-vaginal samples. In this study we evaluate the influence of spirituality and modesty on the acceptance of self-sampling for cervical cancer screening.We enrolled 600 participants in Nigeria between August and October 2014 and collected information on spirituality and modesty using two scales. We used principal component analysis to extract scores for spirituality and modesty and logistic regression models to evaluate the association between spirituality, modesty and preference for self-sampling. All analyses were performed using STATA 12 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA.Some 581 (97% women had complete data for analysis. Most (69% were married, 50% were Christian and 44% were from the south western part of Nigeria. Overall, 19% (110/581 of the women preferred self-sampling to being sampled by a health care provider. Adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, spirituality, religious affiliation and geographic location were significantly associated with preference for self-sampling, while modesty was not significantly associated. The multivariable OR (95% CI, p-value for association with self-sampling were 0.88 (0.78-0.99, 0.03 for spirituality, 1.69 (1.09-2.64, 0.02 for religious affiliation and 0.96 (0.86-1.08, 0.51 for modesty.Our results show the importance of taking cultural and religious beliefs and practices into consideration in planning health interventions like cervical cancer screening. To succeed, public health interventions and the education to promote it must be related to the
Yi, Michael S; Mrus, Joseph M; Wade, Terrance J; Ho, Mona L; Hornung, Richard W; Cotton, Sian; Peterman, Amy H; Puchalski, Christina M; Tsevat, Joel
BACKGROUND Depression has been linked to immune function and mortality in patients with chronic illnesses. Factors such as poorer spiritual well-being has been linked to increased risk for depression and other mood disorders in patients with HIV. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine how specific dimensions of religion, spirituality, and other factors relate to depressive symptoms in a contemporary, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS. DESIGN Patients were recruited from 4 medical centers in 3 cities in 2002 to 2003, and trained interviewers administered the questionnaires. The level of depressive symptoms was measured with the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD-10) Scale. Independent variables included socio-demographics, clinical information, 8 dimensions of health status and concerns, symptoms, social support, risk attitudes, self-esteem, spirituality, religious affiliation, religiosity, and religious coping. We examined the bivariate and multivariable associations of religiosity, spirituality, and depressive symptoms. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We collected data from 450 subjects. Their mean (SD) age was 43.8 (8.4) years; 387 (86.0%) were male; 204 (45.3%) were white; and their mean CD4 count was 420.5 (301.0). Two hundred forty-one (53.6%) fit the criteria for significant depressive symptoms (CESD-10 score ≥10). In multivariable analyses, having greater health worries, less comfort with how one contracted HIV, more HIV-related symptoms, less social support, and lower spiritual well-being was associated with significant depressive symptoms (Pspiritual well-being were related to significant depressive symptoms, while personal religiosity and having a religious affiliation was not associated when controlling for other factors. Helping to address the spiritual needs of patients in the medical or community setting may be one way to decrease depressive symptoms in patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:17083496
Dareng, Eileen O; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Bamisaye, Patience; Isa Modibbo, Fatima; Oyeneyin, Lawal O; Adewole, Ayodele S; Olaniyan, Olayinka B; Dakum, Patrick S; Pharoah, Paul D; Adebamowo, Clement A
Whereas systematic screening programs have reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries, the incidence remains high in developing countries. Among several barriers to uptake of cervical cancer screening, the roles of religious and cultural factors such as modesty have been poorly studied. Knowledge about these factors is important because of the potential to overcome them using strategies such as self-collection of cervico-vaginal samples. In this study we evaluate the influence of spirituality and modesty on the acceptance of self-sampling for cervical cancer screening. We enrolled 600 participants in Nigeria between August and October 2014 and collected information on spirituality and modesty using two scales. We used principal component analysis to extract scores for spirituality and modesty and logistic regression models to evaluate the association between spirituality, modesty and preference for self-sampling. All analyses were performed using STATA 12 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Some 581 (97%) women had complete data for analysis. Most (69%) were married, 50% were Christian and 44% were from the south western part of Nigeria. Overall, 19% (110/581) of the women preferred self-sampling to being sampled by a health care provider. Adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, spirituality, religious affiliation and geographic location were significantly associated with preference for self-sampling, while modesty was not significantly associated. The multivariable OR (95% CI, p-value) for association with self-sampling were 0.88 (0.78-0.99, 0.03) for spirituality, 1.69 (1.09-2.64, 0.02) for religious affiliation and 0.96 (0.86-1.08, 0.51) for modesty. Our results show the importance of taking cultural and religious beliefs and practices into consideration in planning health interventions like cervical cancer screening. To succeed, public health interventions and the education to promote it must be related to the target
Christensen, Kirsten Haugaard; Turner, de Sales
Spiritual care perspectives of Danish Nurses The purpose of this study was to explore how Danish registered nurses understand the phenomenon of spiritual care and how their understanding impacts on their interventions with their patients. Nurses are responsible for the provision of care which...... would engage in provision of spiritual care. The participants acknowledged that their understanding of spirituality influenced their provision of spiritual care, which was recognized as a challenge requiring the nurse’s initiative and courage. Spirituality was primarily understood as a patient’s private...... respects patients’ values, religion, customs, and spiritual beliefs. Literature however revealed that the phenomenon of spiritual care is complex and variously interpreted, and that there seems to be a lack of conceptual clarity regarding what constitutes spiritual care. A phenomenological and hermeneutic...
Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M
Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chew, Brendan Wk; Tiew, Lay Hwa; Creedy, Debra K
To investigate acute care nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care and relationships with nurses' personal and professional characteristics. Spirituality and spiritual care are often neglected or absent in daily nursing practice. Nurses' perceptions of spirituality can be influenced by personal, professional and social factors and affect the provision of spiritual care. A cross-sectional, exploratory, nonexperimental design was used. All nursing staff (n = 1008) from a large acute care hospital in Singapore were invited to participate. Participants completed a demographic form and the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale. Completed surveys were received from 767 staff yielding a response rate of 76%. Descriptive statistics and General Linear Modelling were used to analyse data. Acute care nurses reported positive perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Religion, area of clinical practice and view of self as spiritual were associated with nurses' reported perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care. Nurses working in this acute care hospital in Singapore reported positive perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Respondents tended to equate religion with spirituality and were often unclear about what constituted spiritual care. They reported a sense of readiness to apply an interprofessional approach to spiritual care. However, positive perceptions of spirituality may not necessarily translate into practice. Spiritual care can improve health outcomes. Nurses' understanding of spirituality is essential for best practice. Interprofessional collaboration with clinicians, administrators, educators, chaplains, clergy and spiritual leaders can contribute to the development of practice guidelines and foster spiritual care by nurses. Further research is needed on the practical applications of spiritual care in nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mihaljevic, Sanea; Aukst-Margetic, Branka; Karnicnik, Snjezana; Vuksan-Cusa, Bjanka; Milosevic, Milan
The studies show that both spirituality and religiousness are protective for mental health. Personality is related with course and outcome of depression, as well as spirituality and religiousness, and their relations toward to recovery from depression are underresearched. This study followed influence of spirituality and religiousness on course and outcome of depression in patients with depressive episode, controlled for personality dimensions. The patients were assessed with self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory), spirituality (WHO-Quality of Life-Spiritual, Religious, Personal Beliefs), religiousness (Duke University Religion Index) and personality (Temperament and Character Inventory). Ninety nine patients finished a year long follow up. Higher spirituality influenced recovery of depression in patients with depressive episode, but religiousness did not show to be significant predictor of recovery for depression. Dimension harm avoidance was significant predictor of improvement of depression in all points of measurement. Some limitations of this research are small sample size, usage of the self-report measures of depression in follow-up period, and the predominantly Catholic affiliation of the participants that can impact the generalizability of our data to other denominations. Spirituality and dimension harm avoidance are significant predictors of recovery from depression during a year long follow up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stein, Emma M; Kolidas, Evelyn; Moadel, Alyson
This study examines religion and spirituality among advanced cancer patients from an underserved, ethnically-diverse population by exploring patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, the role of religion and spirituality in coping with cancer, and patient interest in spiritual support. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who had participated in a study of a "mind-body" support group for patients with all cancer types. Analysis based on grounded theory was utilized to identify themes and theoretical constructs. With regard to patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, three categories emerged: (1) Spirituality is intertwined with organized religion; (2) Religion is one manifestation of the broader construct of spirituality; (3) Religion and spirituality are completely independent, with spirituality being desirable and religion not. Religion and spirituality played a central role in patients' coping with cancer, providing comfort, hope, and meaning. Patients diverged when it came to spiritual support, with some enthusiastic about interventions incorporating their spiritual values and others stating that they already get this support through religious communities. Spirituality plays a central role in the cancer experience of this underserved ethnically-diverse population. While spirituality seems to be a universal concern in advanced cancer patients, the meaning of spirituality differs across individuals, with some equating it with organized religion and others taking a more individualized approach. It is important that psychosocial interventions are developed to address this concern. Future research is needed to further explore the different ways that patients conceptualize spirituality and to develop spiritually-based treatments that are not "one size fits all."
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Carr, Drew; Boitor, Ciprian
Issues of spirituality and thriving are pertinent to the period of adolescence given the marked changes in body, mind, and relationships. In order to provide an overview of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and positive youth development, this chapter offers a developmental systems perspective and proposes a relational spirituality as a framework for understanding adolescent religious and spiritual development. In addition, the chapter examines various psychological mechanisms through which religion and spirituality may promote positive youth development. Existing empirical research on the relationships between adolescent religion, spirituality, thriving, and specific indicators of positive youth development is reviewed. Finally, future directions for continuing to build the field of study are discussed.
Rusko Nadiya Mykhaylivna
Full Text Available The article researches the concept of spirituality as a holistic phenomenon, characterises the current state of spirituality in Ukraine and reveal the basic ways of forming spiritual culture with the help of philosophical, cultural, theological, linguistic, pedagogical, and psychological approaches. Moreover, the crisis in the today’s spiritual culture is analysed, and the determinants of the negative processes in the modern society are examined. Therefore, we can state that education remains a priority area in the spiritual and cultural development of the society. In the current phase of state construction, the main educational objective is the development of the spiritual culture of personality.
Zainuddin, Zainul Ibrahim
This paper attempts to conceptualize Islamic spirituality in medical imaging that deals with the humanistic and technical dimensions. It begins with establishing an understanding concerning spirituality, an area that now accepted as part of patient-centred care. This is followed by discussions pertaining to Islamic spirituality, related to the practitioner, patient care and the practice. Possible avenues towards applying Islamic spirituality in medical imaging are proposed. It is hoped that the resultant harmonization between Islamic spirituality and the practice will trigger awareness and interests pertaining to the role of a Muslim practitioner in advocating and enhancing Islamic spirituality.
Sarah R. Moore
Full Text Available Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness, and (ii attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.
Full Text Available We study the parent influence on lending by affiliates of a multinational bank. In the proposed theoretical model, local lending is influenced by shareholder-affiliate manager delegation and precautionary motives. The outcome is either contagion (the loan volume in the affiliate follows the direction of the parent bank country shock or performance-based reallocation of funds (substitution, depending on the degree of manager delegation in the affiliate and the liquidity-sensitivity in theparent bank. Empirical investigation, deliberately conducted on a sample not covering the latest financial crisis, shows that also in “normal” times, multinational banks that are likely to delegate lending decisions or be more liquidity-sensitive are more inclined towards contagionist behavior.
Roessner, U.; Rolin, D.; Rijswijk, van M.E.C.; Hall, R.D.; Hankemeier, T.
In 2012 the Metabolomics Society established a more formal system for national and regional metabolomics initiatives, interest groups, societies and networks to become an International Affiliate of the Society. A number of groups (http://metabolomicssociety.org/international-affilia
Haasz, Christine A.
This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…
Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make
This paper deals with affiliate marketing, in which the seller or service provider is a financially rewarding agent so-called affiliate for each visitor, which through its website to attract a dealer there, who made some activity, either directly purchase products, register to subscribe to a newsletter, or just browsing the site. In this paper, the author tries to define affiliate marketing, the individual entities of affiliate marketing such as merchant, affiliate, network owner, affiliate n...
This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…
A model for improving nurses' preparation in spiritual care includes development of spiritual self-awareness, knowledge of varied traditions of spirituality, and ability to implement a spiritual dimension in nursing practice using the skills of communication, trust building, and giving hope. (SK)
Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul
Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model.
Zia Ul Haq
Affiliate marketing has seen fewer studies even being a multibillion dollar industry and one of the most expanding online advertising lead generators for direct marketers. The aim of this survey described in this paper is to evaluate the attitude of respondents towards affiliate programs or affiliate marketing, used as a source of information, advertisement and a connecting link between the online marketer and the customer. In this regard a survey was conducted among 300 Indian internet users...
White, Mary L; Peters, Rosalind; Schim, Stephanie Myers
The authors propose an integration of the concepts of spirituality and spiritual self-care within Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory as a critical step in theory development. Theoretical clarity is needed to understand the contributions of spirituality to health and well-being. Spirituality is the beliefs persons hold related to their subjective sense of existential connectedness including beliefs that reflect relationships with others, acknowledge a higher power, recognize an individual's place in the world, and lead to spiritual practices. Spiritual self-care is the set of spiritually-based practices in which people engage to promote continued personal development and well-being in health and illness.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Birth and presence of slow pace children in each family can be considered as challenging and adverse event that probably leads to stress and frustration and mental health related complications. According to several studies that show positive and significant relationship between resiliency and values and religious beliefs and their impact on mental health,the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of resiliency skills training based on Islamic spirituality in promoting mental health and spiritual resilience among mothers of Slow Pace children. Methods: The present study used a semi-experimental design with pre test-post test which was conducted among mothers of Slow Pace Children in Dehdasht, Iran, and the countryside using random sampling, in which 30 of these mothers were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups, participated in this study. Twelve sessions of resiliency training based on Islamic spirituality were held for experimental group of 15 people.The tools used in this study included a mental health questionnaire-28 (Ghq and resiliency based on Islamic spirituality researcher made scale that were completed by individuals in pre and post tests. Finally, collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: Analysis of data using multivariate analysis of covariance showed that utilization of Intervention program among mothers of Slow Pace children in experimental group was significantly (P>0/05 effective on mental health and components of resiliency based on Islamic spirituality. In other words, spiritual resiliency skills training was led to improve depressive symptoms, social functioning and components of spiritual resiliency such as patience, contentment, Submission and thanksgiving. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that through changes in attitude of Slow Pace children's mothers, resiliency skills training based on Islamic
Simon M. Tampubolon
Full Text Available The article discusses about how to develop spiritual intelligence of students in the college environment. This article describes pinciples of the application of the six ways of spiritual intelligence development into learning models, assignments, and campus life. The principles should be done by considering the meaning of the spiritual, developmental characteristics of students, and the characteristics of students’ spiritual development.
Singh, Darpan Kaur Mohinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak
Man has always yearned for a higher sense of belonging in life. Since ancient ages, human beings have tried to examine and evaluate the relationship between spirituality, religion and medicine. The interface of spirituality, quality of life and mental health is fascinating and sublime. Religion and spirituality play an essential role in the care giving of patients with terminal illnesses and chronic medical conditions. Patient′s needs, desires and perspectives on religion and spirituality sho...
Full Text Available After a brief presentation of basic forms of spiritual direction and after stressing the importance of personal spiritual experience, the article describes Ignatian concept of human being in relation with God and God’s adversary and gives an overview of Ignatian spiritual exercises as a general dynamic of human spiritual journey. On this basis, the paper presents fundamental elements of spiritual direction from the perspective of Ignatian spirituality: attitude of openness, awareness of external events and interior movements, sharing of interior life, contemplative prayer, discernment of interior movements, recognition of one’s own weakness and of God’s acceptance, finding one’s way in the following of Christ. The article regards the particularity of the Ignatian approach to spiritual direction in the interconnection of these seven elements, in their dynamics and in the importance of the examen and discernment.
Full Text Available Postmodernists reject universal truth claims and brand them as violent impositions on a person by powerful institutions. Postmodernist spirituality seeks for a more subjective, life- experience based attitude towards values and truths of the Bible and relationship in community. Careful consideration should be given to the issues of community, knowledge/truth, faith, and faith experience. This article will show that, in his “Institutes”, Calvin gives ample attention to faith, the liberating truth about God as revealed in Jesus Christ, and to the Chris- tian’s intimate relationship with Him. Being in Christ, commu- nion with Christ or the “unio mystica cum Christo” through faith as a central theme in Calvin’s theology, needs to be redis- covered and re-applied to reformed spirituality as apologetic means in a postmodern world. This treasure should satisfy the kind of spirituality postmodernists yearn for.
Liefbroer, A.I.; Olsman, E.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Van Etten - Jamaludin, F.S.
Although knowledge on spiritual care provision in an interfaith context is essential for addressing the diversity of patients’ religious and spiritual needs, an overview of the literature is lacking. Therefore, this article reviews the empirical literature on interfaith spiritual care (ISC) in
The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.
Yob, Iris M.
The basic thesis explored in this paper is that rather than seeing spirituality as a byproduct of music, the other arts, and religion, music, the other arts, and religion might be seen as a byproduct of spirituality--hence, the proposition that music is a language of spirituality. If that is the case, there are twin dangers: talk of "wholism" can…
This article discusses various historiographies of spirituality as an indication of the influence of context on spirituality. It gives an overview of the most important historiographies of spirituality. Secondly, it describes the extremes of contextuality and noncontextuality, before finally reflecting on the dialectic tension between ...
This essay provides, first of all, a historical perspective on the nature of spirituality by investigating its early forms, followed by a discussion of two approaches in the last century. It then investigates three basic forms of spirituality, concluding with an overview of elements of spirituality.
Liefbroer, Anke I.; Olsman, Erik; Ganzevoort, R. Ruard; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S.
Although knowledge on spiritual care provision in an interfaith context is essential for addressing the diversity of patients' religious and spiritual needs, an overview of the literature is lacking. Therefore, this article reviews the empirical literature on interfaith spiritual care (ISC) in
The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...
Amanda Ienne; Rosa Aurea Quintella Fernandes; Ana Claudia Puggina
Abstract Objectives: To assess the spirituality of nurses and relate it to personal characteristics, sector of activity, and spiritual practices; to analyze the influence of spirituality of nurses in the record of a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs Module (WHOQOL-SRPB). Results: 132 nurses were included and most of them were women (81.8%)...
Jager Meezenbroek, Eltica; Garssen, Bert; Berg, Machteld; Dierendonck, Dirk; Visser, Adriaan; Schaufeli, Wilmar
textabstractSpirituality is an important theme in health research, since a spiritual orientation can help people to cope with the consequences of a serious disease. Knowledge on the role of spirituality is, however, limited, as most research is based on measures of religiosity rather than spirituality. A questionnaire that transcends specific beliefs is a prerequisite for quantifying the importance of spirituality among people who adhere to a religion or none at all. In this review, we discus...
Examining the Self-Reported Health Behaviors and the Importance of Role Modeling among Resident Directors Affiliated with the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International (ACUHO-I) Institutions
Aldana, Maylen Lizeth
The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported health behaviors (health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations and stress management) of Resident Directors who self-reported being affiliated with ACUHO-I. The second purpose of the study was to examine which areas of health behaviors, do…
Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers
René van Leeuwen
Full Text Available This paper shows similarities and differences in perceptions and competences regarding spirituality and spiritual care of nurses in different health care settings. Research on this specific topic is limited and can contribute towards a nuanced implementation of spiritual care in different nursing care settings. Four hundred forty nine nurses in different health care settings completed a questionnaire concerning spirituality and spiritual care, spiritual care competence, and personal spirituality. Respondents reported a generic (instead of more specific view of spirituality and spiritual care, and they perceived themselves to be competent in providing spiritual care. Compared to nurses in hospital settings, nurses in mental health care and home care have a more generic view of spirituality and spiritual care and report a higher level of competence. Next to this, they perceive themselves more as spiritual persons. Future research is needed to develop further understanding in setting specific factors and their influence on nurses’ views and competence regarding spiritual care. Nursing education and management should consider an emphasis on spiritual competence development related to working settings of nurses.
Ross, Linda; van Leeuwen, René; Baldacchino, Donia; Giske, Tove; McSherry, Wilfred; Narayanasamy, Aru; Downes, Carmel; Jarvis, Paul; Schep-Akkerman, Annemiek
Spiritual care is expected of nurses, but it is not clear how undergraduates can achieve competency in spiritual care at point of registration as required by nursing/midwifery regulatory bodies. To describe undergraduate nurses'/midwives' perceptions of spirituality/spiritual care, their perceived competence in delivering spiritual care, and to test out the proposed method and suitability of measures for a larger multinational follow-on study. Cross-sectional, multinational, descriptive survey design. Author administered questionnaires were completed by 86% of the intended convenience sample of 618 undergraduate nurses/midwives from 6 universities in 4 European countries in 2010. Students held a broad view of spirituality/spiritual care and considered themselves to be marginally more competent than not in spiritual care. They were predominantly Christian and reported high levels of spiritual wellbeing and spiritual attitude and involvement. The proposed method and measures were appropriate and are being used in a follow-on study. The following are worthy of further investigation: whether the pilot study findings hold in student samples from more diverse cultural backgrounds; whether students' perceptions of spirituality can be broadened to include the full range of spiritual needs patients may encounter and whether their competence can be enhanced by education to better equip them to deliver spiritual care; identification of factors contributing to acquisition of spiritual caring skills and spiritual care competency. © 2013.
Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han
Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.
This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Ian Marshall and Danah Zohar predicted theoretically that in the context of modern business will appear spirituality without religion as the moral basis of the business which he described as spiritual capital. But look at the phenomenon in Indonesia, sharia economic development is rapidly increasing which in fact appears based on religious values, then the theory Marshal and the Zohar indisputable. Spiritual entrepreneurship based on the Koran in Indonesia is growing; the ideas, thoughts, willingness (iradah, passion (ghirah and determination ('azm owned by an individual or group (community Muslims to strive in commerce (material or services that are based on the values of faith in God who taught the Koran. Spirituality entrepreneurship models based al-Qur'an that life (living values is very varied, among the models discussed in this paper are (1 spirituality entrepreneurship kaafah models, (2 spirituality entrepreneurship ukhuwah models, (3 spirituality entrepreneurship tareqat models, (4 spirituality entrepreneurship models keep ablution, (5 spirituality entrepreneurship models do not sell cigarettes, (6 the spirituality of entrepreneurship model- publication that profit to charity. Key Words : Spiritual, entrepreneurship, and models of bussines.
A patient has to cope with an illness on a physical, mental and spiritual level. There exists a difference between religiousness and spirituality even though the approach has a common foundation. Nonreligious spirituality relates to an inner experience, transcendent states of consciousness, meaningfulness, responsibility, sympathy, ethics, humanisation, faith. We encounter the spiritual point of view in humanistic psychotherapy, pastoral medicine, work of hospital chaplains, New Age, psychotherapies with religious and alternative aspects, transpersonal psychotherapy, psycho-spiritual crises, unusual states of consciousness, in meditation, Yoga, relaxation, kinesiology, ethicotherapy, reincarnation therapy, positive motivation, holotropic breathing, etc. There is description of different degrees of spiritual development, rational and irrational feeling of spirituality, Quantum Physics, spiritual intelligence, neuro-theology, physiological change, effects on improving adaptation during stress, drugs addiction, etc. Spirituality in relation with ethics is discussed in terms of socio-biology, evolution, emotions, aggressivity, genetics and social influence. The work analyses the effect of stressful situations on the deterioration of moral attitudes: during lack of time, obedience to authority and order. It is described how temperament and personality disorders can affect perception of spirituality, guilt feeling and conscience. Stressful situations, lack of time, relying only on the auxiliary objective methods leads to alienation of physician with a patient. Spirituality can partially improve the doctor-patient relationship, communication and sense of responsibility.
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Testerman, Nancy; Hart, Dynnette
Graduating nurses are required to know how to support patient spiritual well-being, yet there is scant literature about how spiritual care is taught in undergraduate programs. Typically spiritual content only is sporadically included; the authors recommend intergrating spiritual can thoughout the nursing curriculum. This article describes how one Christian nursing school integrates spiritual care content, supports student spiritual well-being throughout the program, and evaluates spiritual care instruction at graduation.
Jan 23, 2013 ... One of the themes that were identified by the research community, was that meaning in life is often associated with ... differed so much in terms of how God was 'storied', we decided to group the 'God stories' under the theme of ..... religion (and I assume also spirituality) into a psychological discussion would ...
This paper considers the often overlooked religious and educational works of the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). After outlining Tolstoy's life, religious and educational views, it is argued that Tolstoy has much to offer spiritual educators today. In particular, it suggests Tolstoy's insistence on the absolute and eternal nature of…
Adriana Mihaela MACSUT
Full Text Available Nowadays, the mankind is enthused about a real informational explosion but it the anxiety about the human mission also appears: “the humankind, enthused about its own discoveries and its power asks itself with anxiety which is its place and role in the Universe (Gaudim et Spes 3. Yesterday and today, the human being realized that he cannot “answer these fundamental questions which always have tormented his heart regarding the end and the beginning and hence his sense of existence” (Benedict XVI, Discourse, Pontifical Gregorian University Rome, the 4-th of November 2006. The 21st century is marked by a return to spirituality because the need for spirituality “reaffirms with power, so far that the observers... reach the conclusion attributed to Andre Malraux: «The 21st century will be religious or will not be at all»”.1 Nowadays, spirituality means searching for wisdom and there are questions as: who are the humans, where do they come from and where do they go. Under these circumstances, we have to establish some ethical benchmarks.2 This void makes place for the religious fundamentalism, a laic spirituality based of consumerism described as “a process through which goods are the services created, produced, used and exhausted”.3 But the human must switch from the state of consumer to the state of citizen.”4 Here is about “the necessity of surpassing a selfish ethics.”5
For some decades now, the supposedly egocentric character and subsequent lack of social engagement of adherents of new forms of spirituality is discussed without being resolved decisively, as chapter 1 shows. Therefore this empirical, quantitative study was started, with the main research question:
Waggoner, Michael D.
Though religion played a central role in the founding of U.S. higher education, over the centuries, its influence was diluted by competing secular emphases. In recent decades, religion has seen a resurgence in academic and co-curricular attention on campuses. In addition, a spirituality not based on religion has gained increasing attention. The…
Bakar, Abu; Nursalam; Adriani, Merryana; Kusnanto; Qomariah, Siti Nur; Hidayati, Laily; Pratiwi, Ika Nur; Ni'mah, Lailatun
Caring is a behavior of giving holistic assistance to individuals. In fact, this important behavior still has not routinely performed in current nursing practice. Personality and sipirituality are important factors in forming one's caring behavior. Spirituality is a passion or impulse to perform noble action. The objective of this study was to…
Singh, Darpan Kaur Mohinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak
Man has always yearned for a higher sense of belonging in life. Since ancient ages, human beings have tried to examine and evaluate the relationship between spirituality, religion and medicine. The interface of spirituality, quality of life and mental health is fascinating and sublime. Religion and spirituality play an essential role in the care giving of patients with terminal illnesses and chronic medical conditions. Patient's needs, desires and perspectives on religion and spirituality should be addressed in standard clinical care. Ongoing research in medical education and curriculum design points towards the inclusion of competence, communication and training in spirituality. There are structured and reliable instruments available for assessing the relationship between spirituality, religion and health in research settings. Intervention based scientific studies in the arena of spirituality and modern medicine are needed. Further research should be directed towards making modern medicine more holistic.
Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders
Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans. In order to resolve Kennewick Man's ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ∼1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including......, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genome-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We...
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Spiritual development is one of the most important aspects of socialization that has attracted the attention of researchers. It is needed to train nursing student and novice nurses to provide high-quality care for patients. There is ambiguity in the definition of spiritual development and its relations, especially in the eastern countries. To explore the concept of spiritual development in Iranian nurses. Qualitative content analysis approach. Data were gathered from semi-structured interviews. Participants and research context: The participants were 17 Iranian Muslim nurses selected using a purposeful sampling. The place of interviews was on their choice. Ethical considerations: Based on the principles of the Helsinki declaration, the focus was on preserving the participants' autonomy, confidentiality, and anonymity. The participants were told the study purposes and trends, and their rights were emphasized; they were then asked to sign written consent forms. Formal research approval was obtained from Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Ethical approval was granted by the University Ethics Committee before the study was conducted (K/92 etc). Three themes for spiritual development were defined: obligation to religion, commitment to ethics, and commitment to law. From the results, factors such as connection to the limitless divine power, personal and society-oriented ethical codes, and commitment to the law are proposed. There are some differences between these findings and previous study, especially in the relation of the spirituality, religion, and law. Some studies, mostly Iranian, support these findings partially. The results suggest that it is better to teach nursing education based on humanistic principles, ethics, and law to the new generation of nurses to improve community health and development. More studies are needed to examine the relation between these themes.
Some health research suggests that religious and spiritual variables positively predict health-screening behaviours. However, much of the literature on this topic has utilized exclusively religious samples, or has sampled from populations without uniform access to health care. Either of these issues may have artificially inflated the relationship between religion/spirituality and health-screening behaviours. The current study used data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey to examine a general sample of women from New Brunswick and Manitoba (N > 1200). Results indicated that lower levels of church attendance were positive predictors of papanicolaou tests and mammograms, while higher levels of attendance were generally associated with poorer screening behaviours. Religiosity was a uniformly non-significant predictor of screening behaviours. Finally, religious affiliation was inconsistently related to screening behaviours, but tended to favour religious non-affiliation when it was. Religion/spirituality does not appear to have a uniformly positive nor linear effect in predicting health-screening behaviours in women.
Walton, Martin Neal
Spirituality has become a popular term in chaplaincy and health care settings, but is defined in such a myriad of ways and in such broad terms that, as a term, it threatens to become unfit for clinical practice. Several prominent conceptualizations of spirituality are analyzed in an attempt to recover the distinctiveness of spirituality. An adequate understanding of spirituality for clinical use should run close to the lived spirituality of persons in their unique individuality, differing contexts and various persuasions. In the second place a distinct discourse on spirituality needs to be sensitive to characteristic experiences of that which is other.
Backus, C J; Backus, W; Page, D I
There is reason to believe that traumatic events experienced on the job make emergency medical services (EMS) workers more skeptical about their spiritual beliefs. Little is known about the spiritual lives and experiences of emergency medical technicians (EMTs). No studies have measured the responses of EMTs to the spiritual needs of their patients. This study investigates whether EMS workers are less spiritual than the average U.S. citizen, and what effect this has on prayer for patients and perceived happiness. Data were collected in a major metropolitan EMS system from 125 EMTs and paramedics through a questionnaire about their beliefs and behaviors regarding their spirituality. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were used to analyze variables. The religious attitudes of EMTs were compared with those of the general population as defined in the Gallup studies. Ninety-one percent of the EMS workers interviewed and 94% of Gallup's sample of the general population said they believe in God. The findings on other measures in the EMT sample also were very similar to those defined in the general population. Of the EMTs, 60% said they never have doubted the existence of God. Eighty-four percent believe God still works miracles, and 80% of the EMTs believe in life after death. Eighty-seven percent of EMS workers pray; 62% pray for their patients, and 54% pray for their coworkers. Frequency of church or synagogue attendance is positively and significantly correlated with the degree of perceived life happiness (r = 0.226, p 0.005). Frequency of prayer also is correlated positively to perceived life happiness (r = 0.182, p 0.005). Emergency medical services workers are interested and willing to talk about their spiritual lives. They do have more doubts about the existence of God than does the average civilian, but are just as spiritual. Those EMTs with more active spiritual lives perceive themselves as happier. The majority of EMS workers pray for their
Young, William C; Nadarajah, Sheeba R; Skeath, Perry R; Berger, Ann M
Individuals with life-threatening illness often engage in some form of spirituality to meet increased needs for meaning and purpose. This study aimed to identify the role of spirituality in persons who had reported positive, life-transforming change in relation to life-threatening cancer or cardiac events, and to connect these roles to palliative and supportive care. A purposive sample of 10 cardiac survivors and 9 cancer survivors was recruited. Once the participants had given informed consent and passed screening in relation to life-transforming change and distress, they engaged in a semistructured one-hour qualitative interview on the theme of how their life-transforming change occurred in the context of their life-threatening illness. In the present article, our phenomenological analysis focuses on participants' references to purpose and meaning in their lives, with particular attention to the role and context of participants' spirituality. Participants mentioned spirituality, meaning, and purpose in many contexts, including connecting with family and friends, nature, art, music, and sometimes creating a relationship with God. Participants often accessed spirituality by enhancing connections in their own lives: with a higher power, people, their work, or themselves. These enhanced connections gave participants greater meaning and purpose in their lives, and substantially helped participants to adjust to their life-threatening illnesses. Understanding the roles and contexts of spirituality among patients with a life-threatening illness allows us to develop better palliative and supportive care plans. Spiritually oriented supportive care may include support groups, yoga, meditation, nature, music, prayer, or referral to spiritual or religious counselors. A quantitative scale is needed to help healthcare clinicians assess the spiritual and coping needs of individuals with life-threatening illness.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed. PMID:22654611
Death, an unavoidable event in the human experience, causes physical as well as mental and spiritual suffering. This paper reports on a nursing experience giving spiritual care to a terminal liver cancer patient between January 17 and February 9, 2009. Eleven nursing logs were used as the source of data for daily information. During the care period, patient religious needs featured prominently, including his desire to become a Christian and his eagerness to know about and help in the arrangement of his funeral. Taking the initiative, the nurse helped link him with religious resources, arranged a minister for his baptism ceremony, had the priest explain funeral proceedings, and assisted with the completion of his entrusted plans. The function of this nursing care intervention was to provide a personal touch to a patient who was in desperate need of warm spiritual care. It is hoped that this report can help caregivers increase their sensitivity toward patient spiritual needs and enhance routine nursing care quality.
Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 19-36 ISSN 2077-429X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multinational bank * Contagion * Substitution * Agency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/derviz-lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates.pdf
Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako
Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…
Robinson, Beth; Frye, Ellen M.; Bradley, Loretta J.
Data on cult membership and the characteristics of cults are provided. The process of cult affiliation and its relationship to family dynamics are reviewed. Defection, the processes of disaffiliation (voluntary and involuntary), and clinical symptoms after cult disaffiliation are discussed. Implications and recommendations for counselors are…
Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.
Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…
Gong, Di; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, L.A.H.
This paper is the first to show that financial institutions may be effectively undercapitalized as a result of incomplete consolidation of minority ownership. Using two approaches – consolidating the minority-owned affiliates with the parent or deducting equity investments in minority ownership from
This article reports on a study of senior academics' views of their disciplinary and interdisciplinary affiliations. It questions the idea that academics have a firm and fixed disciplinary identity from which they then act and suggests that academic work in the contemporary university challenges and changes how individuals view their disciplinary…
Full Text Available Background: As two of the most prominent cultural components, spirituality and religion give sense to our human values, conducts, and experiences. The spiritual dimension is one of the four significant aspects of holistic care. However, the diversity of views has resulted in different interpretations of the reality of spirituality and its origins and consequences. Aim: This study aimed to examine the available approaches and paradigms in the realm of spirituality. Method: In the present integrative review, the initial search was performed in national and international databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Sage, Medline, Wiley, SID, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc, using the keyword, "spirituality", without considering any time limits. Articles relevant to the objectives of the study were then fully reviewed. Results: Since ancient times, spirituality has been sporadically discussed in human intellectual and artistic artifacts. This concept was expanded as an independent, systematic, and conscious movement since the second half of the 19th century in Europe, USA, and Canada. The three prominent approaches to spirituality include religious, secular, and holistic health perspectives. Implications for Practice: Despite the growing interest in research on spirituality, it is difficult to reach a unanimous decision about this concept. However, it should be noted that spiritual concerns cannot be disregarded, considering the holistic perspective to humanity as the building block of holistic nursing care. Overall, every patient is a unique human being whose spiritual needs are affected by his/her cultural beliefs and values.
Sri Padma Sari
Full Text Available Introduction: Spirituality has been reported to have benefits for recovery and quality of life for people with mental disorders including patients with schizophrenia. Spiritual can also be a coping strategy for patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to explore the importance of spirituality among patients with schizophrenia. Method: This study uses descriptive phenomenological approach. There are 9 participants in this study, 7 participants are patients who diagnosed of schizophrenia and 2 participants are the caregivers. The data were analyzed by phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Results: Two main themes emerge from this study are 1 the meaning of spirituality is closed with Allah and the improvement of the spiritual practice and 2 the benefits of spirituality is recovery from the illness, symptoms management, behavioral change, emotional change and hope. Discussion: Spirituality has an important role for patients with schizophrenia including helping the recovery process and hope. The results of this study are expected to give an overview of the spiritual need among patients with schizophrenia so that the nurses can give religion and or spiritual activity in the nursing intervention. Key words: schizophrenia, spirituality, recovery
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural 'top-down' effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness.
Weathers, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Geraldine; Coffey, Alice
The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of spirituality for future nursing research. Previous concept analyses of spirituality have mostly reviewed the conceptual literature with little consideration of the empirical literature. The literature reviewed in prior concept analyses extends from 1972 to 2005, with no analysis conducted in the past 9 years. Rodgers' evolutionary framework was used to review both the theoretical and empirical literature pertaining to spirituality. Evolutionary concept analysis is a formal method of philosophical inquiry, in which papers are analyzed to identify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature. Three defining attributes of spirituality were identified: connectedness, transcendence, and meaning in life. A conceptual definition of spirituality was proposed based on the findings. Also, four antecedents and five primary consequences of spirituality were identified. Spirituality is a complex concept. This concept analysis adds some clarification by proposing a definition of spirituality that is underpinned by both conceptual and empirical research. Furthermore, exemplars of spirituality, based on prior qualitative research, are presented to support the findings. Hence, the findings of this analysis could guide future nursing research on spirituality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141
Best, Megan; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian
A previous survey of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) members found low frequency of spiritual care provision. We hypothesized that physicians with special training in palliative medicine would demonstrate an increased sense of responsibility for and higher self-reported adequacy to provide spiritual care to patients than health professionals with general training. We surveyed members of the Australian and New Zealand Palliative Medicine Society (ANZSPM) to ascertain their spiritual care practices. We sent 445 e-mails on four occasions, inviting members to complete the online survey. Tabulated results were analyzed to describe the results. One hundred and fifty-eight members (35.5 %) responded. Physicians working primarily in palliative care comprised the majority (95 %) of the sample. Significantly more of the ANZSPM than MASCC respondents had previously received training in spiritual care and had pursued training in the previous 2 years. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to interest in and self-reported ability to provide spiritual care. Those who believed it was their responsibility to provide spiritual care were more likely to have had training, feel they could adequately provide spiritual care, and were more likely to refer patients if they could not provide spiritual care themselves. Training in spiritual care was more common in healthcare workers who had received training in palliative care. ANZSPM members gave higher scores for both the importance of spiritual care and self-reported ability to provide it compared to MASCC members.
Dennis, Dixie L.; Dennis, Brent G.
Suggests a unique mental health prevention strategy that focuses on spiritual education in public schools, defining spirituality, describing the spirituality-mental health connection, highlighting educators' responsibility toward spiritual education, and offering specific activities and strategies for enhancing students' spirituality suitable for…
McSherry, Wilfred; Jamieson, Steve
To provide an opportunity for members to express their understandings of spirituality and spiritual care. The role and place of spirituality within nursing have been contested by academics and wider society. One argument posited is supporting patients with their spiritual needs is not the responsibility of nurses. This is despite a clear professional requirement for nurses to achieve competence in the delivery of spiritual care. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) conducted an online survey of its membership to ascertain their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care identifying current practice. This article presents the findings from the final part of the survey that asked respondents to use a free-text facility to add comments on the subjects of spirituality and spiritual care. Overall, 4054 RCN members responded, of these 2327 provided additional comments. These comments were analysed using keyword and content/thematic analysis. Five broad themes emerged: (1) theoretical and conceptual understanding of spirituality, (2) fundamental aspects of nursing, (3) notion of integration and integrated care, (4) education and professional development and (5) religious belief and professional practice. Findings suggest that nurses have diverse understandings of spirituality and the majority consider spirituality to be an integral and fundamental element of the nurses' role. Generally, nurses had a broad, inclusive understanding of spirituality considering this to be 'universal'. There was some uncertainty and fear surrounding the boundaries between personal belief and professional practice. Respondents advocated formal integration of spirituality within programmes of nurse education. The concept of spirituality and the provision of spiritual care are now recognised as fundamental aspects of the nurse's role. There is a need for greater clarity between personal and professional boundaries to enable nurses to feel more confident and competent in delivering spiritual
Full Text Available Nurses and health care professionals should have an active role in meeting the spiritual needs of patients in collaboration with the family and the chaplain. Literature criticizes the impaired holistic care because the spiritual dimension is often overlooked by health care professionals. This could be due to feelings of incompetence due to lack of education on spiritual care; lack of inter-professional education (IPE; work overload; lack of time; different cultures; lack of attention to personal spirituality; ethical issues and unwillingness to deliver spiritual care. Literature defines spiritual care as recognizing, respecting, and meeting patients’ spiritual needs; facilitating participation in religious rituals; communicating through listening and talking with clients; being with the patient by caring, supporting, and showing empathy; promoting a sense of well-being by helping them to find meaning and purpose in their illness and overall life; and referring them to other professionals, including the chaplain/pastor. This paper outlines the systematic mode of intra-professional theoretical education on spiritual care and its integration into their clinical practice; supported by role modeling. Examples will be given from the author’s creative and innovative ways of teaching spiritual care to undergraduate and post-graduate students. The essence of spiritual care is being in doing whereby personal spirituality and therapeutic use of self contribute towards effective holistic care. While taking into consideration the factors that may inhibit and enhance the delivery of spiritual care, recommendations are proposed to the education, clinical, and management sectors for further research and personal spirituality to ameliorate patient holistic care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although spirituality is usually considered a positive resource for coping with illness, spiritual distress may have a negative influence on health outcomes. Tools are needed to identify spiritual distress in clinical practice and subsequently address identified needs. This study describes the first steps in the development of a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods A three-step process was used to develop the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT: 1 Conceptualisation by a multidisciplinary group of a model (Spiritual Needs Model to define the different dimensions characterizing a patient's spirituality and their corresponding needs; 2 Operationalisation of the Spiritual Needs Model within geriatric hospital care leading to a set of questions (SDAT investigating needs related to each of the defined dimensions; 3 Qualitative assessment of the instrument's acceptability and face validity in hospital chaplains. Results Four dimensions of spirituality (Meaning, Transcendence, Values, and Psychosocial Identity and their corresponding needs were defined. A formalised assessment procedure to both identify and subsequently score unmet spiritual needs and spiritual distress was developed. Face validity and acceptability in clinical practice were confirmed by chaplains involved in the focus groups. Conclusions The SDAT appears to be a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalised persons. Studies are ongoing to investigate the psychometric properties of the instrument and to assess its potential to serve as a basis for integrating the spiritual dimension in the patient's plan of care.
Egan, Richard; MacLeod, Rod; Jaye, Chrystal; McGee, Rob; Baxter, Joanne; Herbison, Peter
Spiritual matters naturally arise in many people who have either a serious illness or are nearing end-of-life. The literature shows many examples of spiritual assessments, interventions and care; however, there is a lack of focus on organisational support for spiritual care. We aimed to ascertain the structural and operational capacity of New Zealand's hospices to attend to the spiritual needs and concerns of patients, families and staff. As part of a larger study, a mail out cross-sectional survey was distributed to 25 New Zealand hospices and asked details from staff about facilities, practices and organisational aspects of spiritual care. Data were collated by creating a 'hospice setting spiritual score' based on an aggregate of eight items from the survey. There was a 66% response rate. Summary scores ranged from 2 to 7 indicating that while sites delivered a range of spiritual services, all could improve the level of spiritual care they provide. The two most common items missing were 'spiritual professional development' and 'formal spiritual assessment.' This simple setting spiritual score provides a snapshot of a hospice's commitment to spiritual care. It could be used as a preliminary auditing tool to assist hospices in identifying organisational and operational aspects that could be improved to enhance spiritual care delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine Turkish nursing students’ knowledge, practices and perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographics. This study was a descriptive survey conducted at a nursing school providing degree-level education in the city of Manisa, in the western part of Turkey. The sample of the study consisted of the 400 nursing students. A nursing student sociodemographic form, a form on nursing students’ knowledge and practices of spirituality and spiritual care, and the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale were used to collect the data. Half of the students could meet patients’ or individuals’ spiritual needs, and the spiritual care that they gave was most frequently listening, empathy, and psychological support. The research findings were that nursing students’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care were “sufficiently” although not “very sufficiently” defined. Being female, being in the second year of education and seeing spiritual care education as necessary were determinants of their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care.
McSherry, Wilfred; Gretton, Mark; Draper, Peter; Watson, Roger
There is a professional requirement for student nurses to achieve competence in the delivery of spiritual care. However, there is no research exploring students nurses perceptions of being educated in these matters. This paper explores the ethical basis of teaching student nurses about the concepts of spirituality and spiritual care by reporting the findings from the first year of a 3 year investigation. An exploratory longitudinal design was used to obtain student nurses perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care as they progressed through a 3 year programme. A questionnaire incorporating the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale was distributed to 176 pre-registration nursing students undertaking either the Advanced Diploma or Bachelor of Science degree programmes. A response rate of 76.7% was obtained. Findings reveal that the majority of student nurses perceived spirituality to be a universal phenomenon of a type that can be associated with existentialism. Some students were very uncertain and apprehensive about being instructed in spiritual matters. A cohort of student nurses held similar understandings of spirituality to those presented in the nursing literature. However the results also suggest an overwhelming majority felt it was wrong for spirituality to imply that some people are better than others and most were uncertain whether spirituality was related to good and evil. RELEVANCE TO NURSE EDUCATION: The investigation reveals that there are a number of ethical concerns surrounding the teaching of spirituality to student nurses that need to be resolved.
Bailey, Maria E
This study aims to describe nurses\\' experiences of delivering spiritual support in a palliative care setting in the Republic of Ireland. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 nurses working in the area of specialist palliative care. A content analysis of the transcriptions revealed five sub-themes: understanding spirituality; the art of nursing in spiritual care; education and learning; the challenge of spiritual caring; and the dimensions of time. The resulting creation of a spiritual tapestry provided an overall theme. Nurses in this study were spiritually self-aware and placed a high value on the spiritual element of their caring role. Nurses described their individual understanding of spirituality and discussed how they recognized and addressed a patient\\'s spiritual needs. Time was described as essential to the provision of spiritual support and appeared to be a significant resource challenge to the provision of spiritual care. The challenges of assessing spiritual needs and measuring outcomes of care were also reported. Participants in this study described the creation of a spiritual tapestry that \\'weaves\\' together care and compassion with skills and knowledge in their nursing practice.
Schmidt, Cynthia M; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V; Hartman, Teresa L; Magee, Martha L
The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators.
Schmidt, Cynthia M.; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V.; Hartman, Teresa L.; Magee, Martha L.
Objective The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. Methods First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. Results We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Conclusions Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators. PMID:27076801
Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Krentzman, Amy R; Webb, Jon R; Brower, Kirk J
Although spiritual change is hypothesized to contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence, few studies have used prospective data to investigate this hypothesis. Prior studies have also been limited to treatment-seeking and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) samples. This study included alcohol-dependent individuals, both in treatment and not, to investigate the effect of spiritual and religious (SR) change on subsequent drinking outcomes, independent of AA involvement. Alcoholics (N = 364) were recruited for a panel study from two abstinence-based treatment centers, a moderation drinking program, and untreated individuals from the local community. Quantitative measures of SR change between baseline and 6 months were used to predict 9-month drinking outcomes, controlling for baseline drinking and AA involvement. Significant 6-month changes in 8 of 12 SR measures were found, which included private SR practices, beliefs, daily spiritual experiences, three measures of forgiveness, negative religious coping, and purpose in life. Increases in private SR practices and forgiveness of self were the strongest predictors of improvements in drinking outcomes. Changes in daily spiritual experiences, purpose in life, a general measure of forgiveness, and negative religious coping also predicted favorable drinking outcomes. SR change predicted good drinking outcomes in alcoholics, even when controlling for AA involvement. SR variables, broadly defined, deserve attention in fostering change even among those who do not affiliate with AA or religious institutions. Last, future research should include SR variables, particularly various types of forgiveness, given the strong effects found for forgiveness of self.
Williams, Gary L; Keigher, Sharon; Williams, Agnes Virginia
More than many other cities in America, older African Americans in Milwaukee, WI contend with negative environmental, socio-economic and health challenges in one of the most hyper-segregated cities in America. This research examines the role of spirituality and religion in their lives and the ways that spirituality and religious affiliation contribute to their quality of life. Over 500 elderly respondents aged 55-105 completed a questionnaire. The analysis found: (a) strong identification with religious institutions and high levels of attendance and participation in religious activities, (b) a substantial number felt support from fellow church members, and (c) strong reliance on spirituality and their sense of connection to God as sources of strength in coping with personal challenges. This study adds to the findings of other research done which stressed the importance of spirituality, religious practice and congregational assistance in serving critical survival functions for older African Americans. This is the first such research done, however, reporting on Milwaukee's African American older adults. This study used mixed methods of research, conducting both a descriptive statistical analysis of African American elderly in Milwaukee County to develop a profile while simultaneously gathering, where possible, qualitative data as well, in the form of narratives, written comments and field notes of first hand observations on this growing population.
.... This includes caring for the patient's spiritual needs. It is well documented in the health care literature that a patient's sense of spiritual well-being can have a positive outcome on health care and the quality of life...
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over the life course. A hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the interviews was performed and provided insights into the nature of their “lived experience” allowing for the understanding of the essence of their spirituality. The results are presented as an interpretation of the participants’ perceptions of their spirituality and spiritual experiences. For the women in this study, the essence of their spirituality lies in: being profoundly grateful; engaging in complete acceptance; and having a strong sense of assuredness, while stressing the linkages and importance of spirituality. Implications for understanding spirituality for older adults are considered. PMID:23185856
Garen, David C.
I would like to continue the discussion ofpoints raised in William Carter's response toRobert Frodeman's Eos Forum article Carter,2006; Frodeman, 2005. I have appreciatedFrodeman's work and feel that perspectiveson science deriving from humanities, philosophy,and religion can add depth, insight,and meaning to our endeavors. I would liketo broaden the discussion beyond just spacepolicy to include the relationship betweenscience in general and these, what I wouldcall, spiritual issues.
Tirgari, Batool; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Ali Cheraghi, Mohammad; Arefi, Ali
Spiritual care is an essential component in nursing practice and strongly influenced by the sociocultural context. This article aimed to elucidate the meaning of nurses' experiences of giving spiritual care in southeast of Iran. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach influenced by Ricoeur was used. Eleven staff nurses who were currently working in the 3 major hospitals under the umbrella of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences were interviewed. The meaning of spiritual care was comprehensively understood as meeting patient as a unique being. This can be divided into 3 themes: meeting patient as a being in relationship, meeting patient as a cultural being, and meeting patient as a religious being. The results in this study suggest that education about spirituality and spiritual care should be included in the continuous and in-service education of registered nurses. Spiritual and cultural assessment criteria should be included in this education to improve the provision of holistic care.
Davis, Lauren Z; Cuneo, Michaela; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael J; Bender, David; Lutgendorf, Susan K
Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and concomitant distress, understanding contributors to positive well-being is critical. This study examines spiritual growth as a domain of posttraumatic growth and its contribution to longitudinal emotional outcomes in ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer patients (N = 241) completed measures assessing spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being-12; subscales: faith, meaning, and peace), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), cancer-specific anxiety (Impact of Event Scale), and total mood disturbance (TMD; Profile of Mood States) prior to surgery and 1-year postsurgery. Stressful life events in the year after diagnosis were measured at 1-year postsurgery. Regressions examined the association between changes in spirituality and depression, anxiety, and TMD at 1-year postsurgery. Additionally, spiritual change was examined as a moderator of the effect of recent life events on mood. Increases in peace were related to lower depression (β = -.40, P Changes in meaning and faith were unrelated to all outcomes. Additionally, changes in peace moderated the effect of stressful life events on depression (β = -.14, P = .027), anxiety (β = -.16, P = .05), and TMD (β = -.17, P = .01), such that those with a high number of life events paired with a decrease in peace experienced the worst psychological outcomes at 1 year. These findings suggest that the quality of peace may be the most adaptive facet of spiritual growth in cancer patients. Furthermore, changes in peace appear to moderate the effect of life events on psychological well-being. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Holland, Karen J; Lee, Jerry W; Marshak, Helen H; Martin, Leslie R
Intimacy is an essential part of marital relationships, spiritual relationships, and is also a factor in well-being, but there is little research simultaneously examining the links among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations among the latent variables-spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, spiritual meaning, and well-being-in a cross-sectional study of 5,720 married adults aged 29-100 years ( M = 58.88, SD = 12.76, 59% female). All participants were from the Adventist Health Study-2, Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study. In the original structural model, all direct associations between the three latent variables of spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being were significantly positive indicating that there was a significant relationship among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. When spiritual meaning was added as a mediating variable, the direct connections of spiritual intimacy to marital intimacy and to well-being became weakly negative. However, the indirect associations of spiritual intimacy with marital intimacy and with well-being were then strongly positive through spiritual meaning. This indicates that the relationship among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being was primarily a result of the meaning that spiritual intimacy brought to one's marriage and well-being, and that without spiritual meaning greater spirituality could negatively influence one's marriage and well-being. These findings suggest the central place of spiritual meaning in understanding the relationship of spiritual intimacy to marital intimacy and to well-being.
Mandhouj, Olfa; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Amirouche, Ammar; Perroud, Nader Ali; Huguelet, Philippe
The aim of this study was to describe the role of spirituality and religiousness (SR) among detainees. Thirty detainees from a French short-stay prison were assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Spirituality Religion and Personal Beliefs questionnaire (WHOQOL-SRPB) and with open questions about SR. Forty percent of detainees described SR as an important way of coping with incarceration and stressful events, as a means of finding inner peace, showing altruism, and gaining the respect of others. SR involvement was associated with reports of decreased suicide risk and of the prevention of future offences. SR appears to be an important coping mechanism and may help the transition to the community following incarceration. This study endorses the view that SR should be considered when treating this population. © The Author(s) 2013.
Pesut, Barbara; Fowler, Marsha; Taylor, Elizabeth J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sawatzky, Richard
To discuss some of the challenges of conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare practice. With the growing interest in spirituality in healthcare, has come the inevitable task of trying to conceptualise spirituality, a daunting task given the amorphous nature of spirituality, the changing understandings of spirituality among individuals and the diverse globalised society within which this task is taking place. Spirituality's relationship to religion is a particularly challenging point of debate. Critical review. Three social and historical conditions - located in the context of Western thought - have contributed to current conceptualisations of spirituality and religion: the diminishment of the social authority of religion as a result of the Enlightenment focus on reason, the rise of a postmodern spirituality emphasising spiritual experience and current tensions over the ideological and political roles of religion in society. The trend to minimise the social influence of religion is a particular Western bias that seems to ignore the global megatrend of the resurgence of religion. Current conceptualisations are critiqued on the following grounds: that they tend to be ungrounded from a rich history of theological and philosophical thought, that a particular form of elitist spirituality is emerging and that the individualistic emphasis in recent conceptualisations of spirituality diminishes the potential for societal critique and transformation while opening the door for economic and political self interest. Constructing adequate conceptualisations of spirituality and religion for clinical practice entails grounding them in the wealth of centuries of philosophical and theological thinking, ensuring that they represent the diverse society that nursing serves and anchoring them within a moral view of practice.
Brian A. DeVries
This article examines the use of spiritual gifts for church growth, particularly in relation to the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. The article begins with a definition of spiritual gifts and by highlighting their purpose for growing the church. This is followed by two practical considerations: How should Christian believers use spiritual gifts for church growth, and how should church leaders motivate gift use for this purpose? Since the Holy Spirit works though believers to build up the b...
Full Text Available Eating disorders are some of the most severe and destructive of all psychological conditions. They are associated with restricted capacities in cognitive, emotional, physical, and spiritual development. This paper provides an examination of the practical application of Christian spirituality as a force for recovery from an eating disorder. Specifically, it expounds the transformative potential in the spiritual qualities of hope, trust, acceptance, surrender, and courage underpinning engagement with evidence-based therapeutic models of care in eating disorder recovery.
van Dover, Leslie; Pfeiffer, Jane Bacon
This paper reports the development of a substantive theory to explain the process parish nurses use to provide spiritual care to parishioners in Christian churches in a context where patients and nurses share a common set of values. Despite a surge of interest in spirituality and spiritual care in nursing, consensus is lacking on how care should be conceptualized and provided. Grounded theory method was used to explore and describe the processes 10 American parish nurses experienced and used as they gave spiritual care. Data were collected between 1998 and 2001. Participants were interviewed and audiotapes transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative methods were used to analyse more than 50 separate incidents reported by the nurses. From its initial emergence as the core category, 'Bringing God Near' became a Basic Social Process theory of giving spiritual care for these parish nurses. This Basic Social Process became a theory through writing theoretical memos that described how the 'main concern' of the nurses to give spiritual care was resolved. Phases within the process include: trusting God, forming relationships with the patient/family, opening to God, activating/nurturing faith and recognizing spiritual renewal or growth. The essence is bringing God near to people as they face health challenges. Findings from the study and spiritual care literature are integrated in the discussion. The parish nurses' spiritual challenge is to respond to what God is directing the nurse to be and do to strengthen people spiritually. This spiritual care can help restore the patient's sense of well-being, and encourage growth in faith. Those interested in providing and teaching spiritual care in the church context will find this theory useful as a conceptual guide.
Jafari, Najmeh; Loghmani, Amir; Puchalski, Christina M
Spirituality is increasingly recognized as an essential element of care. This article investigates the role of spirituality in Iranian health care system and provides some guidelines to integrate spirituality in routine health care practice in Iran.
de Souza, Marian
This article is written in response to Lingley's (2016) concept of spiritually responsive pedagogy. To begin with, the word "spiritual", when applied to education, still attracts varied responses. Therefore, I have begun by examining contemporary understandings of spirituality as reflected in current research and literature, which…
Historically underpinning principles of the English curriculum framework for children from birth to five years explicitly acknowledged a spiritual dimension to children's uniqueness and well-being. Yet spirituality receives scant reference in the discourse of creative learning and teaching. This paper considers the relationship of spirituality to…
Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.
In "Democratic Foundations of Spiritually Responsive Pedagogy," Lingley worried that talk of spirituality is taboo in U.S. public school classrooms. Lingley pointed out that the dominant narrative demands silence on the topic. She wanted to make the case for spiritually responsive pedagogy as vital to an inclusive democracy. I begin this…
E. de Jager Meezenbroek (Eltica); B. Garssen (Bert); M. van den Berg (Machteld); D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); A. Visser (Adriaan); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)
textabstractSpirituality is an important theme in health research, since a spiritual orientation can help people to cope with the consequences of a serious disease. Knowledge on the role of spirituality is, however, limited, as most research is based on measures of religiosity rather than
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available For many patients confronted with chronic diseases, spirituality/religiosity is an important resource for coping. Patients often report unmet spiritual and existential needs, and spiritual support is also associated with better quality of life. Caring for spiritual, existential and psychosocial needs is not only relevant to patients at the end of their life but also to those suffering from long-term chronic illnesses. Spiritual needs may not always be associated with life satisfaction, but sometimes with anxiety, and can be interpreted as the patients’ longing for spiritual well-being. The needs for peace, health and social support are universal human needs and are of special importance to patients with long lasting courses of disease. The factor, Actively Giving, may be of particular importance because it can be interpreted as patients’ intention to leave the role of a `passive sufferer´ to become an active, self-actualizing, giving individual. One can identify four core dimensions of spiritual needs, i.e., Connection, Peace, Meaning/Purpose, and Transcendence, which can be attributed to underlying psychosocial, emotional, existential, and religious needs. The proposed model can provide a conceptual framework for further research and clinical practice. In fact, health care that addresses patients’ physical, emotional, social, existential and spiritual needs (referring to a bio-psychosocial-spiritual model of health care will contribute to patients’ improvement and recovery. Nevertheless, there are several barriers in the health care system that makes it difficult to adequately address these needs.
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels
WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....... psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total...
Daaleman, Timothy P
Physicians are confronted with new information from the popular media, peer-reviewed journals, and their patients regarding the association of religious and spiritual factors with health outcomes. Although religion and spirituality have become more visible within health care, there are considerable ethical issues raised when physicians incorporate these dimensions into their care. Spiritualities are responsive to patient needs by offering beliefs, stories, and practices that facilitate the creation of a personally meaningful world, a constructed "reality" in the face of illness, disability, or death. It is largely through narrative that physicians incorporate into the health care encounter the spiritualities that are central to their patients' lived experience of illness and health.
Sinclair, Shane; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; Chochinov, Harvey; Hagen, Neil; McClement, Susan
This study explores the provision of spiritual care by healthcare professionals working at the end of life. Qualitative-ethnographic inquiry. Phase 1: five Canadian sites; phase 2: a residential hospice in Alberta, Canada. Phase 1: six palliative care leaders; phase 2: 24 frontline palliative care clinicians. Data were collected over a 12-month period with analysis of findings occurring concurrently. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 11 themes, organised under five overarching categories, emerged from the data. Five bedside skills were identified as essential to spiritual care: hearing, sight, speech, touch and presence. The integration of these bedside skills with the intrinsic qualities of healthcare professionals, including their values and spiritual beliefs, appeared to be essential to their application in spiritual care. Spiritual care primarily involved the tacit qualities of healthcare professionals and their effect on patient's spiritual well-being, rather than their explicit technical skill set or expert knowledge base. Participants identified spiritual care as both a specialised care domain and as a philosophy of care that informs and is embedded within physical and psychosocial care. Hearing, sight, speech, touch and presence were identified as the means by which healthcare professionals impacted patients' spiritual well-being regardless of clinician's awareness or intent. An empirical framework is presented providing clinicians with a pragmatic way of incorporating spiritual care into clinical practice.
Ronel, Natti; Ben Yair, Y
Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known. Our aim here is to present a complementary perspective; that is, spiritual criminology that emerges from the spiritual perspective. Following a description of the state-of-the-art in criminological research concerning spirituality and its impact upon individuals, we focus on Jewish criminology as an illustrative case study, and present a spiritual Jewish view on good and evil, including factors that lead to criminality, the issue of free choice, the aim of punishment and societal response, crime desistance, rehabilitation, and prevention. The proposed establishment of spiritual criminology can be further developed by including parallel schools of spirituality, to create an integrated field in criminology.
Full Text Available In this contribution, the nature of �Biblical Spirituality� as an academic discipline is reviewed from a methodological perspective. Two core aspects are indicated: the importance of ancient expressions of faith (spiritualities in the Bible, and the importance of modern expressions of faith (spiritualities as they draw on the Bible. Based on this framework, as a first application of such a nature within the field of Biblical Spirituality, the relevant publications of an Old Testament scholar are evaluated; in this case, those of J.H. Eaton. Such an analysis opens an arena for discussion on whether this model of Biblical Spirituality holds promise for wider application.
Brian A. DeVries
Full Text Available This article examines the use of spiritual gifts for church growth, particularly in relation to the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. The article begins with a definition of spiritual gifts and by highlighting their purpose for growing the church. This is followed by two practical considerations: How should Christian believers use spiritual gifts for church growth, and how should church leaders motivate gift use for this purpose? Since the Holy Spirit works though believers to build up the body of Christ, advocates of biblical church growth should seek to employ his means to motivate spiritual giftedness in the church.
Full Text Available The author has used - in his paper - two different expressions related to spirituality in its entirety: that is, spirituality (the spiritual sphere in superficial sense and meaning and spiritualism (the spiritual sphere in deep sense and meaning. The author presented selected different definitions and manifestations of spirituality and spiritualism.
White, Donna M; Hand, Mikel
The failure of nursing schools to integrate spiritual nursing care education into the curriculum has contributed to a lack in nurses' spiritual care ability. Developing, integrating, and testing a Spiritual Care Nursing Education strategy in an Associates of Science nursing program significantly increased the perceived spiritual care competence of student nurses. Utilizing a faculty team to develop learning activities to address critical spiritual care attributes offers a method to integrate spiritual nursing care content throughout the curriculum in ASN and BSN programs.
Calvyn C. du Toit
Full Text Available Discernment might be said to be a process of searching for meaning in the light of an (un articulated Absolute. This search takes place in the tension between the private and public spheres of life, mostly mitigated by a community. Intermediate communities, such as churches or social movements, construct symbolic spirituality systems for its adherers to search for meaning in the light of an (unarticulated Absolute. The urban events of Occupy Wall Street and Tahrir Square also step into the tension between the public and private spheres of life, creating a (temporary symbolic spirituality system for its adherers. These events were attempts to construct alternatives to the meta-narrative of global market capitalism. As events attempting to symbolise an urban spirituality, Tahrir Square and Occupy Wall Street dissipated rapidly, effecting rather little change at the heart of global market capitalism. This article theorises a possible reason for these urban spiritualities� dissipation, namely an overlap with global market capitalism�s idols of instant gratification and technology.Interdisciplinary Implications: Viewing Occupy Walls Street and Tahrir Square as symbolic systems of spirituality further strengthens theological urban discourse whilst adding weight to viewing mass movements as spiritualities attempting discernment.
Martinez, Joel E; Mack, Michael L; Gelman, Bernard D; Preston, Alison R
An individual's reputation and group membership can produce automatic judgments and behaviors toward that individual. Whether an individual's social reputation impacts interactions with affiliates has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that during initial encounters with others, existing knowledge of their social network guides behavior toward them. Participants learned reputations (cooperate, defect, or equal mix) for virtual players through an iterated economic game (EG). Then, participants learned one novel friend for each player. The critical question was how participants treated the friends in a single-shot EG after the friend-learning phase. Participants tended to cooperate with friends of cooperators and defect on friends of defectors, indicative of a decision making bias based on memory for social affiliations. Interestingly, participants' explicit predictions of the friends' future behavior showed no such bias. Moreover, the bias to defect on friends of defectors was enhanced when affiliations were learned in a social context; participants who learned to associate novel faces with player faces during reinforcement learning did not show reputation-based bias for associates of defectors during single-shot EG. These data indicate that when faced with risky social decisions, memories of social connections influence behavior implicitly.
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Stern, Robert M; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A
We used data from a 2003 survey of US physicians to examine differences between Jewish and other religiously affiliated physicians on 4-D of physicians' beliefs and practices regarding religion and spirituality (R/S) in the clinical encounter. On each dimension, Jewish physicians ascribed less importance to the effect of R/S on health and a lesser role for physicians in addressing R/S issues. These effects were partially mediated by lower levels of religiosity among Jewish physicians and by differences in demographic and practice-level characteristics. The study provides a salient example of how religious affiliation can be an important independent predictor of physicians' clinically-relevant beliefs and practices.
Douglas, Sara L; Daly, Barbara J
Little is known about relationships between patient spiritual well-being and caregiver outcomes for those with advanced cancer. We were interested in examining the relationship between patient physical quality of life (QOL) and caregiver depression and to also evaluate whether patient spiritual well-being (SWB) played a mediating role in this relationship. This is a prospective longitudinal study that was conducted in the outpatient clinics at a university-affiliated comprehensive cancer center. 226 patients with Stage III or IV cancer (lung, GI, GYN) and their primary caregivers were interviewed upon enrollment into the study and three months later. Measures of spirituality, health-related quality of life, and physical functioning were included in the interviews. Key findings were that the relationship between patient physical QOL and caregiver depression was inverse and moderate (β = -0.24, p = 0.004) and that patient SWB (meaning/peace) played a significant (p = 0.02) and medium-size role (β = -0.31) in mediating the relationship between patient physical QOL and caregiver depression. The nature of these relationships was stable over time. Patients' spirituality is central to their coping and adjusting to cancer. It is this aspect of patient overall quality of life that mediates the relationship to caregiver well-being. The most potent intervention for caregiver depression may be attending to patient spiritual distress.
Full Text Available The article explores the link between trauma and spirituality, and investigates whether and how spirituality can be used as a resource to address the needs of people in traumatic situations. The authors address the following questions: Why is it that spirituality and God himself may seem to make little or no sense to people who are experiencing trauma? Is spirituality an abstract concept that lacks practical relevance in crisis situations? Do peoples’ understanding of God and what they believe about his nature and power affect their spirituality and determine how they understand God’s intervention in coping with trauma? To answer these questions, the authors make use of the life history research method to analyse the case of Nokwazi Chiya, a Zulu woman who abandoned God and all spiritual support systems after the traumatic death of her fiancé. The findings demonstrate how traumatic events destroy not only the psychosocial aspects, but also the survivor’s faith in a natural or divine order and cast the survivor into a state of existential crisis. The findings further show the role spirituality plays in enhancing the healing, recovery and developing resilience of trauma survivors. The study subsequently argues for an integrated approach to working through trauma, which brings spirituality into the psychotherapeutic dialogue – particularly in the South African context, where the majority of the population is exposed to various types of trauma. This integrated psychotherapy approach will have implications for the disciplines of practical theology and psychology or psychiatry, especially with regard to how we understand, assess and treat the needs of different people exposed to trauma and other existential crises.
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D. Janssen (David); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)
textabstractIn online affiliate marketing networks advertising web sites offer their affiliates revenues based on provided web site traffic and associated leads and sales. Advertising web sites can have a network of thousands of affiliates providing them with web site traffic through hyperlinks on
Oyeneyin, Lawal O.; Adewole, Ayodele S.; Olaniyan, Olayinka B.; Dakum, Patrick S.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Adebamowo, Clement A.
Introduction Whereas systematic screening programs have reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries, the incidence remains high in developing countries. Among several barriers to uptake of cervical cancer screening, the roles of religious and cultural factors such as modesty have been poorly studied. Knowledge about these factors is important because of the potential to overcome them using strategies such as self-collection of cervico-vaginal samples. In this study we evaluate the influence of spirituality and modesty on the acceptance of self-sampling for cervical cancer screening. Methodology We enrolled 600 participants in Nigeria between August and October 2014 and collected information on spirituality and modesty using two scales. We used principal component analysis to extract scores for spirituality and modesty and logistic regression models to evaluate the association between spirituality, modesty and preference for self-sampling. All analyses were performed using STATA 12 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Results Some 581 (97%) women had complete data for analysis. Most (69%) were married, 50% were Christian and 44% were from the south western part of Nigeria. Overall, 19% (110/581) of the women preferred self-sampling to being sampled by a health care provider. Adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, spirituality, religious affiliation and geographic location were significantly associated with preference for self-sampling, while modesty was not significantly associated. The multivariable OR (95% CI, p-value) for association with self-sampling were 0.88 (0.78–0.99, 0.03) for spirituality, 1.69 (1.09–2.64, 0.02) for religious affiliation and 0.96 (0.86–1.08, 0.51) for modesty. Conclusion Our results show the importance of taking cultural and religious beliefs and practices into consideration in planning health interventions like cervical cancer screening. To succeed, public health interventions and the education
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To assess the spirituality of nurses and relate it to personal characteristics, sector of activity, and spiritual practices; to analyze the influence of spirituality of nurses in the record of a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs Module (WHOQOL-SRPB. Results: 132 nurses were included and most of them were women (81.8%, married (56.8%, with an average age of 34 years (± 6.8. Most nurses believe in God or in a superior force (99.2% and have never recorded a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis (78.8%. There was no association of spirituality with the sector of activity; the variable "marital status" was significant in six out of the eight factors of spirituality, and the variable "willingness to talk about spirituality" was significant in seven out of the eight factors. Conclusion: The spirituality of nurses does not interfere with the recording of a "spiritual suffering" diagnosis.
Cooper, Katherine L; Chang, Esther; Sheehan, Athena; Johnson, Amanda
Spiritual care is an important component of holistic care. In Australia competency statements relating to nursing practice emphasise the need to provide care that addresses the spiritual as well as other aspects of being. However, many nurses feel they are poorly prepared to provide spiritual care. This is attributed largely to lack a of spiritual care education provided in undergraduate nursing programmes. A few higher education providers have responded to this lack of spiritual care education by incorporating specific content related to this area into their undergraduate nursing programme. Minimal international studies have investigated the impact of spiritual care education on undergraduate nursing students and no Australian studies were identified. This review explores spiritual care education in undergraduate nursing programmes and identifies the need for an Australian study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunter-Hernández, Migda; Costas-Muñíz, Rosario; Gany, Francesca
Going through adverse life events can help a person learn how to cope with life's challenges, overcome them, learn from the adverse experiences, grow, and be positively transformed by them. Spirituality is a resource that supports adaptation and resilience to improve quality of life in patients with cancer or other chronic illnesses. For Latinos, spirituality is an important core cultural value. As such, it is crucial to pay close attention to how cultural values play a role in health-related concerns when caring for Latino cancer patients, and to how spirituality, being an important aspect of Latino culture, influences how Latinos adjust and cope with cancer. Understanding how to facilitate resilience in the face of potentially negative life events, such as cancer, can not only help Latino cancer patients in active treatment, but can also impact effectiveness of managing and coping with the consequences of cancer during survivorship.
Costas-Muñíz, Rosario; Gany, Francesca
Going through adverse life events can help a person learn how to cope with life’s challenges, overcome them, learn from the adverse experiences, grow, and be positively transformed by them. Spirituality is a resource that supports adaptation and resilience to improve quality of life in patients with cancer or other chronic illnesses. For Latinos, spirituality is an important core cultural value. As such, it is crucial to pay close attention to how cultural values play a role in health-related concerns when caring for Latino cancer patients, and to how spirituality, being an important aspect of Latino culture, influences how Latinos adjust and cope with cancer. Understanding how to facilitate resilience in the face of potentially negative life events, such as cancer, can not only help Latino cancer patients in active treatment, but can also impact effectiveness of managing and coping with the consequences of cancer during survivorship. PMID:25711211
Spirituality is enacted between 1. the human person and 2. the basic inspiration that moves someone. This process is influenced by 3. the spirit of the time in its own way. Kees Waaijman, following M. de Certeau, explains this influence as a dialectic one. Continuity and discontinuity between spirituality are extremes in a field.
Říčan, Pavel; Janošová, Pavlína; Tyl, J.
Roč. 51, č. 2 (2007), s. 153-160 ISSN 0009-062X Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK379/2005/A-PP/HTF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : spirituality * spiritual experience * religiosity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.133, year: 2007
Japar, Muhammad; Purwati
Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…
Markle, D. Thomas
Currently, little is known about the influence classroom learning has on the spiritual beliefs of students. Despite this fact, decisions on educational policy, parental home schooling, and even whether to bring legal actions against school districts, often rest on the assumption that education can induce spiritual belief change. To begin the…
Wachholtz, Amy B; Pargament, Kenneth I
Migraine headaches are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety (Waldie and Poulton Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 72: 86-92, 2002) and feelings of low self-efficacy (French et al. Headache, 40: 647-656, 2000). Previous research suggests that spiritual meditation may ameliorate some of the negative traits associated with migraine headaches (Wachholtz and Pargament Journal of behavioral Medicine, 30: 311-318, 2005). This study examined two primary questions: (1) Is spiritual meditation more effective in enhancing pain tolerance and reducing migraine headache related symptoms than secular meditation and relaxation? and, (2) Does spiritual meditation create better mental, physical, and spiritual health outcomes than secular meditation and relaxation techniques? Eighty-three meditation naïve, frequent migraineurs were taught Spiritual Meditation, Internally Focused Secular Meditation, Externally Focused Secular Meditation, or Muscle Relaxation which participants practiced for 20 min a day for one month. Pre-post tests measured pain tolerance (with a cold pressor task), headache frequency, and mental and spiritual health variables. Compared to the other three groups, those who practiced spiritual meditation had greater decreases in the frequency of migraine headaches, anxiety, and negative affect, as well as greater increases in pain tolerance, headache-related self-efficacy, daily spiritual experiences, and existential well being.
This essay sets out to argue that postsecular spirituality is about the quest for hypergoods within today's mass populist- and consumerist-oriented world. It shows that people who consider themselves to be spiritual not only have many values in their lives, but rank some values higher than others, with some being ranked as ...
Attempts a redefinition of spirituality and an incorporation of this into art education. Argues that symbolic and spiritual consciousness plays a crucial role in the works of artists as disparate as William Blake and Frida Kahlo. Criticizes the preeminence of scientific theory as a modern belief system. (MJP)
Johnson, Peggy; Mutschelknaus, Mike
Noting that at Saint Mary's University (where the authors teach) the issue of spirituality is in the forefront of education and is seamlessly woven into required courses throughout four years of college in an attempt to "enhance students' spiritual and personal lives," this paper positions writing centers as a place for student inquiries…
New Zealand has had free, state, secular education since 1877, but just what is meant by secularism is changing. Since the 1980s the growth of Maori education initiatives has mushroomed and these place emphasis on Maori values and beliefs, including spirituality. In addition, in 1999 a definition and statement on spirituality appeared in the…
... spiritual pain and suffering. Spiritual pain and suffering is as real and powerful as physical or emotional pain. There ... guilt, denial, hope, joy, peace. Expression of feelings is important in dealing with ... such as “It’s part of God’s plan” or “Everything happens for a reason” often ...
Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit
Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…
Zweiback, Yoshi; Kaplan, Sandra N.; Manzone, Jessica
This paper addresses the question of spirituality in a religious setting, and prayer as an expression of ultimate values, as a discipline which inspires empathy, as an instrument for connecting us with nature, and as a compass pointing us toward God, meaning, and purpose. Spirituality in the general education setting will also be discussed, as…
Gallo, Laura L.
Spirituality is an area that has not received a great deal of attention in supervision, yet it can have substantial effects on the counseling process. A definition of spirituality that allows for a variety of worldviews can be useful to both counselor and client as it helps strengthen the counseling relationship and lessen differences between…
May 1, 2008 ... The purpose of this paper is to examine authentic leadership and spiritual capital as key elements for the successful building of quality management and effective organizations. It highlights the nexus between authentic leadership and spiritual capital, describes the common features of authentic leadership.
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of…
The term “secular spirituality” is meant to convey the contemporary phenomenon of spirituality as experienced in different spheres not associated with structured, institutionalised religion. An outline is given of the relation between secular reality (the natural realm) and religious/spiritual reality (the supernatural realm), as it ...
Full Text Available Sustainability of the school in the long term can be predicted from the values that espoused and used as share value. The process of selecting the virtue value that will be the foundation’s vision and mission for the school has been developing very dynamically with a model that is very varied. These models can be only as part of a school strategy or model that implements the noble values with pure consciousness. The values of spirituality seems increasingly been the trend as the noble values espoused school to ensure its long-term performance.
Steinhorn, David M; Din, Jana; Johnson, Angela
Spirituality plays a prominent role in the lives of most palliative patients whether or not they formally adhere to a specific religion and belief. As a result, the palliative care team is frequently called upon to support families who are experiencing their "dark night of the soul" and struggling to make sense of their lives during a healthcare crisis. While conventional religious practices provide a source of comfort and guidance for many of our patients, a significant number of our patients do not have a strong religious community to which to turn. Over the last two decades, more people in Western countries identify themselves as spiritual but not religious and do not belong to an organized faith community. For those patients who express a strong spiritual connection or sense of 'something greater' or 'a higher power', encouraging the exploration of those feelings and beliefs through chaplains, clergypersons, or members of the interdisciplinary palliative care team can help provide context, meaning and purpose in their lives impacted by serious illness. One of the goals of effective palliative care is the facilitation of personal growth and psychological resilience in dealing with one's health challenges. Integrative medicine, also referred to as complementary and alternative medicine, provides a set of tools and philosophies intended to enhance wellness and a sense of wellbeing. Many of the modalities are derived from disciplines such as massage, acupuncture, Rei Ki, aromatherapy, and dietary supplements. The use of integrative medicine in North America is widespread and frequently not shared with one's clinician due to many patients' concerns that clinicians will disapprove of the patient's use of them. In addition to its efficacy in reducing symptoms commonly experienced by patients receiving palliative care (e.g., nausea, pain, depression, and existential suffering), integrative medicine offers non-verbal, non-cognitive avenues for many to achieve a peaceful
Research has shown an increase in suicides by military veterans and law enforcement officers in the United States. Etiologic research elucidates warrior culture and subculture as contributing factors of this pathology. This paper examines the idiosyncratic nature and influence of warrior culture and subculture and offers recommendations to promote culture change. Faith-based spirituality and prayer are examined as adjunct modalities for stress management and emotional healing. Further research is recommended to assess the associated hidden cost factors and long-term financial impact of warrior culture on society.
This paper addresses the growing diversity and complexity of spirituality in society and within families. This requires a broadly inclusive, multifaith approach in clinical training and practice. Increasingly, individuals, couples, and families seek, combine, and reshape spiritual beliefs and practices--within and among faiths and outside organized religion--to fit their lives and relationships. With rising faith conversion and interfaith marriages, the paper examines challenges in multifaith families, particularly with marriage, childrearing, and the death of a loved one. Clinical guidelines, cautions, and case examples are offered to explore the role and significance of spiritual beliefs and practices in couple and family relationships; to identify spiritual sources of distress and relational conflict; and to draw potential spiritual resources for healing, well-being, and resilience, fitting client values and preferences. 2010 © FPI, Inc.
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Robab Latifnejad Roudsari
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite growing body of literature regarding marital adjustment of infertile women, to our knowledge, there is no study to address the role of religious and spiritual beliefs in adjusting marital relationships in infertile women. Considering the significance of marital cohesiveness and commitment in the long and stressful journey of infertile women, this study was designed to explore how marital relationships are experienced by infertile women who affiliated to different religious faiths.Methods: A group of 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity (Protestantism, Catholicism, Orthodoxies and Islam (Shiite and Sunni were interviewed. The design was a grounded theory study including semi structured in-depth interviews. Data were collected in one Iranian and two UK fertility clinics through theoretical sampling and analyzed using Strauss and Corbin’s mode of grounded theory. Results: Religious infertile women using a religious/spiritual meaning-making framework tried adjust their marital relationships through going the following phases: being optimistic and positive, having supportive relationships, being grateful and appreciated for their marital life, offering spiritual sympathy and adopting religious role models. These strategies aided infertile women to be more understanding, sympathetic and gentle towards maintaining the family cohesion.Conclusion: I argue that awareness of health professionals of the potential ways in which religion and spirituality assist infertile women to deal with their marital issues could be important. This knowledge will help them to support emotional wholeness and integrity of infertile women, offering religious and spiritual coping strategies which can help adjusting their marital relationships.
Kandula, Namratha R; Cooper, Andrew J; Schneider, John A; Fujimoto, Kayo; Kanaya, Alka M; Van Horn, Linda; deKoning, Lawrence; Siddique, Juned
Understanding the social lives of South Asian immigrants in the United States (U.S) and their influence on health can inform interpersonal and community-level health interventions for this growing community. This paper describe the rationale, survey design, measurement, and network properties of 700 South Asian individuals in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) social networks ancillary study. MASALA is a community-based cohort, established in 2010, to understand risk factors for cardiovascular disease among South Asians living in the U.S. Survey data collection on personal social networks occurred between 2014 and 2017. Network measurements included size, composition, density, and organizational affiliations. Data on participants' self-rated health and social support functions and health-related discussions among network members were also collected. Participants' age ranged from 44 to 84 (average 59 years), and 57% were men. South Asians had large (size=5.6, SD=2.6), kin-centered (proportion kin=0.71, SD=0.28), and dense networks. Affiliation with religious and spiritual organizations was perceived as beneficial to health. Emotional closeness with network members was positively associated with participants' self-rated health (p-value networks with higher density and more kin were significantly associated with health-related discussions. The MASALA networks study advances research on the cultural patterning of social relationships and sources of social support in South Asians living in the U.S. Future analyses will examine how personal social networks and organizational affiliations influence South Asians' health behaviors and outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02268513.
Vlasblom, J.P.; Steen, van der J.T.; Knol, D.L.; Jochemsen, H.
Despite the fact that spiritual care is an essential part of nursing care according to many nursing definitions, it appears to be quite different in practice. A spirituality training for nurses may be necessary to give spiritual care the attention it deserves. In a trial a pre-tested “spirituality
Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.
Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…
Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.
This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…
Osborn, Debra; Street, Sue; Bradham-Cousar, Michelle
This study examined the self-reported value of spirituality, types of spiritual practices, and values of 69 counselor education students. It also examined counseling students' ideas for how to increase their comfort with incorporating spirituality into counseling practice. Implications for implementing spirituality training in counselor education…
Watkins, Tommie L; Simpson, Cathy; Cofield, Stacey S; Davies, Susan; Kohler, Connie; Usdan, Stuart
Blacks in the USA, including black men who have sex with men (MSM), tend to have stronger religious and spiritual affiliations compared with other racial/ethnic populations. HIV and STD incidence rates continue to rise among Black MSM. Using data from the CDC Brothers y Hermanos (ByHS) project, this study examined correlations between high-risk behavior, e.g., substance use and high-risk sexual behavior (e.g., condom use history, unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV infection status, and STD infection status) religiosity, spirituality, age, among Black MSM (N = 1141). This exploratory study examined whether religiosity and spirituality were associated with high-risk behavior and high-risk sexual behavior among Black MSM. Religiosity and spirituality indices were compiled from the ByHS data. The religiosity index was significantly associated with HIV infection and use of cocaine, crack, and poppers as well as marginally associated with ecstasy use. Spirituality was significantly associated with HIV infection status, STD infection status, alcohol use, and crack use. Given these relationships, current and future HIV prevention models targeting Black MSM should consider the potential importance of the roles of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of Black MSM to increase the efficacy of risk reduction interventions.
The "Harry Potter" series has proven to be immensely popular to readers of all ages worldwide. In particular, the series has strong appeal to boys. This paper examines selected characters and events from the books in light of the "male spiritual journey," a concept currently being explored by Richard Rohr and others. A general definition of…
Gunn, Heather E; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Mackaronis, Julia E; Rau, Holly K; Cribbet, Matthew R; Troxel, Wendy M; Williams, Paula G
This study examined the association between stress-related interpersonal behaviors, presleep arousal (PSA), and sleep quality. Sixty-four participants (53% female) described a recent stressful interpersonal event that was coded for overall degree of affiliation (warmth vs hostility) and autonomy (independence vs interdependence). Cognitive and somatic PSA and sleep quality were examined using regression with affiliation and autonomy scores as predictors. Specific interpersonal behaviors that comprise overall affiliation were also examined. More affiliation (warmth) was associated with lower cognitive PSA (β=-.32) and better sleep quality (β=-.28). Autonomy was not associated with sleep quality or PSA. The specific behavior trust in others was associated with better sleep quality (r s =-.25). Behaviors during stress reflect underlying dimensions of interpersonal security. Findings underscore importance of interpersonal frameworks for understanding associations between stress and sleep, and provide support for the anthropological theory that interpersonal security is necessary for healthy sleep. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.
The Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) conducted a survey in 1996 to investigate the use of educational program evaluation among its affiliates. Of the 153 surveys mailed out, 55 (36%) were returned. Evaluations of school-based educational programs were conducted consistently by 19% of respondents and occasionally by 72%; non-school-based programs were evaluated consistently by 31% of associations and occasionally by 64%. In both types of presentations, evaluations were likely to consist of pre- and post-testing, post-tests alone, or informal discussions with participants. The outcome variables most often measured were participant satisfaction with the presentation, knowledge gained, and behavioral change. 75% of educational directors recognized the value of evaluations for purposes such as program planning, providing a baseline, and procuring funding; 80% were interested in doing more evaluations. However, directors identified numerous obstacles to evaluation: insufficient time, lack of expertise or models, problems conducting meaningful impact evaluations, limited funds for this purpose, and fear that results would be disappointing. Despite its low response rate, this survey identified a need for PPFA's Education Department to promote program evaluation among its affiliates, provide staff training, and develop meaningful program impact measures.
Katz, P A
The development of healthcare information systems as tools to facilitate business success traditionally has focused on a single profit center. The cataclysmic changes that are reshaping American healthcare have accelerated the affiliation of provider entities to form systems that have broader geographic coverage, deliver a larger portion of the provider continuum of care, and are more attractive partners for purchasers of healthcare services. Integrated and/or standardized information system technologies can provide great benefit in containing costs and optimizing quality among partners resulting from healthcare mergers and acquisitions as the new entity positions itself to increase market share and enhance its bottom line. Graduate Health System (GHS) in the Philadelphia area has demonstrated the efficacy of its investment to build a system-wide information network that delivers multiple standardized, integrated systems for both the financial and operational advantage of all component institutions. Building on its patient information system as the centerpiece of its information strategy, GHS has deployed a variety of tools across its network infrastructure that have brought new capabilities and savings to its member hospitals. In light of some of GHS's successes, other hospitals and healthcare systems may be able to re-create similar savings and efficiencies by applying like strategies in cooperation with their affiliated partners.
Full Text Available Background:All employees of the company or government employees will in time retire. Upon enteringthe age of 56 years, the employee or civil servant to retire. Retirement is a stage of life characterized bythe presence of transition and change in psychosocial rolethat causes stress. Retirement impact on thephysical, social and spiritual individual. Physical disorders includes activity inhibited activity. Socialproblems cause individuals less participate in social activities. Less of spiritual needs fulfillment are morelikely to cause the individual less activity in religious.Objective:To identify the correlation between spiritual fulfillment and civil servants retirement anxiety inSleman.Methods:This study was a cross cectional design study. Statistical tests using correlationKendal Tauwith significance level p=0.05. Samples were taken using simple random sampling involved 55respondents. The research instrument used questionnaires spiritual needs and anxiety questionnaires.Results:The results showed that the civils servant unmet spiritual needs (98.2% and 68.4% retirementin the category of moderate anxiety. Kendal Tau test showed p=0.042, indicating there was a relationshipbetween the spiritual fulfillment with retirement anxiety indicating on civil servant with r=-0.274 showedweak relationship.Conclusion:civil servant who had fulfilled spiritual needs would have moderate to mild levels of anxiety.
Davis, Don E; Rice, Kenneth; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Choe, Elise; Worthington, Everett L
Most measures of spirituality privilege religious spirituality, but people may experience spirituality in a variety of ways, including a sense of closeness, oneness, or connection with a theistic being, the transcendent (i.e., something outside space and time), oneself, humanity, or nature. The overall purpose of the present 4 studies was to develop the Sources of Spirituality (SOS) Scale to measure these different elements of spirituality. In Study 1, we created items, had them reviewed by experts, and used data from a sample of undergraduates (N = 218) to evaluate factor structure and inform initial measurement revisions. The factor structure replicated well in another sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 2), and in a sample of community adults (N = 140; Study 3). In a sample of undergraduates (N = 200; Study 4), we then evaluated evidence of construct validity by examining associations between SOS Scale scores and religious commitment, positive attitudes toward the Sacred, and dispositional connection with nature. Moreover, based on latent profile analyses results, we found 5 distinct patterns of spirituality based on SOS subscales. We consider implications for therapy and relevance of the findings for models of spirituality and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Dudley A. Schreiber
Full Text Available At first glance, the postmodern spiritual �scene� appears �sociologically messy, experiential, multifaceted, ecological, provisional and collective� (Petrolle 2007 and of uncertain epistemic provenance. Here, I ask: can Roland Benedikter�s (2005 conception of postmodern dialectic and spiritual turn, help us understand postmodern spirituality and can it assist in a construction of a postmodern epistemology of spirituality? The current argument constitutes a meta-theoretical exploration of:� Deconstruction and neo-essentialism as representing the significant dialectic in philosophical postmodernism. Deconstruction is presented as an apophatic moment in Western thought about �knowing� and �being� whilst postmodern neo-essentialism, though contextualised by antirealism and ambiguity, palpably suggests itself. � Postmodern trends which derive from the dialectic. � How these epistemic trends influence methodology in the study of spirituality. � How a trans-traditional (anthropological spirituality might incorporate insights about transformation from a complex of epistemologies in which, theories of �self� abound.In the conclusion an attempt is made to describe how postmodern spirituality expresses itself in society.�
Full Text Available This contribution investigates the use of the concepts of place, space and (restriction of movement in the spiritual education of religious women living in Third Order communities in the diocese of Utrecht (Netherlands. Through the study of institutional sources, in particular the Third Order statutes, and literary texts written and used in Third Order convents (the Informieringheboeck by Jan de Wael and the Jhesus Collacien, the article will discuss the allegedly binary oppositions “inside-outside” and “safety of the convent-dangers of the world” that pervade the text of the statutes and form the backbone of the spiritual instruction of cloistered women.Esta contribución tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de los conceptos de lugar, espacio y (restricción de movimiento en la educación espiritual de las mujeres religiosas que vivían en comunidades de la Tercera Orden en la diócesis de Utrecht (Países Bajos. A través del estudio de las fuentes institucionales, en particular los estatutos de la Orden Tercera, y los textos literarios escritos y utilizados en los conventos de la Tercera Orden (la Informieringheboeck de Jan de Wael y el Jhesus Collacien, el artículo discutirá las supuestas oposiciones binarias “dentro/ fuera” y “seguridad de los conventos/ peligros del mundo” que impregnan el texto de los estatutos y forman la columna vertebral de la enseñanza espiritual de las mujeres enclaustradas.
Frecska, Ede; Luna, Luis Eduardo
The prevailing neuroscientific paradigm considers information processing within the central nervous system as occurring through hierarchically organized and interconnected neural networks. The hierarchy of neural networks doesn't end at the neuroaxonal level; it incorporates subcellular mechanisms as well. When the size of the hierarchical components reaches the nanometer range and the number of elements exceeds that of the neuroaxonal system, an interface emerges for a possible transition between neurochemical and quantum physical events. "Signal nonlocality", accessed by means of quantum entanglement is an essential feature of the quantum physical domain. The presented interface may imply that some manifestations of altered states of consciousness, unconscious/conscious shifts have quantum origin with significant psychosomatic implications. Healing methods based on altered states of consciousness and common in spiritual or shamanic traditions escape neuroscientific explanations based on classical cognition denoted here as "perceptual-cognitive-symbolic" (characteristic of ordinary states of consciousness). Another channel of information processing, called "direct-intuitive-nonlocal" (characteristic of non-ordinary states of consciousness) is required to be introduced for interpretation. The first one is capable of modeling via symbolism and is more culturally bound due to its psycholinguistic features. The second channel lacks the symbolic mediation, therefore it has more transcultural similarity and practically ineffable for the first one, though culture specific transliteration may occur. Different traditional healing rituals pursue the same end: to destroy "profane" sensibility. The ritual use of hallucinogens, the monotonous drumming, the repeated refrains, the fatigue, the fasting, the dancing and so forth, create a sensory condition which is wide open to the so-called "supernatural". According to contemporary anthropological views, the breakdown of ordinary
The characteristic direction of psychological and theological interpretations of spirituality is very important. The traditional psychological approach to the spiritual sphere is characterised by reductionism, which consists in reducing spiritual experiences to mental experiences, or even biological processes. The studies in the field of religion psychology led to distinguish between two types of spirituality. The first one is theocentric spirituality, where human being places God in the cent...
Ødbehr, Liv Skomakerstuen
Background: Spiritual care is included in nurses’ holistic care. Descriptions of spirituality in research highlight humans search for the sacred, experiences of self-transcendence and connectedness (to self, to others and to God/a deity), with the end-point being the human experience of meaning. Nurses report spiritual care as being difficult to carry out, and that they lack knowledge in relation to what a spiritual dimension to nursing means and implies, and how to practise spiritual care in...
Schonfeld, Toby L; Schmid, Kendra K; Boucher-Payne, Deborah
Researchers are beginning to collect empiric data about coping mechanisms of health science students. Yet, there is an important aspect of coping with stress that is only partially addressed in health sciences curricula: students' spiritual well-being. In this essay, we describe a course in spirituality and health care that we offered to fourth-year medical students, as well as a small empirical study we conducted to assess students' spiritual needs and practices. We then offer reflections on the broad applicability of this work to students in the health sciences more generally, including suggestions for curriculum interventions that may ensure students' success.
Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.
Florence F Folami
Full Text Available Background: Spiritual care is an important aspect of holistic care in nursing, and as a result, some nursing schools have begun offering courses in spirituality. Even at that, studies in some countries have shown that nursing students' perception on spirituality and spiritual care was not sufficient and most professional nurses still feel inadequately prepared to provide spiritual care, showing the inadequacy of the education that was received, thus, hindering the patients from receiving holistic care. Objectives: This study has the broad objective of identifying the perception of spirituality and spiritual care and barriers to the provision of spirituality care among undergraduate nurses in the College of Medicine, University of Lagos. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, utilizing stratified random sampling technique. A total of 117 out of 157 students of the nursing department, University of Lagos, ranging from 200 level to 500 level participated in the study. Data were collected using structured self-administered questionnaire, with a reliability coefficient of 0.509, which was validated using face and content method. Analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Services version 14 and presented using tables, percentages, and pie chart. Results: Result shows that of the respondents, 67.9% scored <50% of the questions pertaining to perception on spirituality and spiritual care. This shows that nurses had poor perception regarding spirituality and spiritual care, with majority (68.7% of them perceiving spirituality as religion. Barriers to the provision of spirituality care were also identified with “lack of confidence” being the most common. Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that nursing students' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care was poor which had no relationship with their academic level or kind of religion, thus, showing that the education being provided on this
Full Text Available Infertility is a worldwide public health issue that exerts an in-depth impact on couples, families, communities and the individual. This reproductive health condition, along with fertility treatments, often forces couples to question their purpose and meaning in life, and to begin a spiritual journey. Nursing and midwifery literature describes the care of those living with infertility, but often lacks a clear approach of the spiritual dimension, and diagnosis and interventions may not be effectively addressed. In this paper, we present a discussion about spirituality and the assessment of spiritual needs such as hope, beliefs, meaning and satisfaction in life. In addition, spiritual needs are defined, for both nurses and midwives, and spiritual interventions are proposed for promoting couples’ resilience and spiritual well-being. Spirituality should be considered from the beginning to the end of life. It is necessary to translate this into the development and implementation of both specific policies regarding a spiritual approach and advanced education and training programs for nurses and midwives who care for infertile couples.
Affiliate partnership is a popular and effective method of online marketing through affiliate partners. The thesis describes the development of a product, which allows us to easily integrate affiliate system into an existing platform (e-commerce or service). This kind of functionality opens up growth opportunities for the business. The system is designed in a way that it requires minimal amount of changes for the implementation into an existing application. The development of the product is ...
Janssen, D.; van Heck, H.W.G.M.
textabstractIn online affiliate marketing networks advertising web sites offer their affiliates revenues based on provided web site traffic and associated leads and sales. Advertising web sites can have a network of thousands of affiliates providing them with web site traffic through hyperlinks on their web sites. Search engines such as Google, MSN, and Yahoo, consider hyperlinks as a proof of quality and/or reliability of the linked web sites, and therefore use them to determine the relevanc...
Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore
Objective: Religious affiliation is inversely associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Our previous findings indicated that when a religious affiliation differentiated itself from cultural norms, then high-risk adolescents (those having parents with alcoholism history) raised with these affiliations exhibited fewer AD symptoms compared with adolescents of other religious affiliations and nonreligious adolescents. The first of two studies reported here provides a needed replication of our previous findings for childhood religious affiliation using a different sample, and the second study extends examination to current religious affiliation. Method: A national sample of male and female adolescents/young adults (N = 1,329; mean age = 19.6 years) was selected who were the offspring of members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Parental alcoholism, religious affiliation types, and their interactions were examined as predictors of offspring AD symptoms. Results: (1) Offspring reared with a differentiating religious affiliation during childhood exhibited significantly fewer AD symptoms as young adults; (2) offspring with current differentiating religious affiliation also exhibited fewer AD symptoms; this main effect was not weakened by adding other measures of religiousness to the model; (3) differentiating religious affiliation was correlated with both family alcoholism risk and offspring outcome, and removed the association between family alcoholism risk and offspring outcome, thus indicating that differentiating religious affiliation was at least a partial mediator of the association between family AD history risk and offspring AD outcome. Conclusions: Current results indicate that religious differentiation is an inverse mediator of alcoholism risk for offspring with or without parental AD history and regardless of the influence of other religion variables. Results replicated our previous report on religious upbringing between ages 6 and 13 years and indicated an even
Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.
Vaillant, George E
This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
spiritual reality (the ... closely related to the cardinal problems that preoccupy a culture. In every context worldview should be ..... 13 Paradoxically, the whole notion of virtual reality and cyberspace represents the non- corporeal. Aupers & Houtman ...
Borges, Moema da Silva; Santos, Marília Borges Couto; Pinheiro, Tiago Gomes
to identify the social representations about the concepts of spirituality and religion of of health teachers. exploratory and descriptive study, based on a qualitative approach. 25 subjects participated in it. The following instruments were used to collect data: questionnaire to identify the profile; questionnaire of free association, whose inducing words were religion and spirituality, and an interview based on the scale FICA (Puchalski, 2006). the representations about religion and spirituality, for professors, are forged around the faith in God and it gives them meaning and purpose to deal with the challenges of personal and professional living. there are still barriers that need to be overcome with a view to a comprehensive care. For this, it is essential to incorporate spirituality in the process in the curricula of health courses.
T V Chkhikvadze
Full Text Available The correlation of the structure of the spirituality is analyzed in the article, gender differences and differences between students of natural-science and humanitarian direction are investigated.
Full Text Available Celtic spirituality has a long and distinguished ancestry with its origins in pre-Christian times. It was inculturated among peoples in the far west of Europe, particularly in Ireland, Scotland and the north and south-west of England. It was different from Roman Christianity in distinct ways until the mid-7th century CE when Roman Christianity became the norm in Britain and Ireland. This spirituality has endured throughout the centuries and has experienced a revival from the latter half of the 20th century. From its inception, it has been closely linked to the environment. Over the years many key aspects of Celtic spirituality have been integrated in many religious traditions and shows similarities with and can contribute to a new ethical perspective on environmental issues. This article investigates the current environmental crisis from a faith perspective and attempts to draw lessons from Celtic traditions of spirituality in a scientific age.
What motivates organizational leaders in their search for spirituality? They seek to integrate their inner journey with their day-to-day professional roles. This article describes how a course in spirituality for executives has provided tools to analyze and clarify intentions, avoid the traps of excessive greed and power, and make decisions that are both compassionate and effective. André L. Delbecq, DBA, the Thomas J. and Kathleen L. McCarthy Professor at the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University in California, offers seminars in spirituality for organizational leadership through the MBA program and the Center for Executive Development. Delbecq is the first to admit his surprise at the number of executives who have repeatedly asked for courses in spirituality. He talks about how his seminars have helped CEOs and other top executives achieve greater effectiveness in leading organizations.
Solomon, Jeffrey; Hunter, Jeremy
Using Howard Gardner's concept of existential intelligence along with others such as Jerome Bruner, explores the psychology of spirituality and leadership. Describes how famous film director uses meditation in his work. Draws implications for educational leadership. (PKP)
Rosmalia, D.; Prasetya, L. E.
Cirebon is a city laden with spiritual activities. These are held almost every month in a year, by palace (keraton) disciples from surrounding Cirebon region and Indonesia. The spiritual events are located in almost of sacred places of keratons around Cirebon, and make an imaginary sacred space from the south to the north of Cirebon city. Sacred spiritual space is potential to be developed into tourism area destination, especially for religious tourist. Therefore, this study aims to explore an attractiveness of tourism, based on the spiritual area of keraton disciples, as a part of the cultural tourism space of Cirebon. To explore tourism potential, this research used survey and observation method in the palace, and in-depth interview with seven key persons, i.e., palace informants. After that, this potential was developed for the planning of tourist areas based on spiritual tourism destinations, divided by the core and the supporting areas, formed by sacred places and major tourist attractions. The core area is located in two locations, i.e., (1) the area of Cirebon keratons, and (2) complexes of graves on Gunung Jati. Meanwhile, the supporting area is formed by other supporting tourist objects and the ritual route of tourism.
Chris L. de Wet
Utilising the aspects of the methodology of Van der Watt on the dynamics of metaphor in the New Testament, the article contextualised Chrysostom’s understanding of spiritual rebirth within the progressive and climactic unfolding of human reproduction between prelapsarian and postlapsarian states. In the first instance, the reproductive shift from divine creation to human reproduction after the Fall of Adam and Eve was discussed. Thereafter followed a discussion of how the miraculous births of men by barren women in the Old Testament such as Sarah and Isaac,functioned as a typological device pointing towards spiritual rebirth. After this an analysis of Chrysostom’s understanding of the virgin birth of Jesus by Mary was given, showing againthat this birth event was yet another typological device that directed the faith of the believer towards spiritual rebirth. Finally, Chrysostom’s teaching on the nature of spiritual rebirth is discussed in light of this broader typological development. The result was that the notion of spiritual rebirth in Chrysostom’s thought could not be understood separately from his views on human birth and the progression back to aprelapsarian state of generation. The relevance of the article is that it presents a focused study both on Chrysostom’s theology and his soteriology, in particular as well as his social thought with regards to sexual morality and issues related to reproduction and birth.
The economic crises in the recent past have led to a renewed interest in exploring the role of spirituality in business management. However there are several challenges in understanding what “spirituality” means in an operational sense of business management. This article first traces the research in the area of spirituality as applied to business and in the second part, reports on the beliefs of Suresh B. Hundre, Chairman and MD of Polyhydron Pvt. Ltd, Belgaum, India, as practised in Polyhyd...
In his late work Michel Foucault stressed the importance of parrhesia (libertas, franc-parler, frankness of speech) in the philosophical practices of the Anciens, through a broader reflection on "spirituality" inspired chiefly by the work of Pierre Hadot. The notion of parrhesia emerges as an interesting matter also in a approach of Montaigne's Essays, where we can recognize a series of "spiritual exercises", in the sense given to the expression by Hadot: practices, not only intellectual, int...
Morris, J M
Affiliation, loss of affiliation, and the associated effects on homeless individuals were assessed via a survey of 230 homeless adults in Florida. Women accompanied by dependent children, unaccompanied women, and unaccompanied men were compared regarding levels of affiliation and associations among affiliation, self-esteem, and locus of control. The women accompanied by children maintained more family contacts and had higher levels of self-esteem; for the group, locus of control was more external than for either the unaccompanied women or the unaccompanied men. Women with children also had the lowest median number of days homeless and the highest average monthly incomes.
Spirituality is an idea that has sustained significant interest in nursing over the past quarter century. Extensive conceptual work has generated robust critique around clarity and professional jurisdictional claims. However, less attention has been paid to the challenges nursing has faced that have contributed to the spirituality quest. Reflecting on my own experiences as a scholar writing in this literature over the past decade, I suggest three challenges that spirituality has attempted to redress: to relate across difference in a globalized world, to be good in a world of uncertain morality and to find meaning in a disenchanted world. The idea of spirituality could be viewed as resistance against othering, against law based ethics, and against politics and power. But the impact of the idea of spirituality has yet to be determined and caution is in order. As important as this resistance is, nursing must refrain from creating a new world of insiders and outsiders and from minimizing the role of religious ethics in a globalized world. Spirituality, like its predecessor religion, will likely continue to play an enduring role in providing fundamental meaning for nursing work. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Roser, Traugott; Jobin, Guy
This article elaborates on the hazards of spiritual history taking. It provides expert insights to consider before entering the field. In summer 2012, a group of spiritual care experts were invited to discuss the complexity of taking spiritual histories in a manner of hermeneutic circle. Thematic analysis was applied to define the emerging themes. The results demonstrate that taking a spiritual history is a complex and challenging task, requiring a number of personal qualities of the interviewer, such as 'being present', 'not only hearing, but listening', 'understanding the message beyond the words uttered', and 'picking up the words to respond'. To 'establish a link of sharing', the interviewer is expected 'to go beyond the ethical stance of neutrality'. The latter may cause several dilemmas, such as 'fear of causing more problems', 'not daring to take it further', and above all, 'being ambivalent about one's role'. Interviewer has to be careful in terms of the 'patient's vulnerability'. To avoid causing harm, it is essential to propose 'a follow-up contract' that allows responding to 'patient's yearning for genuine care'. These findings combined with available literature suggest that the quality of spiritual history taking will remain poor unless the health-care professionals revise the meaning of spirituality and the art of caring on individual level.
Full Text Available Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4. Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001, depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01, and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01. Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly.
White, Mary L; Schim, Stephanie Myers
Development of a valid, reliable instrument to measure spiritual self-care practices of patients with heart failure. African American patients (N = 142) with heart failure participated in the study. Spiritual advisors from several religious groups reviewed the Spiritual Self-Care Practices Scale (SSCPS) for content validity. Construct validity was determined using a principal components factor analysis. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Religious advisors provided suggestions to improve content validity. Four factors consistent with spiritual practices (personal spiritual practices, spiritual practices, physical spiritual practices, and interpersonal spiritual practices) emerged from the factor analysis. The alpha coefficient was moderate at 0.64. Results indicated the SSCPS was reliable and valid for measuring spiritual self-care practices among African Americans with heart failure. Additional testing is needed to confirm results in other patient groups with chronic illnesses.
Reinert, Katia Garcia; Koenig, Harold G
To discuss the definition of spirituality and its limitations for nursing research. It proposes a definition that will capture more accurately the role of spirituality in health outcomes. Studies have increasingly examined spirituality in nursing research as a coping mechanism attenuating the negative impact of traumatic stress on mental health. Existing definitions of spirituality in nursing research include elements of positive emotional states (meaning, purpose, general well-being) which confound mental health outcomes. Medline and CINAHL databases were searched from 2007-2011 for research articles examining spirituality definitions and measures used by nurse researchers. An analysis of the definitions of spirituality in nursing research reveals inconsistencies and confounding mental health concepts. The authors propose defining spirituality in the context of religious involvement when conducting research, while using a broader definition of spirituality when providing spiritual care. They argue such definition provides a more appropriate method of measuring this concept in research aimed at evaluating mental health outcomes while preserving the currently used patient-defined definition of spirituality when providing spiritual care. A consistent definition of spirituality in nursing research evaluating mental health outcomes, distinct from 'spiritual care' in a clinical setting, is essential to avoid tautological results that are meaningless. Appropriate definitions will enable nursing researchers to more clearly identify resilience mechanisms and improved health outcomes in those exposed to traumatic stress. A definition of spirituality that focuses on religious involvement provides a more uniform and consistent measure for evaluating mental health outcomes in nursing research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hermann, C P
To identify dying patients' definitions of spirituality and their spiritual needs. Descriptive, qualitative. Participants' places of residence. 19 hospice patients (10 females and 9 males), mean age 72, with a range of length of time as a hospice patient of 2 weeks to 12 months. Semistructured interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed to reduce data into codes and themes. Data were coded by extracting verbatim phrases used to describe spirituality and spiritual needs. Themes emerged from the data as commonalities among the codes developed. Meaning of "spiritual" and perceived spiritual needs. Participants initially defined spiritual as relating to God or religion; however, as interviews progressed, it was apparent that their spirituality was a part of their total existence. Twenty-nine unique spiritual needs were identified and grouped into six themes: need for religion, need for companionship, need for involvement and control, need to finish business, need to experience nature, and need for positive outlook. Participants perceived spirituality as a broad concept that may or may not involve religion. Spiritual needs were likewise broad in scope and were linked closely to purpose and meaning in life. Spiritual care of dying patients is within the scope of nursing practice. Spiritual needs are quite varied and encompass more than religion. If nurses are to enhance the quality of life of dying patients, spiritual needs must be addressed.
Full Text Available This paper presents the qualitative findings from the first national survey of New Zealand nurses’ views on spirituality and spiritual care. The importance of spirituality as a core aspect of holistic nursing care is gaining momentum. Little is currently known about New Zealand nurses’ understandings, perceptions and experience of spirituality. Design: A descriptive online survey. Method: A random sample of 2000 individuals resident in New Zealand whose occupation on the New Zealand electoral roll suggested nursing was their current or past occupation were invited via postcard to participate in an online survey. This paper reports on the free response section of the survey. Findings: Overall, 472 invitees responded (24.1%. From the respondents, 63% completed at least one of the optional free response sections. Thematic analysis generated three metathemes: ‘The role of spirituality in nursing practice’, ‘Enabling best practice’, and ‘Creating a supportive culture’. Conclusions: Spirituality was predominantly valued as a core aspect of holistic nursing care. However, clarity is needed surrounding what constitutes spiritual care and how this intersects with professional responsibilities and boundaries. Participants’ insights suggest a focus on improving the consistency and quality of spiritual care by fostering inter-professional collaboration, and improved provision of resources and educational opportunities.
Promotion of students' spiritual development is one of the goals of pastoral care in schools. The heritage of Chinese calligraphy is traditionally used as a way to enhance an individual's self-reflection and cultivation, and has an educational value in spiritual development. This study aims to examine the cultural meaning of Chinese calligraphy…
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over…
Adams, Kate; Bull, Rebecca; Maynes, Mary-Louise
Early years education is a holistic endeavour, with some education policies including spiritual development as part of that approach. However, studies exploring the spirituality of young children are scarce, which limits understanding of the phenomenon and its full application in educational settings. Furthermore, nurturing children's spiritual…
This article argues relational consciousness of Self and Other is influenced by multiple significant relationships--what are termed "Spiritual Friends". The research on which this article is based explores the spirituality of children within the context of British urban secondary education, and identifies significant relationships in…
Fatma Laili Khoirun Nida
Full Text Available Kehendak untuk maksud kehidupan adalah motivasi fundamental hadir dalam setiap individu. Pemenuhan kebutuhan ini berpunca dari tiga nilai-nilai which termasuk: nilai- nilai kreatif, nilai- nilai experiental, dan nilai-nilai sikap. Sumber makna nilai-nilai hidup akan actualized dengan bantuan peran kualitas spiritual yang berpotensi hadir dalam setiap individu sebagai quetion shape spiritual. Dengan mengadopsi logoanalisis dasar teoretis dikembangkan oleh Victor E. Frankl dalam metode terapis meaningfulness kehidupan, di mana Frankl percaya bahwa semua aspek-aspek arti hidup menyimpan. Arti hidup untuk dapat dicapai akan diwujudkan dengan bantuan quetion rohani yang melekat pada setiap individu. Justru itu, quetion rohani berkontribusi terhadap pencapaian meaningfulness kehidupan, dalam peran yang dia dapat menjadi media, control dan petunjuk bagi individu dalam dinamika kehidupan, sehingga masing- masing dalam keadaan apa pun dengan tetap menjaga kualitas keberadaan manusia sebagai intelektual, emosi dan rohani agar ia dapat mencapai maksud kehidupan. Kata Kunci: Peran, Kecerdasan Spiritual, Kebermaknaan Hidup THE ROLE OF THE SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF MEANINGFULLNESS. The will to meaning of life is the fundamental motivation present in every individual. The fulfillment of these need system from the three valueswhich include: the creative values, experiental values, and attitudinal values. The source of the meaning of life values that will be actualized with the help of the role of spiritual qualities that are potentially present in every individual as a shaper of spiritual quetion. By adopting the theoretical basic logo analysis developed by Victor E. Franklin therapeutic methods meaning fulness of life, where Frankl believes that all aspects of the meaning of life saving. Meaning of life to be achieved will be realized with the help of spiritual quetion inherent in each individual. Thus
Sherman, Gary D; Rice, Leslie K; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation. First, men were more affiliative toward their dogs after victory, whereas women were more affiliative after defeat. Second, the greater a female competitor's increase in cortisol, the more time she spent affiliating with her dog, whereas for men, the pattern was the exact opposite: the greater a male competitor's increase in cortisol, the less time he spent affiliating with his dog. This pattern suggests that, in the wake of competition, men and women's affiliative behavior may serve different functions-shared celebration for men; shared consolation for women. These sex differences show not only that men and women react very differently to victory and defeat, but also that equivalent changes in cortisol across the sexes are associated with strikingly different behavioral consequences for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisition of affiliates. 1735.76 Section 1735.76... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Acquisitions Involving Loan Funds § 1735.76 Acquisition of affiliates. A borrower shall not use RUS loan funds to acquire...
... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1019.202-70-3 Non-affiliation. For purposes of the Small Business Act, a protégé firm may not be considered an affiliate of a mentor firm solely on the basis that... mentor firm under the Program. ...
... PROGRAM Claims Procedures § 50.55 Determination of Affiliations. For the purposes of subpart F, an insurer's affiliates for any Program Year shall be determined by the circumstances existing on the date of occurrence of the act of terrorism that is the first act of terrorism in a Program Year to be certified by...
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for affiliated providers. 422.354... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.354 Requirements for affiliated providers. A PSO that consists of two or more providers must demonstrate to CMS'S...
The challenge is ever present for NAEYC's chapter Affiliates to find new members who want to make a commitment to the organization and to have fresh, innovative ideas that will sustain local groups. Involving undergraduates in local Affiliates contributes to preparing the next generation of leaders, a necessary strategy for preserving and…
... evidence sufficient to: (i) Establish the identity and cultural characteristics of the earlier group, (ii... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lineal descent and cultural affiliation... GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation...
Mann, L.; Feddes, A.R.; Doosje, B.; Fischer, A.H.
Initiation rituals can take different forms and empirical evidence is inconsistent as to whether these rituals promote affiliation among novices. We argue that experienced humiliation during initiations leads to less affiliation among novices, in particular when one is initiated as sole group member
The thesis deals with the area of affiliate marketing from the sight of the affiliate seller and also from the sight of the affiliate company. In the theoretical part the notion affiliate marketing is characterized and fundamental subjects of affiliate marketing are defined. Furthermore, there is outlined dilemma of the affiliate companies, which deal with affiliate sales of flight tickets in Czech Republic. In the practical part the pieces of knowledge from the theoretical part are applied a...
One of the main goals of spiritual care is to elicit the patient's own power. Previously, religious professionals encouraged people to believe in God, Buddha, or spiritual beings and helped those who were suffering. The power to recover was believed to come from outside human beings. For example, the foremost role of hospital chaplains in the past was to pray to a transcendental being (s) with those who were suffering. When resilience was expected, the first thing to do was to rely on the transcendental being (s). In contrast, the priority in contemporary spiritual care is to trust the resilience of those with difficulties, even when the concerned believe in a transcendental power. The emphasis is on human beings and things which can be seen, rather than transcendental beings. Through this kind of expectation, resilience is to be expected and becomes a source of hope. However, there may be cases in which resilience does not grow. On caring for the dying or those with marked grief, just facing spiritual pain may be the prevalent situation. Care workers need to accept the reality that overcoming spiritual pain is not easy. Then, the paradox is that facing weakness itself can become a source of power. This may be experienced in spiritual care, and it helps elucidate an aspect of resilience. The author's position is that there are many cases in which power is elicited from weakness. Examples are found through the activities to provide aid following the Great East Japan Earthquake, in the spiritual care of dying persons at home, as well as in the care of psychiatric patients who are liberated from the obsession that they must be cured.
Hugo H. Rabbia
Full Text Available We analyze the individual motives of political party affiliation as a central variable that help us to characterize the party affiliation as a practice and as belonging to a party organization. The study was conducted through questionnaires, and the sample was integrated by 428 citizens over 18 and under 65 years old, from Cordoba, Argentina. We propose a categorization of the motives of affiliation, inductively constructed, that recovers the theoretical conceptualization from the sociology of the organizations and the socio-cognitive psychology. Likewise, we analyze the relationship between the different affiliation motives, the party and electoral practices, and the perception of efficiency and importance that the affiliation has for the participants.
Yilmaz, Meryem; Gurler, Hesna
Attention to patients' spirituality, as a moral obligation of care, is now widely accepted in nursing practice. However, until recently, many nursing programs have paid little attention to spirituality. The objective of this study was to identify the impact of two different curricula, used to teach undergraduate nursing students, on increasing nursing student awareness of spirituality in the care of patients. A quasi-experimental post-intervention two-group design was conducted in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 academic years. The study included a total of 130 volunteer senior-year students. The students were assigned as "the intervention group/integrated system" that were informed about spirituality or as "the control group/traditional system" that received no information on spirituality. Data were collected via a personal information form and the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale was used to assess responses. The study was conducted at the Department of Nursing of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Cumhuriyet University, in Central Anatolia/Turkey. Permission to conduct the study at the nursing school was obtained from the schools' management teams. The rights of the participants were protected in this study by obtaining informed consent. The results revealed that the intervention group had a higher mean score on the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale than did the control group. The students in the intervention group defined the terms of spirituality and spiritual care more accurately than did the control group students. Nurses are professionally and ethically responsible for providing spiritual care. Nurses' competence in meeting the spiritual needs of their patients should be improved by undergraduate education on spiritual care. Nursing scholars reported a significant difference in the knowledge and attitudes toward spirituality of nursing students as a result of the integration of spirituality into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Spirituality
Full Text Available The characteristic direction of psychological and theological interpretations of spirituality is very important. The traditional psychological approach to the spiritual sphere is characterised by reductionism, which consists in reducing spiritual experiences to mental experiences, or even biological processes. The studies in the field of religion psychology led to distinguish between two types of spirituality. The first one is theocentric spirituality, where human being places God in the centre of his interest and life in general. The second type of spirituality is anthropocentric spirituality, focused on human being, his own aspirations, preferences and needs. Both types of spirituality have certain value. Their close characteristics includes sources of inspiration, purpose, presented image of God, as well as understanding of spirituality and manner of realizing spiritual life. In order to distinguish between two types of spirituality, anthropocentric and theocentric, in practice, a proper research method – Range of Theocentric and Anthropocentric Spirituality (SDT – DA had to be developed. The individuals with theocentric spirituality displayed a higher level of stability and emotional balance, better social adjustment, higher sense of duty and attachment to acceptable social standards, deeper and more satisfactory contacts with other human beings, more trust and openness towards others, as well as higher trust to themselves and to God. Such individuals are better at handling difficulties and have optimistic attitude to life.
Ferrell, Betty; Wittenberg, Elaine; Battista, Vanessa; Walker, Gay
The goal of this study was to explore nurse experiences in communication with children about spiritual topics in order to develop training in this area. Although spiritual care is essential in pediatric palliative care, few providers receive training about communication with ill children about spirituality. Researchers developed a brief survey to prompt nurses to reflect on pediatric palliative care experiences that included spiritual discussions. Nurses attending training courses voluntarily submitted stories. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed by members of the research team, consisting of two researchers with expertise in palliative care, spirituality, and communication and two expert pediatric palliative care clinicians. Nurses' spiritual conversations with children revealed that children question God and the reason for their illness, have a desire to talk about the afterlife as a way of understanding their limited lifespan, and to share descriptions of an afterlife, in these cases described as heaven. Nurses conveyed the importance of being present and engaging in spiritual communication with children. Communication training is needed and should prepare providers to respond to a child's spiritual questioning, assist parents when the child initiates discussion about the afterlife, and help parent and child understand the spiritual meaning of their illness. Chaplains serve as spiritual care experts and can help train nurses to screen for spiritual distress, have greater competence in spiritual communication, and to collaborate with chaplains in care. Quality palliative care is incomplete without attention to spiritual care.
Dagmar Anna S. Corry
Full Text Available While the beneficial effects on mental health of spirituality and creativity as separate entities have been well documented, little attention has been given to the interactive effect of the two constructs in coping. Recently, the theory of transformative coping and associated Transformative Coping Model have been developed and examined from both theoretical and quantitative perspectives. To extend this work, the present study critically examined the theory of transformative coping and associated Transformative Coping Model from a qualitative perspective. Ten interviews were conducted among Northern Irish and Irish artists, contemplative prayer group members, and mental health service users. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The results showed that the majority of participants had experienced stress and trauma, and have suffered mental ill-health as a consequence. Most defined themselves as both creative and spiritual, and resorted to a spiritual attitude along with creative expression in order to cope with traumatic events and ongoing stressful situations. Most participants believed that their creativity was rooted in their spirituality and that the application of both helped them to transform negative emotional states into positive ones. This, in turn, gave them increased resilience to and a different perspective of stressful events, which aided and improved their coping skills throughout the lifespan.
Greeson, Jeffrey M; Smoski, Moria J; Suarez, Edward C; Brantley, Jeffrey G; Ekblad, Andrew G; Lynch, Thomas R; Wolever, Ruth Quillian
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a secular meditation training program that reduces depressive symptoms. Little is known, however, about the degree to which a participant's spiritual and religious background, or other demographic characteristics associated with risk for depression, may affect the effectiveness of MBSR. Therefore, this study tested whether individual differences in religiosity, spirituality, motivation for spiritual growth, trait mindfulness, sex, and age affect MBSR effectiveness. As part of an open trial, multiple regression was used to analyze variation in depressive symptom outcomes among 322 adults who enrolled in an 8-week, community-based MBSR program. As hypothesized, depressive symptom severity decreased significantly in the full study sample (d=0.57; pmindfulness, or demographic variables. Paired t tests found consistent, statistically significant (pmindfulness (β=-0.17; pmeditation training program, is associated with improved depressive symptoms regardless of affiliation with a religion, sense of spirituality, trait level of mindfulness before MBSR training, sex, or age. Increases in both mindfulness and daily spiritual experiences uniquely explained improvement in depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available The awareness of God departed from religion which becomes introverted understanding in one’s experience. Appreciation of God should not be limited to the value of formalities by simply doing spirituality teaching, but also the embodiment of spiritual experience of God. The constellation of religious values is not just about understanding and appreciation but also achieve esoteric experience, so as to reveal its meaning for deeper appreciation, recognition and encounter with Him. Esoteric aspect of religion has become an important goal in the appreciation of spiritual experience ascent and acquisition with cleaning bonds which related to plurality and turned it from horizontal dimension senses to the vertical dimension of the universe to reach the consciousness of mortality. If God wills, there will be an incline in spiritual sensing sharpness until one can see, watch, or feel the real evidence from God about the things that are obviously high, so that the faith based on mukâshafah, ma‘rifah, and mushâhadah namely faith through spiritual vision to arrive at the essence.
Hills, Judith; Paice, Judith A; Cameron, Jacqueline R; Shott, Susan
One's spirituality or religious beliefs and practices may have a profound impact on how the individual copes with the suffering that so often accompanies advanced disease. Several previous studies suggest that negative religious coping can significantly affect health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between spirituality, religious coping, and symptoms of distress among a group of inpatients referred to the palliative care consult service. Pilot study. The study was conducted in a large academic medical center with a comprehensive Palliative Care and Home Hospice Program. (1) National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Management Assessment Tool; (2) Pargament Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE); (3) Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp); (4) Puchalski's FICA; and (5) Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF). The 31 subjects surveyed experienced moderate distress (5.8 +/- 2.7), major physical and psychosocial symptom burden, along with reduced function and significant caregiving needs. The majority (87.2%) perceived themselves to be at least somewhat spiritual, with 77.4% admitting to being at least somewhat religious. Negative religious coping (i.e., statements regarding punishment or abandonment by God) was positively associated with distress, confusion, depression, and negatively associated with physical and emotional well-being, as well as quality of life. Palliative care clinicians should be alert to symptoms of spiritual distress and intervene accordingly. Future research is needed to identify optimal techniques to address negative religious coping.
Monareng, Lydia V
Although the concept 'spiritual nursing care' has its roots in the history of the nursing profession, many nurses in practice have difficulty integrating the concept into practice. There is an ongoing debate in the empirical literature about its definition, clarity and application in nursing practice. The study aimed to develop an operational definition of the concept and its application in clinical practice. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe how professional nurses render spiritual nursing care. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit the sample. Individual and focus group interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Trustworthiness was ensured through strategies of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Data were analysed using the NUD*IST power version 4 software, constant comparison, open, axial and selective coding. Tech's eight steps of analysis were also used, which led to the emergence of themes, categories and sub-categories. Concept analysis was conducted through a comprehensive literature review and as a result 'caring presence' was identified as the core variable from which all the other characteristics of spiritual nursing care arise. An operational definition of spiritual nursing care based on the findings was that humane care is demonstrated by showing caring presence, respect and concern for meeting the needs not only of the body and mind of patients, but also their spiritual needs of hope and meaning in the midst of health crisis, which demand equal attention for optimal care from both religious and nonreligious nurses.
Park, Julie J.; Dizon, Jude Paul Matias
This chapter describes how race, ethnicity, religion, and spirituality uniquely interact for Asian American college students, including a discussion of the diverse religious and spiritual backgrounds of this population.
Nurses have the opportunity to companion patients on their spiritual journey during illness. The author, a nurse and spiritual director, relays the use of Ignatian Contemplation to help a friend journeying through the experience of renal carcinoma.
Brelsford, Gina M; Mahoney, Annette
This study examines the role of spiritual disclosure within older adolescent-mother relationships. Spiritual disclosure is defined as mutual disclosure of personal religious and spiritual beliefs and practices. Three hundred 18- to 20-year-old college students and 130 of their mothers reported on spiritual disclosure in their relationships. According to both parties, greater spiritual disclosure was related to higher relationship satisfaction, greater use of collaborative conflict resolution strategies, less dysfunctional communication patterns, less verbal aggression, and increased general disclosure in mother-adolescent relationships beyond global religiousness and demographics. Spiritual disclosure also predicted unique variance in collaborative conflict resolution strategies beyond these factors and general disclosure. The findings underscore the value of attending to the interpersonal dimension of religion/spirituality. More specifically, the results suggest that spiritual disclosure is an indicator of relationship quality, one that is tied to better relationship functioning, and one that merits further attention in studies of family dynamics.
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Gober-Park, Carla; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Mamier, Iris; Somaiya, Chintan K; Bahjri, Khaled
This study measured the frequency of nurse-provided spiritual care and how it is associated with various facets of nurse religiosity. Data were collected using an online survey accessed from the home page of the Journal of Christian Nursing. The survey included the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale, six scales quantifying facets of religiosity, and demographic and work-related items. Respondents ( N = 358) indicated high religiosity yet reported neutral responses to items about sharing personal beliefs and tentativeness of belief. Findings suggested spiritual care was infrequent. Multivariate analysis showed prayer frequency, employer support of spiritual care, and non-White ethnicity were significantly associated with spiritual care frequency (adjusted R 2 = .10). Results not only provide an indication of spiritual care frequency but empirical encouragement for nurse managers to provide a supportive environment for spiritual care. Findings expose the reality that nurse religiosity is directly related, albeit weakly, to spiritual care frequency.
Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference
Bartholow, Bruce D; Loersch, Chris; Ito, Tiffany A; Levsen, Meredith P; Volpert-Esmond, Hannah I; Fleming, Kimberly A; Bolls, Paul; Carter, Brooke K
We tested whether affiliating beer brands with universities enhances the incentive salience of those brands for underage drinkers. In Study 1, 128 undergraduates viewed beer cues while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results showed that beer cues paired with in-group backgrounds (logos for students' universities) evoked an enhanced P3 ERP component, a neural index of incentive salience. This effect varied according to students' levels of identification with their university, and the amplitude of the P3 response prospectively predicted alcohol use over 1 month. In Study 2 ( N = 104), we used a naturalistic advertisement exposure to experimentally create in-group brand associations and found that this manipulation caused an increase in the incentive salience of the beer brand. These data provide the first evidence that marketing beer via affiliating it with students' universities enhances the incentive salience of the brand for underage students and that this effect has implications for their alcohol involvement.
Hareli, Shlomo; David, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula
Individuals who show anger are rated as higher in dominance and lower in affiliation, whereas those who express sadness are rated lower in dominance and higher in affiliation. Little is known about situations where people show both expressions in sequence as happens when a first emotional reaction is followed by a second, different one. This question was examined in two studies. Overall, we found that the last emotion shown had a strong impact on perceived behavioural intentions. However, the information about the previously shown emotion was also integrated. The specific mode of integration was dependent on the salience of the change and naive theories about the type of person who changes their emotion in the face of changing events.
Full Text Available The aim of this review article is describing a research on spiritual and religious interventions in Iran. An integrative review was conducted to determine the state of the science in Iran. Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database, Irandoc, Noormags, Magiran and Google scholar were searched to find articles published in peer-reviewed journals from August 2002 to August 2012. A qualitative approach utilizing content analysis was used in the review. Overall, 21 articles on spiritual and religious interventions in Iran's health care system which met the search criteria were included from 800,000 records in 438 journals. The review shows that there are at least four overarching themes of spiritual and religious interventions: spiritual and religious behaviours, spiritual care as part of a holistic caring approach, spiritual/religious therapy as an effective healing technique, and patients’ spiritual needs. These themes are linked and interrelated. The main concern for caregivers was “hanging on to spirituality” in spite of the eroding effects on spiritual beliefs caused by different factors in the health care system. Spirituality plays an important role in the way people live and die. The majority of the research on spiritual and religious interventions in Iran’s health care system focuses on patients’ need toward spiritual care and health professionals’ spiritual approach, as well as factors that influence their spirituality. More research is needed on the factors that influence patients’ spiritual needs, spirituality among health care providers, and interventions to engender spiritual and religious interventions in the health care system.
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Forms for Affiliate Marketing Opt-Out...-Affiliate Notice) [Your Choice to Limit Marketing]/[Marketing Opt-out] — [Name of Affiliate] is providing... marketing from our affiliates.] — You may limit our affiliates in the [ABC] group of companies, such as our...
Full Text Available Background: In order for nursing education to prepare nurses for holistic patient care, it is critical that educators become more aware of the religious and spiritual dimensions in patien tcare and be able to provide adequate knowledge and skills for nurses to offer spiritually-basedc are in an ethical way. Furthermore, spiritual care is an essential component in the nursing context, as nurses have to care for patients who may often turn to the spiritual dimension to cope and heal. These aspects are important issues to be considered in planning what should be taught as part of spiritual care. Objectives: This paper presents findings from a study on nursing practitioners’ views on the role of spiritual care in nursing practice and whether current nursing education has integrated this dimension into teaching. Method: A descriptive survey using a cross-sectional design with 385 nurses was conducted between December 2012 and February 2013. Participants were recruited through multistage random sampling. Data analysis was undertaken using SSPS 0.20. Results: All the participants (n = 385 concurred that spiritual care was a salient component of holistic patient care. They however stated that the primary barriers to providing spiritual care related to uncertainty on how to provide this type of care, and a lack of educational preparedness for this role. Conclusion: The study found that nurses were very accepting of the need for spiritual care as part of their nursing role but that nursing education had not paid adequate attention to integrating this dimension into the nursing curriculum.
Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance
The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life.
Abstract: This paper discusses the spiritual intelligence as the ultimate intelligence which exceeds the IQ and EQ. IQ or intelligence quotient is a form of intelligence that based on reasoning, intellectual ratio, which is a linear way of thinking that in-cludes the ability to count, analyze to evaluate. While EQ or Emotional Quotient based on emotional, namely the intelligence which is capable to control emotions and give empathy so a person is able to act natural. Therefore the true nature of the SQ or spiritual intelligence quotient was based on the soul. This intelligence makes people to have the ability to find meaning in life, as well as refine the manners. According to Danah Zohar SQ as the ultimate intelligence means that the meaning of life is the first and foremost goal of life for humans. Only intelligent people spiritually who can give meaning in his life.
Quest, Tammie E; Franks, Nicole M
Cultural, spiritual, and religious diversity of emergency department patients is increasing while that of emergency physicians in particular remains predominantly homogeneous. With a discordance of cultural, race, and ethnicity exist, in the case of ethical conflict -resolution becomes that much more difficult. Patients may feel vulnerable when their emergency care provider does not understand his or her cultural, spiritual, and religious uniqueness as it relates to the patient-doctor interaction and health care decision making. This review will examine (1) language differences; (2) cultural, religious, and spiritual differences between patient and provider; (3) differing explanatory models of disease between patient and provider; and (4) diverse bioethical models of decision making of differing cultures in an effort to reduce vulnerabilities.
Dennis, Kristopher; Duncan, Graeme
Increasingly, oncology is practiced within multicultural environments. All aspects of care, including spiritual care should be delivered to patients with cancer in a culturally sensitive manner. In this article, we discuss the influence of culture on patients with cancer throughout the disease process by highlighting relevant reports in the literature. Most articles focussing on culture and oncology are single-author or single-institution narrative reports pertaining to experiences with an individual racial, ethnic, religious or minority patient group. The majority of articles are found within the palliative care and nursing literature. Health-related values vary widely across cultures, and the experience of spiritual care in oncology differs greatly across cultural groups. Although culture is generally recognized as an important health determinant that impacts the experience of care, the extent of different cultural influences is not well understood due to a paucity of relevant data, and reports on resources and educational strategies to optimize culturally competent spiritual care are similarly lacking.
Sharon Moloney PhD
Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.
J. L. van der Walt
Full Text Available Mainstream religions and their institutions have since the 1960s been gradually bleeding to death because of their members leaving them in search of rather more inspirational experiences elsewhere. Christian educationists are concerned about this development, because it means that these churches have been losing their capacity for entering into meaningful tripartite pedagogical partnerships with family and school. A description of the problem of churches losing members is followed by a brief depiction of spirituality, something that can be experienced both within Christianity and elsewhere. The inability of main- stream churches to let their members experience true Christian spirituality compels the latter to go elsewhere in search of it. It is concluded that spirituality is no “new” religion after all as far as Christianity is concerned. It is in fact the quintessence of Christianity, but has through the ages become deeply buried in the mainstream religions and churches under thick layers of dogmatic and other superficialities.
Puchalski, Christina M; Dorff, Rabbi Elliot; Hendi, Imam Yahya
In end-of-life care, attending to spiritual needs ensures that a dying patient has the opportunity to find meaning in the midst of suffering and to have the opportunity for love, compassion, and partnership in their final journey. This article summarizes some of the beliefs and traditions from Judaism, Islam, and Christianity that affect people as they face their own dying and mortality. People who do not participate in any formal religion also have a drive to find meaning in the midst of suffering and dying. They may find this in personal ways. This article presents some practical tools to help clinicians address and respect spiritual and religious issues of patients. It is crucial that our culture and our systems of care for the dying include a spiritual approach so that dying can be meaningful and even filled with hope.
Buzzanell, Patrice M.
Spirituality offers a range of connections--to oneself, others, organizations, a higher being--that may shift over the course of an individual's lifetime. The spiritual values of compassion, humility, and simplicity are a basis on which spiritual practices and identities form and grow. In turn, practices and identities shape the meanings and…
Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz
Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
This paper explores the prominence of spirituality in social work practice. It maintains that spirituality is a very critical aspect of social work and the two must never be detached. It is also the authors' contention that the centrality of spirituality in social work is not a well taught and well researched area in Zimbabwe. Just like ...
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Spirituality , Human Spirit, Religion , Moral Injury 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...Family Fitness, Spirituality , Human Spirit, Religion , Moral Injury Classification: Unclassified This paper explores...conduct. Spirituality is a component of soldier fitness but there is no direct reference to God or religion in the Army’s latest capstone document the
Horan, Anne Puidk
Christian education seeks to foster millennials' spiritual formation to equip them for future challenges and to benefit society. Using nonexperimental mixed methods, 504 secondary educators revealed what spiritual formation programs their schools implement and their perceptions about millennial spiritual formation. Descriptive analysis showed that…
Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…
Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence
Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…
Spirituality is gaining popularity within academics as discussions regarding the importance of spirituality within leadership and education increases. A biblical anthropology embraces human nature as physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual with recognition that adults are capable of learning within each of those realms. Embracing humans are…
Spirituality is recognised by many to be an inherent property of the human being. Empirical studies and theoretical literature both suggest that spirituality affects one's quality of life in terms of emotional and physical well-being, relationships, and social inclusion. However, the importance of the spiritual dimension of life is rarely…
Spirituality and ultimacy are inextricably linked. Underlying the plurality of spiritualities are myriad ways to construe the identity of the transcendent. In a Christian sense, the notion of the divine with a Trinitarian identification is central. The article examines the implications of such a naming of God for spirituality. Attention is ...
Palmer, Anthony J.
Spirituality and religion are not synonymous and, in fact, require not only different definitions but also appropriate vocabulary. A deeper discussion of the issues concerning spirituality ensues in several sections: 1) fundamental differences between spirituality and religion; 2) brain operations relative to transcendent states; 3) a definition…
Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.
We present the results of a qualitative, phenomenological research study that explored the spiritual dynamics of 13 overseas student teachers. Overall, participants in our sample described spiritual growth on two levels. First, they related that spiritual development often followed an inside-out pattern. In explaining this phenomenon, students…
Daniels, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn
In recent decades, spirituality has become a prominent focus of psychological inquiry. As research begins to elucidate the role of spiritual beliefs and behaviours in mental health and the influences of spirituality in psychotherapy, developing therapist competency in this domain has increased in importance. This article will first situate…
English, Leona M.; Cameron, Paula
This chapter proposes a spiritually relevant and social justice pedagogy that assists learners in making the transition to the workplace. Key elements of this spirituality include religion, cultural diversity, identity, health, and social class. Pedagogical strategies for infusing this spirituality in the curriculum are given.
Spirituality and healing are two distinct realities in form and nature. While healing deals practically with physical bodily disorders, spirituality concerns the sacred and the supernatural aspects of human life. The study is devoted to the uncommon relationship between spirituality and healing and
Friso, Valeria; Caldin, Roberta
In this short article, the authors focus on religious and spiritual education's potential to offer social and spiritual inclusion for students with a disability. They take the view that the religious and spiritual education teacher in such situations is positioned better when seeing such teaching as a special vocation. They use Italy as the case…
Hodge, David R.
Although social work is witnessing growing interest in spiritual and religious issues, little guidance has appeared in the literature to assist practitioners in addressing the unique spirituality of rapidly increasing non-Western populations. This article discusses the significant cultural/spiritual beliefs, practices, and values of Hindus, the…
... divine human relational process. A dialogue of spirituality and exegesis is needed. For doing research a threefold competence is needed: in exegesis, in spirituality and in the integration of these two. The final section is about intertextuality. Intertextuality may help to understand the spiritual process in reading biblical texts.
Looks at the spiritual dimensions of nursing at various historical periods: ancient civilizations, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and the 18th and 19th centuries. Reviews contemporary perspectives on spirituality and nursing and suggests how nurses can be equipped to deal with patients' spiritual needs. (SK)
SPIRITUALITY, THEOLOGY AND THE. CRITICAL MIND. P.G.R. de Villiers1. ABSTRACT. This essay investigates aspects of the critical nature of spirituality as a ... implicating nature of the critical mind in terms of the spirituality of the researcher ..... liberative, compassionate, healing, and nurturing images assume signifi-.
Spiritual formation is a significant component of the educational work of a theological institution that prepares students for church leadership. Theological institutions have a responsibility to engage students in reflecting on the spiritual life, to provide opportunities for students, to deepen their spiritual journeys and to develop ...
Three approaches are used for coming towards a definition of Biblical spirituality. The first approach is from lived spirituality. We see always a bipolarity of text and reader. The reader attributes meaning to the text guided by the data of the text. The second approach is the analysis of literature discussing Biblical spirituality.
Poor drug adherence is a major problem in the care of HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment. Spirituality is one of the several factors that affects ... The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy- Spirituality (FACIT-Sp) tool was used to determine their level of spirituality. Participants were classified as having high or ...
Mambu, Joseph Ernest
This article aims to better understand constraints (e.g., hostility toward spirituality) and opportunities that may affect teacher-student and student-student relations as spiritually informed ELT curriculum is negotiated. Viewed more broadly, spirituality aims to foster the ability to see one's own religious positioning in relation to other…
Full Text Available Spirituality, as it is presented in this article, can serve as an antidote to an all too disrespectful attitude towards our fellow human beings, towards life in general. Spirituality might unite a greater part of the world in the battle for survival. Our world, Gaia, is threatened, as we all know. Apart from the usual disasters as seemingly never-ending wars and conflicts we now also have to confront global threats such as climate changes, global pollution, and food distribution problems. In such a world everything has to be done in order to promote the fundamental idea that we only have one planet and one humanity.Spirituality addresses such issues. The purpose of this paper is to show that people who express the view that they are ‘spiritual, not religious’, people belonging to what can be called the new spirituality, despite their aversion to institutionalized religion nevertheless exhibit elements in their belief-systems that are closely related to the great mystical traditions in world religion. These common denominators are, a good ground for dialogue. When theologians from especially the theistic traditions more often than not search for differences, mystics and representatives for the new spirituality are more inclined to find commonalities. At a time when elements of traditional Christianity such as the belief in a transcendent God show signs of being in decline, there seems to be an increasing interest in the predominant mystical and panentheistic view of God, stating that God is both immanent and transcendent.
Tedrus, Glória Maria Almeida Souza; Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; Höehr, Gabriela Chaves
Do epilepsy and spirituality interact? This study aimed to determine whether an easy-to-administer scale, such as the spirituality self-rating scale (SSRS), could detect increased religiousness in people with epilepsy and verify how epilepsy influences spirituality. A total of 196 consecutive patients with epilepsy (epilepsy group, EG) with a mean age and standard deviation of 46.5 ± 14.8 years and 66 subjects with no history of neurological or other chronic disorders (control group, CG) were assessed by the SSRS and neurologically. The SSRS scores of the EG and CG did not differ significantly (22.8 ± 5.1 and 22.0 ± 5.7, respectively). Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) had significantly higher SSRS scores than those with other epileptic syndromes and, than in individuals of the CG. Multiple regression showed that the factors significantly associated with greater spirituality (greater SSRS score) for the EG, were lower education level, abnormal background EEG activity, and MTLE-HS. Other relationships with the clinical features of epilepsy and with the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity were not found. The present findings do not confirm a specific role of epilepsy in spirituality or of "epileptic hyperreligiosity," but suggest that spirituality in people with epilepsy is influenced by education level, and may also stem from epilepsy-related factors such as abnormal background EEG activity and the presence of MTLE-HS. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selby, Debbie; Seccaraccia, Dori; Huth, Jim; Kurppa, Kristin; Fitch, Margaret
Spirituality and spiritual care are well recognized as important facets of patient care, particularly in the palliative care population. Challenges remain, however, in the provision of such care. This study sought to compare patient and health care professional (HCP) views on spirituality/spiritual care, originally with a view to exploring a simple question(s) HCP's could use to identify spiritual distress, but evolved further to a comparison of how patients and HCPs were both concordant and discordant in their thoughts, and how this could lead to HCP's 'missing' opportunities to both identify spirituality/spiritual distress and to providing meaningful spiritual care. Patients (n=16) with advanced illnesses and HCP's (n=21) with experience providing care to those with advanced disease were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis distress and spiritual care, and screening for spiritual distress). Within each category there were areas of both concordance and discordance. Most notably, HCP's struggled to articulate definitions of spirituality whereas patients generally spoke with much more ease, giving rich examples. Equally, HCP's had difficulty relating stories of patients who had experienced spiritual distress while patients gave ready responses. Key areas where HCP's and patients differed were identified and set up the strong possibility for an HCP to 'miss the moment' in providing spiritual care. These key misses include the perception that spiritual care is simply not something they can provide, the challenge in defining/ recognizing spirituality (as HCP and patient definitions were often very different), and the focus on spiritual care, even for those interested in providing, as 'task oriented' often with emphasis on meaning making or finding purpose, whereas patients much more commonly described spiritual care as listening deeply, being present and helping them live in the moment. Several discrepancies in perception of
McEvoy, Mimi; Schlair, Sheira; Sidlo, Zsuzsanna; Burton, William; Milan, Felise
To inform curricular development by assessing the ability of third-year medical students to address a patient's spiritual distress during an acute medical crisis in the context of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) case. During March and April 2010, 170 third-year medical students completed an eight-station videotaped OSCE at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. One of the standardized patients (SPs) was a 65-year-old man with acute chest pain who mentioned his religious affiliation and fear of dying. If prompted, he revealed his desire to speak with a chaplain. The SP assessed students' history taking, physical examination, and communication skills. In a postencounter written exercise, students reported their responses to the patient's distress via four open-ended questions. Analysis of the postencounter notes was conducted by three coders for emergent themes. Clinical skills performance was compared between students who reported making chaplain referral and those who did not. A total of 108 students (64%) reported making a chaplain referral; 4 (2%) directly addressed the patient's religious/spiritual beliefs. Students' clinical performance scores showed no significant association with whether they made a chaplain referral. Findings suggest that the majority of medical students without robust training in addressing patients' spiritual needs can make a chaplain referral when faced with a patient in spiritual crisis. Yet, few students explicitly engaged the patient in a discussion of his beliefs. Thus, future studies are needed to develop more precise assessment measures that can inform development in spirituality and medicine curricula.
Koenig, Harold G; Perno, Kathleen; Hamilton, Ted
A screening spiritual history (SSH) is how health professionals (HP) identify patients' spiritual values, beliefs and preferences (VBPs) in the outpatient setting. We report on attitudes and practices of HPs in the largest Protestant health system in the U.S., the Adventist Health System (AHS). Physicians or mid-level practitioners (N = 1082) in AHS-affiliated practices were approached and 513 (47%) agreed to participate. Participants were asked to identify a "spiritual care coordinator" (nurse/staff) and complete a questionnaire that assessed demographics, practice characteristics, religious involvement, and attitudes/practices concerning the SSH. Prevalence and predictors of attitudes/practices were identified. Questionnaires were completed by 427 physicians, 86 mid-level practitioners, and 224 nurses/staff (i.e., spiritual care coordinators). Among physicians, 45% agreed that HPs should take a SSH; of mid-level practitioners, 56% agreed; and of nurses/staff, 54% agreed. A significant proportion (range 31-54%) agreed that physicians should take the SSH. Participants indicated a SSH is appropriate for all outpatients (46-57%), well-visit exams (50-60%), the chronically ill (71-75%) and terminally ill (79-82%). A majority agreed the SSH should be documented in the medical record (67-80%). Few (11-17%) currently took a SSH, although most were at least sometimes willing to take a SSH (87-94%) or review the results thereof (86-98%). Self-rated importance of religion was the strongest predictor of SSH attitudes/practices. Many in the AHS say a SSH should be done, are willing to do it, and are willing to review the results, although few currently do so. Education, training, and support may help HPs identify and address patients' spiritual VBPs.
Belderbos, R.A.; Iwasa, T.
This paper analyzes the determinants of the R&D intensity of 434 foreign affiliates, drawing on MITI''s benchmark survey of Japanese multinational firms in 1993. Acquired affiliates are responsible for more than half of overseas R&D expenditure and have significantly higher R&D intensities than wholly and majority owned greenfield affiliates. Non-majority owned joint ventures are R&D intensive in case the investing firm lacks substantial R&D capabilities in Japan. In contrast, R&D intensive J...
Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay
Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.
Full Text Available South African society is grappling with the challenges of post-apartheid expectations within a ‘rainbow nation’. As a result of this rainbow nation, many people have to deal with fragmented identities and spiritualities. This can be particularly true for adolescents who are living out their lives in multicultural schools with multiple discourses. In this article, it will be argued that fantasy narratives, especially those written by South African writers from a South African context, may help heal the fragmented identities and spiritualities of school-going adolescents.
Hamilton, Jill B; Moore, Angelo D; Johnson, Khishaana A; Koenig, Harold G
The use of religious practices to promote mental health among African Americans is well documented. African Americans are more likely to report strong religious affiliations and to use religion over prescribed medications for mental health problems. However, few studies have explored how African Americans use religious practices in response to stressful life events. The aim of this study is to examine how African American women and men find comfort in using scripture passages from The Bible. Fifty-four African American adults residing in the Southeastern United States participated in a qualitative descriptive study using open-ended semistructured interviews. Participants were asked to describe their use of scripture passages from The Bible and the personal meanings associated with these scriptures in the context of a family death or life-threatening illness. These participants used scripture passages categorized as God as Protector, God as Beneficent, Praise and Thanksgiving, God as Healer, Memory of Forefathers, Prayers to God, and Life after Death. Few gender differences were noted. However, women were more likely to use scripture passages of God as Protector and Life after Death, whereas men were more likely to use God as Beneficent and God as Healer. The religious practice of reading scripture passages from The Bible is a mental health-promoting strategy used during stressful life events. The findings of this study have practical uses for nurses and can be used to inform acceptable and sensitive approaches in addressing mental health issues and spiritual care needs in African American patients.
On the basis of a comparison of the educational approaches of Andrew Wright and David Hay this paper illustrates the persisting problem of dichotomising cognitive and trans-cognitive aspects of spiritual development and education. Even though both Wright and Hay speak of the same topic--spirituality and spiritual education--they define these terms…
Pfeiffer, Jane Bacon; Gober, Carla; Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston
To describe the experience of conversing with clients to provide spiritual care from the perspective of Christian nurses identified as exemplary spiritual caregivers. More specifically, findings presented here describe the goals and strategies of these nurses when conversing with patients about spirituality. Although verbal communication is pivotal to most spiritual care interventions recognised in the nursing literature, there is scant empirical evidence to inform such spiritual care. There is evidence, however, that many nurses have discomfort and difficulty with conversations about spirituality. Cross-sectional, descriptive, qualitative design framed by phenomenology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 southern California registered nurses working in varied clinical settings. Data were coded and thematically analysed by three researchers who established equivalency. Methods to support the trustworthiness of the findings were employed. Themes providing structure to the description of how nurses converse with patients about spirituality included assessing and establishing connection, overt introductions of spirituality, finding spiritual commonality, self-disclosure, spiritual encouragement, spiritual advice or religious teaching, and prayer. Requisite to any spiritual care conversation, however, was 'allowing them (patients) to talk'. Informants tread 'gently and softly' in approaching spiritual discourse, assessing for any patient resistance, and not pushing further if any was met. Findings illustrate compassionate nursing with specifiable goals and strategies for conversations about spirituality; they also raise questions about how nurse religious beliefs are to ethically inform these conversations. The Invitation, Connection, Attentive care, Reciprocity mnemonic is offered as a means for nurses to remember essentials for communication with patients about spirituality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lewis, Jeffrey S.; Geroy, Gary D.
Discusses six entry points to initiate discussion of employee spirituality in management education: cross-cultural management, workplace diversity, leadership, team management, organizational culture, and human resource development. (SK)
Laird, Lance D; Curtis, Cara E; Morgan, Jonathan R
What are we asking when we ask about spirituality? When research subjects check survey boxes for "religiosity" and "spirituality" measures on health surveys, those of us who use them often assume that these responses indicate a relationship with-or reaction against-normative, conventional, Protestant-shaped religious practice and experience. We present a qualitative interview study of 13 low-income mothers with a history of depression, analyzing their descriptions of spiritual and religious coping practices. On the basis of a focused analysis of four mother's narratives, we argue that conventional survey answers may frequently hide more than they reveal about people's cultural, religious, and idiosyncratic experiences with ghosts, spirits, magic, and haunting presences that are relevant, sometimes integral, to illness and healing. We demonstrate that listening to participants' narratives challenges researchers' unconsciously normative assumptions and ought to help us reshape our understanding of the ways spirituality and religion influence health in a hyperdiverse society.
This EPA presentation gives an overview of the SmartWay program and showcases the SmartWay Affiliate awardees raising awareness of the benefits of the SmartWay program and sustainable freight transportation.
This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.
Inmarsat will form an affiliated company to develop its $2.4-billion Inmarsat-P program as a competitor to Motorola's Iridium and Loral's Globestar in the exploding mobile communications market. Various aspects of the program are briefly discussed.
Mann, Liesbeth; Feddes, Allard R; Doosje, Bertjan; Fischer, Agneta H
Initiation rituals can take different forms and empirical evidence is inconsistent as to whether these rituals promote affiliation among novices. We argue that experienced humiliation during initiations leads to less affiliation among novices, in particular when one is initiated as sole group member rather than as part of the group. We examined this hypothesis in three studies, using different paradigms. In Study 1 (N = 123), perceived severity of an initiation in the past was associated with lower affiliation with other novices; this relationship was mediated by experienced humiliation. Study 2 (N = 64) showed that public derogation in the lab led to more humiliation when participants were the only victim than when they were derogated as a group. Study 3 (N = 248), a vignette study, showed that a similar effect of social context was mediated by expected support from other novices. We conclude that severe initiations may, due to experienced humiliation, result in less rather than more affiliation with fellow novices.
Barkin, Samuel H; Miller, Lisa; Luthar, Suniya S
Building on both the spiritual development and affluent youth literature, the current study explores spiritual development and health outcomes in a sample of upper-middle-class youth. Exploratory analyses indicate long-term stability in religiosity and spirituality from late adolescence (mean age 18) well into emerging adulthood (mean age 24); specifically, a strong personal relationship with a Higher Power, that carries into the broader arena of life, appears to be the primary source of spiritual life in adolescence that transitions into young adulthood. Moreover, cross-sectional associations at age 24 suggest spiritual development may have important implications for increased mental health and life satisfaction, as well as decreased antisocial behaviors.
Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe
Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.
Koenig Harold G
Full Text Available Abstract The need to take account of spirituality in research and health services provision is assuming ever greater importance. However the field has long been hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity about the nature of spirituality itself. We do not agree with the sceptical claim that it is impossible to conceptualise spirituality within a scientific paradigm. Our aims are to 1 provide a brief over-view of critical thinking that might form the basis for a useful definition of spirituality for research and clinical work and 2 demystify the language of spirituality for clinical practice and research.
This thesis deals with a proposal for software supporting in-house affiliate program. The theoretical part explains the issue and advantages of affiliate marketing. Proposal for the software is made in the practical part, based on analysis of the existing solutions. Special emphasis is put on the solution of conversions tracking. The result of my thesis is an application model which allows us to clearly define requirements for the developing system and gives better idea of any other potential...
... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-ProtÃ©gÃ© Program 819.7103 Non-affiliation. A Protégé firm will not be considered an affiliate of a mentor firm solely on the basis that the protégé firm is receiving developmental assistance from the mentor firm under VA's Mentor-Protégé Program. The determination of...
Cunningham, Alastair J
Although the importance of spiritual issues to people with cancer is by now widely acknowledged, there has been almost no research on the value of interventions specifically designed to enhance the spiritual experience of these patients. The present report describes an exploratory study on the effects of a brief psychoeducational course emphasizing spiritual aspects of coping and healing. Ninety-seven patients with various types and stages of cancer took part in the 8-session course as the third stage in a progressive, stepwise program of support and psychological education. Standard psychometric tests were administered at entry, 8 weeks, and 6 months. Written home assignments, returned by participants, provided an insight into their experience. Significant improvements in scores were found immediately following the intervention; by 6 months, however, these improvements above entry level had declined to about half the 8-week value. In their written homework, patients grappled with such issues as doubts about the existence of a god, judgment and forgiveness, guilt, projection, self-importance, and the meaning of love. As the course progressed, many claimed to be better able to accept their condition and to experience an enhanced sense of meaning in their lives, coupled with a heightened appreciation for the events of everyday life and less tendency to conflict with others. These preliminary findings indicate that further, more rigorous investigation would be worthwhile and support the growing view that addressing spiritual issues within the framework of group therapy can be of great benefit to people with cancer.
Lee, Byoung Sook; Kwak, Su Young
This aim of this phenomenological study was to describe and understand the experience of spiritual conflict in hospice nurses by identifying the meanings and structures of the experience. Participants were 12 nurses working for one year or more at hospice units of general hospitals in a metropolitan city and experiencing of spiritual conflict as hospice nurses. Over six months data were collected using individual in-depth interviews and analyzed with the method suggested by Colaizzi. The experience of spiritual conflict in participants was organized into three categories, six theme-clusters, and 13 themes. The participants felt existential anxiety on death and a fear of death which is out of human control and skepticism for real facts of human beings facing death. They also experienced agitation of fundamental beliefs about life with agitation of the philosophy of life guiding themselves and mental distress due to fundamental questions that are difficult to answer. Also they had distress about poor spiritual care with guilty feelings from neglecting patients' spiritual needs and difficulties in spiritual care due to lack of practical competencies. Findings indicate the experience of spiritual conflict in hospice nurses is mainly associated with frequent experience of death in hospice patients. The experience of spiritual conflict consisted of existential anxiety, agitation of fundamental beliefs and distress over poor spiritual care. So, programs to help relieve anxiety, agitation and distress are necessary to prevent spiritual conflict and then spiritual burnout in hospice nurses. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Full Text Available Patient care frequently focuses on physical aspects of disease management, with variable attention given to spiritual needs. And yet, patients indicate that spiritual suffering adds to distress associated with illness. Spirituality, broadly defined as that which gives meaning and purpose to a person’s life and connectedness to the significant or sacred, often becomes a central issue for patients. Growing evidence demonstrates that spirituality is important in patient care. Yet healthcare professionals (HCPs do not always feel prepared to engage with patients about spiritual issues. In this project, HCPs attended an educational session focused on using the FICA Spiritual History Tool to integrate spirituality into patient care. Later, they incorporated the tool when caring for patients participating in the study. This research (1 explored the value of including spiritual history taking in clinical practice; (2 identified facilitators and barriers to incorporating spirituality into person-centred care; and (3 determined ways in which HCPs can effectively utilize spiritual history taking. Data were collected using focus groups and chart reviews. Findings indicate positive impacts at organizational, clinical/unit, professional/personal and patient levels when HCPs include spirituality in patient care. Recommendations are offered.
of isolation, hostility, domination and colonialism are giving way to respect and spiritual sharing — leading to “dialogic dialogue.” The lat- ter is a phrase coined by Raimon Panikkar to distinguish the creative encounter between religious traditions from dialectic dialogue, in which there is an attempt by the one party to refute ...
certainly wrote the most beautiful page on the philanthropic spirituality of the everlasting Church. Mercy was ... work and responsibilities but, on the contrary, brought a discipline of the soul and a balance of the body .... Mercy should not be a simple philanthropic act, but a religious one (Špidlík. 1998:295). Christian mercy is ...
This article briefly and very generally explores some of the developments in the field of biblical spirituality over the past six decades by analysing and discussing some seminal publications on the theme of discernment. It begins the overview with the articles on discernment and discretion in the Dictionnaire de Spiritualité.
Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann
significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...
Since creation, mankind has strived to maintain a positive relationship with nature by preserving and making certain specific trees, water bodies, highlands and other places sacred. The practice of keeping sacred groves is one of the ways which promotes this human, ecological and spiritual connection. These groves ...
van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Post, Doeke; Jochemsen, Henk
Aim. This paper aimed to gain insight into the spiritual aspects of nursing care within the context of health care in the Netherlands and to provide recommendations for the development of care in this area and the promotion of the professional expertise of nurses. Background. International nursing
Full Text Available Digital culture is part of children’s and adolescents’ everyday lives. Digital culture has both positive and negative consequences. One such negative consequence is cyber violence that has been termed cyber bullying. Cyber bullying can cause serious emotional, behavioural and academic problems for both the victim and the bully. Although there is ongoing research on the effects of cyber bullying on children and youth in South Africa, no research has been carried out on how children’s and youth’s spirituality may be affected when they are cyber bullied. This article discusses the accumulative results from different South African institutes that have researched the cyber bullying effects on children and adolescents. These results point to the spiritual effects that children and youth may experience as a result of cyber bullying. This article proposes that spirituality may prevent cyber bullying and even help children and youth heal from the trauma caused by cyber bullying. This article contributes in starting a conversation that may result in more specific research being done on how the spiritual lives of children and adolescents may be affected through the trauma caused by cyber bullying.
Nandram, S.S.; Vos, J.
In Chap. 19, Sharda Nandram and Jan Vos write about the spiritual foundations of Servant-Leadership. According to them, Servant-Leadership can be approached as a means to create a meaningful workplace for all of the stakeholders involved in an organization. It involves authenticity, listening to,
An important factor responsible for the poor performance of many organizations is paucity of authentic leadership and spiritual capital. Evidence from various researchers such as William George (2005), Zohar and Marshal (2004), Stephen Covey (2004), indicate that many business companies and government ...
Jun 22, 2017 ... culture and other adolescents within their social environments (people of all ages use aspects of their social context to form identity and spirituality). ..... using the internet. Not all media and social media are bad or dangerous. Media and social media, when used responsibly, are tools that allow the user ...
de Quercize, Anne-Sophie; Pian, Christian
Understanding religious teachings and the religious dimension in our societies is not made any easier with a discourse that is often lacking in rigor for dealing with this reality. Some basic notions need to be clarified to better define the religious and the spiritual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John
For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597
Sisk, Dorothy A.
This article will share the intellectual journey E. Paul Torrance and I traveled in 2001, in which we explored psychology, science and ancient wisdom and traditions, including Native American and indigenous traditions, to establish a foundation for spiritual intelligence. This section will be followed by ways to develop and nurture spiritual…
This contribution explains the value of self-giving and critically questions the discourse on self-sacrifice in relation to ministerial spirituality. In practice, what others may describe as selfsacrifice may be experienced by a care-giver as an adequate form of self-giving inspired by the Christian vocation, without any praise for ...
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
This article aims to explore the connections between a religious education curriculum's methodology in the Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne, Australia and some contemporary theories about children's spirituality. "The Good Shepherd Experience" curriculum is intended for use with 5- and 6-year-old children in the first years of formal schooling.…
Henneberg, Maciej; Saniotis, Arthur
Evolving brains produce minds. Minds operate on imaginary entities. Thus they can create what does not exist in the physical world. Spirits can be deified. Perception of spiritual entities is emotional--organic. Spirituality is a part of culture while culture is an adaptive mechanism of human groups as it allows for technology and social organization to support survival and reproduction. Humans are not rational, they are emotional. Most of explanations of the world, offered by various cultures, involve an element of "fiat", a will of a higher spiritual being, or a reference to some ideal. From this the rules of behaviour are deduced. These rules are necessary to maintain social peace and allow a complex unit consisting of individuals of both sexes and all ages to function in a way ensuring their reproductive success and thus survival. There is thus a direct biological benefit of complex ideological superstructure of culture. This complex superstructure most often takes a form of religion in which logic is mixed with appeals to emotions based on images of spiritual beings. God is a consequence of natural evolution. Whether a deity is a cause of this evolution is difficult to discover, but existence of a deity cannot be questioned.
such as facilitation, therapy, and consulting, which I view as related to many ways .... we interact with people by means of modalities such as coaching or therapy. In my opinion, spirituality (and in the immediate context inclusive of religion) and narrative cannot be separated. .... gestalt coaching, and life coaching (Cox et al.
Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)
Jun 22, 2017 ... adolescents acquire at this stage of their lives are carried through to adulthood. Adolescents and their spiritual lives. Adolescence is a trying time in a human being's life, as there are sudden changes in his or her physical and emotional self (Fowler 1981:151). The adolescent becomes awkward within his or.
The term spirituality is becoming more common as a field of interest for the business community. There are several conceptual definitions available without empirical basic. In this study definitions are presented based on a qualitative study amongst entrepreneurs. The study confirms that
This paper reviews the literature on workplace and transformational learning to explore how spirituality can be accessed to encourage individual growth through the development of critical awareness while providing a sense of direction in the workplace as part of organisational learning. In communities and societies where organisations may have…
10:10b), who experiences a relationship with God, has a sense of worth as a per son, participates in society and church in a ..... worthlessness and loneliness. For some of the participants, suicidal ..... from spiritual deafness because of privilege and indifference, facilitates com passion, understanding and a desire for action ...
Jacob, Bobby; White, Annesha; Shogbon, Angela
Objective: To measure student pharmacists' spirituality utilizing validated survey instruments and to determine perceptions regarding the anticipated role of spirituality in academic course work and professional practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The survey was offered to all first-year student pharmacists during the first week of the fall semester (2012-2015). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: A total of 580 students (98%) participated. The majority of students reported having each of the spiritual experiences on most days of the week or more frequently (58% to 89% based on individual item). Furthermore, 57% of students anticipate that matters of spirituality would be significant components of academic course work and 75% anticipate they would be incorporated into eventual professional practice settings. These perceptions were positively correlated to measures of spirituality and religiosity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that faculty should evaluate current and future incorporation of topics related to spirituality and health in pharmacy curriculum.
White, Annesha; Shogbon, Angela
Objective: To measure student pharmacists’ spirituality utilizing validated survey instruments and to determine perceptions regarding the anticipated role of spirituality in academic course work and professional practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The survey was offered to all first-year student pharmacists during the first week of the fall semester (2012-2015). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: A total of 580 students (98%) participated. The majority of students reported having each of the spiritual experiences on most days of the week or more frequently (58% to 89% based on individual item). Furthermore, 57% of students anticipate that matters of spirituality would be significant components of academic course work and 75% anticipate they would be incorporated into eventual professional practice settings. These perceptions were positively correlated to measures of spirituality and religiosity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that faculty should evaluate current and future incorporation of topics related to spirituality and health in pharmacy curriculum. PMID:28970609
Roderick R. Hewitt
Full Text Available The topic invites us to explore spirituality for democracy and to identify and critique the spiritual resources that are needed for democratic participation in the 21st century. The statement specifically focused on for and not of democracy. Modern expressions of democracy are in crisis. Every context is teething with challenges and conflicts between government sand their citizens concerning how much influence through participation should be allowed in the decision-making process of governance. This topic is of extreme importance for academic discourse because the malaise that has crept into contemporary forms of democratic governance calls for urgent attention. Democratic forms of governance are not set in stone. Rather, they are formed as a result of human deliberation and praxis and cultural developments and must therefore remain open for further reformation. It is this intrinsic capacity for renewal that opens democracy to converse with spirituality. This article begins with identifying the key terms that constitute the academic building blocks of this study. The inherent contradictions in the use of these terms are noted in order to arrive at a theoretical construct to converse with the key concepts of spirituality, democracy, spiritual resources and democratic participation.Through the use of the post colonial lenses of Rastafari hermeneutics, a theoretical framework will be employed to map a life-giving path for contemporary expressions of spirituality for democracy and to identify the resources needed for democratic participation.
Hodge, David R; Wolosin, Robert J
Although spirituality is typically intertwined with health in Native cultures, little research has examined the relationship between American Indians' spiritual needs and overall satisfaction with service provision during hospitalization. This study examined this relationship, in tandem with the effects of 8 potential mediators, to develop a model of spiritual care for older hospitalized American Indians. Structural equation modeling was used with a sample of American Indians (N = 860), aged 50 and older, who were consecutively discharged from hospitals across the United States over a 12-month period. As posited, addressing spiritual needs was positively associated with overall satisfaction with service provision. The relationship between spiritual needs and satisfaction was fully mediated by 4 variables: nursing staff, the discharge process, physicians, and visitors. As the first study to develop and test a model of spiritual care for older hospitalized American Indians, this study provides practitioners with the information to provide more effective, culturally relevant services to older American Indians. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha
Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.
Weber, Samuel R; Pargament, Kenneth I
There has been increased interest in the relationship between religion and spirituality and mental health in recent years. This article reviews recent research into the capacity of religion and spirituality to benefit or harm the mental health of believers. We also examine the implications this may have for assessment and treatment in psychiatric settings. Studies indicate that religion and spirituality can promote mental health through positive religious coping, community and support, and positive beliefs. Research also shows that religion and spirituality can be damaging to mental health by means of negative religious coping, misunderstanding and miscommunication, and negative beliefs. Tools for the assessment of patients' spiritual needs have been studied, and incorporation of spiritual themes into treatment has shown some promise. Religion and spirituality have the ability to promote or damage mental health. This potential demands an increased awareness of religious matters by practitioners in the mental health field as well as ongoing attention in psychiatric research.
Lusk, Jaimie; Dobscha, Steven K; Kopacz, Marek; Ritchie, Mary Frances; Ono, Sarah
This qualitative study explores the relationship between veterans' spirituality/religion and suicide ideation and attempts. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 veterans who either endorsed chronic suicidal ideation or had made suicide attempt(s). Interviews explored the bi-directional relationship between spirituality/religion (e.g., beliefs, practices, and experiences), and suicide ideation and behaviors. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Veterans' responses indicate that spirituality/religion can discourage or permit suicidal ideation, help in coping with ideation, and facilitate meaning making and coping in the presence of self-perceived suffering. Veterans who survived a suicide attempt explored the impact of their spirituality/religion on their recovery. Findings highlight a complex and diverse relationship between spirituality/religion and suicidality. These findings may inform further research on treatment strategies that assess the function of spirituality/religion, and incorporate protective aspects of spirituality/religion into mental health treatment.
Bruce, Anne; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita
Despite growing interest in spiritual matters throughout society, definitions and descriptions of spirituality seem incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. In this article, the authors consider the possibility that such incompleteness is perhaps necessary and welcomed in addressing spirituality. In particular, they investigate the challenges of using metaphor and metonymic approaches to "languaging" spirituality. By exploring these figures of speech they hope to diversify how nurses articulate deeply personal and perhaps enigmatic human phenomena such as spirituality. Metaphoric language uses everyday structures to help make sense of complex, emotional, and abstract experience. Whereas metaphor creates substitutive relationships between things and provides insights into conceptualizing spirituality, metonymy and metonymic writing establish relationships of contiguity. Whereas metaphor functions to represent and facilitates understanding and feelings about spirituality, metonymy disrupts while opening possibilities of moving beyond binary thinking. Attending to language and its various ontological assumptions opens diverse and potentially more inclusive possibilities.
Garcia, Katia; KOENIG, Harold G.
Aim This article presents a discussion of the definition of spirituality and its limitations for nursing research. It proposes a definition that will capture more accurately the role of spirituality in health outcomes. Background Studies have increasingly examined spirituality in nursing research as a coping mechanism attenuating the negative impact of traumatic stress on mental health. Existing definitions of spirituality in nursing research include elements of positive emotional states (meaning, purpose, general well-being) which confound mental health outcomes. Data sources Medline and CINAHL databases were searched from 2007–2011 for research articles examining spirituality definitions and measures used by nurse researchers. Discussion An analysis of the definitions of spirituality in nursing research reveals inconsistencies and confounding mental health concepts. The authors propose defining spirituality in the context of religious involvement when conducting research, while using a broader definition of spirituality when providing spiritual care. They argue such definition provides a more appropriate method of measuring this concept in research aimed at evaluating mental health outcomes while preserving the currently used patient- defined definition of spirituality when providing spiritual care. Nursing Implications A consistent definition of spirituality in nursing research evaluating mental health outcomes, distinct from ‘spiritual care’ in a clinical setting, is essential to avoid tautological results that are meaningless. Appropriate definitions will enable nursing researchers to more clearly identify resilience mechanisms and improved health outcomes in those exposed to traumatic stress. Conclusion A definition of spirituality that focuses on religious involvement provides a more uniform and consistent measure for evaluating mental health outcomes in nursing research. PMID:23600849
Clark, Leah; Leedy, Stephen; McDonald, Laurie; Muller, Barbara; Lamb, Cheryl; Mendez, Tracy; Kim, Sehwan; Schonwetter, Ronald
As a continuing effort to enhance the quality of palliative care for the dying, this study examined (1) the prevalence of spirituality among hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) members; (2) whether spirituality is related to job satisfaction; and (3) the structural path relationships among four variables: spiritual belief, integration of spirituality at work, self actualization and job satisfaction. The study surveyed 215 hospice IDT members who completed the Jarel Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Chamiec-Case Spirituality Integration and Job Satisfaction Scales. Multiple regression and structural path modeling methods were applied to explain the path relationships involving all four variables. The IDT members surveyed were: nurses, 46.4%; home health aids, 24.9%; social workers, 17.4%; chaplains, 4.2%; physicians, 2.3%; and other, 4.8%. Ninety-eight percent of the respondents viewed themselves as having spiritual well-being. On a 0-100 scale, IDT staff reported high spiritual belief (mean = 89.4) and they were self-actualizing (mean = 82.6). Most reported high job satisfaction (mean = 79.3) and spiritual integration (mean = 67.9). In multiple regression, spirituality, integration and self-actualization explained 22% of the variation in job satisfaction (R = 0.48; adjusted R(2) = 0.218; df = 3,175; F = 17.2; p = 0.001). Structural path models revealed that job satisfaction is more likely to be realized by a model that transforms one's spirituality into processes of integrating spirituality at work and self actualization (chi(2) = 0.614; df = 1; p = 0.433) than a model that establishes a direct path from spirituality to job satisfaction (chi(2) = 1.65; df = 1; p = 0.199). Hospice IDT member's integration of their spirituality at work and greater self actualization significantly improve job satisfaction.
Lydia V. Monareng
Full Text Available Although the concept ‘spiritual nursing care’ has its roots in the history of the nursing profession, many nurses in practice have difficulty integrating the concept into practice. There is an ongoing debate in the empirical literature about its definition, clarity and application in nursing practice. The study aimed to develop an operational definition of the concept and its application in clinical practice. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe how professional nurses render spiritual nursing care. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit the sample. Individual and focus group interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Trustworthiness was ensured through strategies of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Data were analysed using the NUD*IST power version 4 software, constant comparison, open, axial and selective coding. Tech’s eight steps of analysis were also used, which led to the emergence of themes, categories and sub-categories. Concept analysis was conducted through a comprehensive literature review and as a result ‘caring presence’ was identified as the core variable from which all the other characteristics of spiritual nursing care arise. An operational definition of spiritual nursing care based on the findings was that humane care is demonstrated by showing caring presence, respect and concern for meeting the needs not only of the body and mind of patients, but also their spiritual needs of hope and meaning in the midst of health crisis, which demand equal attention for optimal care from both religious and nonreligious nurses.
Schreiber, Judith A; Brockopp, Dorothy Y
A diagnosis of cancer is a life-changing event for most people. The trauma and uncertainties of a breast cancer diagnosis can affect survivors' psychological well-being. Religion and/or spirituality can provide a means of support for many women as they live with the realities of a diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this focused review is to critically analyze and synthesize relationships among psychological well-being, religion, and spirituality among women with breast cancer. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PsycINFO databases were searched: January 1985-March 2010. The search terms religi*(religious/religion), spiritu*(spiritual/spirituality), breast cancer, psychological adjustment, psychological outcomes, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and outcomes were searched for separately and in combination. Eighteen quantitative studies were analyzed in order to examine associations among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being for women diagnosed with breast cancer. These three variables were operationally defined as follows: (a) religious practice, religious coping, and perception of God; (b) spiritual distress, spiritual reframing, spiritual well-being, and spiritual integration; and (c) combined measure of both the religion and spirituality constructs. Results of this review suggest that within this population, limited relationships exist among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being. Given the various definitions used for the three variables, the strength and clarity of relationships are not clear. In addition, the time of assessment along the course of the disease varies greatly and in some instances is not reported. Diagnosis and/or prognosis, factors that could influence psychological well-being, are frequently not factored into results. There does, however, appear to be sufficient evidence to include a brief, clinically focused assessment of women diagnosed with
Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Goh, Anita M Y; Eagleton, Tamara; Kelleher, Rosemary; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Taylor, Michael; Chiu, Edmond A M; Hamilton, Bridget; Trauer, Tom; Lautenschlager, Nicola T
Pastoral Care (PC) practitioners respond to the spiritual needs of patients and families of all spiritual orientations. The integrated PC service in an acute psychogeriatric inpatient ward at St Vincent's Aged Mental Health Service, Melbourne, Australia, was examined to investigate how PC was being accessed by inpatients. A retrospective medical record file audit was undertaken of patients admitted over a 16-month period from 1 February 2009 to 30 June 30 2010 (n = 202). Sixty-eight percent were seen by PC practitioners during their admission. Sixty-six percent received PC assessments, 32% received PC ministry, and 10% received PC ritual or worship interventions. Other interventions (counseling/education, crisis situation, grief/ bereavement counseling) occurred infrequently. Seventy-five percent of Roman Catholic patients received PC compared to 57% of those patients with no religious affiliation. However, the overall association between religious grouping and receiving PC was not significant. Gender, religion, marital status, legal status, country of birth, language spoken, living situation, carer needs, or educational level were not related to PC contact. Whether or not an inpatient received PC assessment was unrelated to diagnostic category. Patients seen by PC were significantly more likely to engage in religious practice, have longer length of stay, and have neuropsychological, social work and occupational therapy assessments. Results suggest that PC practitioners can help optimize the clinical care of patients by developing a comprehensive understanding of their spiritual and religious needs and providing a more holistic service. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Rochmawati, Erna; Wiechula, Rick; Cameron, Kate
Experiencing life-threatening illness could impact on an individual's spirituality or religious beliefs. In this paper, we report on a study which explored cultural elements that influence the provision of palliative care for people with cancer. A contemporary ethnographic approach was adopted. Observations and interviews were undertaken over 3 months with 48 participants, including palliative care staff, patients, and their families. An ethnographic data analysis framework was adopted to assist in the analysis of data at item, pattern, and structural levels. Religion was identified as central to everyday life, with all participants reporting being affiliated to particular religions and performing their religious practices in their daily lives. Patients' relatives acknowledged and addressed patients' needs for these practices. Staff provided spiritual care for the patients and their relatives in the form of religious discussion and conducting prayers together. An understanding that religious and spiritual practices are integral cultural elements and of fundamental importance to the holistic health of their patients is necessary if health-care professionals are to support patients and their families in end-of-life care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Alshammari, Farhan; Alotaibi, Khalaf Aied; Colet, Paolo C
No study has been undertaken to understand how spirituality and spiritual care is perceived and implemented by Saudi nursing students undergoing training for their future professional roles as nurses. This study was conducted to investigate the perception of Baccalaureate nursing students toward spirituality and spiritual care. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed. A convenience sample of 338 baccalaureate nursing students in two government-run universities in Saudi Arabia was included in this study. A self-administered questionnaire, consisting of a demographic and spiritual care background information sheet and the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale Arabic version (SCGS-A), was used for data collection. A multivariate multiple regression analysis and multiple linear regression analyses were performed accordingly. The mean value on the SCGS-A was 3.84±1.26. Spiritual perspective received the highest mean (4.14±1.45), followed by attribute for spiritual care (3.96±1.48), spiritual care attitude (3.81±1.47), defining spiritual care (3.71±1.51) and spiritual care values (3.57±1.47). Gender, academic level and learning spiritual care from classroom or clinical discussions showed a statistically significant multivariate effect on the five factors of SCGS-A. Efforts should be done to formally integrate holistic concept including all the facets of spirituality and spiritual care in the nursing curriculum. The current findings can be used to inform the development and testing of holistic nursing conceptual framework in nursing education in Saudi Arabia and other Arab Muslim countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saunders, Ninfa M
Finding the best route to navigate the changing landscape of healthcare has become an obsession for many organizations. Their quest to stay competitive, significant, and ultimately relevant is a continuous discovery process. Many hospitals and health systems have considered affiliations and partnerships as important tactical options. Partnerships can range from loose arrangements, such as nonequity collaborations and management agreements, to total affiliation, as in a merger and acquisition. Whichever option an organization decides to pursue, a comprehensive assessment is necessary to find the best partner-the right fit. Addressing the "why," "when," "how," and "with whom" questions is fundamental. Having the depth and breadth of resources to manage the discovery process is equally important.Learning from others who have experienced this journey is helpful, as is the support of industry experts. However, one task that cannot be delegated is discerning whether affiliation is right for an organization. That is the responsibility of an organization's leadership team, which must consider the dynamic forces in play when evaluating an affiliation partnership. Many of the suggested modalities revolve around how the affiliation partnership can provide a value proposition for the entities involved. Furthermore, inevitable challenges emerge when fiercely independent and successful organizations come together at different levels of need and readiness. Anticipating and providing for the potential exit of any member are matters that the partnership must accept and prepare for, and the ability to execute can make or break the trajectory toward a value proposition. A strong resolve to monitor, measure, calibrate, and recalibrate can give a partnership the agility to pivot toward relevance and sustainability.Stratus Healthcare applied principles of alignment and affiliation in creating the largest collaborative partnership of hospitals in the southeastern United States. Drawing
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose For many patients confronted with chronic diseases, spirituality/religiosity is a relevant resource to cope. While most studies on patients' spiritual needs refer to the care of patients at the end of life, our intention was to develop an instrument to measure spiritual, existential and psychosocial need of patients with chronic diseases. Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional survey, we applied the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ version 1.2. to 210 patients (75% women, mean age 54 ± 12 years with chronic pain conditions (67%, cancer (28%, other chronic conditions (5%. Patients were recruited at the Community Hospital Herdecke, the Institute for Complementary Medicine (University of Bern, and at a conference of a cancer support group in Herten. Results Factor analysis of the 19-item instrument (Cronbach's alpha = .93 pointed to 4 factors which explain 67% of variance: Religious Needs, Need for Inner Peace, Existentialistic Needs (Reflection/Meaning, and Actively Giving. Within the main sample of patients with chronic pain and cancer, Needs for Inner Peace had the highest scores, followed by Self competent Attention; Existentialistic Needs had low scores, while the Religious Needs scores indicate no interest. Patients with cancer had significantly higher SpNQ scores than patients with chronic pain conditions. There were just some weak associations between Actively Giving and life satisfaction (r = .17; p = .012, and negatively with the symptom score (r = -.29; p Need for Inner Peace was weakly associated with satisfaction with treatment efficacy (r = .24; p Conclusion The preliminary results indicate that spiritual needs are conceptually different from life satisfaction, and can be interpreted as the patients' longing for spiritual well-being. Methods how health care professionals may meet their patients' spiritual needs remain to be explored.
Full Text Available Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation.
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zehtabchi, Samira; Fini, Ismail Azizi
The holistic approach views the human as a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual being. Evidence suggests that among these dimensions, the spiritual one is largely ignored in healthcare settings. This study aimed to evaluate Iranian nurses' perceived professional competence in spiritual care, the relationship between perceived competence and nurses' personal characteristics, and barriers to provide spiritual care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014. Participants and research context: The study population consisted of nurses working in teaching hospitals in Kashan city. Using a stratified, systematic random method, 250 samples were selected from a total of 1400 nurses. An indigenous instrument was used to assess the nurses' competencies in spiritual care. Ethical considerations: A research ethics committee approved the study. All the participants were briefed on the study aims, were assured of the confidentiality of their personal information, and signed a written informed consent. Among a total of 250 nurses, 239 answered the questionnaire completely, and in total, 23%, 51%, and 26% had poor, moderate, and favorable competence in spiritual care, respectively. No significant differences were found between the mean competence scores of spiritual care in terms of gender, marital status, employment status, and level of qualification. Significant difference was found between nurses' overall score of competence in spiritual care and receiving training on spiritual care, nurses' position, and the ward they worked in. Confirming the findings of the international literature, this study puts light on the situation of nurses' perceived competence and barriers to providing spiritual care in Iran as an eastern and Islamic context. Three-quarters of the nurses had moderate or unfavorable competence in spiritual care. Due to the crucial role of spiritual care in quality of care and patient satisfaction, nurses should be trained and supported to provide spiritual care.
Skirbekk, Vegard; Todd, Megan; Stonawski, Marcin
Religious affiliation influences societal practices regarding death and dying, including palliative care, religiously acceptable health service procedures, funeral rites and beliefs about an afterlife. We aimed to estimate and project religious affiliation at the time of death globally, as this information has been lacking. We compiled data on demographic information and religious affiliation from more than 2500 surveys, registers and censuses covering 198 nations/territories. We present estimates of religious affiliation at the time of death as of 2010, projections up to and including 2060, taking into account trends in mortality, religious conversion, intergenerational transmission of religion, differential fertility, and gross migration flows, by age and sex. We find that Christianity continues to be the most common religion at death, although its share will fall from 37% to 31% of global deaths between 2010 and 2060. The share of individuals identifying as Muslim at the time of death increases from 21% to 24%. The share of religiously unaffiliated will peak at 17% in 2035 followed by a slight decline thereafter. In specific regions, such as Europe, the unaffiliated share will continue to rises from 14% to 21% throughout the period. Religious affiliation at the time of death is changing globally, with distinct regional patterns. This could affect spatial variation in healthcare and social customs relating to death and dying.
Noguchi, Wataru; Morita, Satoshi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Aihara, Okihiko; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Matsushima, Eisuke
The suitability of Frankl's logotherapy for the spiritual care (psychotherapy) of cancer patients in Japan is suggested. Using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual (FACIT-Sp, Japanese version), the Purpose in Life test (PIL test, Japanese version), and WHO-Subjective Inventory (WHO-SUBI, Japanese version), we attempted to elucidate the complicated structure of spirituality in cancer patients in order to identify possible approaches to their spiritual care and means of evaluating such care. Two hundred and ninety-eight cancer patients participated in the study. All three tests were taken at the same time, and the results were evaluated by principal component analysis. It was demonstrated that all the subscales employed in the present study could be represented by a two-dimensional structure (two principal components), and that the FACIT-Sp and PIL tests have similar contents. FACIT-Sp (Japanese version) is very similar in conception to the PIL test, which was prepared in accordance with logotherapy. The results suggest that this test can serve as an adequate evaluation scale for measuring the effectiveness of spiritual care based on Frankl's logotherapy.
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Full Text Available Health is much more than the absence of illness; it is rather a “high level wellness” and a life with “meaningful life-possibilities”. This article indicates how meaningful life-possibilities and a high level of wellness can be socially constructed within a process of narrativepastoral therapy for a patient who is chronically ill and therefore cannot be cured. Pastoral care as a spiritual and religious act can play an important role in giving sense and meaning to people’s lives, and can play a preventive role in living with illness. This article furthermore shows how patients’ stories of illness can be centralised by means of narrative therapy and how a pastoral and ethical attitude of love and respect can create a climate conducive to better health and well being. We share how patients’ richer descriptions of their illness can produce a spiritual climate which can contribute to their better health.
Taylor, E J; Outlaw, F H; Bernardo, T R; Roy, A
A secondary analysis of data from a study designed to describe how persons use prayer to cope with cancer is presented in this paper to illuminate the spiritual conflicts that can be experienced among persons with cancer. Employing phenomenological methods, 30 persons from various phases of the cancer experience and religious backgrounds, were interviewed in depth about why, when, and how they prayed, as well as what they prayed about and the outcomes they expected. The secondary analysis revealed that many of these informants had hesitancies about petitionary prayers for particular things, a cure, or for themselves. They also indicated questions about theodicy and the meaning of having cancer, the nature of God, and acknowledged 'unanswered' prayer. Several described an inner conflict about releasing control to God. A few referred to bargaining with God, and a few doubted their personal spirituality and worth, if they were praying correctly, and if prayer was efficacious. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Philip J.W. Schutte
Full Text Available Workplace spirituality is a construct widely discussed over the past few decades and it is a much-disputed inquiry field which is gaining the interest of practitioners and scholars. Some clarifications regarding concepts and definitions are necessary in order to structure and direct the current debate. The aim of this conceptual article is to gain a better understanding regarding the direction in which this field of study is progressing and to put the question on the table namely, whether workplace spirituality is only a new tool to be used in leadership development or is it a trend to be taken seriously? The results showed that this field has potential to further development. This article can be used as foundation for future studies within the knowledge area of practical theology.
Bobakova, Daniela; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
Youth subcultures (hip-hop, punk, skinhead, techno scene, metal) are known for specific lifestyles, music preferences, shared values and behaviours of their members. The aim of this study was to assess the association between subculture affiliation and substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis), and whether gender, family affluence and substance use by peers explain this association. Subculture affiliation was significantly associated with substance use (OR/95% CI: smoking 3.13/2.30-4.24; drinking 2.58/1.95-3.41; drunkenness 2.02/1.54-2.66; cannabis use 2.42/1.46-4.00). Only a part of this risk runs via gender, family affluence and peer substance use. Health promotion should be targeted in particular at adolescents with a subculture affiliation as they are at higher risk of substance use. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).
Salladay, Susan A
Aostmodern thinking that embraces tolerance and suggests there is no absolute truth may make Christian nurses feel uncertain or uncomfortable in giving spiritual care, especially care consistent wtih their beliefs. Christian nurses can be guided by the example of Jesus Christ and the Apostles Peter and Paul in the bible, being sensitive to postmodern perceptions without being intimidated by them and feeling neither obliated to share their faith, nor afraid to do so if a patient asks and gives consent.
Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik
Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...
: This paper discusses the spiritual intelligence as the ultimate intelligence which exceeds the IQ and EQ. IQ or intelligence quotient is a form of intelligence that based on reasoning, intellectual ratio, which is a linear way of thinking that in-cludes the ability to count, analyze to evaluate. While EQ or Emotional Quotient based on emotional, namely the intelligence which is capable to control emotions and give empathy so a person is able to act natural. Therefore the true nature of the ...
Full Text Available the term “spirituality” has been proposed to denote the notion of intellectuality. Actually, the former has been derived from the Latin words “spiritus” (means breath and “spirare” (means inhaling or breathing. Given the Latin translations of the New Testament, the term “spiritualis” or spiritual person is an individual whose life is dominated or influenced by the Holy Spirit or God (1.
Highland, Michael; Yu, Gino
Michael Highland and Gino Yu “Communicating Spiritual Experience with Video Game Technology” deal with the aspect of experience. They stress that given the interactive nature of video game technology, it is an ideal medium for representing and communicating experience. As the game world is causally dependent on input from individual players, they evoke feelings that are urgent, direct, and personalized. Online virtual spaces therefore provide an environment for people of different faiths to c...
McGee, E M
Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) is a worldwide, million-member organization that has assisted countless alcoholics to achieve sobriety through a spiritual program of recovery from alcoholism. Based on spiritual principles known as the "Twelve Steps" and "Twelve Traditions," AA has provided a model for other recovery programs such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Gamblers Anonymous (GA), and Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous (SLAA). Recovery in AA appears to involve a process of self-transcendence. In recent years, nursing scholars have increasingly explored the concepts of self-transcendence and spirituality as they apply to nursing theory and practice. This article explores the roots and spiritual dimensions of 12-step recovery programs. It further explores the ways in which theoretical and clinical knowledge about the delivery of spiritual care interventions may be gained from an understanding of AA's spiritual approach to recovery.
Peteet, John R.
Many studies have found an inverse correlation between religious/spiritual involvement and depression. Yet several obstacles impede spiritually integrated treatment of depressed individuals. These include specialization and fragmentation of care, inexperience of clinicians and spiritual care providers, ideological bias, boundary and ethical concerns, and the lack of an accepted conceptual framework for integrated treatment. Here I suggest a framework for approaching these obstacles, constructed from a unified view of human experience (having emotional, existential, and spiritual dimensions); spirituality seen as a response to existential concerns (in domains such as identity, hope, meaning/purpose, morality, and autonomy in relation to authority, which are frequently distorted and amplified in depression); a rationale for locating spiritually oriented approaches within a clinician's assessment, formulation, and treatment plan; and recognition of the challenges and potential pitfalls of integrated treatment. PMID:22577530
John R. Peteet
Full Text Available Many studies have found an inverse correlation between religious/spiritual involvement and depression. Yet several obstacles impede spiritually integrated treatment of depressed individuals. These include specialization and fragmentation of care, inexperience of clinicians and spiritual care providers, ideological bias, boundary and ethical concerns, and the lack of an accepted conceptual framework for integrated treatment. Here I suggest a framework for approaching these obstacles, constructed from a unified view of human experience (having emotional, existential, and spiritual dimensions; spirituality seen as a response to existential concerns (in domains such as identity, hope, meaning/purpose, morality, and autonomy in relation to authority, which are frequently distorted and amplified in depression; a rationale for locating spiritually oriented approaches within a clinician's assessment, formulation, and treatment plan; and recognition of the challenges and potential pitfalls of integrated treatment.
Full Text Available This paper examines the perspective of the Qur’an on spiritual intelligence in an attempt to understand its foundations, meaning and nature, as well as derive its indicators, in an effort to develop a competency-based criterion for it. This paper draws on some illustrations that effectively highlight the Qur’anic perspective on the subject of spiritual intelligence. The paper concludes that spiritual intelligence developed in accordance with a Qur’anic framework that incorporates spiritual consciousness into a system of belief, worship, morality and social responsibility. The understanding of the Qur’anic perspective helps uncover some of the broad underlying theoretical principles and values of Islamic spiritual intelligence which shapes much of Muslim spiritual undertaking with relation to a wider spectrum of interaction with faith-groups and society; effectively developing more inclusive models of evaluation and capacity-building in contemporary multi-religious societies.
There is an increasing interest in the role of spirituality on the experience of health, wellness and illness, as well as the role of spiritual practice in health care provision. For pregnancy and childbirth, this focus has tended to concentrate on hospital birth settings and care, and religious forms of spirituality. The blessingway ceremony can be described as an alternative baby shower, popular with home-birthing women. Its focus is woman-centred and draws on the power of ritual to evoke a spiritual experience for the pregnant host and her guests. This spirituality is experienced as a strong connection between women, their relationship with 'nature', and forged via the nostalgic imagination of women through time and space. This article will draw on data obtained in 2010 during doctoral fieldwork with 52 home-birthing women across eastern Australia and will examine the blessingway ceremony and its significance as a site of potential spiritual empowerment for pregnant and birthing women.
Nicholas, David B; Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Shaheed, Jenny; Beaune, Laura; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverley
This study addressed parental spirituality in the context of pediatric cancer with a poor prognosis. Drawing upon previous research implementing a longitudinal grounded theory design examining parental hope, 35 parents were interviewed regarding their experiences with an emergent description of the role of spirituality in parents' daily lives. Spirituality included religious beliefs and practices, notions of a higher force or cosmos, relationship with a divine being, as well as elements emerging from meaning-making and relationships. Parental expectations of spirituality remained relatively constant across data collection time points (3-9 months postdiagnosis), although limited variation occurred relative to shifting circumstance (e.g., deterioration of the child's condition). Spirituality appeared to offer: greater acceptance of parents' inability to protect their child from harm related to her/his life-threatening illness, guidance and emotion decompression, and support from one's faith community. Recommendations for integrating spiritual assessment in clinical care practice are offered.
Janse van Rensburg, A B R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H; Szabo, C P
To define the meaning of "spirituality" in a South African phenomenological, theory-generating qualitative inquiry, theory construction methodology was used. This refers to the tradition of nursing theory development, where a central core concept identified from the integrated data-in this case, interviews and the literature content-had to be defined. A major focus of the study was to distinguish spirituality from religion. The denotative and connotative meanings of "spirituality" were explored to establish the components for a definition. The attributes of this definition included that spirituality constitutes a "quality", a "journey", a "relationship" as well as a "capacity". While these items derived from this local definition of spirituality can be proposed for inclusion in a questionnaire for measuring spirituality in a South African context, the limits of the scope of the explorative qualitative inquiry from which it was derived must be considered.
Da Silva, João P; Pereira, Anabela M S
There is some evidence of the relationship between spirituality and quality of life, but there are few bibliographic references on these constructs for patients suffering from mental illness; thus, this study was aimed at revealing the possible role of spiritual outlooks as a protective factor in these individuals. The sample consisted of 96 Portuguese psychiatric patients, selected from a psychiatric hospital and assessed based on parameters for quality of life, spirituality and mindfulness. The data support some theories about the nature of the spirituality. Spiritual beliefs are poorly correlated with the quality of life index, and there is a moderate association between these beliefs and some aspects of mindfulness. It is suggested that a spiritual outlook of psychiatric patients should be taken into account in psychological interventions.
Morris, Douglas N; Stecher, Jo; Briggs-Peppler, Kayla M; Chittenden, Chelsea M; Rubira, Joseph; Wismer, Lindsay K
This mixed-method study examined the responses of 97 occupational therapists on the subject of spirituality in occupational therapy practice. The inclusion of spirituality into the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (2008) implies that clinicians address spirituality as a component of client-centered practice. This research revealed a gap between education, theory, and practice as evidenced in the quantitative and qualitative data. Although occupational therapy is intended to be holistic, therapists require a more complete understanding of what spirituality is and what the role of the occupational therapist is when addressing spirituality in evaluation or treatment. The discussion of this research provides information for future occupational therapy educators and educational programs as they seek to incorporate the construct of spirituality into curricula.
Rosmarin, David H; Wachholtz, Amy; Ai, Amy
The past three decades have witnessed a surge in research on spirituality and health. This growing body of literature has linked many aspects of spirituality as well as religion to both positive and negative indices of human functioning. However, studies have primarily been descriptive, focusing on identifying associations between spirituality and health, rather than explanatory, focusing on identifying mechanisms underlying observed relationships. Earlier research is also limited by failure to control for salient covariates, apply prospective design, and use sophisticated measurements with well defined and empirically-validated factors. Recent research, however, is advancing the study of spirituality and health by examining not only whether religious factors are relevant to human health, but also how spirituality may functionally impact medical and psychological wellbeing and illness. This article introduces a special issue on Spirituality and Health containing 12 full-length research reports to further this welcomed, emerging trend.
Spirituality has been the subject of discussion over many years, yet understanding its nature, and usefulness during illness, can be elusive. Nurses and other health-care practitioners can often be in the position to help patients discuss spiritual matters because of their direct contact on a frequent basis, but might not feel confident to do so because the subject can appear to be overly complex. This paper summarizes some of the essential elements of spirituality as synthesized from literature that refers to it. The literature draws attention to spirit as the core of a person's being, and the notion that spirituality comprises multiple dimensions that exist internally or become externally manifest through behaviours. The presence and use of spirituality can lead to such outcomes as peace of mind, self-fulfilment and alleviation of suffering. Underpinning all spirituality is the concept of transcendence where a person can be 'lifted up' above the challenges of illness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero; Peres, Mario F Prieto; Vallada, Homero P; Lucchetti, Giancarlo
Spiritism has been strongly connected with mental health in Brazil. However, there is a lack of descriptions of spiritual treatment provided by thousands of Brazilian Spiritist centers. The present study aims to describe the spiritual care for depression provided by one large Spiritist center in São Paulo, Brazil. This is a descriptive study carried out in 2012 at "São Paulo Spiritist Federation." Authors visited the "spiritual intervention sections," observed the therapies provided, listened to the "spirits' communication," and interviewed two patients. The assistance consists on a 90-min "Spiritual healing" session which includes educational lectures, "disobsession" (spirit release therapy), "passe" (laying on of hands) and person advice. Both patients had remitted depression when they were interviewed. Further studies would be necessary to report other religious/spiritual treatments in order to improve our understanding of the available practices used by patients and optimize the integration of conventional care with spiritual treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Many patterns of affiliative behaviour have been described for primates, for instance: reciprocation and exchange of grooming, grooming others of similar rank, reconciliation of fights, and preferential reconciliation with more valuable partners. For these patterns several functions and underlying cognitive processes have been suggested. It is, however, difficult to imagine how animals may combine these diverse considerations in their mind. Although the co-variation hypothesis, by limiting the social possibilities an individual has, constrains the number of cognitive considerations an individual has to take, it does not present an integrated theory of affiliative patterns either. In the present paper, after surveying patterns of affiliation in egalitarian and despotic macaques, we use an individual-based model with a high potential for self-organisation as a starting point for such an integrative approach. In our model, called GrooFiWorld, individuals group and, upon meeting each other, may perform a dominance interaction of which the outcomes of winning and losing are self-reinforcing. Besides, if individuals think they will be defeated, they consider grooming others. Here, the greater their anxiety is, the greater their "motivation" to groom others. Our model generates patterns similar to many affiliative patterns of empirical data. By merely increasing the intensity of aggression, affiliative patterns in the model change from those resembling egalitarian macaques to those resembling despotic ones. Our model produces such patterns without assuming in the mind of the individual the specific cognitive processes that are usually thought to underlie these patterns (such as recordkeeping of the acts given and received, a tendency to exchange, memory of the former fight, selective attraction to the former opponent, and estimation of the value of a relationship. Our model can be used as a null model to increase our understanding of affiliative
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess spiritual needs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS and to evaluate correlations with disease and health associated variables. Using a set of standardized questionnaires (i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36's Quality of Life, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, etc., we enrolled 141 patients (95% women, mean age 58 ± 10 years. Here, needs for inner peace and giving/generativity scored the highest, while existential needs and religious needs scored lowest. Particularly inner peace needs and existential needs correlated with different domains of reduced mental health, particularly with anxiety, the intention to escape from illness, and psychosocial restrictions. Thirty-eight percent of the patients stated needs to be forgiven and nearly half to forgive someone from their past life. Therefore, the specific spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases should be addressed in clinical care in order to identify potential therapeutic avenues to support and stabilize their psychoemotional situation.