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Sample records for spirits purification process

  1. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes. (a) Applicability. (1) Persons who produce spirits in industrial processes (including spirits...

  2. Purification processes for coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.K.; Primack, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is apparent from the discussion that many routes can be taken to achieve acid-gas removal and sulfur recovery from coal gas. The selection of the optimum purification system is a major task. The type of coal, type of gasifier and the upstream processing all strongly influence the selection. Several generalizations can be made: (1) The cost of the purification sections of a high-Btu gas plant is significant--perhaps 10 to 30% of the capital cost of the coal conversion facility. (2) The cost of purifying gas produced from high-sulfur coal feed is more expensive than the cost for purifying gas produced from low-sulfur coal. (3) The choice of an acid-gas removal system will often be a function of system pressure. The economical choice will usually be: (a) amine-based systems at atmospheric pressure; (b) hot-carbonate systems at moderate pressure or (c) physical-solvent systems at higher pressure. (4) For a high-Btu, high-sulfur case: (a) A selective acid-gas removal system with a Claus plant is probably more economical than a non-selective acid-gas system with liquid oxidation of the H/sub 2/S in the regenerator off-gas. (b) Even moderately selective systems can produce an H/sub 2/S-rich gas suitable for a Claus plant. The CO/sub 2/-rich gas may or may not require further sulfur removal, depending on the selectivity. (5) For a high-Btu, low-sulfur case: (a) The hot carbonate and tertiary amine systems may not be sufficiently selective to produce a gas suitable for feed to a Claus process while a physical solvent system may be. Therefore, the physical solvent system may be expected to be more economical. (b) The regenerated gas from the bulk CO/sub 2/ removal system following a selective physical solvent system may require further sulfur removal, depending upon the sulfur level in the initial feedstock and the selectivity of the system selected.

  3. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1998-04-01

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  4. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  5. 27 CFR 19.983 - Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the quantity of fuel alcohol produced and multiplying the resulting figure by the proof of each lot of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use in the production process. 19.983 Section 19.983 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

  6. The status of international purification process of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lunguan; Zhuang Haixing; Zhuo Jianwei; Jiang Ping; Niu Yuqing

    1998-01-01

    The information of international purification process of uranium since 1976 is retrieved by both computer and handwork. The uranium purification processes and parameters in the United States, England, France, Canada, India, Korea, Australia, Pakistan, Brazil, Spain, Philippines, Japan, Argentina and China are summarized. The review show that, in addition to amine extraction in Japan and Argentina, TBP extraction was normally used in the rest countries. In order to reduce the volume of equipment and consumption of reagents, the feed solution with high uranium content (more than 300 g/L uranium) was adopted by almost all countries. During scrubbing of loaded organic phase, the methods using partly returned product liquor were studied in some countries and columns were mainly used as extraction equipment so as to improve the purification efficiency. In some countries, pulp extraction was studied to overcome the difficulties in the process of filtering

  7. Action Research in the Classroom: A Process that Feeds the Spirit of the Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Brown

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Through action research the question “What nourishes the spirit of the adolescent in the classroom” was subjected to an inventive strategy. The inquiry centered around student-driven questions inserted into a holistic intrapersonal curriculum. Recognition of the penury of literature in adolescent self and spirituality led the researcher to formulate the question, to organize and implement sessions with engaged students in a fluid way, to create an appropriate environment, to collect the data, and to analyze the data along thematic lines. Ultimately, the concept that interconnected components such as competence, encouragement, confidence, and self-esteem allow holistic teaching to flourish when creativity, choice, imagination, and constructivism nourish the adolescent spirit in the classroom. A theory clearly rises from the research. Teaching from a holistic perspective, a teacher can offset the solely outcome-based curriculum directives. The teacher and the adolescents committed to learning can continue to regard outcomes while focusing our commitment to process. To nourish the spirit is key. It is an ongoing process of infinite proportions capable of unleashing the energies of all stakeholders in education: teachers, students, parents, officials. The process, if pursued in a determined and mindful way, will witness the establishment of a civil society, one that endures in a renewable way at all levels: home, school, and community.

  8. 27 CFR 19.372 - Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which received until used. Spirits and wines received by pipeline shall be deposited in tanks, gauged by... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.372 Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic...

  9. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    selection of separation techniques and operating conditions. The key factor in designing separation processes with multiple unit operations is to determine the synergy between them which in turn demands molecular level understanding of process streams. Therefore, the methodology is fortified with process......, thereby providing process information crucial for determining synergistic effects between different unit operations. In this work, the formulated methodology has been used to isolate and purify artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of the plant Artemisia annua. A process flow sheet...... is generated consisting of maceration, flash column chromatography and crystallization unit operations for extraction, partial purification and final purification of artemisinin, respectively. PAT framework is used extensively to characterize the process streams at molecular level and the generated process...

  10. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  11. Purification process of recombinant monoclonal antibodies with mixed mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Sophie; Joucla, Gilles; Garbay, Bertrand; Dieryck, Wilfrid; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Santarelli, Xavier; Cabanne, Charlotte

    2015-05-08

    An innovative process to purify mAb from CHO cell culture supernatant was developed. This three-step process involved two mixed mode resins and an anion exchange membrane. We used a human IgG mixture to determine the optimal conditions for each purification step. Thereafter, the whole process was evaluated and improved for the purification of a recombinant mAb produced in the supernatant of CHO cells. Once optimized, yield and purity of 88% and 99.9%, respectively were comparable to those obtained in a conventional process based on a capture step using protein A. In addition, aggregates, HCPs and DNA levels in the purified fraction were below regulatory specifications. Then we used mass spectrometry to identify contaminating proteins in the antibody fraction in order to highlight the behavior of HCPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  13. PROCESS FOR THE PURIFICATION OF URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, S.

    1959-01-20

    A proccss is described for reclaiming uranium values from aqueous solutions containing U, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Cr comprising treating the solution with NH/sub 3/ to precipitate the: U, Fc, and Cr and leaving Cu and Ni in solution as ammonia complex ions. The precipitate is chlorinated with CCl/sub 4/ at an elevated temperature to convert the U, Tc, and Cr into their chlorides. The more volatile FeCl/sub 3/ and CrCl/sub 3/ are separated from the UCl/sub 4/. The process is used when U is treated in a calutron, and composite solutions are produccd which contain dissolved products of stainless steel.

  14. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  15. Production of bio-fuel ethanol from distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Sun, Zhaoyong; Zhang, Wenxue; Tang, Yueqin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making is rich in carbohydrates, and could potentially serve as feedstock for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. Our study evaluated two types of saccharification methods that convert distilled grain waste to monosaccharides: enzymatic saccharification and concentrated H2SO4 saccharification. Results showed that enzymatic saccharification performed unsatisfactorily because of inefficient removal of lignin during pretreatment. Concentrated H2SO4 saccharification led to a total sugar recovery efficiency of 79.0 %, and to considerably higher sugar concentrations than enzymatic saccharification. The process of ethanol production from distilled grain waste based on concentrated H2SO4 saccharification was then studied. The process mainly consisted of concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, solid-liquid separation, decoloration, sugar-acid separation, oligosaccharide hydrolysis, and continuous ethanol fermentation. An improved simulated moving bed system was employed to separate sugars from acid after concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, by which 95.8 % of glucose and 85.8 % of xylose went into the sugar-rich fraction, while 83.3 % of H2SO4 went into the acid-rich fraction. A flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KF-7, was used for continuous ethanol fermentation, which produced an ethanol yield of 91.9-98.9 %, based on glucose concentration.

  16. Analysis of plutonium purification process and restrict conditions at the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Minoru; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Fujine, Sachio; Motoyama, Satoshi; Iwakami, Toru

    1999-01-01

    The simulation code ESSCAR for extraction process is able to simulate steady and transient separation behavior of a given extraction process flow sheet which may be composed of an arbitrary number of pulsed column and mixer settlers. The code is able to calculate concentration profiles of not only major components such as UO 2 2+ , U 4+ ,Pu 4+ , Pu 3+ , H + , HNO 2 , HAN and hydrazine, but also minor components NpO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + , Np 4+ , Tc, Zr. The effect of operational parameters on the plutonium product stream, the waste stream and conditions of each separation step in plutonium purification process was shown in the analysis performed by ESSCAR. Boundary values of each operational parameters which satisfied designed product conditions of the plutonium purification process were obtained. Relationship between boundary line of restrict conditions of plutonium polymer and plutonium third phase based on experimental data and solution conditions which were calculated by ESSCAR in plutonium purification process was shown. It was found at every contactors in plutonium purification process of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  17. Process for recovery and purification of lithium from dilute sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Komasawa, Isao

    1990-01-01

    A process was studied for recovery and purification of lithium from hot spring water and leachate of coal fly ash in which lithium is present at very low concentration in a mixture of high concentration of less desirable species such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and others. Lithium is, as a first step, adsorbed selectively by an ion-sieve type adsorbent, λ-MnO 2 , which can effect separation by adsorbing lithium alone in its intraparticle spaces while adsorbing most metals on its surface. Stagewise elutions are performed, employing two elutrients: NH 4 NO 3 and then HNO 3 solution. The concentration ratio of lithium and sodium is 1/70∼1/120 in the original feed stream, and this is upgraded to 300/1 in the pregnant elutrient. Some impurities in the pregnant elutrient is removed by a solvent extraction technique, employing a mixed extractant of a β-diketone (LIX51) and tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide in kerosene. A lithium solution with an undetectable amount of impurities is obtained by single extraction followed by single scrubbing with dilute hydrochloric acid of carefully controlled concentration. (author)

  18. The Debate about the Procession of the Holy Spirit in Constantinople in the 30s of the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaeva Elga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an episode of the controversy focussed on the Filioque doctrine between the Eastern and Western Churches in the 30s of the 14th century. We put aside the issue of methodological differences between the participants of the debate and consider only its dogmatic content. We present the historical context and the interrelationship of sources. The reconstruction of Catholic argumentation based on the analysis of recently published original versions of the basic texts of their Orthodox opponents, Barlaam the Calabrian and St. Gregory Palamas (preserved only in Serbian-Church-Slavonic translation is proposed. It is shown that in terms of content the argumentation of Barlaam and Palamas coincides in many aspects. Their main argument is based on the distinction between “natural” and “hypostatic” properties in the Trinity, as well as on the distinction between the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit and his descent to the creature. The only signifi cant difference between their positions is their perception of the Latins’ thesis of procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son, “as from the one Source”. This very difference caused the continuation of discussions on the Orthodox ground. We note the development in reasoning, proposed by both authors during the second stage of the discussion. It is concluded that Barlaam’s and Palama’s defense of the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit “a solo Patre” starts from common points and that the negative assessment of Barlaam’s work by St. Gregory Palamas should not be associated with it’s dogmatic content, but with different methodological orientations of the authors, as well as with the Gregory’s misunderstanding of the Barlaam’s thesis.

  19. Aqueous processes at Gusev crater inferred from physical properties of rocks and soils along the Spirit traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Grin, E.A.; Ritcher, L.; Soderblom, L.; Li, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Landis, G.A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for Spirit on the basis of morphological evidence of long-lasting water activity, including possibly fluvial and lacustrine episodes. From the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills, Spirit's traverse provides a journey back in time, from relatively recent volcanic plains showing little evidence for aqueous processes up to the older hills, where rock and soil composition are drastically different. For the first 156 sols, the only evidence of water action was weathering rinds, vein fillings, and soil crust cementation by salts. The trenches of Sols 112-145 marked the first significant findings of increased concentrations of sulfur and magnesium varying in parallel, suggesting that they be paired as magnesium-sulfate. Spirit's arrival at West Spur coincided with a shift in rock and soil composition with observations hinting at substantial amounts of water in Gusev's past. We used the Microscopic Imager data up to Sol 431 to analyze rock and soil properties and infer plausible types and magnitude of aqueous processes through time. We show the role played early by topography and structure. The morphology, texture, and deep alteration shown by the rocks in West Spur and the Columbia Hills Formation (CHF) suggest conditions that are not met in present-day Mars and required a wetter environment, which could have included transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water, vapor in volcanic gases, hydrothermal circulation, or saturation in a briny fluid containing the same elements. Changing conditions that might have affected flow circulation are suggested by different textural and morphological characteristics between the rocks in the CHF and those of the plains, with higher porosity proxy, higher void ratio, and higher water storage potential in the CHF. Soils were used to assess aqueous processes and water pathways in the top layers of modern soils. We conclude that infiltration might have become more difficult

  20. New purification process of fungal immunomodulatory protein, FIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cy l

    parameters can be amplified linearly. Concentrated supernatant from ultrafiltration was further separated with two-step chromatographic purification of strong cation-exchange and size-exclusion, purified product shows as single band at 13 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, the analysis result of reversed phase HPLC C4 column also ...

  1. A study on the extraction and purification process of lily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to extract and purify lily polysaccharide and to study its anti-H22 hepatoma effect in mice. Orthogonal experimental method was used to analyze the factors influencing the extraction and purification of lily polysaccharide, and the anti-tumor effect of lily polysaccharide was studied by acting it on ...

  2. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications

  3. INCULCATING ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    this paper advocates the use and teaching of indigenous languages (Igbo) not only from primary and post-primary level ... process of inculcating entrepreneurial spirit should start at the elementary school level through ... productively in their indigenous languages and posits that, "A Scientific impetus or technology acquired ...

  4. A purification process for an inert gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, S.S.; Samanta, S.K.; Jain, N.G.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramaswamy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Special inert atmosphere is desired inside hot cells used for handling radioactive materials. In this report, details of experiments conducted to generate data required for the design of a system for maintaining very low levels of organic and acid vapours, oxygen and moisture in a nitrogen gas inert atmosphere, are described. Several grades of activated charcoals impregnated with 1% KOH were studied for the adsorption of acidic and organic vapours. A Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was developed to remove oxygen with greater than 90% efficiency. For the removal of moisture, a regenerable molecular sieve 4A dual-bed was provided. Based on the performance data thus generated, an integrated purification system for nitrogen gas is proposed. (author)

  5. PRELIMINARY MODELING OF AN INDUSTRIAL RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN PURIFICATION PROCESS BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Garcel1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the present study a preliminary neural network modelling to improve our understanding of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin purification process in a plant was explored. A three layer feed-forward back propagation neural network was constructed for predicting the efficiency of the purification section comprising four chromatographic steps as a function of eleven operational variables. The neural network model performed very well in the training and validation phases. Using the connection weight method the predictor variables were ranked based on their estimated explanatory importance in the neural network and five input variables were found to be predominant over the others. These results provided useful information showing that the first chromatographic step and the third chromatographic step are decisive to achieve high efficiencies in the purification section, thus enriching the control strategy of the plant.

  6. Downstream Processing Technologies/Capturing and Final Purification : Opportunities for Innovation, Change, and Improvement. A Review of Downstream Processing Developments in Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nripen; Herzer, Sibylle

    2017-08-10

    Increased pressure on upstream processes to maximize productivity has been crowned with great success, although at the cost of shifting the bottleneck to purification. As drivers were economical, focus is on now on debottlenecking downstream processes as the main drivers of high manufacturing cost. Devising a holistically efficient and economical process remains a key challenge. Traditional and emerging protein purification strategies with particular emphasis on methodologies implemented for the production of recombinant proteins of biopharmaceutical importance are reviewed. The breadth of innovation is addressed, as well as the challenges the industry faces today, with an eye to remaining impartial, fair, and balanced. In addition, the scope encompasses both chromatographic and non-chromatographic separations directed at the purification of proteins, with a strong emphasis on antibodies. Complete solutions such as integrated USP/DSP strategies (i.e., continuous processing) are discussed as well as gains in data quantity and quality arising from automation and high-throughput screening (HTS). Best practices and advantages through design of experiments (DOE) to access a complex design space such as multi-modal chromatography are reviewed with an outlook on potential future trends. A discussion of single-use technology, its impact and opportunities for further growth, and the exciting developments in modeling and simulation of DSP rounds out the overview. Lastly, emerging trends such as 3D printing and nanotechnology are covered. Graphical Abstract Workflow of high-throughput screening, design of experiments, and high-throughput analytics to understand design space and design space boundaries quickly. (Reproduced with permission from Gregory Barker, Process Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb).

  7. The importance of the ammonia purification process in ammonia-water absorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Sieres, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    Practical experience in working with ammonia-water absorption systems shows that the ammonia purification process is a crucial issue in order to obtain an efficient and reliable system. In this paper, the detrimental effects of the residual water content in the vapour refrigerant are described and quantified based on the system design variables that determine the effectiveness of the purification process. The study has been performed considering a single stage system with a distillation column with complete condensation. The ammonia purification effectiveness of the column is analysed in terms of the efficiencies in the stripping and rectifying sections and the reflux ratio. By varying the efficiencies from 0 to 1, systems with neither the rectifying nor stripping section, with either the rectifying or stripping section, or with both sections can be considered. The impact of the ammonia purification process on the absorption system performance is studied based on the column efficiencies and reflux ratio; and its effects on refrigerant concentration, system COP, system pressures and main system mass flow rates and concentrations are analysed. When the highest efficiency rectifying sections are used a combination of generation temperature and reflux ratio which leads to optimum COP values is found. The analysis covers different operating conditions with air and water cooled systems from refrigeration to air conditioning applications by changing the evaporation temperature. The importance of rectification in each kind of application is evaluated

  8. Sancti Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucho más alto que el último pueblo del valle, a 1.500 metros de altitud, las aguas del San Nicolau, cansadas de saltar cascadas, se detienen a lo largo de unos pocos kilómetros, entreteniéndose en suaves meandros antes de volver a precipitarse en otra cascada mayor. La nieve cubre esa región la mayor parte del año, y en los meses de verano es lugar delicioso para el excursionista y el pescador de truchas. Sólo las tormentas bruscas, violentas y breves llegan con frecuencia a turbar la paz de su reposo en aquel edén. Puede cobijarse entonces bajo la media naranja del refugio, orientada a sotavento; y mientras pasa el aguacero, contemplar sus frescos inspirados por el nombre del lugar: Sancti Spirit.

  9. Calculation code; REPROSY-P for process studies on Pu purification with TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujino, Takeshi; Kohsaka, Atsuo; Aochi, Tetsuo

    1975-10-01

    To evaluate the plutonium purification process with tributhyl phosphate (TBP), the calculation code; REPROSY-P for TBP-HNO 3 -Pu system, has been prepared on the basis of a batchwise counter-current extraction cascade model. With the code, the concentration profiles under transient or steady state condition and the number of theoretical stages required, can be calculated for a given process condition. Empirical distribution equations, distribution data of plutonium and the detailed calculation program, are described. (auth.)

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of the processes of purification of antimony to semiconductor grade purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Panczyk, E.

    1992-01-01

    A complex of techniques for purification of antimony from arsenic has been examined with the aid of radiotracer 76 As. The investigated processes comprised vacuum distillation, zone melting and remelting of the metal under artificial slags. The purification efficiencies for the above processes were high and amounted to 94% (for 30% of the charge), 50% (for 50% of the charge) and 99.5% (for 60% of the charge), respectively. Attempts were made to determine the kinetics of the separation of arsenic from antimony by distillation. The application of the radioactive tracer made it possible to determine rapidly the distribution of impurities after each stage of the process within a wide concentration range (10 -2 -10 -7 g/g). (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  11. In the Spirit of William Georgetti: Scrutiny of a Prestigious National Scholarship Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J.; Johnston, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Postgraduate scholarship programmes are increasingly important for supporting gifted students from diverse backgrounds. Systems and processes in the application, determination and delivery of scholarships must be robust, transparent, accountable and equitable. However, they are rarely evaluated. One of the most prestigious scholarships in New…

  12. Flebogamma(®) DIF (intravenous immunoglobulin) purification process effectively eliminates procoagulant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Marta; Marzo, Núria; Pons, Berta; Herrerias, Aida; López, Laura; Faro, Merche; López, Maite; Jorquera, Juan I

    2013-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that traces of activated factor XI (FXIa) present in specific brands of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) concentrates may pose a thrombogenic risk. To characterize procoagulant activity during fractionation and the elimination capacity of the Flebogamma(®) DIF (Grifols' IVIG) manufacturing process. Flebogamma(®) DIF fractionation steps included cryoprecipitate supernatant (Cryo/S), Fraction (Fr) I supernatant, and Fr II + III suspension. Purification steps included ultrafiltrate I, acid treatment, and pasteurization. Samples were assessed for total protein, IgG, and procoagulant activation markers. Cryo/S showed no procoagulant activity for prekallikrein activator (PKA), kallikrein-like, and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NaPTT) with normal (-PPP) or FXI-deficient (-FXI) platelet poor plasma. Thrombin generation test (TGT)-PPP and TGT-FXI were DIF production process is capable of eliminating procoagulant activity because of its purification steps. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Assessment of SOFC Systems Integrated with Bio-Ethanol Production and Purification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumittra Charojrochkul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrical efficiencies of the integrated systems of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and bio-ethanol production with purification processes at different heat integration levels were investigated. The simulation studies were based on the condition with zero net energy. It was found that the most suitable operating voltage is between 0.7 and 0.85 V and the operating temperature is in the range from 973 to 1173 K. For the effect of percent ethanol recovery, the optimum percent ethanol recovery is at 95%. The most efficient case is the system with full heat integration between SOFC and bio-ethanol production and purification processes with biogas reformed for producing extra hydrogen feed for SOFC which has the overall electrical efficiency = 36.17%. However more equipment such as reformer and heat exchangers are required and this leads to increased investment cost.

  14. Enrichment and purification process of astragalosides and their anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radix Astragali mainly contains saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, amino acids and other chemical constituents of which total astragalosides have immunomodulatory, anti-viral, hepatoprotective, and gastric mucosa protective effects. Objective: To investigate the process conditions for extraction, ...

  15. Correction in the efficiency of uranium purification process by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    An uranium solvent extraction, of high purification, with full advantage of absorbed uranium in the begining of process, is described. Including a pulsed column, called correction column, the efficiency of whole process is increased, dispensing the recycling of uranium losses from leaching column. With the correction column the uranium losses go in continuity, for reextraction column, increasing the efficiency of process. The purified uranium is removed in the reextraction column in aqueous phase. The correction process can be carried out with full efficiency using pulsed columns or chemical mixer-settlers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. A Simulation of Pre-Arcing Plasma Discharge Processes in Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mendez, B. G.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia-A, R.; Barocio, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    The simulation of a water purification system within a coaxial cylinder reactor operated by 1 kHz frequency plasma discharges in pre-arcing regimes is presented. In contrast with precedent works, this computational model considers three mechanisms of the system operation: (a) the relevant physical characteristics of water (b) the ionisation and expansion processes in the spark channel including the near-breakdown electric current generated by the rate of change of the effective capacitance and resistance in the discharge, and (c) the energy associated with this initial spark in the water. The outcome of the model seems to meet all main requirements to allow the design and construction of specific water purification technology devices

  17. Catalyst study for the plasma exhaust purification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.; Sannier, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several catalysts available from commercial sources have been screened to find out specific catalysts which allow complete methane oxidation and ammonia decomposition at temperature as low as possible in order to minimize tritium loss by permeation through processing equipment walls. Afterwards, an extended kinetic investigation has been performed on the best catalysts to achieve the data necessary to unit calculations. For methane oxidation, a palladium on alumina catalyst shows a very satisfactory low-temperature efficiency while a non-precious metal catalyst made of nickel oxide and alumina was found to be the more efficient for ammonia decomposition

  18. [Study on purification process of depsides in Salvia miltiorrhiza with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-chun; Wu, Qing; Li, Ji-xiang

    2007-06-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of Depsides in Salvia miltiorrhiza with macroporous resin. The adsorptive characteristics and eluting parameters of the process were studied by taking the content of depsides as index. 85 mL of extractive of depsides (1.25 g x mL(-1)) was purified with a column of macroreticular resin ( Phi30 mm,127 mL) and washed with 4 BV of distilled water, the eluted with 4 BV of 80% ethanol (1% ammonia). This process of applying macroporous resin to adsorb and purify depsides in S. miltiorrhiza is feasible.

  19. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF URANIUM DEPOSITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Kamen, M.D.

    1958-10-14

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from UCl/sub 4/ deposits formed on calutrons. Such deposits are removed from the calutron parts by an aqueous wash solution which then contains the uranium values in addition to the following impurities: Ni, Cu, Fe, and Cr. This impurity bearing wash solution is treated with an oxidizing agent, and the oxidized solution is then treated with ammonia in order to precipitate the uranium as ammonium diuranate. The metal impurities of iron and chromium, which form insoluble hydroxides, are precipitated along with the uranium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution, dissolved in acid, and the solution again treated with ammonia and ammonium carbonate, which results in the precipitation of the metal impurities as hydroxides while the uranium values remain in solution.

  20. Industrial compatible re-growth of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes by ultrafast pure oxygen purification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y.Y.; Hou, Kai; Engstrøm, Daniel Southcott

    2011-01-01

    Reproducible high-yield purification process of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed by thermal annealing in ultrapure oxygen. The optimized condition involves thermal annealing via a PID controlled heater in high purity oxygen at temperature of 450°C for 180s, which burns out...... amorphous carbon and reactivate nickel catalyst. Controlling of the purification temperature is important for high yield CNTs, as excessive high annealing temperature results in deformation of the CNTs. Unlike hazardous wet purification treatments, purified CNTs remained vertically aligned and offer...

  1. Purification process monitoring in monoclonal antibody preparation: contamination with viruses, DNA and peptide growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, A R; van Zoelen, E J; Spijkers, I E; Osterhaus, A D; van Steenis, G; van Kreyl, C F

    1992-09-01

    Administration in vivo of monoclonal antibodies to humans is challenged by considerations regarding their safety. Contamination with viruses, potentially oncogenic nucleic acids and biologically active components like growth factors and hormones forms a serious point of concern in this respect. We have investigated the potential risk of viral contamination by measuring the reduction of 12 different viruses (after spiking) in the standard downstream purification process of ascitic fluid. Depending on the type of virus added and the purification step employed, the reduction of infectious virus particles varies considerably. The overall reduction ranges from about 10(3), observed for a member of the family of Papovaviridae, to more than 10(12) for members of the families of Herpesviridae and Orthomyxoviridae. Using hybridization analysis with a mouse (genomic) DNA probe, we show that the amount of residual DNA in ascitic fluids may also vary considerably, ranging from 75 ng/ml to 1 microgram/ml. In crude preparations produced in cell culture, much lower DNA concentrations are found (0.3 ng/ml). When standard downstream purification procedures are applied to ascitic fluid, a significant reduction of residual DNA levels is observed in the purified monoclonal antibody preparations and in intermediate fractions. The overall reduction factors vary from about 10(3) to 10(4), which is also confirmed by spiking experiments with either purified DNA or crude chromatin-like DNA. Using in-vitro cellular assays, we further show that peptide growth factors like PDGF and TGF beta are present in considerable amounts in ascitic fluids. The observed biological activities, however, are completely eliminated during the purification steps applied.

  2. The purification process on scintillator material (SrI{sub 2}: Eu) by zone-refinement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Raja; Daniel, D. Joseph; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in [SSN Research Centre, Sri SivaSubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Tamilnadu-603 110 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The thermal properties of Europium doped strontium iodide was analyzed through Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The melting point of europium doped strontium iodide is around 531°C. The hydrated and oxyhalide impurities were found before melting temperature. In order to remove these impurities we have done purification process by Zone-refinement technique. The effective output of purification of zone refining was also observed through the segregation of impurities.

  3. DYNAMIC MODELLING AND ADVANCED PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS PROCESS OF ENZYME PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechechi E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model, simulation and computer control of a Continuous Affinity Recycle Extraction (CARE process, a protein purification technique based on protein adsorption on solid-phase adsorbents is described in this work. This process, consisting of three reactors, is a multivariable process with considerable time delay in the on-line analyses of the controlled variable. An advanced predictive control configuration, specifically the Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC, was applied. The DMC algorithm was applied in process schemes where the aim was to maintain constant the enzyme concentration in the outlet of the third reactor. The performance of the DMC controller was analyzed in the feed-flow disturbances and the results are presented.

  4. Spirit Hits a Home Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    informally named for Josh Gibson, 'Bullet Joe' Rogan, and Cumberland Posey. Stay tuned this month, as the Baseball Hall of Fame elects more players from the Negro Leagues and Spirit continues to examine these spectacular rocks. Spirit took this mosaic of images using the panoramic camera on the rover's 746th day, or sol (Feb. 7, 2006), of exploring Mars. Scientists are acquiring and processing image data for more views of the same terrain in approximate true color.

  5. Contribution to the study of the process of purification of plutonium by extraction with trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saey, Jean-Claude

    1966-01-01

    This work addresses the process of plutonium purification which uses trilaurylamine nitrate. In order to use this nitrate in its solid state and at ordinary temperature, a secondary solvent must be added which must have some properties: low volume mass and viscosity, high boiling and ignition temperatures, rather low miscibility with water, high stability in front of joint actions of nitric acid and radiations, and no reaction with the alkylammonium nitrate and the complex. Thus, the author addresses phenomena of immiscibility and identifies some important molecular characteristics which could lead to the selection of another secondary solvent than dodecane. The decalin seem interesting and its behaviour is studied. A mixing of dodecane and decalin is used as extraction mixing. The obtained results are discussed. Finally, the author notices that using this mixing in the plutonium purification process results in a large increase of metal concentrations and a decrease of risks of crystallisation, without any major drawback, in a continuously operating micro-industrial installation

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW PROCESS FOR PURIFICATION OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE FROM Streptococcus pneumoniae SEROTYPE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Zanardo

    Full Text Available Abstract The main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae is the capsular polysaccharide (PS, which is the antigen of all current vaccines that are prepared with PS purified from serotypes prevalent in the population. In this work, three purification strategies were evaluated and a new process was developed for purification of serotype 14 PS (PS14, responsible for 39.8% of diseases in children of 0-6 years old in Brazil. The developed method consists of cell separation by tangential microfiltration, concentration of the microfiltrate by tangential ultrafiltration (50 kDa, diafiltration in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate using a 30 kDa ultrafiltration membrane, precipitation with 5% trichloroacetic acid, precipitation with 20% and 60% ethanol, and anion exchange chromatography. The required purity regarding nucleic acids (≤ 2% and proteins (≤ 3% was achieved, resulting in a relative purity of 439 mg PS14/mg nucleic acids and 146 mg PS14/mg proteins. The final polysaccharide recovery was 65%, which is higher than the recovery of the majority of processes described in the literature.

  7. Heterogeneous glycoform separation by process chromatography: I: Monomer purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Xuankuo; Shupe, Alan; Yang, Rong; Bai, Kevin; Das, Tapan; Borys, Michael C; Li, Zheng Jian

    2015-07-24

    Fc fusion proteins with high and low sialylation were purified and separated by preparative ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Heterogeneity in sialylation and glycosylation led to variation in surface charge and hydrophobicity, and resulted in multiple distinct glycoform populations in response to various purification conditions. Monomer with high sialic acid content has higher surface charge and adsorbs stronger to ion-exchange resin, while the less sialylated monomer interacts more favorably with hydrophobic resin. Extensive biophysical characterization was carried out for purified monomers at different level of sialylation. In general, different monomeric glycoforms have different surface charge and hydrophobicity, different thermal stability, and different aggregation propensity. The surface charge corresponds well with sialic acid content, as evidenced by electrophoresis, N-link domain analysis, and zeta potential results. The sialylation also contributes to minor modification of protein size, molecular mass and tertiary structure. Notably, fluorescence emission spectra and thermal transition became less distinguishable when the monomers containing low and high sialic acid were prepared in high ionic strength solution. Such finding reiterates the fact that the electrostatic forces, which are largely dependent on sialic acid content of protein, plays a dominant role in many intra- and inter-molecular interactions. Overall, the characterization data agreed well with separation behaviors and provided valuable insight to control of glycoform profile in purification process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    been published previously. Any kind of reference may be consulted; textbooks and journal articles can be cited. The problems can be downloaded from the webpage of the Ortvay contest (mafihe.elte.hu/ortvay ) in Hungarian and English; on preliminary request the problems can be sent via e-mail. If an institute is represented by several contestants, then a teacher or student acting as local organizer collects the solutions and posts them to the referees. Solutions can be sent by mail, fax or e-mail to the address given on the webpage. The contest is evaluated separately for each university year and the referees reserve the right to withhold or to divide some prizes. Beyond the money prizes for the first, second and third places, honourable mentions and special prizes for outstanding solutions of individual problems can be awarded. The sponsors of the contest are the Students' Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences of Eötvös University and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society. The results are announced in December and the organizers are hoping for even more participants in future contests. Among the winners of the European Union Young Scientists competition which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece in September was Sarah Flannery from Ireland. Sarah had used advanced mathematics to compare two cryptographic systems and proved that a new system for encrypting information on the Internet is as secure and considerably faster than the one currently in use. Three students from Iceland also gained a prize for their work on a distant cluster of hundreds of galaxies, demonstrating the capacities of modern data processing tools and the Internet in the project. The winning entries were selected from 57 projects presented from over 30 countries, and the aim of the contest was to encourage and highlight young people's interest in science by inviting them to play a part in actual research projects. Some of the winners will be able to work on projects at the Joint Research Centre

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.

  10. [Studies on purification of total glycosides of paeony (TGP) from Paeonia lactiflora by ethanol gradient combined with resin processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xin-Ying; Meng, Xian-Sheng; Pan, Ying; Han, Ling; Bao, Yong-Rui; Guo, Xiao-Rui

    2010-11-01

    To study the purification technology of TGP from Paeonia lactiflora by ethanol gradient combined with resin processing and determine the optimum technological conditions and parameters. Using orthogonal test design to investigate the effect of ethanol gradient treatment on the content of TGP. Moreover, from the static and dynamic adsorption nine types of macroporous adsorption resin were evaluated to select the best resin type and the optimum separation and purification conditions. The best technology of Paeonia lactiflora ethanol precipitation was concentration of 1 g crude drug/mL precipitated by 95% ethanol to 90% concentration and then frozen for 10 h. HPD300 resin was the optimal model for the separation and purification of TGP from Paeonia lactiflora, with 5BV of 50% ethanol eluenting and the ratio of herb to resin was 2:1 . This technology is suitable and advanced for industry production and it is simple and convenient, rapid, accurate, etc.

  11. Experimental design of a twin-column countercurrent gradient purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Ulmer, Nicole; Decker, Lara; Aumann, Lars; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-04-07

    As typical for separation processes, single unit batch chromatography exhibits a trade-off between purity and yield. The twin-column MCSGP (multi-column countercurrent solvent gradient purification) process allows alleviating such trade-offs, particularly in the case of difficult separations. In this work an efficient and reliable procedure for the design of the twin-column MCSGP process is developed. This is based on a single batch chromatogram, which is selected as the design chromatogram. The derived MCSGP operation is not intended to provide optimal performance, but it provides the target product in the selected fraction of the batch chromatogram, but with higher yield. The design procedure is illustrated for the isolation of the main charge isoform of a monoclonal antibody from Protein A eluate with ion-exchange chromatography. The main charge isoform was obtained at a purity and yield larger than 90%. At the same time process related impurities such as HCP and leached Protein A as well as aggregates were at least equally well removed. Additionally, the impact of several design parameters on the process performance in terms of purity, yield, productivity and buffer consumption is discussed. The obtained results can be used for further fine-tuning of the process parameters so as to improve its performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-scale flowsheet simulation of an integrated continuous purification-downstream pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Maitraye; Chaudhury, Anwesha; Singh, Ravendra; John, Joyce; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-03-10

    Properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients influence the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of final solid dosage forms (e.g. tablets). In the last decade, continuous manufacturing has been shown to be a promising alternative to batch processing in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, a quantitative model-based analysis of the influence of upstream API properties on downstream processing quality metrics will lead to enhanced QbD in pharmaceutical drug product manufacturing (Benyahia et al., 2012). In this study, a dynamic flowsheet simulation of an integrated API purification step (crystallization), followed by filtration and drying, with a downstream process (powder mixing) is presented. Results show that the temperature profile of a cooling crystallization process influences the crystal size distribution which in turn impacts the RSD and API concentration of the powder mixing process, which in turn has a direct effect on tablet properties (Boukouvala et al., 2012). A hybrid PBM-DEM model is also presented to demonstrate the coupling of particle-scale information with process-scale information leading to enhanced elucidation of the dynamics of the overall flowsheet simulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reverse osmosis for water purification and reuse in the biotechnological industry: Process design, operation and economic guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    load on a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), thereby investigating opportunities for process water reuse. In this case, a recovery unitis studied, where purification and concentration generates large volumes of wastewater. Reverse osmosis (RO) could ensure that the desired drinking water quality could...

  14. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and suspended substances (SS in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water quality in the lotus pond reached the class II emission standard, according to the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996, seven days after pretreated garlic processing wastewater had been discharged into the lotus pond. Garlic processing wastewater irrigation does not produce pollution in the pond sediment and has no negative effect on the growth of lotus roots. Due to utilization of garlic processing wastewater, the output of lotus roots increased by 3.0% to 8.3%, and the quality of lotus roots was improved. Therefore, better purification and utilization results can be achieved.

  15. [Characteristics of microbial community and operation efficiency in biofilter process for drinking water purification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong; Lü, Xi-Wu; Yang, Fei; Yin, Li-Hong; Zhu, Guang-Can

    2011-04-01

    In order to explore characteristics of microbial community and operation efficiency in biofilter (biologically-enhanced active filter and biological activated carbon filter) process for drinking water purification, Biolog and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) techniques were applied to analyze the metabolic function and structure of microbial community developing in biofilters. Water quality parameters, such as NH; -N, NO; -N, permanganate index, UV254 and BDOC etc, were determined in inflow and outflow of biofilters for investigation of operation efficiency of the biofilters. The results show that metabolic capacity of microbial community of the raw water is reduced after the biofilters, which reflect that metabolically active microbial communities in the raw water can be intercepted by biofilters. After 6 months operation of biofilters, the metabolic profiles of microbial communities are similar between two kinds of biologically-enhanced active filters, and utilization of carbon sources of microbial communities in the two filters are 73.4% and 75.5%, respectively. The metabolic profiles of microbial communities in two biological activated carbon filters showed significant difference. The carbon source utilization rate of microbial community in granule-activated carbon filter is 79.6%, which is obviously higher than 53.8% of the rate in the columnar activated carbon filter (p water purification efficiency was not significant (p > 0.05). However, in biological activated carbon filters, granule-activated carbon is conducive to microbial growth and reproduction, and the microbial communities in the biofilter present high metabolic activities, and the removal efficiency for NH4(+)-N, permanganate index and BDOC is better than the columnar activated carbon filter(p < 0.05). The results also suggest that operation efficiency of biofilter is related to the metabolic capacity of microbial community in biofilter.

  16. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  17. SPIRIT 2013 Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol......; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators...

  18. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  19. Purification, cloning and autoproteolytic processing of an aspartic proteinase from Centaurea calcitrapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, A; Cardoso, P C; Xue, Z T; Clemente, A; Brodelius, P E; Pais, M S

    2000-12-01

    Plant aspartic proteinases (APs) have been isolated from several seed and leaf sources but the only well characterized enzymes from flowers are cardosins and cyprosins from cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L. Here we report a full-length cDNA clone encoding an AP named cenprosin from the flowers of Centaurea calcitrapa L., a thistle related to cardoon. As found for all eukaryotic APs, the deduced primary sequence consists of a signal sequence, a propart and a mature enzyme. In addition, an internal sequence region of 104 residues typical only of plant APs (a plant-specific insert) is present in the primary structure. Northern analysis revealed that the strongest expression is in fresh flowers. The enzyme is also expressed in fairly high amounts in seeds and in leaves, a feature not detected for cardoon APs. The corresponding enzyme was purified in its precursor form from fresh flowers using ammonium-sulfate precipitation followed by ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. The processing of the precursor into its mature form was studied in vitro. The enzyme underwent autocatalytic processing at pH 3.0 resulting in two chains of 16 and 30 kDa. When dried flowers were used as a starting material for purification, only 16- and 30-kDa chains were obtained, suggesting that autoproteolytic activation of procenprosin in vivo occurs mainly during drying of the flowers. This may indicate a specific degradative role for the enzyme during senescence of the flowers.

  20. [Separation and purification process of total flavones and total tannins from Apocynum venetum leaves with macroreticular resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Qiong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Li, Qing-Shan

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the purification process of total flavones and total tannins from Apocynum venetum leaves with macroreticular resin. The static capacity absorption, dynamic absorption ratio and dynamic elution ratio of different types of macroreticular resins were studied and compared in order to find the best one among the eight macroreticular resins, and the technical process of the type of HPD-400 type macroreticular resin was studied in detail. The type of HPD-400 type macroreticular resin showed the best comprehensive absorption property with the following technological conditions: the current velocity was 1 BV x h(-1), the volume of distilled water was 2 BV, the eluting reagent was 60% ethanol, and the volume of 60% ethanol was 3 BV. The purity of total flavones and total tannins in the product is up to 80% after purified with HPD-400 macroreticular resin. Therefore, this purification process is feasible.

  1. Using pattern classification and nuclear forensic signatures to link UOC to source rocks and purification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.; Robel, M.; Borg, M.; Hutcheon, I.; Kristo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a scientific discipline interfacing law enforcement, nuclear science and nonproliferation. Information on the history and on the potential origin of unknown nuclear material can be obtained through nuclear forensic analysis. Using commonly available techniques of mass spectrometry, microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we have gained insight into the processing and origin of a suite of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) samples. We have applied chemometric techniques to investigate the relationships between uranium ore deposits and UOC samples in order to identify chemical and isotopic signatures of nuclear forensic importance. We developed multivariate signatures based on elemental concentrations and isotope ratios using a database of characteristics of UOC originating throughout the world. By introducing detailed and specific information about the source rock geology for each sample, we improved our understanding of the preservation of forensic signatures in UOC. Improved characterization of sample processing and provenance allows us to begin to assess the statistical significance of different groupings of samples and identify underlying patterns. Initial results indicate the concentration of uranium in the ore body, the geochemical conditions associated with uranium emplacement, and host rock petrogenesis exert controlling influences on the impurities preserved in UOC. Specific ore processing techniques, particularly those related to In-Situ Recovery, are also reflected in UOC impurity signatures. Stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry can be used in conjunction with rare earth element patterns and other characteristics to link UOCs to specific geologic deposits of origin. We will present a number of case studies illustrating the ways in which nuclear forensic analysis can provide insight into the ore geology and production and purification processes used to produce UOC. (author)

  2. Purification and treatment of industrial wastewater by electron beam process: it's potential and effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ting Teo Ming; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2002-01-01

    Demand for water has grown dramatically globally. We have seen how acute is the demand for treated water in Malaysia during dry spell of late. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, globally, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industries, and the increasing use for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Electron beam treatment (E-Beam treatment) is a comparatively new method of wastewater purification. E-beam treatment is also an environment-friendly approach for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater. E-beam treatment treats multi-components waste streams and does not require any hazardous chemical additives nor does it create any secondary wastes. It uses fast formation of short-lived reactive particles, which are capable of efficient decomposition of pollutants inside wastewater. This paper highlights the practical treatment of wastewater using E-Beam method that gives essential conveniences and advantages of the followings: - strongest reducing and oxidizing agents; - universality and interchangeability of redox agents; - variety of paths for pollutant conversion; - process controllability; - wide choice of equipment and technological regimes; - compatibility with conventional methods. (Author)

  3. A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Mitra; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2014-02-01

    The most recent method of fungal chitosan purification, i.e., two steps of dilute sulfuric acid treatment, pretreatment of cell wall at room temperature for phosphate removal and extraction of chitosan from the phosphate free cell wall at high temperature, significantly reduces the chitosan molecular weight. This study was aimed at improvement of this method. In the pretreatment step, to choose the best conditions, cell wall of Rhizopus oryzae, containing 9% phosphate, 10% glucosamine, and 21% N-acetyl glucosamine, was treated with sulfuric, lactic, acetic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid, at room temperature. Sulfuric acid showed the best performance in phosphate removal (90%) and cell wall recovery (89%). To avoid depolymerisation of chitosan, hot sulfuric acid extraction was replaced with lactic acid treatment at room temperature, and a pure fungal chitosan was obtained (0.12 g/g cell wall). Similar pretreatment and extraction processes were conducted on pure shrimp chitosan and resulted in a chitosan recovery of higher than 87% while the reduction of chitosan viscosity was less than 15%. Therefore, the sulfuric-lactic acid method purified the fungal chitosan without significant molecular weight manipulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A nonchromatographic process for purification of secretory immunoglobulins from caprine whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Himmler, Gottfried; Linhart, Clemens; Harasek, Michael; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-05-01

    Secretory immunoglobulins are an important antibody class being primarily responsible for immunoprotection of mucosal surfaces. A simple, non-chromatographic purification process for secretory immunoglobulins from caprine whey was developed. In the first process step whey was concentrated 30-40-fold on a 500 kDa membrane, thereby increasing the purity from 3% to 15%. The second step consisted of a fractionated PEG precipitation, in which high molecular weight impurities were removed first and in the second stage the secretory immunoglobulins were precipitated, leaving a majority of the low molecular weight proteins in solution. The re-dissolved secretory immunoglobulin fraction had a purity of 43% which could then be increased to 72% by diafiltration at a volume exchange factor of 10. Further increase of purity was only possible at the expense of very high buffer consumption. If diafiltration was performed directly after ultrafiltration, followed by precipitation, the yield was higher but purity was only 54%. Overall, filtration performance was characterized by high concentration polarization, therefore process conditions were set to low trans-membrane pressure and moderate protein concentration. As such purity and to a lesser extent throughput were the major objectives rather than yield, since whey, as a by-product of the dairy industry, is a cheap raw material of almost unlimited supply. Ultra-/diafiltration performance was described well by correlations using dimensionless numbers. Compared with a theoretical model (Graetz/Leveque solution) the flux was slightly overestimated. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:642-653, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Generic chromatography-based purification strategies accelerate the development of downstream processes for biopharmaceutical proteins produced in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes F; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Plants offer a valuable alternative to cultured mammalian cells for the production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. However, the target protein typically represents only a minor fraction of the total protein in the initial plant extract, which means that the development of product-specific chromatography-based purification strategies is often laborious and expensive. To address this challenge, we designed a generic downstream process that is suitable for the purification of recombinant proteins with diverse properties from plant production platforms. This was achieved by focusing on the binding behavior of tobacco host cell proteins (HCPs) to a broad set of chromatography resins under different pH and conductivity conditions. Strong cation exchanger and salt-tolerant anion exchanger resins exhibited the best resolution of tobacco HCPs among the 13 tested resins, and their selectivity was easy to manipulate through the adjustment of pH and conductivity. The advantages, such as direct capture of a target protein from leaf extract, and limitations, such as low binding capacity, of various chromatography ligands and resins are discussed. We also address the most useful applications of the chromatography ligands, namely recovery of proteins with a certain pI, in a downstream process that aims to purify diverse plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins. Based on these results, we describe generic purification schemes that are suitable for acidic, neutral, and basic target proteins, as a first step toward the development of industrial platform processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  7. Stress analysis of the O-element pipe during the process of flue gases purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekvasil R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipment for flue gases purification from undesired substances is used throughout power and other types of industry. This paper deals with damaging of the O-element pipe designed to remove sulphur from the flue gases, i.e. damaging of the pipe during flue gases purification. This purification is conducted by spraying the water into the O-shaped pipe where the flue gases flow. Thus the sulphur binds itself onto the water and gets removed from the flue gas. Injection of cold water into hot flue gases, however, causes high stress on the inside of the pipe, which can gradually damage the O-element pipe. In this paper initial injection of water into hot pipe all the way to stabilization of temperature fields will be analyzed and the most dangerous places which shall be considered for fatigue will be determined.

  8. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  9. Improved laboratory assays of Pu and U for SRP purification and finishing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.K.; Dorsett, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in routine assay techniques for uranium and plutonium as part of an effort to improve accountability at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Emphasis was placed on input/output accountability points and key physical inventory tanks associated with purification and finishing processes. Improvements were made in existing assay methods; new methods were implemented; and the application of these methods was greatly expanded. Prior to assays, samples were validated via density measurements. Digital density meters precise to four, five, and six decimal places were used to meet specific requirements. Improved plutonium assay techniques are now in routine use: controlled-potential coulometry, ion-exchange coulometry, and Pu(III) diode-array spectrophotometry. A new state-of-the-art coulometer was fabricated and used to ensure maximum accuracy in verifying standards and in measuring plutonium in product streams. The diode-array spectrophotometer for Pu(III) measurements was modified with fiber optics to facilitate remote measurements; rapid, precise measurements made the technique ideally suited for high-throughput assays. For uranium assays, the isotope-dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method was converted to a gravimetric basis. The IDMS method and the existing Davies-Gray titration (gravimetric basis) have met accountability requirements for uranium. More recently, a Pu(VI) diode-array spectrophotometric method was used on a test basis to measure plutonium in shielded-cell input accountability samples. In addition, tests to measure uranium via diode-array spectrophotometry were initiated. This rapid, precise method will replace IDMS for certain key sample points

  10. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  11. Pure Form of LiBOB Salt and the Purification Process Producing Such Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Advantages APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Method of preparation of these novel additives Coin Cells Industry Cells (8 Ah) Soxhlet Extraction Structural...invention benefits Li ion battery high temperature applications/environments such as those found in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The purification method

  12. TIO2 based photocatalytic gas purification: the effects of co-catalysts and process conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is highly promising as a technology to mitigate environmental pollution. In this thesis the focus will be on air purification by photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). A major challenge in photocatalysis is the low photonic efficiency, due to high electron

  13. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis in monitoring of crude heparin purification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hengchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Lian; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fengshan

    2013-05-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is a widely used purification technology in the heparin manufacturing process. To improve the efficiency and understand the process directly, a rapid and equally precise method needs to be developed to measure heparin concentration in chromatography process. Here, two robust partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models were established for quantification of heparin based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with 80 samples of adsorption process and 76 samples of elution process. Several variables selection algorithms, including correlation coefficient method, successive projection algorithm (SPA) and interval partial least squares (iPLSs), were performed to remove non-informative variables. The results showed that the correlation coefficient of validation (Rp) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) corresponded to 0.957 and 3.4472 for adsorption process, 0.968 and 3.9849 for elution process, respectively. The approach was found considerable potential for real-time monitoring the heparin concentration of chromatography process.

  14. Discerning the Spirits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    This response to Swedish scholar Jayne Svenungsson's keynote on the return of spirituality sets off by agreeing in general to her thesis that there is a return of spirituality - or rather a return of the Spirit. But whilst Svenungsson in her paper endeavours to see the return of spirituality...

  15. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of the process of aromatic and medicinal plant maceration in grape marc distillates to obtain herbal liqueurs and spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Salgado, José Manuel; Domínguez, José Manuel; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    Herbal liqueurs are alcoholic beverages produced by the maceration or distillation of aromatic and medicinal plants in alcohol, and are also highly valued for their medicinal properties. The process conditions, as well as the number and quantity of the plants employed, will have a great influence on the quality of the liqueur obtained. The aim of this research was to optimize these important variables. A Box-Benhken experimental design was used to evaluate the independent variables: alcohol content, amount of plant and time during the experimental maceration of plants in grape marc distillate. Four plants were assessed, with the main compound of each plant representing the dependent variable evaluated with respect to following the evolution of the maceration process. Bisabolol oxide A in Matricaria recutita L., linalool in Coriander sativum L. and eucalyptol in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. were quantified using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra L was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Other dependent variables were also evaluated: total phenolic content, color parameters and consumer preference (i.e. appearance). The experimental designs allowed the selection of the optimal maceration conditions for each parameter, including the preference score of consumers: 70% (v/v) of ethanol, 40 g L -1 plant concentration and a maceration process of 3 weeks. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The development and testing of the new flowsheets for the plutonium purification of the Purex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrov, K.V.; Korotaev, V.G.; Korchenkin, K.K.; Logunov, M.V.; Ludin, S.A.; Mashkin, A.N.; Melentev, A.B.; Samarina, N.S. [FSUE ' PAMayak' , Lenin st., 35, Ozersk 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    In order to improve the extraction flowsheet of RT-1 Plant two versions of plutonium purification unit flowsheet were developed: a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(IV) valence pair and Pu, Np co-recovery, and a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(V) valence pair and Pu recovery. The task related to stabilization of the valence pair of the target components in the required state was solved with the use of reactants already applied at RT-1 Plant, namely, hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine nitrate and catalyst (Fe). Both flowsheets were adapted for the plant purification facility with minimum modifications of the equipment, and passed the full scale industrial testing. As a result of this work, reduction in volume and salt content of the raffinate was achieved. (authors)

  18. INFLUENCE OF BIO-PREPARATION ON WASTEWATER PURIFICATION PROCESS IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Puchlik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological system of analyzed wastewater treatment plant is in part a biological bed of soil-reed in parallel arrangement. Unusual application is the application of two independent purification lines where in the second line, a bio-preparation is additionally dosed. The constructed wetland provides high removal of organic compounds expressed as BOD5 and COD, as well as reducing the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and phosphates. This indicates a high performance of such a sewage treatment plant.

  19. INFLUENCE OF BIO-PREPARATION ON WASTEWATER PURIFICATION PROCESS IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Puchlik; Katarzyna Ignatowicz; Wojciech Dąbrowski

    2014-01-01

    Technological system of analyzed wastewater treatment plant is in part a biological bed of soil-reed in parallel arrangement. Unusual application is the application of two independent purification lines where in the second line, a bio-preparation is additionally dosed. The constructed wetland provides high removal of organic compounds expressed as BOD5 and COD, as well as reducing the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and phosphates. This indicates a high performance of such a sewage treatmen...

  20. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  1. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  2. Life and death in Kardecist Spiritism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses from an anthropological perspective how Brazilian Spiritism resignifies the current notions of life and death, comparing the notion of reincarnation with the Christian and Catholic notion of purgatory. The search for understanding of the processes of identity construction in this religious system leads to the examination of the notions of reincarnation, karma, evolution, mediumship and probation, which are central to Kardecian cosmology. With this active set of notions, Spiritism proposes a rich set of perspectives about the self, and simultaneously graduates and softens the otherness of death.

  3. Wet process of phosphoric acid purification by solvent extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate and cyclohexanol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction is an efficient, economical and widely-used technology for the purification of wet process phosphoric acid (WPA. This present work focused on the development of a solvent extraction system, TC, representing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanol mixtures. The equilibrium phase diagram of the system H3PO4−H2O−TC at 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure was obtained. The effects of extraction time, phosphoric acid concentration, extractant concentration, temperature and phase volume ratio on extraction efficiency were studied. The extracted complexes were estimated to be 1.8H3PO4 2TC. The extraction process of H3PO4 was exothermic and the enthalpy change, ΔH, was obtained. The solvent mixtures had a high efficiency for phosphoric acid purification via multi-stage counter-current extraction from the industrial WPA in a reciprocating plate extraction column with an H3PO4 extraction yield of 85.08 % at 313.2 K. The stability, extraction efficiency and recycling capability of TC for H3PO4 extraction were also estimated.

  4. A novel multimodal chromatography based single step purification process for efficient manufacturing of an E. coli based biotherapeutic protein product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambure, Rahul; Gupta, Darpan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2013-11-01

    Methionine oxidized, reduced and fMet forms of a native recombinant protein product are often the critical product variants which are associated with proteins expressed as bacterial inclusion bodies in E. coli. Such product variants differ from native protein in their structural and functional aspects, and may lead to loss of biological activity and immunogenic response in patients. This investigation focuses on evaluation of multimodal chromatography for selective removal of these product variants using recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) as the model protein. Unique selectivity in separation of closely related product variants was obtained using combined pH and salt based elution gradients in hydrophobic charge induction chromatography. Simultaneous removal of process related impurities was also achieved in flow-through leading to single step purification process for the GCSF. Results indicate that the product recovery of up to 90.0% can be obtained with purity levels of greater than 99.0%. Binding the target protein at pHpurification step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A process for the separation and purification of yttrium-90 for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, P.E.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    An extraction chromatographic method for the preparation of {sup 90}Y of high chemical and radiochemical purity is disclosed. After an initial purification of a {sup 90}Sr stock solution and a suitable period of {sup 90}Y ingrowth, the solution is passed through a series of strontium-selective chromatographic columns, each of which lowers the {sup 90}Sr content of the mixture by a factor of about 10{sup 3}. The {sup 90}Y remaining is freed from any residual {sup 90}Sr, from its {sup 90}Zr daughter, and from any remaining impurities by passing the sample through a final column designed to selectively retain yttrium.

  6. An Embarrassment of Spirits: Spirits, Hauntology and Democracy in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2014-01-01

    Kyai Muzakkin is the spiritual leader of a Koranic school (pesantren) in East Java that he claims is the only pesantren in the world that is attended entirely by spirits (jin). Kyai Muzakkin is also the founder of an anti-corruption NGO. In 2009, he gained national notoriety and infamy when he...... combined his vocational interest in spirits and anti-corruption and sent a thousand spirits to Jakarta to protect the supporters of the Indonesian president at an anti-corruption rally. The introduction of spirits into the increasingly ‘occult’ Indonesian politics of 2009 was as apt as it was embarrassing...... effects....

  7. Purification processes of cadmium based quantum dots in aqueous medium: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petris, Dimitri; Freitas, Denilson V.; dos Santos, Rayany K. V.; Dias, Jéssica M. M.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2017-07-01

    Three different purification methods for CdTe-MPA quantum dot (QD) were performed in aqueous medium: acid titration (HCl, HClO4, H2SO4 and CH3COOH), non-selective precipitation by addition of acetone and co-precipitation of the QD in the presence of inorganic salts. The QD stock solutions were prepared by an electrochemical method of synthesis, in four different heating times (1 h, 4 h, 8 h and 12 h). After purifications, the QD solids were redispersed in distilled water and analyzed by absorption and emission spectra. The λ abs and λ em of the purified QDs showed similar data observed for QD stock solutions, and the recovery rate varied from 71% to 99%. Co-precipitation method showed some advantages: quantum yield maintenance of the QD redispersed solution, longer period of storage (over 6 months) in solution and in solid state (QD embedded into the KCl crystal lattice). CdSe-MPA and CdS-MPA solutions were also purified by co-precipitation method with KCl, showing good results as observed for CdTe-MPA.

  8. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  9. Novel immobilization process of a thermophilic catalase: efficient purification by heat treatment and subsequent immobilization at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Luo, Hui; López, Claudia; Xiao, Jing; Chang, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of the present work is to investigate a novel process of purification and immobilization of a thermophilic catalase at high temperatures. The catalase, originated from Bacillus sp., was overexpressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET28-CATHis and efficiently purified by heat treatment, achieving a threefold purification. The purified catalase was then immobilized onto an epoxy support at different temperatures (25, 40, and 55 °C). The immobilizate obtained at higher temperatures reached its maximum activity in a shorter time than that obtained at lower temperatures. Furthermore, immobilization at higher temperatures required a lower ionic strength than immobilization at lower temperatures. The characteristics of immobilized enzymes prepared at different temperatures were investigated. The high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) showed the highest thermal stability, followed by the 40 °C immobilizate. And the high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) had slightly higher operational stability than the 25 °C immobilizate. All of the immobilized catalase preparations showed higher stability than the free enzyme at alkaline pH 10.0, while the alkali resistance of the 25 °C immobilizate was slightly better than that of the 40 and 55 °C immobilizates.

  10. Validation of 68Ge/68Ga generator processing by chemical purification for routine clinical application of 68Ga-DOTATOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asti, Mattia; De Pietri, Giovanni; Fraternali, Alessandro; Grassi, Elisa; Sghedoni, Roberto; Fioroni, Federica; Roesch, Frank; Versari, Annibale; Salvo, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Imaging of somatostatin receptor expressing tumours has been greatly enhanced by the use of 68 Ga-DOTATOC and PET/CT. Methods: In this work, a purification method for the 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator eluate and a method to produce 68 Ga-DOTATOC suitable for clinical use were evaluated. The generator eluate was purified and concentrated on a cation-exchange cartridge in HCl/acetone media. The efficacy of this procedure in eliminating metal impurities from the 68 Ga solution was investigated by ICP-MS. The radiotracer quality was evaluated by radio-TLC, GC and γ-ray spectrometry. Results: 68 Ga-DOTATOC preparations (n=33) were carried out with a mean synthesis yield of 59.3±2.8% (not corrected for decay) and a batch activity ranging from 555 to 296 MBq. The radiochemical and radionuclidic purity were >98% and 99.9999%, respectively. With this purification process, >95% of the Fe(III), Zn(II) and Mn(II) were eliminated from the solution. Conclusions: 68 Ga-DOTATOC produced with this method can be efficiently used in nuclear medicine departments for PET evaluations

  11. Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grădinaru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.

  12. APPLICATION OF PAN/PANI COMPOSITE MEMBRANES IN PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER GENERATED DURING PROCESSING OF METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the use of composite membranes of polyacrylonitrile (PAN doped polyaniline (PANI to remove contaminations of industrial wastewater generated during the processing of metals. Wastewater obtained from industry was pre-treated with the flocculant Magnafloc®336, and then the supernatant solution was introduced into the ultrafiltration cell, AMICON (Millipore equipped in the previously prepared polymer membrane. Using spectrophotometer UV-Vis (HACH and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS pollution indicators was marked before and after the integrated purification proces, to determine the degree of removal of selected ions from wastewater. As a result of flocculation from wastewater there have been removed phosphates (79%, chlorides (11-14%, sulfates (2-10% and iron (36-92%, cobalt (~ 80%, cadmium (~ 31% and nickel (~ 25%. However, the pressure membrane process almost completely removed zinc, copper and cadmium (~ 100%, iron (by a further 43-69% and phosphate anions, which was a little.

  13. Physicochemically modified peat by thermal and oxidation processes as an active material for purification of wastewaters from certain hazardous pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Jelena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical modification of peat through thermal and oxidation processes was carried out, in order to obtain new, inexpensive and active material for purification of different types of waters. During the modification, surface chemical compounds of Shilov type were formed. Batch adsorption properties and suitability of physicochemically modified peat (PCMP for odor removal were tested in aqueous solutions of H2S and colloidal sulphur. Additionally, PCMP was tested in the removal of As(V which is hazardous ingredient in contaminated waters. Possible mechanisms of pollutants binding include interactions, which lead to formation of adducts and clathrates. All these processes are elucidated in detail. The results showed that the obtained material can be used for the removal of sulphide, colloidal sulphur and As(V from different types of waters. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45012

  14. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  15. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANES FROM POLYACRYLONITRITE DOPPED WITH GRAPHEN OXIDE IN PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER GENERATED DURING PROCESSING OF METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Turek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the use of composite membranes of polyacrylonitrile (PAN doped with graphene oxide (GO to remove contaminations of galvanic wastewater. Membranes were obtained using phase inversion method from PAN and GO solution in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. Wastewater was pre-treated with the flocculant Magnafloc®336. Next, ultrafiltration of the treated wastewater was carried out in the ultrafiltration cell AMICON on the previously prepared PAN/GO composite membranes. Physico-chemical properties and composition of solutions before and after integrated purification process were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. As a result of flocculation from wastewater there have been removed phosphates (97%, chlorides (5,2%, sulfates (5,9% and iron (82%. In addition, as a result of ultrafiltration was complete removal of phosphate anions (100% and iron (~91-92%, zinc (68÷84%, lead (65-98% and cadmium (~67%.

  16. The Spirit of Logotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Costello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to adduce the meaning of Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy and existential analysis—the spirit of logotherapy—in the two-fold sense of its core teachings, as well as its emphasis on the spiritual dimension of the human person. Firstly, I situate Frankl’s tri-dimensional ontology—his philosophical anthropology—within a Platonic perspective, asserting that it was Plato who first gave us a picture and model of mental health which he based on the harmony of the disparate parts of the personality—the aim to become One instead of Many, which finds a modern parallel in Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy, which likewise stresses the importance of inner wholeness (an anthropological oneness despite our ontological differences. Classical Greek philosophers all pointed to the Logos as source of order—to the horizon of meaning-potentials, so I visit the various understandings of this term from the pre-Socratics to Frankl, albeit briefly, to avoid semantic confusion in what is to follow. I then discuss in some detail the exact meaning that logos/spirit has in Frankl’s philosophical conceptualisations. Disorders of logos may be seen in various psychopathologies and pnemopathologies which I go on to consider, highlighting the differences between various terms that are commonly left unclarified. Next, I adumbrate the differences between psychotherapy and logotherapy, which ultimately revolves around the difference between instincts and spirit before demarcating the boundaries between religion (as salvation and logotherapy (as sanity. The question I pose next is: what exactly constitutes the spiritual in logotherapy, as in life? An example is given to concretise the conceptual considerations previously elucidated before drawing on another distinction, that between “ultimate meaning” and “the meaning of the moment”. The paper concludes with a brief excursus into the work of Ken Wilber by way of enabling us to appreciate and

  17. Improved purification process of β- and α-trypsin isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Costa Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to improve the separation and yield of pure β- and α-trypsin isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography and to characterize some physical-chemical properties of these isoforms. Purification of trypsin isoforms was performed by ion-exchange chromatography in 0.1 mol/L tris-HC buffer, pH 7.10 at 4ºC. The sample loading, salt concentration, flow rate and pH of mobile phase were varied to determine their effects on the resolution of the separation. The resolution was optimized mainly between β- and α-trypsin. Pure isoforms were obtained by chromatographying 100 mg of commercial trypsin during seven days, yielding 51 mg of high purity β-trypsin and 13 mg of α-trypsin partially pure, with small amounts of contaminating of ψ-trypsin. Thus, time and resolution of purification were optimized yielding large amounts of pure active enzymes that are useful for several research areas and biotechnology.O propósito deste trabalho foi melhorar a separação e o rendimento das isoformas puras β- e α-tripsina por meio de cromatografia de troca iônica e caracterizar algumas propriedades físico-químicas dessas isoformas. A purificação de isoformas de tripsina foi realizada em SE Sephadex, com tampão tris-HCl, pH 7,10 a 4ºC. A quantidade de amostra, a concentração salina, o fluxo e o pH da fase móvel foram variados para determinar o efeito sobre a resolução da separação. A resolução foi otimizada principalmente entre β- e α-tripsina, utilizando o pH 7,10 a 4ºC. Isoformas puras foram obtidas a partir de 100 mg de tripsina comercial bovina depois de sete dias de cromatografia, fornecendo 51,0 mg de β-tripsina totalmente pura e 13,0 mg de α-tripsina parcialmente pura, com quantidades pequenas de contaminação por ψ-Tripsina. Assim, tempo e resolução da purificação foram otimizados redendo grandes quantidades de enzimas puras e ativas que são úteis em várias áreas de pesquisa e ciências biotecnológicas.

  18. Coupling purification and in situ immobilization process of monoclonal antibodies to clenbuterol for immunosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Yuan, Min; Wang, Lili; Yu, Jingsong; Xu, Fei

    2015-05-01

    Clenbuterol (CL), which promotes the growth of muscular tissue and the reduction of body fat in pigs and cattle, has been confirmed to be a potential hazard to human health. In this study, a monoclonal antibody to clenbuterol (CL mAb) from a hybridoma culture supernatant was purified by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) at different polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations, PEG molecular weights, pH values, and NaCl concentrations. Then the CL mAb was immobilized in situ by directly adding polystyrene microspheres (PSMSs) into a PEG phase containing CL mAb. Using the immobilized antibody, an immunosensor was constructed to detect the CL residues in pork samples. The results showed that using an ATPS composed of 15% (w/w) PEG6000, 15% (w/w) phosphate, and 15% (w/w) NaCl at pH 8.0, the partition coefficient was 7.24, the activity recovery was 87.86%, and the purification fold was 2.88. The PEG-CL mAb-PSMS retained approximately 98% of its initial activity after 30-ml phosphate buffer (PBS) washings. After 30days of storage, the CL mAb-PSMS lost nearly 75% of its activity, whereas the PEG-CL mAb-PSMS retained as much as 95% of its initial activity. Furthermore, the constructed immunosensor obtained recoveries of 90.5 to 102.6% when applied to pork samples spiked with CL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full...... understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement...

  20. A review: Potential and challenges of biologically activated carbon to remove natural organic matter in drinking water purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotta-Gamage, Shashika Madushi; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    The use of biologically activated carbon (BAC) in drinking water purification is reviewed. In the past BAC is seen mostly as a polishing treatment. However, BAC has the potential to provide solution to recent challenges faced by water utilities arising from change in natural organic matter (NOM) composition in drinking water sources - increased NOM concentration with a larger fraction of hydrophilic compounds and ever increasing trace level organic pollutants. Hydrophilic NOM is not removed by traditional coagulation process and causes bacterial regrowth and increases disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during disinfection. BAC can offer many advantages by removing hydrophilic fraction and many toxic and endocrine compounds which are not otherwise removed. BAC can also aid the other downstream processes if used as a pre-treatment. Major drawback of BAC was longer empty bed contact time (EBCT) required for an effective NOM removal. This critical review analyses the strategies that have been adopted to enhance the biological activity of the carbon by operational means and summarises the surface modification methods. To maximize the benefit of the BAC, a rethink of current treatment plant configuration is proposed. If the process can be expedited and adopted appropriately, BAC can solve many of the current problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Education and entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of a man is influenced by the quality of education. Too often we use to exclusively impute to the system the educational problems of individuals and groups. It is necessary to look lucidly and to identify the role of family, civil society and individuals in education. Exercising leadership means continuously learning and, therefore, it is difficult to separate the educational dynamics from the team evolution at organizational level. The training of individuals occurs in variable contexts that they create or in which they are involved. From the leadership perspective, education is also a problem of assuming responsibilities. The set of values that outlines a social behaviour imposes also disclaimers. In such context, disclaimers can define the understanding of the efficient use of resources in favour of the group and not in one’s own interest. Hence, the management lesson for those who will be prepared to lead begins. That’s how the practical management and leadership lessons can contribute to the creation of complex personalities. Leaders and managers define a reality in which education plays a central role. Therefore, selfeducation becomes a must because it will impose the development of the spirit of initiative and the selection of those having both potential and skills to become leaders, managers and entrepreneurs. We can say that it is imperative to move on from “the game of chance” to the real performance standards in training tomorrow’s decision-makers.

  2. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  3. Mars Gusts Blow Toward Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows several gusts and whirlwinds carrying dust as they move toward NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. It consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on Spirit during the afternoon of the rover's 501st martian day, or sol (May 31, 2005). The camera was facing into the wind. Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  4. Studies on molybdenum elution study in dowex 1x8 resin applied on purification process of fission 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasceno, M.O.; Yamaura, M.; Santos, J.L. dos; Forbicini, C.A.L.G. de O.

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum-99 is the most widely employed radioisotope in nuclear medicine, due to its decay product, Technetium-99, which is used in radio-pharmaceutical marking molecules for diagnostic examinations tumor dis-eases. Today Brazil imports 99 Mo from some countries, so the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is implementing a new research reactor RMB, currently in the conceptual design phase. The process of separation of fission 99 Mo begins with the dissolution of uranium targets after irradiation in reactor; the resulting solution goes through a series of chromatographic columns that allows a gradual decontamination of other components, yielding the 99 Mo with high radio-chemical and chemical purity for use in nuclear medicine as a generator of 99 mTc. This work is part of the RMB research project to separate and purify the fission 99 Mo by chromatographic columns from alkaline dissolution of LEU UAl x -Al targets. In the present study Mo removal by batch assays and glass column was investigated using anionic exchanger Dowex 1x8. Different salts and its concentration, cations and temperature were evaluated on elution of molybdenum and iodine (contaminant) retained on resin Dowex 1x8, aiming at their use in the process of separation and purification in chromatography columns on Brazilian project. Results showed high recovery of Mo and low-level contamination by iodine using NaHCO 3 hot solution. (author)

  5. EVALUATION OF THE POLYAD FB AIR PURIFICATION AND SOLVENT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR STYRENE REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study evaluating the Polyad fluidized-bed (FB) process for controlling styrene emissions at a representative fiberglass shower stall and bath tub manufacturing plan*t. he process was evaluated using a transport able unit supplied by Weatherly, Inc., ...

  6. Purification of a modified cyclosporine A by co-current centrifugal partition chromatography: process development and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Sayagh, Charlotte; Giraud, Matthieu; McGarrity, John; Butte, Alessandro; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2013-10-11

    Synthetic hydrophobic non-ionizable peptides are not soluble in most common solvents and are thus difficult to purify by preparative reversed-phase HPLC, normally used for industrial production. The challenge exists to develop alternative purification chromatographic processes using suitable solvents and providing good yields, high purity and sufficient productivity. A 11mer hydrophobic synthetic modified cyclosporine, showing an anti-HIV activity, was successfully purified by centrifugal partition chromatography using the biphasic solvent system heptane/ethyl acetate/acetone/methanol/water (1:2:2:1:2, v/v). A 5% co-current elution - made possible by the liquid nature of the two phases - has been used in order to avoid hydrodynamic instabilities mainly due to the physico-chemical properties of the target peptide. This original solution was developed after the study of the effect of the peptide on the hydrodynamic behavior of the two phases during the separation, and the visualization of the flow patterns using the Visual-CPC device. Critical impurities were efficiently eliminated and the peptide was recovered in high yield and high productivity achieving the specifications requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of cationic pollutants from water by xanthated corn cob: optimization, kinetics, thermodynamics, and prediction of purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Miloš; Đorđević, Miloš; Mitrović, Jelena; Velinov, Nena; Bojić, Danijela; Antonijević, Milan; Bojić, Aleksandar

    2017-07-01

    The removal of Cr(III) ions and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions by xanthated corn cob (xCC) in batch conditions was investigated. The sorption capacity of xCC strongly depended of the pH, and increase when the pH rises. The kinetics was well fitted by pseudo-second-order and Chrastil's model. Sorption of Cr(III) ions and MB on xCC was rapid during the first 20 min of contact time and, thereafter, the biosorption rate decrease gradually until reaching equilibrium. The maximum sorption capacity of 17.13 and 83.89 mg g -1 for Cr(III) ions and MB, respectively, was obtained at 40 °C, pH 5, and sorbent dose 4 g dm -3 for removal of Cr(III) ions and 1 g dm -3 for removal of MB. The prediction of purification process was successfully carried out, and the verification of theoretically calculated amounts of sorbent was confirmed by using packed-bed column laboratory system with recirculation of the aqueous phase. The wastewater from chrome plating industry was successfully purified, i.e., after 40 min concentration of Cr(III) ions was decreased lower than 0.1 mg dm -3 . Also, removal of MB from the river water was successfully carried out and after 40 min, removal efficiency was about 94%.

  8. Development of purification processes for fully human bispecific antibodies based upon modification of protein A binding avidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustian, Andrew D; Endicott, Christine; Adams, Benjamin; Mattila, John; Bak, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    There is strong interest in the design of bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsAbs) that can simultaneously bind 2 distinct targets or epitopes to achieve novel mechanisms of action and efficacy. Multiple bispecific formats have been proposed and are currently under development. Regeneron's bispecific technology is based upon a standard fully human IgG antibody in order to minimize immunogenicity and improve the pharmacokinetic profile. A single common light chain and 2 distinct heavy chains combine to form the bispecific molecule. One of the heavy chains contains a chimeric Fc sequence form (called Fc*) that ablates binding to Protein A via the constant region. As a result of co-expression of the 2 heavy chains and the common light chain, 3 products are created, 2 of which are homodimeric for the heavy chains and one that is the desired heterodimeric bispecific product. The Fc* sequence allows selective purification of the FcFc* bispecific product on commercially available affinity columns, due to intermediate binding affinity for Protein A compared to the high avidity FcFc heavy chain homodimer, or the weakly binding Fc*Fc* homodimer. This platform requires the use of Protein A chromatography in both a capture and polishing modality. Several challenges, including variable region Protein A binding, resin selection, selective elution optimization, and impacts upon subsequent non-affinity downstream unit operations, were addressed to create a robust and selective manufacturing process.

  9. Water purification in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  10. Purification of lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, M A; Aires-Barros, M R; Cabral, J M

    1992-11-01

    Interest on lipases from different sources (microorganisms, animals and plants) has markedly increased in the last decade due to the potential applications of lipases in industry and in medicine. Microbial and mammalian lipases have been purified to homogeneity, allowing the successful determination of their primary aminoacid sequence and, more recently, of the three-dimensional structure. The X-ray studies of pure lipases will enable the establishment of the structure-function relationships and contribute for a better understanding of the kinetic mechanisms of lipase action on hydrolysis, synthesis and group exchange of esters. This article reviews the separation and purification techniques that were used in the recovery of microbial, mammalian and plant lipases. Several purification procedures are analysed taking into account the sequence of the methods and the number of times each method is used. Novel purification methods based on liquid-liquid extraction, membrane processes and immunopurification are also reviewed.

  11. Hamiltonian purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsucci, Davide [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Burgarth, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Facchi, Paolo; Pascazio, Saverio [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The problem of Hamiltonian purification introduced by Burgarth et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] is formalized and discussed. Specifically, given a set of non-commuting Hamiltonians (h{sub 1}, …, h{sub m}) operating on a d-dimensional quantum system ℋ{sub d}, the problem consists in identifying a set of commuting Hamiltonians (H{sub 1}, …, H{sub m}) operating on a larger d{sub E}-dimensional system ℋ{sub d{sub E}} which embeds ℋ{sub d} as a proper subspace, such that h{sub j} = PH{sub j}P with P being the projection which allows one to recover ℋ{sub d} from ℋ{sub d{sub E}}. The notions of spanning-set purification and generator purification of an algebra are also introduced and optimal solutions for u(d) are provided.

  12. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Pang; Xue-ling Feng; Xiu-feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and suspended substances (SS) in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water ...

  13. Caprylic acid-induced impurity precipitation from protein A capture column elution pool to enable a two-chromatography-step process for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ji; Wang, Lu; Twarowska, Barbara; Laino, Sarah; Sparks, Colleen; Smith, Timothy; Russell, Reb; Wang, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the use of caprylic acid (CA) to precipitate impurities from the protein A capture column elution pool for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the objective of developing a two chromatography step antibody purification process. A CA-induced impurity precipitation in the protein A column elution pool was evaluated as an alternative method to polishing chromatography techniques for use in the purification of mAbs. Parameters including pH, CA concentrations, mixing time, mAb concentrations, buffer systems, and incubation temperatures were evaluated on their impacts on the impurity removal, high-molecular weight (HMW) formation and precipitation step yield. Both pH and CA concentration, but not mAb concentrations and buffer systems, are key parameters that can affect host-cell proteins (HCPs) clearance, HMW species, and yield. CA precipitation removes HCPs and some HMW species to the acceptable levels under the optimal conditions. The CA precipitation process is robust at 15-25°C. For all five mAbs tested in this study, the optimal CA concentration range is 0.5-1.0%, while the pH range is from 5.0 to 6.0. A purification process using two chromatography steps (protein A capture column and ion exchange polishing column) in combination with CA-based impurity precipitation step can be used as a robust downstream process for mAb molecules with a broad range of isoelectric points. Residual CA can be effectively removed by the subsequent polishing cation exchange chromatography. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Electron beam induced purification of dilute off gases from industrial processes and automobile tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Maetzing, H.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam process has proved to be an efficient method for the removal of inorganic pollutants from flue gas. Since it simulates natural processes which occur in the atmospheric photochemistry, it appeared attractive to investigate the potential of the e-beam process to clean off-gases which contain hydrocarbon and inorganic trace components. Such emissions arise from industrial processes and from automobile tunnels. Commercial solvents were vaporized in air and irradiated with energetic electrons (300 keV). CO, CO 2 and aerosol particles were found as products and were determined quantitatively. The aerosol particles can be collected by a gravel bed filter and can be removed by combustion or biological degradation. From experiments and model calculations it was found that the e-beam process is a very economic tool to remove hydrocarbons from large off-gas volumes at initial concentrations of 50-100 mg C/m 3 , and that NO x can be removed very efficiently from tunnel off-gas. (author)

  15. Purification process for .sup.153Gd produced in natural europium targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Amanda M; Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Risher, Darrell R

    2013-04-23

    An alteration of the traditional zinc/zinc-amalgam reduction procedure which eliminates both the hazardous mercury and dangerous hydrogen gas generation. In order to avoid the presence of water and hydrated protons in the working solution, which can oxidize Eu.sup.2+ and cause hydrogen gas production, a process utilizing methanol as the process solvent is described. While methanol presents some flammability hazard in a radiological hot cell, it can be better managed and is less of a flammability hazard than hydrogen gas generation.

  16. Gathering and Dispersing: The Absolute Spirit in Hegel’s Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vassilacopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the meaning and being of the absolute spirit in Hegelrsquo;s thought by reflecting through the idea that spirit is the activity and being of gathering through dispersal. In Hegelrsquo;s thought gathering and dispersing are the primary movements through which spirit engages in the processes of its absolute self-cognition, the processes, that is, that underpin the eternal becoming of communal being. Gathering and dispersing thus define the pulsating movement of the absolute spirit in all its facets

  17. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanowska Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity. The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.

  18. Partial purification of iron solutions from ripe table olive processing using ozone and electro-coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Pedro; Arroyo López, Francisco Noé; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the application of electro-coagulation and ozonation technologies for the partial depuration of ferrous solutions deriving from the color fixation stage of ripe olive processing. Different operational conditions were investigated along with the possibilities of combining the two techniques sequentially. In electro-coagulation the best depuration conditions were obtained using a current density of 25 mA cm-2 for 40 min; COD elimination reached 30%, the phenols and color...

  19. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by decreasing iron and uranium using white silica sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bayaa, A.A., E-mail: amina.elbayaa@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Badawy, N.A.; Gamal, A.M.; Zidan, I.H.; Mowafy, A.R. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Natural white silica sand as an adsorbent has been developed to reduce the concentration of iron and uranium ions as inorganic impurities in crude Egyptian phosphoric acid. Several parameters such as adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, volume to weight ratio and temperature, were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm studies were used to evaluate the maximum sorption capacity of adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters showed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative entropy reflects the affinity of the adsorbent material towards each metal ion.

  20. Designing a purification process for chromium-, copper- and arsenic-contaminated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitani, Tomo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Kajimoto, Takeshi; Imamura, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    The disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is becoming a serious problem in many countries due to increasing levels of contamination by the hazardous elements, chromium, copper and arsenic. The present experiment was conducted as a preliminary step toward one-step solvent extraction of CCA-treated wood. Because chromium, copper and arsenic have different chemical characteristics, it is best to consider them separately prior to designing a one-step extraction process. As a basis, various two-step extraction processes were first designed and tested experimentally to determine feasibility. Among these combinations, the treatment combining oxalic acid as the 1st step and a sodium oxalate solution under acidic conditions (pH 3.2) as the 2nd step was found to be an effective way of extracting CCA elements from treated wood. Extraction efficiency reached 100% for arsenic and chromium and 95.8% for copper after a 3-h sodium oxalate treatment, following a 1-h pre-extraction process with oxalic acid. On the other hand, the same combination under alkaline conditions (pH 11.2) during the 2nd step was ineffective for copper removal, indicating that pH plays an important role in complexation with sodium oxalate solution. The present results suggest that the extraction of CCA elements using a combination of oxalic acid and acidic sodium oxalate solution is a promising basis for application to a one-step extraction method.

  1. Survey of processes for high temperature-high pressure gas purification. [52 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.; Edwards, M.S.

    1978-11-01

    In order to ensure the optimum operating efficiency of a combined-cycle electric power generating system, it is necessary to provide gas treatment processes capable of operating at high temperatures (> 1000/sup 0/F) and high pressures (> 10 atm (absolute)). These systems will be required to condition the inlet stream to the gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) to be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. A survey of the available and developmental processes for the removal of these various contaminant materials has been conducted. Based on the data obtained from a variety of sources, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of potential cleanup processes in view of the overall system needs. The results indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup systems (for the removal of H/sub 2/S, particulate matter, alkali, and nitrogen compounds) capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for turbine use will not be available for some time.

  2. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  3. Separation and Purification of Mineral Salts from Spacecraft Wastewater Processing via Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, John D., II; Lunn, Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a class of material processing technologies commonly used for the sorting of coarse mixtures by means of electrical forces acting on charged or polarized particles. Most if not all of the existing tribo-electrostatic separators had been initially developed for mineral ores beneficiation. It is a well-known process that has been successfully used to separate coal from minerals. Potash (potassium) enrichment where underground salt mines containing large amounts of sodium is another use of this techno logy. Through modification this technology can be used for spacecraft wastewater brine beneficiation. This will add in closing the gap beeen traveling around Earth's Gravity well and long-term space explorations. Food has been brought on all man missions, which is why plant growth for food crops continues to be of interest to NASA. For long-term mission considerations food productions is one of the top priorities. Nutrient recovery is essential for surviving in or past low earth orbit. In our advance bio-regenerative process instead of nitrogen gas produced; soluble nitrate salts that can be recovered for plant fertilizer would be produced instead. The only part missing is the beneficiation of brine to separate the potassium from the sodium. The use of electrostatic beneficiation in this experiment utilizes the electrical charge differences between aluminum and dried brine by surface contact. The helixes within the aluminum tribocharger allows for more surface contact when being agitated. When two materials are in contact, the material with the highest affinity for electrons becomes negatively charged, while the other becomes positively charged. This contact exchange of charge may cause the particles to agglomerate depending on their residence time within the tribocharger, compromising the efficiency of separation. The aim of this experiment is to further the development in electrostatic beneficiation by optimizing the separation of ersatz and

  4. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  5. Process development for production and purification of the Schistosoma mansoni Sm14 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Leonardo; Ritter, Gerd; Batt, Carl A

    2017-06-01

    The trematode Schistosoma mansoni Sm14 antigen was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and secreted into the culture medium at yields of approximately 250 mg L -1 . Sm14 belongs to a family of fatty-acid binding proteins and appears to play an important role in uptake, transport, and compartmentalization of lipids in S. mansoni and it is a potential vaccine candidate in both humans and domesticated animals. The Sm14 gene was codon-optimized for expression in P. pastoris, and placed under transcription of the strong methanol inducible AOX1 promoter. Mut + transformants were selected and used in fed-batch cultivation using a 2.5L fermenter equipped with an on-line methanol control system in order to maintain constant methanol levels during induction. Optimal conditions for the expression of Sm14 by P. pastoris were found to be: dissolved oxygen at 40%, temperature of 25 °C, pH 5.0, and a constant methanol concentration of 1 gL -1 . Our results show that a correctly processed Sm14 was secreted into the culture medium at levels of approximately 250  mg L -1 . Sm14 from clarified culture medium was purified using a two-step procedure: anion-exchange chromatography followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, resulting in >95% purity with a final yield of 40% from the starting cell culture medium. This product has been tested in preliminary clinical trials and shown to elicit an antibody response with no adverse reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  7. New dextransucrase purification process of the enzyme produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides IBUN 91.2.98 based on binding product and dextranase hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez Guzman, Glaehter Yhon; Hurtado, Gustavo Buitrago; Ospina, Sonia Amparo

    2018-01-10

    This paper examines a new dextransucrase (DS) purification process of the extracellular enzyme (EC 2.4.1.5) produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides IBUN 91.2.98. The enzyme was purified using a methodology which combines the immobilization of the enzyme in the produced biopolymer dextran, followed by a concentration step by ultrafiltration, using a membrane with a pore size of 300kDa and subsequent hydrolysis of dextran by action of a dextranase and finally enzyme purification by anion exchange chromatography. The obtained enzyme has a purification factor of 118 and a yield of 26% from the initial extract. The purified dextransucrase has a specific activity of 335.1U/mg, electrophoretic analysis shows absence of subunits, and a molecular weight of 170.1kDa, a Vmax of 28.1U/ml and a Km of 48mM. Optimal conditions of pH, temperature and substrate concentration were 5, 30°C and 584mM sucrose respectively in a ratio of 0.4U/mole of substrate. The produced dextran has a molecular size of 800-1000kDa. Both the hydrolytic and transference activity are inhibited by Fe +3 (96.5%) and Al +3 (99.1%), whereas Mg +2 and K produce activation of 36.7% and 27.2%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  9. The Spirit of the Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Olynda

    2013-01-01

    "The real preparation for education is a study of one's self. The training of the teacher who is to help life is something far more than a learning of ideas. It includes the training of character, it is a preparation of the spirit."--Maria Montessori". It is common knowledge among Montessorians that spiritual preparation was…

  10. CHINCHIRISI: THE PHENOMENON OF "SPIRIT CHILDREN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINCHIRISI: THE PHENOMENON OF "SPIRIT CHILDREN" AMONG. THE NANKANI OF NORTHERN GHANA1. Rose Ma7y Amenga-Etego*. Abstract. The identity of the 'spirit child' may be ambiguous, but 'its'place in the experiences and in explaining the intricacies between the human nature and the spirit world remains ...

  11. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be determined by reference to Table 4. However, in the case of spirits which contain solids in... ascertaining the wine gallons per pound of the spirits and multiplying the wine gallons per pound by the weight...) and dividing the result by 100. The wine gallons per pound of spirits containing solids in excess of...

  12. Statistical and Judgmental Criteria for Scale Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Durach, Christian F.; Kembro, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    of scale purification, to critically analyze the current state of scale purification in supply chain management (SCM) research and to provide suggestions for advancing the scale-purification process. Design/methodology/approach A framework for making scale-purification decisions is developed and used......Purpose “Scale purification” – the process of eliminating items from multi-item scales – is widespread in empirical research, but studies that critically examine the implications of this process are scarce. The goals of this research are threefold: to discuss the methodological underpinning...... to analyze and critically reflect on the application of scale purification in leading SCM journals. Findings This research highlights the need for rigorous scale-purification decisions based on both statistical and judgmental criteria. By applying the proposed framework to the SCM discipline, a lack...

  13. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification technologies for colloidal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Gee, Megan Y; Greytak, A B

    2017-01-10

    Almost all applications of colloidal nanocrystals require some type of purification or surface modification process following nanocrystal growth. Nanocrystal purification - the separation of nanocrystals from undesired solution components - can perturb the surface chemistry and thereby the physical properties of colloidal nanocrystals due to changes in solvent, solute concentrations, and exposure of the nanocrystal surface to oxidation or hydrolysis. For example, nanocrystal quantum dots frequently exhibit decreased photoluminescence brightness after precipitation from the growth solvent and subsequent redissolution. Consequently, purification is an integral part of the synthetic chemistry of colloidal nanocrystals, and the effect of purification methods must be considered in order to accurately compare and predict the behavior of otherwise similar nanocrystal samples. In this Feature Article we examine established and emerging approaches to the purification of colloidal nanoparticles from a nanocrystal surface chemistry viewpoint. Purification is generally achieved by exploiting differences in properties between the impurities and the nanoparticles. Three distinct properties are typically manipulated: polarity (relative solubility), electrophoretic mobility, and size. We discuss precipitation, extraction, electrophoretic methods, and size-based methods including ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, diafiltration, and size-exclusion chromatography. The susceptibility of quantum dots to changes in surface chemistry, with changes in photoluminescence decay associated with surface chemical changes, extends even into the case of core/shell structures. Accordingly, the goal of a more complete description of quantum dot surface chemistry has been a driver of innovation in colloidal nanocrystal purification methods. We specifically examine the effect of purification on surface chemistry and photoluminescence in quantum dots as an example of the challenges associated with

  15. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/nonconventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2018-05-24

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  16. Use of biophysical characterization in preformulation development of a heavy-chain fragment of botulinum serotype B: evaluation of suitable purification process conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedu-Addo, Frank K; Johnson, Catharine; Jeyarajah, Shanthini; Henderson, Ian; Advant, Siddharth J

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of recombinant botulinum serotype B (rBoNTB(Hc)) under various conditions and to use the information in evaluating suitable purification process conditions. The solubility of rBoNTB(Hc) was evaluated at pH 4, 5, 6 7.5, 8, and 9. Secondary structure was evaluated using circular dichroism, and conformational stability was monitored using highsensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography, size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), peptide mapping, and UV spectroscopy were used to monitor stability under the various conditions. The secondary structure of rBoNTB(Hc) consists predominantly of beta-sheets. Solubility of rBoNTB(Hc) was lowest at its pI and highest at low and high pH. In the presence of NaCl, however, solubility decreased with increase in pH. Conformational and chemical stability are improved below pH 7.5. In the presence of 150 mM NaCl at high pH, conformational and chemical stability of rBoNTB(Hc) are further decreased. The study suggests that the purification process should minimize exposure of rBoNTB(Hc) to high pH and salt conditions. Optimal stability of rBoNTB(Hc) is achieved at low pH. The biophysical and analytical studies provide us with an understanding of rBoNTB(Hc) stability behavior in solution and assists in developing efficient purification conditions.

  17. Development of production and purification processes of recombinant fragment of pneumococcal surface protein A in Escherichia coli using different carbon sources and chromatography sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rimenys Junior; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Tanizaki, Martha Massako; Gonçalves, Viviane Maimoni

    2012-05-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence and its use either as a novel pneumococcal vaccine or as carrier in a conjugate vaccine would improve the protection and the coverage of the vaccine. Within this context, the development of scalable production and purification processes of His-tagged recombinant fragment of PspA from clade 3 (rfPspA3) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was proposed. Fed-batch production was performed using chemically defined medium with glucose or glycerol as carbon source. Although the use of glycerol led to lower acetate production, the concentration of cells were similar at the end of both fed-batches, reaching high cell density of E. coli (62 g dry cell weight/L), and the rfPspA3 production was higher with glucose (3.48 g/L) than with glycerol (2.97 g/L). A study of downstream process was also carried out, including cell disruption and clarification steps. Normally, the first chromatography step for purification of His-tagged proteins is metal affinity. However, the purification design using anion exchange followed by metal affinity gave better results for rfPspA3 than the opposite sequence. Performing this new design of chromatography steps, rfPspA3 was obtained with 95.5% and 75.9% purity, respectively, from glucose and glycerol culture. Finally, after cation exchange chromatography, rfPspA3 purity reached 96.5% and 90.6%, respectively, from glucose and glycerol culture, and the protein was shown to have the expected alpha-helix secondary structure.

  18. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on granular activated carbon and their fates during drinking water purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jia; Kasuga, Ikuro; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki; Shigeeda, Takaaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia is a precursor to trichloramine, which causes an undesirable chlorinous odor. Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration is used to biologically oxidize ammonia during drinking water purification; however, little information is available regarding the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) associated with GAC. In addition, their sources and fates in water purification process remain unknown. In this study, six GAC samples were collected from five full-scale drinking water purification plants in Tokyo during summer and winter, and the abundance and community structure of AOA and AOB associated with GAC were studied in these two seasons. In summer, archaeal and bacterial amoA genes on GACs were present at 3.7 × 10(5)-3.9 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry and 4.5 × 10(6)-4.2 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry, respectively. In winter, archaeal amoA genes remained at the same level, while bacterial amoA genes decreased significantly for all GACs. No differences were observed in the community diversity of AOA and AOB from summer to winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high AOA diversity in group I.1a and group I.1b in raw water. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of processed water samples revealed that AOA diversity decreased dramatically to only two OTUs in group I.1a after ozonation, which were identical to those detected on GAC. It suggests that ozonation plays an important role in determining AOA diversity on GAC. Further study on the cell-specific activity of AOA and AOB is necessary to understand their contributions to in situ nitrification performance.

  19. Conference report. Can spirit of Cairo survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    Country representatives from around the globe came together at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to draft a document in the spirit of compromise and unified intent. Marked controversy and conflict plagued the conference, both before and during the official meetings. Accord was nonetheless reached. The author wonders how long and to what extent the euphoria and compromise of the ICPD will last now that official talks are over. It is clear that paranoia and discord subsumed during the conference will persist, foment, and potentially resurface in confrontation over time. The South, for example, was upset about the failure of the conference to focus more upon development and environmental issues, while the Southern women's groups invested their energies into political ideologies and their development as a counterforce to international multinational scientific and corporate lobbies on pharmaceutical and contraceptive technologies. The women's caucus instead adopted a Western world view of sexuality which effectively permeated their lobbying and the conference. While dissent may resurface over time, the ICPD nonetheless set into motion positive processes for nongovernmental organization participation in a spirit of partnership within the UN systems and in the formulation of national policies and programs of their respective countries. In closing, the author expresses her regret that China and India maintained a low profile at the official meeting, and that Pakistan, rooted in Islam, spoke for the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  1. [Near-infrared spectroscopy technology for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process of active components of Centella asiatica L. Urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Ye, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Guang; Qi, Yun-Peng; Fan, Guo-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is to study and develop a method for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process of active components that are madecassoside and asiaticoside of Centella asiatica L. Urban using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. After collecting 50%-ethanol eluant, we detected their NIR spectra and developed the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method of active components. Then, partial least square (PLS) was used to develop linear correlation between their NIR spectra and contents. During modeling, correlation coefficient (R2) and root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) were regarded as the indexes to select optimal wavenumbers and preprocessing methods. The optimal wavenumbers of madecassoside and asiaticoside were in the range of 12 000.8-7 499.8 cm(-1) and 12 000.8-9 750.3 cm(-1), respectively; R2 were 96.44 and 96.07, respectively, and RMSECV were 0.084 80 and 0.000 99, respectively. The above developed model was used for online monitoring of the contents of madecassoside and asiaticoside during the column separation and purification process of Centella asiatica L. Urban. The predicted results were satisfactory. This method was proved to be fast, convenient and precise. It can be used in online monitoring and quality control of the manufacturing of madecassoside and asiaticoside.

  2. A tandem laboratory scale protein purification process using Protein A affinity and anion exchange chromatography operated in a weak partitioning mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamashkin, Michael; Godavarti, Ranga; Iskra, Timothy; Coffman, Jon

    2013-10-01

    A significant consequence of scaling up production of high titer monoclonal antibody (mAb) processes in existing facilities is the generation of in-process pools that exceed the capacity of storage vessels. A semi-continuous downstream process where columns and filters are linked and operated in tandem would eliminate the need for intermediate holding tanks. This study is a bench-scale demonstration of the feasibility of a tandem process for the purification of mAbs employing an affinity Protein A capture step, followed by a flow-through anion-exchange (AEX) step with the possibility of adding an in-line virus filtration step (VF). All three steps were linked sequentially and operated as one continuous process using an ÄKTA FPLC equipped with two pumps and a system of valves and bypasses that allowed the components to be engaged at different stages of the process. The AEX column was operated in a weak partitioning (WP) mode enabled by a precise in-line titration of Protein A effluent. In order to avoid complex control schemes and facilitate validation, quality and robustness were built into the system through selection of buffers based on thermodynamic and empirical models. The tandem system utilized the simplest possible combination of valves, pumps, controls, and automation, so that it could easily be implemented in a clinical or commercial production facility. Linking the purification steps in a tandem process is expected to generate savings in time and production costs and also reduce the size of quality systems due to reduced documentation requirements, microbial sampling, and elimination of hold time validation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

  4. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  5. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  6. The Spirit of Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassall Thomsen, Line Hassall; Willig, Ida

    Research on public service broadcasting tends to highlight norms and values at the strategic level. This paper explores ‘public service’ as an institutional logic guiding the everyday practice of journalists. The theoretical framework draws on Pierre Bourdieus’ field theory and recent works...... on cultural production and news work. Through fieldwork and interviews with Danish and British reporters/editors from DR 1, TV 2, BBC 1 and ITV we identify three components of a strong public service spirit present in the journalist’s understanding of the self: mass audience orientation, democratic...

  7. 27 CFR 24.232 - Gauge of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauge of spirits. 24.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.232 Gauge of spirits. (a) If the spirits to be used are in... the proof of the spirits and the quantity used by volume gauge or by weight. Upon completion of the...

  8. Separation And Purification Of Radioiodine 131I by Means of wet Distillation Method From By-Product of U-235 Fission Produced 99Mo Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, Duyeh; Soenarjo, Soenarhadijoso

    2000-01-01

    The production of 99 Mo from 235 U fission also produces radioiodine fraction as by product. The radioiodine fraction can be expected to be a complement for radioiodine 131 I produced by neutron activation on TeO 2 target. Separation and purification were therefore carried out from radioiodine fraction obtained from production process of 99 Mo fission product. The radioiodine 131 I fraction was separated and purified by means of wet distillation method that is often used for separating 131 I from post-neutron activated TeO 2 . The quality control of the resulting products indicates that the resulting radioiodine 131 I solution was suitable to be used for labelling or synthesis of 131 I labelled compounds. Although the efficiencies of separation and purification were found to be low ranging between 25 to 37%, the result of the presented experiment generally affirm the consideration to exploit the 131 I fission product for labelling or synthesis of 131 I radiopharmaceuticals. Key word : distillation, radioiodine 131 I , 235 U

  9. Evaluation of microbial triglyceride oil purification requirements for the CelTherm process: an efficient biochemical pathway to renewable fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael; Seames, Wayne; Kubatova, Alena; Menon, Suresh; Alisala, Kashinatham; Hash, Sara

    2014-10-01

    CelTherm is a biochemical process to produce renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The present study's objective was to determine the level of treatment/purity of the microbial triacylglyceride oil (TAG) necessary to facilitate fuel production. After a unique microbe aerobically synthesizes TAG from biomass-derived sugars, the microbes were harvested and dried then crude TAG was chemically extracted from the residual biomass. Some TAGs were further purified to hydrotreating process requirements. Both grades were then noncatalytically cracked into a petroleum-like intermediate characterized by gas chromatography. Experiments were repeated using refined soybean oil for comparison to previous studies. The products from crude microbial TAG cracking were then further refined into a jet fuel product. Fuel tests indicate that this jet fuel corresponds to specifications for JP-8 military turbine fuel. It was thus concluded that the crude microbial TAG is a suitable feedstock with no further purification required, demonstrating CelTherm's commercial potential.

  10. Laboratory technology for hydrogen purification in liquefying installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avram, I.; David, E.; Dordea, M.; Peculea, M.; Pop, F.; Stanciu, V.; Varzaru, O.; Panu, E.; Curuia, M.; Fron, P.; Balint, I.; Culcer, M.; Roman, T.; Smeureanu, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a laboratory installation for purification of the hydrogen to be liquefied. The purification is achieved by the procedure of physical adsorption at low temperature. This procedure implies the use of materials with extensive active surfaces such as activated carbon, molecular sieves and silica gels. The main stages of the purification process are described

  11. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  12. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rob and Jean

    theorisation of the world in order to understand and affect it. Key words: Spirit Possession; .... about twenty-five minutes in, the music changed, beginning to slow and quieten. As it did so, the songs of the .... other stories that are passed on in discussions (such as the memory of spirits living Lake. Victoria or tales of armies of ...

  13. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  14. The effects of co-culturing non-Saccharomyces yeasts with S. cerevisiae on the sugar cane spirit (cachaça) fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Amorim, Juliana Cunha; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Twenty non-Saccharomyces strains were previously tested in pure culture for their ability to grow in 12 % ethanol, their β-glucosidase activity, flocculation, glycerol, ethanol and acetic acid production, fermentation kinetics and their production of volatile compounds. Of these 20 strains, three strains, namely, Pichia anomala UFLA CAF70, P. anomala UFLA CAF119 and Pichia caribbica UFLA CAF733, were evaluated in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11. Of the mixed inocula, the mixture of P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 gave the highest ethanol concentration (75.37 g/L), the lowest levels of residual glucose (1.14 g/L) and fructose (19.92 g/L), and the highest volumetric productivity (Q (p)) of ethanol. Twenty-three minor volatile compounds were identified in the fermented sugar cane juice. The mixed culture of P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 gave the highest concentration of volatile compounds with good sensory descriptors; these compounds included ethyl esters (290.13 μg/L), acetates (715.21 μg/L) and monoterpenic alcohols (195.56 μg/L). This mixed culture also gave the lowest concentration of volatile acids (1774.46 μg/L) and aldehydes (121.10 μg/L). In principal component analysis, the mixed inoculum of UFLA CAF733 and UFLA CA11 was positively characterized by ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, linalool, nonanoic acid, ethyl butyrate, phenylethyl acetate, diethylsuccinate, hexanoic acid, and geraniol. In conclusion, we found that clear improvements could be achieved in the fermentation process with mixed, rather than pure, S. cerevisiae culture. The use of the non-Saccharomyces strain P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 in co-culture with S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 may therefore be an interesting means by which to improve the quality of cachaça.

  15. Fiery Spirits in the context of institutional entrepreneurship in Swedish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Nomie; Ujvari, Sandor

    2015-01-01

    Clinical governance and leadership concepts can lead to more or less successful implementations of new clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Fiery Spirits, as institutional entrepreneurs can, working in a team, implement sustained change in hospital clinical practice. This paper describes two case studies, conducted at two Swedish hospitals over a period of two years, in which changes in clinical practice were implemented. In both cases, key-actors, termed Fiery Spirits, played critical roles in these changes. The authors use a qualitative approach and take an intra-organizational perspective with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document analysis. The new clinical practices were successfully implemented with a considerable influence of the Fiery Spirits who played a pivotal role in the change efforts. The Fiery Spirits persuasively, based on their structural and normative legitimacy and the adoption of learning processes, advocated, and supported change. Fiery Spirits, given flexibility and opportunity, can be powerful forces for change outside the trajectory of management-inspired and management-directed change. Team members, when inspired and encouraged by Fiery Spirits, are less resistant to change and more willing to test new clinical practices. The paper complements literature on how the Fiery Spirit concept aligns with concepts of clinical governance and leadership and how change can be achieved. Additionally, the findings show the effects of legitimacy and learning processes on change in clinical practice.

  16. Development, upscaling and validation of the purification process for human-cl rhFVIII (Nuwiq®), a new generation recombinant factor VIII produced in a human cell-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, Stefan; Yderland, Louise; Kannicht, Christoph; Hermans, Pim; Adema, Simon; Schmidt, Torben; Gilljam, Gustav; Linhult, Martin; Tiemeyer, Maya; Belyanskaya, Larisa; Walter, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    Human-cl rhFVIII (Nuwiq®), a new generation recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), is the first rFVIII produced in a human cell-line approved by the European Medicines Agency. To describe the development, upscaling and process validation for industrial-scale human-cl rhFVIII purification. The purification process involves one centrifugation, two filtration, five chromatography columns and two dedicated pathogen clearance steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 20 nm nanofiltration). The key purification step uses an affinity resin (VIIISelect) with high specificity for FVIII, removing essentially all host-cell proteins with >80% product recovery. The production-scale multi-step purification process efficiently removes process- and product-related impurities and results in a high-purity rhFVIII product, with an overall yield of ∼50%. Specific activity of the final product was >9000 IU/mg, and the ratio between active FVIII and total FVIII protein present was >0.9. The entire production process is free of animal-derived products. Leaching of potential harmful compounds from chromatography resins and all pathogens tested were below the limit of quantification in the final product. Human-cl rhFVIII can be produced at 500 L bioreactor scale, maintaining high purity and recoveries. The innovative purification process ensures a high-purity and high-quality human-cl rhFVIII product with a high pathogen safety margin. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sodium exchange process in lower vertebrates studies by means of 24Na. Their interpretation as a 'purification' of radioactive water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, J.

    1958-01-01

    Fresh-water fish and amphibians live in an aquatic medium which is very hypotonic with respect to their internal medium. By osmosis the water passes through their permeable teguments (gills, mucous membranes, skin). It is known from the work of Krogh (1937-1939) that this water is eliminated by the kidney, which emits a copious diluted urine. Yet however great the dilution, the urinary excretion results in a loss of salts for the organism. This loss is compensated, even in the absence of any nourishment, by active absorption of ions. Some recent workers have attempted, by using radioactive isotopes, to establish the balance between the input and output flows of ions through the permeable membranes in vivo, whereas chemical analytical methods only allow the net result of these exchanges to be obtained. We have attempted to present here a new method for the simultaneous measurement of the sodium flow takes over the whole animal. This method has been applied to the fresh-water fish Carassius auratus and to the frog Rana esculenta. In the course of this investigation we have considered interpreting it as a 'purification of radioactive water'. (author) [fr

  18. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  1. 27 CFR 19.998 - Transfer in bond of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer in bond of spirits. 19.998 Section 19.998 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... spirits plants. Spirits (not including spirits produced from petroleum, natural gas, or coal) may be...

  2. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in customs...

  3. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ofélia; Frazão, David; Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-07-27

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences ( p drink, which has gained market value.

  4. Raves, psychosis, and spirit healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2010-07-01

    This paper reflects the intersection of three cultures: the rave (all night dance party and use of the drug, Ecstasy) culture; the ward culture of an inpatient psychiatric program for First Episode Psychosis; the spirit healing culture of the Philippines. All three intersected in Toronto, Canada in the mid 1990s, as illustrated by the clinical case of a 19-year-old university student who was hospitalized with symptoms of drug-induced psychosis. Her initial treatment was not successful and presented dilemmas for the treating staff. Transfer to a second psychiatric facility that permitted attendance at a traditional Filipino healing ceremony resulted in a cure, with no recurrence 10 years later. According to James Dow's 1986 formulation, the components of the key spiritual healing session paralleled the very elements the young woman had sought by participating in raves, an activity that was problematic because it led to family displeasure. Whereas attendance at a rave triggered illness, the healing session, sanctioned by her family and taking place in their midst, resulted in healing.

  5. Increase of the processing capacity through modification and enlargement of the assets areas preparation and waste water purification in the fermentation plant Kirchstockach; Durchsatzsteigerung der Vergaerungsanlage Kirchstockach durch Umbau und Erweiterung der Anlagenbereiche Aufbereitung und Prozesswasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschenhofer, M. [LRA Muenchen (Germany). Tiefbau, Verkehrsplanung, Abfallwirtschaft; Kroner, T. [ia GmbH - Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Kommunale Abfallwirtschaft und Energie; Niefnecker, U. [M. Ganser GmbH und Co. Entsorgungsbetriebe KG, Brunnthal/Kirchstockach (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    At the fermentation plant Kirchstockach the operations for the rectification of deficiencies and process optimisations were completed in 2004. Now process results of 2005 show the success of the performed actions. In the asset area of preparations the existing rake discharge system was removed and the use of the new discharge reservoir with a drainage coil conveyor system minimises deadlock times and rises preparations throughput. With the new set-up of the light material presses the process procedure was optimised, too. The installation of the new process water reservoir was conditional on the non-uniform hydraulic load of the waste-water purification, which results from the operation of the facility. With the higher buffer capacity, realised by the new process water reservoir, a uniform hydraulic load of the purification system and an optimised process control was implemented. With the optimised performance of the wastewater purification wastewater thresholds are guaranteed now and it is possible to realise the increased throughput of the preparation in the complete system of the fermentation plant Kirchstockach. (orig.)

  6. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  7. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  8. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly to augment this McMurdo panorama view. This beautiful scene reveals a tremendous amount of detail in Spirit's surroundings. Many dark, porous-textured volcanic rocks can be seen around the rover, including many on Low Ridge. Two rocks to the right of center, brighter and smoother-looking in this image and more reflective in infrared observations by Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, are thought to be meteorites. On the right, 'Husband Hill' on the horizon, the rippled 'El Dorado' sand dune field near the base of that hill, and lighter-toned 'Home Plate' below the dunes provide context for Spirit's travels since mid-2005. Left of center, tracks and a trench dug by Spirit's right-front wheel, which no longer rotates, have exposed bright underlying material. This bright material is evidence of sulfur-rich salty minerals in the subsurface, which may provide clues about the watery past of this part of Gusev Crater. Spirit has stayed busy at Winter Haven during the past six months even without driving. In addition to acquiring this spectacular panorama, the rover team has also acquired significant new assessments of the elemental chemistry and mineralogy of rocks and soil targets within reach of the rover's arm. The team plans soon to have Spirit drive to a very nearby spot on Low Ridge to access different rock and soil samples while maintaining a good solar panel tilt toward the sun for the rest of the Martian winter. Despite the long span of time needed for acquiring this 360-degree view -- a few images at a time every few sols over a total of 119 sols because the available power was so low -- the lighting and color remain remarkably uniform across the mosaic. This fact attests to

  9. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  10. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  11. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  12. the spirit of the body of christ: the holy spirit's indwelling in the church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of Christ who indwells his body. ..... 12:12). Both belong intrinsically together. They are one and the same God in action. Now that Christ is in heaven, his Spirit is his own presence on earth and we must view the Spirit in this perspective: no ..... Christians are called to celebrate the Eucharist, in memory of the death.

  13. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  14. Brazilian organic sugarcane spirits: Physicochemical and chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been a growing demand for products from organic agriculture for the food market. Brazil leads the production of sugarcane spirits and produces about 1.6 billion liters/year. New technologies have been sought throughout the supply chain to improve production, and organic raw material has been used in the production of sugar cane for the production of beverages. This study aimed to define the physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of eleven organic sugarcane spirits samples from various Brazilian states. The secondary components and contaminants were identified and quantified through physicochemical analyses, HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. A significant percentage of the organic sugarcane spirits samples contained concentrations of components that were above the limits required by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provisioning (MAPA, specifically the esters (18.20%, copper and dry extract (9.10%. This contamination is caused by bad conditions employed during the production process, which are not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices determined and legislated by Brazilian law.

  15. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it. The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica. This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide. Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica. Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz. In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could have been from water in a hot

  16. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  17. Spirit Does a 'Jig' at Laguna Hollow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This front hazard-avoidance image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 45 shows Spirit in its new location after a drive totaling about 20 meters (65.6 feet). The circular depression that Spirit is in, dubbed 'Laguna Hollow,' was most likely formed by a small impact.Scientists were interested in reaching Laguna Hollow because of the location's abundance of very fine, dust-like soil. The fine material could be atmospheric dust that has settled into the depression, or a salt-based material that causes crusts in the soils and coating on rocks. Either way, scientists hope to be able to characterize the material and broaden their understanding of this foreign world.To help scientists get a better look at the variations in the fine-grained dust at different depths, controllers commanded Spirit to 'jiggle' its wheels in the soil before backing away to a distance that allows the area to be reached with the robotic arm. Spirit will likely spend part of sol 46 analyzing this area with the instruments on its robotic arm.

  18. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  19. Embodiment of the Spirit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grimell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a longitudinal approach to exploring the psychology of the transition from military to civilian life, one case study is presented that adds a spiritual perspective to the transition process. This case study serves as an example representative from a group of participants who have been followed through a research project on identity reconstruction during the transition to civilian life. This individual, not unlike many others within the group, undergoes an unexpected progression of the military I-position of the self throughout the process of becoming a civilian. This study utilizes a dialogical approach to the identity work to further the understanding of longitudinal adjustments to the self. An analysis of the narrative developments and interactions among pre-existing and new I-positions of the self over time has been made based upon three annually conducted interviews spanning from 2014 to 2016. The results lead to the suggestion that if a military I-position of the self grows more salient and voiced throughout the process of transitioning into civilian life, then this vocalization may be related to the spirit of a person embodied in a specific I-position of the self. Such growth of a military I-position after leaving active service may gravitate around a deep sense of “who I am” with a profound sense of meaning attached to this position. Instead of perceiving as an unwanted development the growth of a military sense of “who I am,” one should acknowledge it as a deeper dimension of self and life. It is important to find an outlet for such a progression of the self so as to sustain balance and dialogue. Future research is encouraged to further examine these qualitative findings.

  20. Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  1. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials in separation chemistry: a molecular approach towards design of purification processes; De la molecule au procede. Apports des materiaux hybrides organiques-inorganiques en chimie separative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, St.; Denat, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 21 - Dijon (France); Meyer, M.; Guilard, R. [Universite de Bourgogne, Lab. d' Ingenierie Moleculaire pour la Separation et les Applications des Gaz (LIMSAG) UMR 5633 du CNRS, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2005-11-01

    Located on the campus of the Universite de Bourgogne and supported by the CNRS, the main particularity of the LIMSAG was its association with an industrial partner, the Air Liquide company. The main objectives of this unusual research unit in the French academic system was to conceive and develop new molecules and materials that exhibit suitable properties for the ultra-purification or the detection of gases. Beside these activities, a second research topic is dedicated to the decontamination of industrial waste streams containing either toxic (lead, cadmium) and/or radioactive metal ions (uranium, plutonium, americium). Specific sequestering agents have also been designed for the lead removal from municipal tap water. Grafted and sol-gel immobilized tetra-aza-macrocyclic complexes are used as specific adsorbents for the purification and detection of gases, while related functionalized silica-gels have been implemented in the solid/liquid extraction processes of metals. (authors)

  4. Purification and partial characterisation of a trypsin from the processing waste of the silver mojarra (Diapterus rhombeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Janilson F.; Esposito, Talita S.; Marcuschi, Marina; Ribeiro, Karina; Cavalli, Ronaldo O.; Oliveira, Vitor [UNIFESP; Bezerra, Ranilson S.

    2011-01-01

    An alkaline peptidase was purified from the viscera of the silver mojarra (Diapterus rhombeus) in a three-step process: heat treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex (R) G-75), with final specific activity 86-fold higher than the enzyme extract and yield of 22.1%. the purified enzyme had an estimated molecular mass of 26.5 kDa and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence IVGGYECTMHSEAHE. Higher enzyme activity was observed at pH 8.5 and between 50 an...

  5. Enrichment and Purification of Casein Glycomacropeptide from Whey Protein Isolate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing and Membrane Ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein concentrates (WPC and isolates (WPI, comprised mainly of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG, α-lactalbumin (α-LA and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP, are added to foods to boost nutritional and functional properties. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2 has been shown to effectively fractionate WPC and WPI to obtain enriched fractions of α-LA and β-LG, thus creating new whey ingredients that exploit the properties of the individual component proteins. In this study, we used SCO2 to further fractionate WPI via acid precipitation of α-LA, β-LG and the minor whey proteins to obtain GMP-enriched solutions. The process was optimized and α-LA precipitation maximized at low pH and a temperature (T ≥65 °C, where β-LG with 84% purity and GMP with 58% purity were obtained, after ultrafiltration and diafiltration to separate β-LG from the GMP solution. At 70 °C, β-LG also precipitated with α-LA, leaving a GMP-rich solution with up to 94% purity after ultrafiltration. The different protein fractions produced with the SCO2 process will permit the design of new foods and beverages to target specific nutritional needs.

  6. Novel 1:1 labeling and purification process for C-terminal thioester and single cysteine recombinant proteins using generic peptidic toolbox reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Christophe F; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Buehler, Christof; Meisner-Kober, Nicole-Claudia; Auer, Manfred

    2014-07-16

    We developed a versatile set of chemical labeling reagents which allow dye ligation to the C-terminus of a protein or a single internal cysteine and target purification in a simple two-step process. This simple process results in a fully 1:1 labeled conjugate suitable for all quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging experiments. We refer to a "generic labeling toolbox" because of the flexibility to choose one of many available dyes, spacers of different lengths and compositions which increase the target solubility, a variety of affinity purification tags, and different cleavage chemistries to release the 1:1 labeled proteins. Studying protein function in vitro or in the context of live cells and organisms is of vital importance in biological research. Although label free detection technologies gain increasing interest in molecular recognition science, fluorescence spectroscopy is still the most often used detection technique for assays and screens both in academic as well as in industrial groups. For generations, fluorescence spectroscopists have labeled their proteins of interest with small fluorescent dyes by random chemical linking on the proteins' exposed lysines and cysteines. Chemical reactions with a certain excess of activated esters or maleimides of longer wavelength dyes hardly ever result in quantitative labeling of the target protein. Most of the time, more than one exposed amino acid side chain reacts. This results in a mixture of dye-protein complexes of different labeling stoichiometries and labeling sites. Only mass spectrometry allows resolving the precise chemical composition of the conjugates. In "classical" ensemble averaging fluorescent experiments, these labeled proteins are still useful, and quantification of, e.g., ligand binding experiments, is achieved via knowledge of the overall protein concentration and a fluorescent signal change which is proportional to the amount of complex formed. With the development of fluorescence

  7. Purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of Mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    A fructanase, produced by a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "Mezcal de Guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. The active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kDa. The specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, Agave tequilana fructan, levan and Actilight® and compared with the activity of Fructozyme®. The hydrolysis profile of the different substrates analyzed by HPAEC-PAD showed that the enzyme has different affinities over the substrates tested with a sucrose/inulin enzymatic activity ratio (S/I) of 125. For the hydrolysis of Agave tequilana fructans, the enzyme also showed a higher enzymatic activity and specificity than Fructozyme®, which is important for its potential application in the tequila industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cationic spin probe reporting on thermal denaturation and complexation-decomplexation of BSA with SDS. Potential applications in protein purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Iulia; Ariciu, Ana Maria; Neacsu, Maria Victoria; Collauto, Alberto; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Ionita, Gabriela

    2014-09-25

    In this work, we present evidence on the suitability of spin probes to report on the thermal treatment of bovine serum albumin (BSA), in the temperature range 293-343 K, and indirectly monitor the release of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) from its complex with BSA using a covalent gel with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in the network. The spin probes used, 5- and 7-doxyl-stearic acids (5-DSA, 7-DSA) or 4-(N,N'-dimethyl-N-hexadecyl)ammonium-2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl iodide (CAT16), present similar, fatty acid-like structural features. Their continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) spectra, however, reflect different dynamics when complexed with BSA: a restricted motion for 5-DSA, almost nonsensitive to the heating/cooling cycle, and a faster temperature-dependent dynamic motion for CAT16. Molecular docking allows us to rationalize these results by revealing the different binding modes of 5-DSA and CAT16. The EPR data on the temperature effect on BSA are supported by circular dichroism results projecting recovery, upon cooling, of the initial binding ability of BSA for samples heated to 323 K. The interactions occurring in BSA/SDS/β-CD systems are investigated by CW-EPR and FT-ESEEM spectroscopies. It is found that the covalent gel containing β-CD can efficiently remove SDS from the BSA/SDS complex. The gel is not permeable to BSA but it can encapsulate SDS, thus yielding the free protein in solution and allowing recovery of the native protein conformation. Collectively, the accrued knowledge supports potential applications in protein purification biotechnological processes.

  9. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  10. Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Devakul, Trithep; Halbasch, Matthew G.; Zaletel, Michael P.; Swingle, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  11. 27 CFR 27.120 - Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Importation of Distilled Spirits In Bulk § 27.120 Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. Distilled spirits imported in bulk (i.e., in containers having a...

  12. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of spirits to wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed...

  13. George Peabody and the Spirit of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One of a collection of articles on philanthropist George Peabody tells the story of two bronze doors made by sculptor Louis Amateis for the U.S. Capitol. The doors include a panel entitled Apotheosis of America that captures Amateis' vision of the spirit of America and includes the figures of George Peabody and other historic personages. (SM)

  14. Science-its Philosophy and Spirit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Science - its Philosophy and Spirit. Hermann Bondi. Reflections Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 82-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/07/0082-0095. Author Affiliations.

  15. Methanol levels in methylated spirit drinking alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, K

    1986-10-08

    On three different occasions, blood samples sent to this laboratory from the accident and emergency department were found to contain potentially toxic amounts of methanol (30, 34 and 41 mmol/l) during analysis for ethanol by a gas chromatographic method. It is suggested that the simultaneous determination of both alcohols may be clinically important in methylated spirit drinking alcoholics.

  16. The Teacher as an Archetype of Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Many images of the teacher in the current literature on teaching and teacher reflectivity can be seen as aspects of the Jungian image of the teacher as an archetype of spirit. These images--the teacher as philosopher, prophet, Zen master, and priest--correspond to what I call dialogical, civic, ontological and incarnational spirituality,…

  17. Physics issues of a proposed program, SPIRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    Physics issues of the proposed program, SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Induction Techniques) are discussed. The main purpose of this program is to explore the physics of global stability and sustainment of compact toroids, including FRC (field reversed configuration) as well as low-aspect-ratio RFP (reversed field pinch), spheromak and spherical torus. (author)

  18. Europe's crisis : unification without a unifying spirit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margriet Krijtenburg

    2011-01-01

    What is happening to the EU? Following Schuman’s line of thought we can see that the crisis is linked with the lack of a European spirit among member states, together with the lack of a moral order as the guiding principle for European policies – including in the field of finance. It is the speed of

  19. Purification and partial characterisation of a trypsin from the processing waste of the silver mojarra (Diapterus rhombeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janilson F; Espósito, Talita S; Marcuschi, Marina; Ribeiro, Karina; Cavalli, Ronaldo O; Oliveira, Vitor; Bezerra, Ranilson S

    2011-12-01

    An alkaline peptidase was purified from the viscera of the silver mojarra (Diapterus rhombeus) in a three-step process: heat treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex® G-75), with final specific activity 86-fold higher than the enzyme extract and yield of 22.1%. The purified enzyme had an estimated molecular mass of 26.5kDa and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence IVGGYECTMHSEAHE. Higher enzyme activity was observed at pH 8.5 and between 50 and 55°C. The enzyme was completely inactivated after 30min at 55°C and it was significantly more stable at alkaline pH. Km, Kcat and Kcat·Km(-1) values, using BApNA as substrate, were 0.266mM, 0.93s(-1) and 3.48mM(-1)s(-1), respectively. Enzyme activity increased in the presence of the ions (1mM) K(+), Li(+) and Ca(2+), but was inhibited by Fe(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Al(3+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) as well as by the trypsin inhibitors TLCK and benzamidine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Klubi "Spirit" = Club Spirit / Hanno Soans ; tõlk. Liisi Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti klubikultuurist 1990-ndatel. Klubi "Spirit" kujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tarmo Piirmets, Martti Siimann. Arhitekt Jüri Irik Arhitektuuribüroost Ehala & Irik. Projekt ja klubi valmis 2000. Flaierid kujundas Aadam Kaarma. 10 ill. Vaated, korruste plaanid

  1. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Bahareh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw, number average molecular weight (Mn, and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn. Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%, glucose (37.1-45.1%, arabinose (0.58-3.41%, and xylose (0.3-3.21%. The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and linolenic acid (C18:2. The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%, lysine (6.04-8.36%, aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%, glycine (6.07-7.42%, alanine (5.24-6.14%, glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%, valine (4.5-5.50%, proline (3.87-4.81%, serine (4.39-5.18%, threonine (3.44-6.50%, isoleucine (3.30-4.07%, and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%. Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value.

  2. Optimized Reaction Conditions for Removal of Cellular Organic Matter of Microcystis aeruginosa During the Destabilization and Aggregation Process Using Ferric Sulfate in Water Purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Polášek, Pavel; Pivokonská, Lenka; Tomášková, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2009), s. 514-522 ISSN 1061-4303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/07/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Microcystis aeruginosa * cellular organic matter * destabilization * aggregation * optimized reaction conditions * water purification Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2009

  3. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The...

  4. 27 CFR 19.984 - Record of spirits received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of spirits received. 19.984 Section 19.984 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Accounting for...

  5. Two Spirit: Counseling Native American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Barret, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The cultural world of the Two Spirit, the traditional role of Native individuals believed to possess both male and female spirit, is explored in both "old ways" and current-day experiences. Cultural beliefs and meanings around sexual identity are discussed from a Native perspective with recommendations for counseling Two Spirit clients.…

  6. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled spirits...

  7. 27 CFR 31.47 - Warehouse receipts covering spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.47 Warehouse receipts covering spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled spirits...

  8. The Borexino purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Purification of 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system of combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification system removed K, U and Th by distillation of the pseudocumene solvent and the PPO fluor. Noble gases, Rn, Kr and Ar were removed by gas stripping. Distillation was also employed to remove optical impurities and reduce the attenuation of scintillation light. The success of the purification system has facilitated the first time real time detection of low energy solar neutrinos.

  9. Prospective purification of perivascular presumptive mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue: process optimization and cell population metrics across a large cohort of diverse demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C C; Hardy, W R; Murray, I R; James, A W; Corselli, M; Pang, S; Black, C; Lobo, S E; Sukhija, K; Liang, P; Lagishetty, V; Hay, D C; March, K L; Ting, K; Soo, C; Péault, B

    2016-03-30

    Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as it is largely dispensable and readily accessible through minimally invasive procedures such as liposuction. Until recently MSC could only be isolated in a process involving ex-vivo culture and their in-vivo identity, location and frequency remained elusive. We have documented that pericytes (CD45-, CD146+, and CD34-) and adventitial cells (CD45-, CD146-, CD34+) (collectively termed perivascular stem cells or PSC) represent native ancestors of the MSC, and can be prospectively purified using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). In this study we describe an optimized protocol that aims to deliver pure, viable and consistent yields of PSC from adipose tissue. We analysed the frequency of PSC within adipose tissue, and the effect of patient and procedure based variables on this yield. Within this twin centre study we analysed the adipose tissue of n = 131 donors using flow cytometry to determine the frequency of PSC and correlate this with demographic and processing data such as age, sex, BMI and cold storage time of the tissue. The mean number of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from 100 ml of lipoaspirate was 34.4 million. Within the SVF, mean cell viability was 83 %, with 31.6 % of cells being haematopoietic (CD45+). Adventitial cells and pericytes represented 33.0 % and 8 % of SVF cells respectively. Therefore, a 200 ml lipoaspirate would theoretically yield 23.2 million viable prospectively purified PSC - sufficient for many reconstructive and regenerative applications. Minimal changes were observed in respect to age, sex and BMI suggesting universal potential application. Adipose tissue contains two anatomically and phenotypically discreet populations of MSC precursors - adventitial cells and pericytes - together referred to as perivascular stem cells (PSC). More than 9 million PSC per 100 ml of lipoaspirate can be rapidly purified to homogeneity using flow cytometry in

  10. Effect of spirit irradiation with 60Co gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwardys, S.

    1975-01-01

    A few sorts of spirit were irradiated with a dose of 1 or 5 Mrad of 60 Co gamma-rays. Then the chemical composition of spirits was investigated. It was found that as a result of irradiation the content of acids, esters, acetal aldehydes and methanol increases, while the strength of higher alcohols decreases slightly. The changes of compounds content in particular spirits are dependent on radiation doses and chemical composition before irradiation. It was also discovered that spirit irradiation causes decrease or even disappearance of characteristic - for given spirits - maxima of UV absorption. (Z.M.)

  11. Overview of the recombinant proteins purification by affinity tags and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From protein within isolation process which the same matter increases labor costs further and prevents application of these tags in industrial scale. Therefore proper replacement is emphasized for enzymatic removal of purification tags. Keywords: protein purification; recombinant proteins; self-cleavable tags; Intein tags; ...

  12. Gel purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-02-01

    For many applications, including size selection of RNAs and purification of in vitro transcription products, it is necessary to purify RNAs on a denaturing gel. This procedure describes how to purify transcripts that have been synthesized in vitro. It is useful for labeled or unlabeled RNAs when sufficient mass is present. It can also be used to isolate small RNAs. In general, RNA purification by denaturing gel electrophoresis is practical only when the size of the desired RNA is 600 nucleotides or less.

  13. Animal Spirits Meets Creative Destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Lloyd-Ellis, H.

    2001-01-01

    We show how a Schumpeterian process of creative destruction can induce coordination in the timing of entrepreneurial activities across diverse sectors of the economy.Consequently, a multi-sector economy, in which sector-specific, productivity improvements are made by independent, profit-seeking

  14. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  15. Decolonizing Education: Nourishing the Learning Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging Indigenous scholar completing a mainstream doctoral program, I was immediately drawn to the work of Marie Battiste. Her work inspires my commitment to approach my degree as a decolonizing journey that nourishes my own learning spirit. Battiste (1998 captures the paradox of mainstream education as it is experienced by Aboriginal students. As she pointed out while Aboriginal students are looking to liberate themselves and their communities through education, they are faced with a strenuous curriculum that does not “mirror” them. As a result, students experience a “fragmented existence” (p. 24. This has indeed been my experience. Her recent book, Decolonizing Education: Nourishing the Learning Spirit expresses the tensions Indigenous learners face in all levels of mainstream education. These are the very tensions I personally experienced throughout the entirety of my educational experience as I have attempted to secure my own space and sense of place as a student and now aspiring professor.

  16. Whirlwind Drama During Spirit's 496th Sol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil growing in size and blowing across the plain inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The clip consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the morning of the rover's 496th martian day, or sol (May 26, 2005). Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  17. Volatile congeners in strong alcoholic fruit spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify and quantitatively analyze alcohol volatile congeners in different types of spirits from the domestic producers in order to evaluate their quality according to the Official Regulation. A total of 100 samples of three different types of grape brandies (lozova rakia, komova rakia and vinjak) and 30 samples of plum brandies obtained from seven domestic producers were analyzed on the content of ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, i-propanol, n- propanol, i-bu...

  18. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  19. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. SPIRIT GUSJIGANG KUDUS DAN TANTANGAN GLOBALISASI EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Mustaqim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available THE SPIRIT OF GUSJIGANG KUDUS AND THE ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION CHALLENGES. This paper intends to reveal the role of  Gusjigang business spirituality in facing the global economy. Kudus society known to have unique typology in business and learning, it is known as “Gusjigang”, it stands for the good, recite the Qur’an, and trade. Studies on the relationship between spirituality and business have been conducted a lot, but the study of the ethical spirit that focuses on business behavior of Muslim community in the context of  the trend of  economic globalization would still limited. The unique format and typology resulting from this study is expected to be a new concept for the development of Islamic economics and business at a different time and space in the future. In general, the results of this study came to the conclusion that Gusjigang spirit as glokalitas in business behavior. Glokalitas is a local moral value that is expected to become a universal character. This universal value if applied in the free competition, it will generate business behavior which always brings the perpetrators to goodness. Keywords: Gusjigang, Globalization, Economics. Tulisan ini bermaksud mengungkap peran spiritualitas bisnis Gusjigang dalam menghadapi ekonomi global. Masyarakat Kudus dikenal memiliki tipologi unik dalam berbisnis dan belajar, yang dikenal dengan istilah “Gusjigang”, kepanjangan dari bagus, ngaji, dan dagang. Kajian tentang hubungan antara spiritualitas dan perilaku bisnis memang sudah banyak dilakukan, tetapi kajian tentang spirit etik yang berfokus pada perilaku bisnis masyarakat Muslim konteksnya dengan kecenderungan globalisasi ekonomi kiranya masih terbatas. Format dan tipologi unik yang dihasilkan dari kajian ini diharapkan mampu menjadi konsep baru untuk pengembangan ekonomi dan bisnis Islam pada ruang dan waktu yang berbeda di masa mendatang. Secara umum, hasil kajian ini sampai pada penyimpulan spirit Gusjigang sebagai

  1. Volatile composition and sensory characters of commercial Galician orujo spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Sandra C; de la Peña, M Luisa G; Gómez, Esperanza F

    2005-08-24

    Nineteen samples of commercial Galician orujo spirits were analyzed by gas chromatography and distinguished from one another on the basis of the concentrations of major volatile compounds (methanol, higher alcohols, esters, acetates, and aldehydes). The spirits were also sensorily analyzed to emphasize this differentiation and to establish a sensory profile as a function of the attributes defined by the tasters. The results show that the Galician orujo spirits present notably significant differences in the concentrations of 2-butanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl lactate, whereas their ethylic esters contents are similar. Sensorily, the orujo spirits can be differentiated by taste but have similar characteristics of bouquet, the best of which are from the Godello variety. The descriptions employed to define the orujo spirits were herbaceous, floral, fruity, vegetal, alcohol, toasted, and "others". Floral and fruity were predominant in the Albariño orujo spirits; herbaceous was predominant in the plurivarietal orujo spirits, vegetal in the Godello spirits, and dried fruit or toasted in the Mencia spirits. The orujo spirits from Treixadura have the most diverse profile, with the participation of most of the attributes.

  2. Solid State Air Purification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The solid state air purification project will explore feasibility of a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide...

  3. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond. 24.65 Section 24.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... fermentation in bottles, by artificial carbonation, and by bulk processing; and (3) Claims covering losses of...

  4. The spirit of the National Peace Accord: The past and future of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spirit of the National Peace Accord: The past and future of conflict resolution in South Africa. ... African Journal on Conflict Resolution ... The business community enjoyed managing the process, but offered little in terms of actual resources and training as it high-tailed it 'back to the balance sheets'.1 The second section ...

  5. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  6. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  7. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest, mind (slo. um, and spirit (slo. duh. They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to consciously comprehend and understand contents and objects of human activity. I delineate three “types” of spirit: personal spirit, objective spirit, and the objectification of spirit in productions of human culture; I have doubts, however, about the existence of cosmic or super-cosmic dimensions of spirit, although some interpretations of quantum physics and modern cosmology suggest that such dimensions are possible.

  8. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  9. Stimulation of the natural self-purification of soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.

    1983-01-01

    Connected with the determination of the sanitary norm of cadmium in soil, examinations were performed to appoint the self-purification index. This index is the highest permissible concentration of a noxious chemical substance in soil not yet injuring the irreversible process of natural self-purification. As criterions of the self-purification were selected normal and potential respiration, quantity of bacteria, actinomyceta, fungi, proteolytic, nitrifying, and cellulolytic micro-organisms, inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and Phormidium autumnale, survival and increasing ability of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Salmonella give. Among the influence of various concentrations of cadmium, the self-purification index of 500 mg Cd++/kg was determined. Offered are methodical improvements for the determination of self-purification indices.

  10. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop processes for effective isolation and purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) from transgenic rabbit milk. Methods: Immunoaffinity chromatography was selected and improved by a special polyol-responsive monoclonal antibody (PR-mAb). Alteplase was used as immunogen ...

  11. Partial purification and biochemical characterization of acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is one of the important crops of the North Eastern Region of India. In the present study, acid phosphatase enzyme was isolated and partially purified from germinated local mung bean seeds. The sequential partial purification process was performed using ammonium sulphate precipitation method.

  12. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  13. Research on how to build team spirit of enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bingshun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the importance of team spirit in enterprisees. This article focuses on the team's meaning and the importance of modern enterprise organization, exploring the Chinese team construction of the enterprise and the problems that exist in team. Team spirit is the key point for team members to achieve the mutual goal. Team spirit is the spiritual pillar of the enterprise, without the spiritual pillar of enterprise, there will be no more energy and comp...

  14. AHP 21: Review: Spirits of the Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available John Holt draws deeply upon more than twenty years of scholarship on the Theravadin world in Spirits of the Place, a work that analyzes the historical role of Buddhism in Laos. This work will appeal to scholars in such diverse fields as history, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, US foreign policy, and area studies. In this study Holt turns his focus to the Lao ethnic majority of Laos and the Lao ethnic minority of Isan Province, Thailand,1 in five chapters that compellingly combine historiographic and anthropological analysis, including what (MacDaniel 2010:120 has referred to as "the best Literature review of scholarship on Lao religion to date…" ...

  15. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of the spirit and mind in health and well-being among Chumash people. Prayer was the first step in healing since prayer invites the participation of God. Initiation practices are discussed that encouraged young people to develop the maturity and spiritual strength to become productive members of society. Pictographs were used in healing usually not only as a relaxation therapy, but also as a mode of education. A supportive environment was an important factor in Chumash health care, since the support of friends helps, comforts and relieves anxiety that is detrimental to healing.

  16. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Finding the Spirit Within: A Critical Analysis of Film Techniques in "Spirited Away"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Damon

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the New South Wales Board of Studies included Hayao Miyazaki's film "Spirited Away" as the prescribed text for the Higher School Certificate Japanese Extension course. A study of the film in this context requires students to engage with the text in three distinct ways: through language, cultural symbolism and relevance, and…

  18. 'Do not quench the Spirit!' The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis ...

  19. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  20. A NOESY-HSQC simulation program, SPIRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Leiming; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    1998-01-01

    A program SPIRIT (Simulation Program considering Incomplete Recovery of z magnetization and INEPT Transfer efficiency) has been developed to simulate three-dimensional NOESY-HSQC spectra. This program takes into account (1) different transfer efficiency during INEPT and reverse INEPT durations due to differential relaxation rates and 1 J coupling constants; (2) the different effect of the sensitivity-enhancement scheme on CH, CH 2 and CH 3 systems; and (3) incomplete recovery of longitudinal magnetization between scans. The simulation program incorporates anisotropic tumbling mode for symmetric tops, and allows for differential external relaxation rates for protons. Some well-defined internal motions, such as the fast rotation of methyl groups, are taken into account. The simulation program also allows for input of multiple conformations and their relative populations to calculate the average relaxation matrix to account for slow internal motions. With the SPIRIT program, the sensitivity-enhanced NOESY-HSQC experiment can be used directly in the evaluation of the accuracy of structures, which can potentially be improved by direct refinement against the primary data. Abbreviations: NOESY, nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy; HSQC, heteronuclear single quantum correlation; INEPT, insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer

  1. Rapid cloning and purification of proteins: gateway vectors for protein purification by self-cleaving tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Alison R; Hsii, Judy F; Oak, Seachol; Wood, David W

    2008-10-01

    We have combined Invitrogen's Gateway cloning technology with self-cleaving purification tags to generate a new system for rapid production of recombinant protein products. To accomplish this, we engineered our previously reported DeltaI-CM cleaving intein to include a Gateway cloning recognition sequence, and demonstrated that the resulting Gateway-competent intein is unaffected. This intein can therefore be used in several previously reported purification methods, while at the same time being compatible with Gateway cloning. We have incorporated this intein into a set of Gateway vectors, which include self-cleaving elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), chitin binding domain (CBD), phasin (polyhydroxybutyrate-binding), or maltose binding domain (MBD) tags. These vectors were verified by Gateway cloning of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and Escherichia coli catalase genes, and the expressed target proteins were purified using the four methods encoded on the vectors. The purification methods were unaffected by replacing the DeltaI-CM intein with the Gateway intein. It was observed that some purification methods were more appropriate for each target than others, suggesting utility of this technology for rapid process identification and optimization. The modular design of the Gateway system and intein purification method suggests that any tag and promoter can be trivially added to this system for the development of additional expression vectors. This technology could greatly facilitate process optimization, allowing several targets and methods to be tested in a high-throughput manner.

  2. Negative Freedom as Politics of Spirit in Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Magno Veras Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present negative freedom as a moment of vitality in the formation of absolute freedom, represented by moral conscience, as a necessary process of realization in political representation based on Hegel’s Phenomenology of the Spirit. In the first moment, we will present the understanding of absolute freedom and the unfolding of its concept as universal will. In the second moment, we will discuss the conception of negative freedom as an experience of the French Revolution and its result as terror. The experience of negative freedom is understood as the possible means for the solution of contradiction, destruction, and death. These means originate from the political representation of the French Revolution. The hermeneutics presented leads to the positive exaltation of negative freedom as the way towards a possible solution of the problems inherent to a representation of absolute freedom as rational.

  3. The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... In his Apology, chapter 10, Athenagoras explicitly describes the Holy Spirit as part of God. He refutes the allegation that. Christians are atheists and describes God as the triune ruler of the spiritual world: The prophetic Spirit also agrees with our statements. 'The Lord,' it says, 'made me, the beginning of His ...

  4. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All...

  5. 27 CFR 19.996 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol fuel plant, they must be rendered unfit for beverage use as provided in this subpart. Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use (fuel alcohol) may be withdrawn free of tax from plant premises exclusively... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits. 19...

  6. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep records...

  7. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse receipts...

  8. Methods for rapid and effective PCR-based detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' from the insect vector Bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the DNA extraction/purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Julien; Hancock, Joseph; Ravindran, Aravind; Gross, Dennis; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Pierson, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    This study provides a protocol for rapid DNA isolation from psyllid vectors (Bactericera cockerelli and Diaphorina citri) that can be used directly with DNA-based methods for the detection of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter solanacearum,' the bacterial causal agent of potato zebra chip disease and eventually for 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' the causal agent of huanglongbing disease in citrus. The fast DNA extraction protocol was designed to work with conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) DNA amplification as well as Loop mediated PCR DNA amplification. Direct cPCR of the psyllid 28S rDNA gene from samples prepared using the fast DNA extraction method was as reliable as from samples prepared using standard DNA purification (> 97% from live insects) as tested in B. cockerelli. However, samples prepared using the fast DNA extraction method had to be diluted 1:100 in sterile water for reliable amplification, presumably to dilute PCR inhibitors in the crude extract. Similarly, both cPCR and loop mediated PCR DNA amplification detected 'Ca. Liberibacter' in psyllids infected with either the zebra chip or huanglongbing pathogen equally well from diluted samples prepared using the fast DNA extraction method or from samples prepared using a DNA purification step. In addition to being reliable, the time required to complete the fast DNA extraction for 10 samples was on average approximately 5 min and required no special reagents or laboratory equipment. Thus, the fast DNA extraction method shows strong promise as a rapid, reliable, and expedient method when coupled with PCR-based analyses for detection of 'Ca. Liberibacter' pathogens in psyllids.

  9. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  10. Solidarity and Community Spirit during Evil Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA-GRAZIA DIMA,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims both at identifying the various facets under which human solidarity manifested itself during the War of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-1995 and at highlighting the growing awareness of the community spirit in the same period of time, resulting in a part of the population being saved and in many spiritual and material values being preserved. The analysis is based on genuine interviews given by subjects involved in the events, all of which being collected in the volume Good People in an Evil Time by Dr. Svetlana Broz, a journalist, social activist and cardiologist (now president of the Bosnia-Herzegovina branch of GARIWO International. This book has been a best seller, and has been translated in many languages and presented over many tours in about 50 universities in the USA.

  11. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  12. Gamma radiation use on the aging of sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, Julio M. M.; Spoto, Marta H. F.; Novaes, Fernando V.; Alcarde, Andre R.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the influence of gamma radiation on the aging of sugarcane spirit. Samples of sugarcane spirit (cachaca ) were irradiated in a Gammabeam Cobalt-60 source with doses between 0 (control) and 300 Gy, with 50 Gy increasing. The irradiated samples were offered to 5 expert judges for sensorial tests using the comparison: irradiated versus control. The chemical volatile components of the irradiated spirit were determined using a gas chromatograph. Sensorial tests elected the dose of 150 Gy as the best for sugarcane spirit irradiation based on its flavour and bouquet. These sensorial characteristics were due to the chemical changes observed in esters, aldehydes and higher alcohol's concentrations. The samples irradiated with 250 and 300 Gy developed a bitter taste and an 'oxidized' flavour. A second experiment was carried out using single and twice-distilled sugarcane spirit, normal aged in oak barrels or not, or added with oak extract. Samples were irradiated with the dose of 150 Gy and scored by the same sensorial analysis methodology. All irradiated samples had their flavour improved. The irradiation of the non-maturated twice-distilled sugarcane spirit produced a flavour compared to spirits maturated during one year of normal aging. (author)

  13. Identifikasi Peranan Orang Tua Wirausaha Dalam Pembentukan Karakter Entrepreneurial Spirit Dan Keberlangsungan Business Project Mahasiswa Universitas Ciputra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi M. Immanuel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to know whether the character of the entrepreneurial spirit of Ciputra University students which is expected to be the factor in being a successful enterprenour in the future, is influenced by parent who has a career as an independent enterprenour.  The population of the study is students who have completed a minimum of two year study, have  a sustainable business project at the time being, and have parents as family business entrepreneur. This is an exploratory qualitative research done by conducting in-depth interviews to students who become informants. Results from this study indicated that the character of the entrepreneurial spirit in the students themselves can be formed through an educational process, and also through action and the way of thought from parents in running the business. Character of entrepreneurial spirit is professionally sharpened the students in learning process at Ciputra University which is based on entrepreneurship.

  14. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification

  15. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-10-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

  16. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  19. Security proof of quantum cryptography based entirely on entanglement purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschauer, Hans; Briegel, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    We give a proof that entanglement purification, even with noisy apparatus, is sufficient to disentangle an eavesdropper (Eve) from the communication channel. In the security regime, the purification process factorizes the overall initial state into a tensor-product state of Alice and Bob, on one side, and Eve on the other side, thus establishing a completely private, albeit noisy, quantum communication channel between Alice and Bob. The security regime is found to coincide for all practical purposes with the purification regime of a two-way recurrence protocol. This makes two-way entanglement purification protocols, which constitute an important element in the quantum repeater, an efficient tool for secure long-distance quantum cryptography

  20. Influence of Maturation Degree of Arbutus (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits in Spirit Composition and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Goreti Botelho; Filomena Gomes; Fernanda M. Ferreira; Ilda Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a small tree or shrub from botanical Ericaceae family that grows spontaneously nearby the Mediterranean basin and produce edible red fruits. A traditional processed fruit application, in Mediterranean countries, is the production of a spirit (known as aguardente de medronho, in Portugal) obtained from the fermented fruit. The main objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge about the influence of the degree of matura...

  1. The purification of hypertensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKEGGS, L T; KAHN, J R; SHUMWAY, N P

    1956-03-01

    The enzymatic conversion of hypertensin I to hypertensin II is described together with the subsequent purification of the product by means of counter-current distribution. Improved methods are also presented for the preparation of renin and its substrate, as well as in methods for the reaction of these materials and the purification of the resulting hypertensin I.

  2. Protein production and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräslund, Susanne; Nordlund, Pär; Weigelt, Johan; Hallberg, B Martin; Bray, James; Gileadi, Opher; Knapp, Stefan; Oppermann, Udo; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Hui, Raymond; Ming, Jinrong; dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Park, Hee-won; Savchenko, Alexei; Yee, Adelinda; Edwards, Aled; Vincentelli, Renaud; Cambillau, Christian; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou; Rao, Zihe; Shi, Yunyu; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Kim, Chang-Yub; Hung, Li-Wei; Waldo, Geoffrey S; Peleg, Yoav; Albeck, Shira; Unger, Tamar; Dym, Orly; Prilusky, Jaime; Sussman, Joel L; Stevens, Ray C; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank; Dementieva, Irina; Donnelly, Mark I; Eschenfeldt, William H; Kim, Youngchang; Stols, Lucy; Wu, Ruying; Zhou, Min; Burley, Stephen K; Emtage, J Spencer; Sauder, J Michael; Thompson, Devon; Bain, Kevin; Luz, John; Gheyi, Tarun; Zhang, Fred; Atwell, Shane; Almo, Steven C; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Fiser, Andras; Swaminathan, Sivasubramanian; Studier, F William; Chance, Mark R; Sali, Andrej; Acton, Thomas B; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Li; Ma, Li Chung; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Cunningham, Kellie; Inouye, Masayori; Anderson, Stephen; Janjua, Heleema; Shastry, Ritu; Ho, Chi Kent; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Huang; Jiang, Mei; Montelione, Gaetano T; Stuart, David I; Owens, Raymond J; Daenke, Susan; Schütz, Anja; Heinemann, Udo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Büssow, Konrad; Gunsalus, Kristin C

    2008-02-01

    In selecting a method to produce a recombinant protein, a researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices as to where to start. To facilitate decision-making, we describe a consensus 'what to try first' strategy based on our collective analysis of the expression and purification of over 10,000 different proteins. This review presents methods that could be applied at the outset of any project, a prioritized list of alternate strategies and a list of pitfalls that trip many new investigators.

  3. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  4. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  5. Water Purification Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  6. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  7. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded premises... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...

  8. 27 CFR 30.51 - Procedures for measurement of bulk spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the standard temperature by means of table 7. In the case of denatured spirits, the temperature..., should be that given in table 7 for 100 proof spirits. When the quantity of spirits, in wine gallons, has... the wine gallons by the proof of the spirits as determined under § 30.31. Example. Gauge glass reading...

  9. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...

  10. 27 CFR 28.26 - Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible for export with benefit of drawback. Bottled distilled spirits eligible for export with benefit of... bonded warehouse from which distilled spirits may be exported. These withdrawals shall be treated as... spirits were for exportation. (c) Time deemed exported. For the purpose of this part, distilled spirits...

  11. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Wen Chan

    Full Text Available The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  12. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  13. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  14. Design and construction of the spirit TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwancharoen, Suwat

    The nuclear symmetry energy, the density dependent term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS), governs important properties of neutron stars and dense nuclear matter. At present, it is largely unconstrained in the supra-saturation density region. This dissertation concerns the design and construction of the SpiRIT Time Projection Chamber (SpiRIT-TPC) at Michigan State University as part of an international collaborations to constrain the symmetry energy at supra-saturation density. The SpiRIT-TPC has been constructed during the dissertation and transported to Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, Japan where it will be used in conjunction with the SAMURAI Spectrometer. The detector will measure yield ratios for pions and other light charged particles produced in central collisions of neutron-rich heavy ions such as 132Sn + 124Sn. The dissertation describes the design and solutions to the problem presented by the measurement. This also compares some of the initial fast measurement of the TPC to calculation of the performance characteristics.

  15. TESLA'S INVENTIONS IN PHYSICS AND HIS ENGINEERING SPIRIT

    OpenAIRE

    Petković, T.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes Tesla’s inventions in physics. Tesla’s engineering spirit is compared to M. Faraday’s and A. A. Michelson’s spirit of discovery in electromagnetism. Tesla’s unfinished investigative journey, from great experiments in electrical technology and radio technology to the physical theories he derived from them, are examined historically and scientifically. Several discoveries and individual experiments are described that were significant in the subsequent development of accele...

  16. Spirit-guided care: Christian nursing for the whole person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lyn S; Walker, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare today is challenged to provide care that goes beyond the medical model of meeting physical needs. Despite a strong historical foundation in spiritual whole person care, nurses struggle with holistic caring. We propose that for the Christian nurse, holistic nursing can be described as Spirit-guided care--removing oneself as the moiatiating force and allowing Christ, in the furm of the Holy Spirit, to flow through and guide the nurse in care of patients and families.

  17. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  18. The Union of Spirit and Matter: Science, Consciousness, and a Life Divine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Lester

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The once unbridgeable chasm between spirit and matter is closing. While the scientific method and scientific materialism have brought untold benefits to humanity, quantum physics has changed our view of matter as solid, objective, and obvious to a view that is more complex and which includes the possibility that consciousness has a part in manifesting reality. This shift mirrors Sri Aurobindo’s integral philosophy, which states that the universe is a manifestation of consciousness. This manifestation occurs through a process of involution followed by evolution, the next step of which is the emergence of a suprahumanity whose native state of consciousness will be supramental. Interestingly, some of Mother Mirra Alfassa’s experiences in bringing supramental consciousness into her body bear similarities to the discoveries of quantum physics. Unlike previous spiritual realizations, the supramental realization has the power to unify spirit and matter and usher in a life divine on earth.

  19. Photonic measurement of apparent presence of spirit using a computer automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary E

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating the potential of detecting the purported presence of spirit (POS) has been hampered by the necessity of employing a human being to collect the data. To infer the presence of alleged spirit, it is essential to remove the simultaneous presence of an experimenter (POE), thereby eliminating his or her physical energy as well as accompanying conscious intentions and expectations. The purpose of these two proof of concept experiments was to explore the feasibility of completely automating data collection in the absence of an experimenter to determine if evidence consistent with POS was still obtained. A computer automated system was developed making it possible to collect all data in the absence of an experimenter (thereby achieving complete experimenter blinding). In the evenings, the computer would perform as follows: (1) start the experimental run at random times, (2) conduct 30-minute baseline as well as POS trials involving two different alleged spirits, and (3) record background light in a completely dark chamber with a highly sensitive low-light Princeton Instruments charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system. The CCD camera and light-tight recording chamber were housed in a light-tight room; the computer, large screen monitor, and speakers were housed in a separate control room. The participants were two purported spirits involved in previous research published in this journal, in which a silicon photomultiplier system was used. The primary intervention was the computer selecting and presenting visual and auditory information inviting Spirit 1 or Spirit 2 to enter the chamber in the absence of experimenter presence and awareness. The CCD camera provided 512 × 512 pixel images of 30-minute exposures (reflecting a combination of possible background light plus instrument dark noise). The images were imported into image processing software, and two-dimensional fast fourier transform (FFT) analyses were performed. Visual examinations of the FFT

  20. Physicochemical and sensory changes in aged sugarcane spirit submitted to filtering with activated carbon filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane spirit is a drink considered as a national symbol of Brazil. It is produced by large producers and by about 30 thousand small and medium home-distilling producers dispersed throughout the country. The copper originating from the home-distillers can become a serious problem since at high concentrations in beverages it may cause serious human health problems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the activated carbon used in commercial filters on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of aged sugarcane spirit. Analyses of copper, dry extract, alcoholic degree, higher alcohols, volatile acids, aldehydes, esters, furfural, and methanol were performed. The sensory evaluation was performed by seven selected trained judges, who analyzed the yellow color, woody aroma and flavor, and intensity of alcoholic aroma and flavor of the cane spirit before and after the filtration process. The sensory tests were carried out using a 9 cm non-structured intensity scale. A reduction was observed in all compounds analyzed physicochemically, except for the esters, which increased after filtration. This increase is probably due to the esterification of the alcohols and acids present. According to the sensory results obtained, a reduction was observed in the intensity of the yellow color, aroma, and wood flavor characteristics, the major characteristics of the aging process.

  1. Phase equilibria at the Zirconium metal purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani-Sudjoko; Busron-Masduki; Sunardjo; Budi-Sulistyo

    1996-01-01

    It was investigated the research in the purification of zirconium metal, which was results from the reduction process, by adding heat in the vacuum environment. The process was done in batch in the stainless steel reactor, equiped with vacuum pump and electric heater. The investigated variable were process temperature and pressure. From this research it was obtained that equilibrium constant for MgCl 2 and Mg were expressed in the equation K M g C l 2 = 0.9011 P 1 .3779 1.06552 T and K M g = 6.0115P + 1.35256T - 6.93912

  2. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Wei; Ping Yin; Ian M. Newman; Ling Qian; Duane F. Shell; Lok-wa Yuen

    2017-01-01

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural res...

  3. 75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... attorney Lynne J. Omlie on behalf of the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, Inc. (DISCUS), a... wines sold in the United States. The letter explained that because DISCUS is in the process of... of the comment period for Notice No. 111 to allow DISCUS the necessary time to collect and review...

  4. Magnetic Purification of Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadge, Vijaykumar Laxman

    This work aimed at the development of magnetic nanoparticles for antibody purification and at the evaluation of their performance in Magnetic fishing and in a newly developed hybrid technology Magnetic Aqueous Two Phase Systems. Magnetic materials were produced by coprecipitation and solvothermal approaches. Natural polymers such as dextran, extracellular polysaccharide and gum Arabic were employed for coating of iron oxide magnetic supports. Polymer coated magnetic supports were then modified with synthetic antibody specific ligands,namely boronic acid, a triazine ligand (named 22/8) and an Ugi ligand (named A2C7I1). To optimize the efficacy of magnetic nanoparticles for antibody magnetic fishing, various solutions of pure and crude antibody solutions along with BSA as a non-specific binding protein were tested. The selectivity of magnetic nanoparticle for antibody, IgG, was found effective with boronic acid and ligand 22/8. Magnetic supports were then studied for their performance in high gradient magnetic separator for effective separation capability as well as higher volume handling capability. The magnetic materials were also supplemented to aqueous two phase systems, devising a new purification technology. For this purpose, magnetic particles modified with boronic acid were more effective. This alternative strategy reduced the time of operation,maximized separation capability (yield and purity), while reducing the amount of salt required. Boronic acid coated magnetic particles bound 170 +/- 10 mg hIgG/g MP and eluted 160 +/- 5 mg hIgG/g MP, while binding only 15 +/- 5 mg BSA/g MP. The affinity constant for the interaction between hIgG and APBA_MP was estimated as 4.9 x 105 M-1 (Ka) with a theoretical maximum capacity of 492 mg hIgG adsorbed/g MP (Qmax). APBA_MPs were also tested for antibody purification directly from CHO cell supernatants. The particles were able to bind 98% of IgG loaded and to recover 95% of pure IgG (purity greater than 98%) at extremely

  5. Acrylic purification and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzniak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  6. Dialysis membranes for blood purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    2000-01-01

    All of the artificial membranes in industrial use, such as a reverse-osmosis membrane, dialysis membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, microfiltration membrane and gas separation membrane, also have therapeutic applications. The most commonly used artificial organ is the artificial kidney, a machine that performs treatment known as hemodialysis. This process cleanses the body of a patient with renal failure by dialysis and filtration, simple physicochemical processes. Hemodialysis membranes are used to remove accumulated uremic toxins, excess ions and water from the patient via the dialysate, and to supply (deficit) insufficient ions from the dialysate. Dialysis membranes used clinically in the treatment of patients with renal failure account for by far the largest volume of membranes used worldwide; more than 70 million square meters are used a year. Almost all dialyzers now in use are of the hollow-fiber type. A hollow-fiber dialyzer contains a bundle of approximately 10000 hollow fibers, each with an inner diameter of about 200 microm when wet. The membrane thickness is about 20-45 microm, and the length is 160-250 mm. The walls of the hollow fibers function as the dialysis membrane. Various materials, including cellulose-based materials and synthetic polymers, are used for dialysis membranes. This paper reviews blood purification, hemodialysis and dialysis membranes.

  7. Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Canas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size, the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level.

  8. The sub-chronic toxicity of regular White Spirit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Adenuga, M David; Mckee, Richard H

    2014-10-01

    Hydrocarbon solvents are mostly complex substances (UVCB) with carbon numbers in the range of approximately C5-C20. One of the most common types is a C9-C14 aliphatic solvent containing approximately 20% aromatics and commonly known as White Spirit in Europe and mineral spirits in the US. In previous repeated inhalation toxicity studies, White Spirit was reported to cause minimal systemic effects in most animal species with few effects other than male rat-specific kidney changes at levels up to approximately 2000mg/m(3). In the present study male and female rats were exposed to White Spirit vapors, 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks at levels of approximately 2000, 4000, or 8000mg/m(3) to assess the potential for effects at higher exposure levels. All of the rats survived the treatment period. In life observations were largely restricted to acute central nervous system (CNS) effects in the high exposure group. Terminal body weights of high exposure groups animals were significantly below control values. Statistically significant differences in the clinical and hematological observations were small and within normal physiological limits. Weights of some organs including liver, spleen and kidneys were elevated, but microscopic examination indicated that the only pathological effects were changes in the kidneys of the male rats, consistent with an α2u-globulin-mediated process, which is gender and species-specific and not relevant to humans. The overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEC) was 4000mg/m(3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  10. "Come You Spirits": Shakespeare, Mythology and Process Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Dave; Rafe, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Many of Shakespeare's plays involve mythological symbolism that is fundamental to the complex web of meanings inherent in the work. Mythology is a complex symbolic metalanguage, the meaning of which has evolved over time, adapting to its socio-cultural context. In Shakespeare's "Macbeth" the witches are strongly associated with Lady…

  11. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  12. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Cu-TDPAT, an rht -type dual-functional metal-organic framework offering significant potential for use in H 2 and natural gas purification processes operating at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Haohan

    2012-08-09

    The separations of CO 2/CO/CH 4/H 2, CO 2/H 2, CH 4/H 2, and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures at pressures ranging to 7 MPa are important in a variety of contexts, including H 2 production, natural gas purification, and fuel-gas processing. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the selective adsorption potential of an rht-type metal-organic framework [Cu 3(TDPAT)(H 2O) 3]·10H 2O·5DMA (Cu-TDPAT), possessing a high density of both open metal sites and Lewis basic sites. Experimental high pressure pure component isotherm data for CO 2, CO, CH 4, and H 2 are combined with the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) for estimation of mixture adsorption equilibrium. The separation performance of Cu-TDPAT is compared with four other microporous materials, specifically chosen in order to span a wide range of physicochemical characteristics: MgMOF-74, MIL-101, LTA-5A, and NaX. For all mixtures investigated, the capacity of Cu-TDPAT to produce the desired product, H 2 or CH 4, satisfying stringent purity requirements, in a fixed bed operating at pressures exceeding about 4 MPa, is either comparable to, or exceeds, that of other materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  16. The spirit of hypnosis: doing hypnosis versus being hypnotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapko, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The spirit of hypnosis is reflected in the belief that people are more resourceful than they realize and through hypnosis can create meaningful possibilities. Thus, it is puzzling why hypnosis isn't better regarded. Do we present as too internally conflicted to inspire others' confidence? Do we overstate the dangers of hypnosis and scare people away? Do we define hypnosis as such a unique approach that others don't see its relevance for their work? Self-exploration is important if we want to ensure we are not unwittingly adding to our image problems as a field. Beyond these considerations, the novel and spirited application of hypnosis in the context of captive elephant breeding is discussed, as is a personal acknowledgment of some of the pioneers who manifested the spirit of hypnosis.

  17. Spiritual Treatment for Depression in Brazil: An Experience From Spiritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero; Peres, Mario F Prieto; Vallada, Homero P; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Spiritism has been strongly connected with mental health in Brazil. However, there is a lack of descriptions of spiritual treatment provided by thousands of Brazilian Spiritist centers. The present study aims to describe the spiritual care for depression provided by one large Spiritist center in São Paulo, Brazil. This is a descriptive study carried out in 2012 at "São Paulo Spiritist Federation." Authors visited the "spiritual intervention sections," observed the therapies provided, listened to the "spirits' communication," and interviewed two patients. The assistance consists on a 90-min "Spiritual healing" session which includes educational lectures, "disobsession" (spirit release therapy), "passe" (laying on of hands) and person advice. Both patients had remitted depression when they were interviewed. Further studies would be necessary to report other religious/spiritual treatments in order to improve our understanding of the available practices used by patients and optimize the integration of conventional care with spiritual treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ‘Do not quench the Spirit!’ The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis of earlier, Jewish traditions. It situates the development of the idea of the Holy Spirit as God’s presence in past and present within the social history of the developing Christian movement, and shows how this idea was connected to the concept of apostolic succession. Thus, emerging Christianity legitimised itself and its social structures by the theology of the Holy Spirit. Its message was presented as old instead of new, as the Holy Spirit had foretold the Christ event. Its organisation was seen as divinely inspired, because its leaders were thought to be endowed with the Spirit. In this development, the narrative of Luke-Acts has thoroughly influenced the way in which Christianity developed a new discourse to present itself as old.

  19. OPTIMASI PROSES DEASIDIFIKASI DALAM PEMURNIAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH SKALA PILOT PLANT [Optimization of Deacidification Process in Red Palm Oil Purification on Pilot Plant Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Rai Widarta1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacidification is one of the steps in palm oil refining process which aims to separate free fatty acids formed during post-harvest handling. It is carried out using alkali solution such as NaOH (sodium hydroxide. Carotenoids in palm oil are affected by this step. Therefore, deacidification has to be controlled to minimize the destruction of carotenoids during processing. The objective of this research was to improve deacidification process in pilot plant scale so that the process can produce lower level of free fatty acids (FFA and higher recovery of carotene in high yield neutralized red palm oil (NRPO. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of crude palm oil (CPO such as moisture content, FFA and carotene contents, saponification number, iodine value, peroxide value, and color were determined before processing. Degumming was performed before deacidification process. The 17.5% excess of NaOH was obtained from the pilot plant scale deacidification trial. The optimization of deacidification time and temperature was carried out by using central composite design (CCD. Response surface method (RSM was used to observe the influence of treatments on the FFA level reduction, carotene recovery, and NRPO yield. The result showed that the optimum deacidification condition was at 61 ± 2°C in 26 minutes, and at the 16°Be NaOH strength with 17.5% excess of NaOH. In this optimum condition, the process achieved 96.35% of FFA reduction, 87.30% of carotene recovery, and 90.16% of NRPO yield.

  20. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...... with democracy and spirits in fact reflect a set of contradictions within democracy itself. The book will be of interest to academics in the fields of Asian Studies, anthropology and political science and relevant for the study of Indonesian politics and democracy in Asia and beyond....

  1. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  2. Purification, characterization and modular organization of a cellulose-binding protein, CBP105, a processive beta-1,4-endoglucanase from Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Castillo, Teresa; Hidalgo-Lara, Maria Eugenia; Brieba, Luis G; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime

    2008-04-01

    A cellulose-binding protein of 105 kDa (CBP105) from Cellulomonas flavigena was purified and its gene was cloned. CBP105 is a processive endoglucanase with maximum activity on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at pH 7.5 and 60 degrees C. Limited proteolysis suggested that CBP105 is composed of one catalytic domain (CD) and two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). The nucleotide sequence of the cbp105 gene (AY729806) indicates that CBP105 is a modular enzyme with a family 9 glycoside hydrolase CD linked to a family 3 CBM, two fibronectin III-like domains and a family 2 CBM. This structural organization may be responsible for CBP105 processive CMC degradation.

  3. Towards chemical profiling of ignitable liquids with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: Exploring forensic application to neat white spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Andjoe A S; Lopatka, Martin; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Schoenmakers, Peter J; van Asten, Arian C

    2016-10-01

    The application of GC×GC-FID and GC×GC-MS for the chemical analysis and profiling of neat white spirit is explored and the benefit of the enhanced peak capacity offered by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography is demonstrated. An extensive sampling exercise was conducted throughout The Netherlands and the production and logistics in terms of bottling and distribution of white spirits were studied. An exploratory approach based on target-peak tables and principal component analysis was employed to study the brand-to-brand differences and production variations over time. Despite the complex chemical composition of white spirit samples this study shows that chemical variation during productions is actually quite limited. Hence care has to be taken with the chemical comparison for forensic purposes. Although some clustering was noticed on brand level, the large scale production process leads to a very consistent composition across stores and brands. However, because of the broad specifications of this commodity product, substantial chemical variation was found over time. This temporal discrimination could be of forensic value when considering white spirits supplies in individual households. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biopharmaceuticals from microorganisms: from production to purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Faustino Jozala

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of biopharmaceuticals dates from the 19th century and within 5-10 years, up to 50% of all drugs in development will be biopharmaceuticals. In the 1980s, the biopharmaceutical industry experienced a significant growth in the production and approval of recombinant proteins such as interferons (IFN α, β, and γ and growth hormones. The production of biopharmaceuticals, known as bioprocess, involves a wide range of techniques. In this review, we discuss the technology involved in the bioprocess and describe the available strategies and main advances in microbial fermentation and purification process to obtain biopharmaceuticals.

  5. Dry syngas purification process for coal gas produced in oxy-fuel type integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with carbon dioxide capturing feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine. To realize the dry process, the bench scale test facility was planned to demonstrate the first-ever halide and sulfur removal with fixed bed reactor using actual syngas from O 2 -CO 2 blown gasifier for the oxy-fuel IGCC power generation. Design parameter for the test facility was required for the candidate sorbents for halide removal and sulfur removal. Breakthrough test was performed on two kinds of halide sorbents at accelerated condition and on honeycomb desulfurization sorbent at varied space velocity condition. The results for the both sorbents for halide and sulfur exhibited sufficient removal within the satisfactory short depth of sorbent bed, as well as superior bed conversion of the impurity removal reaction. These performance evaluation of the candidate sorbents of halide and sulfur removal provided rational and affordable design parameters for the bench scale test facility to demonstrate the dry syngas cleaning process for oxy-fuel IGCC system as the scaled up step of process development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment efficiency and economic feasibility of biological oxidation, membrane filtration and separation processes, and advanced oxidation for the purification and valorization of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L; Michael-Kordatou, I; Fattas, S C; Eusebio, A; Ribeiro, B; Rusan, M; Amer, A R B; Zuraiqi, S; Waismand, M; Linder, C; Wiesman, Z; Gilron, J; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2017-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major waste stream resulting from numerous operations that occur during the production stages of olive oil. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact can be notable. The present work aims at investigating the efficiency of (i) jet-loop reactor with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system (Jacto.MBR), (ii) solar photo-Fenton oxidation after coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment and (iii) integrated membrane filtration processes (i.e. UF/nanofiltration (NF)) used for the treatment of OMW. According to the results, the efficiency of the biological treatment was high, equal to 90% COD and 80% total phenolic compounds (TPh) removal. A COD removal higher than 94% was achieved by applying the solar photo-Fenton oxidation process as post-treatment of coagulation/flocculation of OMW, while the phenolic fraction was completely eliminated. The combined UF/NF process resulted in very high conductivity and COD removal, up to 90% and 95%, respectively, while TPh were concentrated in the NF concentrate stream (i.e. 93% concentration). Quite important is the fact that the NF concentrate, a valuable and polyphenol rich stream, can be further valorized in various industries (e.g. food, pharmaceutical, etc.). The above treatment processes were found also to be able to reduce the initial OMW phytotoxicity at greenhouse experiments; with the effluent stream of solar photo-Fenton process to be the least phytotoxic compared to the other treated effluents. A SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) analysis was performed, in order to determine both the strengths of each technology, as well as the possible obstacles that need to overcome for achieving the desired levels of treatment. Finally, an economic evaluation of the tested technologies was performed in an effort to measure the applicability and viability of these systems at real scale; highlighting that the cost cannot be regarded as

  7. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  8. 27 CFR 28.192 - Packages of distilled spirits to be gauged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packages which are to be removed for export with benefit of drawback, shall be gauged by the distilled... Spirits With Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.192 Packages of distilled spirits to be...

  9. The Combination Process for Preparative Separation and Purification of Paclitaxel and 10-Deacetylbaccatin III Using Diaion® Hp-20 Followed by Hydrophilic Interaction Based Solid Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshekanb, Mahsa; Rezadoost, Hassan; Javanbakht, Mehran; Ghassempour, Ali Reza

    2017-01-01

    There is no other naturally occurring defense agent against cancer that has a stronger effect than paclitaxel, commonly known under the brand name of Taxol®. The major drawback for the more widespread use of paclitaxel and its precious precursor, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III), is that they require large-scale extraction from different parts of yew trees (Taxus species), cell cultures, taxane-producing endophytic fungi, and Corylus species. In our previous work, a novel online two-dimensional heart-cut liquid chromatography process using hydrophilic interaction/ reversed-phase chromatography was used to introduce a semi-preparative treatment for the separation of polar (10-deacetylbaccatin III) and non-polar (paclitaxel) taxanes from Taxus baccata L. In this work, a combination of the absorbent (Diaion® HP-20) and a silica based solid phase extraction is utilized as a new, efficient, and cost effective method for large-scale production of taxanes. This process avoids the technical problem of two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography. The first stage of the process involves discarding co-extractive polar compounds including chlorophylls and pigments using a non-polar synthetic hydrophobic absorbent, Diaion® HP-20. Extract was then loaded on to a silica based hydrophilic interaction solid phase extraction (silica 40-60 micron). Taxanes was eluted using a mixture of water and methanol at the optimized ratio of 70:30. Finally, the fraction containing taxanes was applied to semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC. The results revealed that using this procedure, paclitaxel and 10-DAB III could be obtained at 8 and 3 times more, respectively than by the traditional method of extraction. PMID:29552048

  10. Optimization of the purification process of wine lees through anaerobic filter reactors. Optimizacion del proceso de depuracion de vinazas de vino mediante reactores tipo filtro anaerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot Sanz, E.; Romero Garcia, L.I.; Quiroga Alonso, J.M.; Sales Marquez, D. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the optimization of thermophilic anaerobic process, using Anaerobic Filter technology was studied. Feed of the Anaerobic Filter was wine-distillery wastewaters. The experiments developed were carried out at lab-scale downflow anaerobic filter reactors. Reactors were filled with a high porous plastic media (Flocor-R). The media support entities have a high surface/volume ratio. Test were run to determine the maximum organic load attainable in the system for wich both, the depurative efficiency and the methane production were optimum. Likewise, the effect of organic load on the anaerobic filter performance were studied. (Author) 15 refs. (Author)

  11. Structural and functional characteristics of virgin and fouled Protein A MabSelect resin cycled in a monoclonal antibody purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojie; Xu, Kerui; Daniels, William; Salm, Jeffrey; Glynn, Judy; Martin, Joseph; Gallo, Christopher; Godavarti, Ranga; Carta, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    The structural and functional characteristics of the Protein A MabSelect resin are determined for a virgin sample and for samples removed from a column that had been operated in an antibody capture process which had shown losses in product recovery over fewer than 20 cycles. Compared to the virgin resin, the cycled samples show reduced porosity and apparent pore size based on inverse size exclusion chromatography while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows accumulation of foulants on the cycled resin. Adsorption isotherms, batch adsorption kinetics, and batch desorption kinetics, obtained using the antibody in purified form, show that the cycled samples have about 10% lower binding capacity and slower mass transfer. Confocal scanning laser microscopy shows, however, that different degrees of fouling exist for different beads in the cycled samples, which may correspond to the existence of areas exposed to minimal or no flow in the process column. Replacing the standard cleaning procedure with an improved multi-step cleaning protocol prevented the accumulation of foulants in the resin beads, as evident from TEM, and resulted in a stable operation with high recovery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Spirit of OMERACT: Q Methodology Analysis of Conference Characteristics Valued by Delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurey, Caroline A; Kirwan, John R; Hadridge, Phillip; Richards, Pamela; Grosskleg, Shawna; Tugwell, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    To identify the major features of OMERACT meetings as valued by frequent participants and to explore whether there are groups of participants with different opinions. Using Q methodology (a qualitative and quantitative approach to grouping people according to subjective opinion), participants (who attended more than 1 OMERACT conference) sorted 66 statements relating to the "spirit of OMERACT" according to level of agreement across a normal distribution grid. Data were examined using Q factor analysis. Of 226 potential participants, 105 responded (46%). All participants highly ranked the focus on global standardization of methods, outcome measures, data-driven research, methodological discussion, and international collaboration. Four factors describing the "spirit of OMERACT" were identified: "Evidence not eminence" (n = 31) valued the data- and evidence-driven research above personality and status; "Collaboration and collegiality" (n = 19) valued the international and cross-stakeholder collaboration, interaction, and collegiality; "Equal voices, equal votes, common goals" (n = 12) valued equality in discussion and voting, with everyone striving toward the same goal; "principles and product, not process" (n = 8) valued the principles of focusing on outcome measures and the product of guiding clinical trials, but were unsure whether the process is necessary to reach this. The factors did not segregate different stakeholder groups. Delegates value different elements of OMERACT, and thus the "spirit of OMERACT" encompasses evidence-based research, collaboration, and equality, although a small group are unsure whether the process is necessary to achieve the end result. Q methodology may prove useful for conference organizers to identify their delegates' different needs to tailor conference content.

  13. Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zatul Iffah Mohd; Amid, Azura; Yusof, Faridah; Jaswir, Irwandi; Ahmad, Kausar; Loke, Show Pau

    2014-09-01

    This review highlights the use of bromelain in various applications with up-to-date literature on the purification of bromelain from pineapple fruit and waste such as peel, core, crown, and leaves. Bromelain, a cysteine protease, has been exploited commercially in many applications in the food, beverage, tenderization, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. Researchers worldwide have been directing their interest to purification strategies by applying conventional and modern approaches, such as manipulating the pH, affinity, hydrophobicity, and temperature conditions in accord with the unique properties of bromelain. The amount of downstream processing will depend on its intended application in industries. The breakthrough of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the large-scale production and purification of recombinant bromelain for novel applications in the future.

  14. 27 CFR 19.701 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawn shall be limited to an amount necessary for conduct of the testing, research or development. If... other market analysis) to determine the quality or character of the finished product. The quantity of spirits so withdrawn shall not exceed the amount necessary for conduct of the proprietor's operations. (b...

  15. Engaging in Educational Leadership: The Generosity of Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Maenette; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study presents key principles and a model of engaged leadership in indigenous communities. Engaged leadership champions children and youth, delivers learning and teaching within the context of place and spirit, and occurs in partnerships with diverse communities. Stories of educational leaders grounded in the concepts of "ha," place,…

  16. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where the... who certifies to the lading for attachment to the outgoing manifest. The other two copies shall be... shall be delivered to the customs officer for attachment to the incoming manifest. The remaining copy...

  18. Chinchirisi: The Phenomenon of "Spirit Children" Among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... what others say or do, 'it is in our blood', they say. This raises concerns. In what ways and to what extent is this religio-cultural phenomenon a challenge to euthanasia, human rights and rural development in the contemporary society? This paper examines the phenomenon of 'spirit children' from an insider perspective.

  19. The Spirit of Creativity and Innovation in Mathematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. The Spirit of Creativity and Innovation in Mathematics. S Ramanan. Reflections Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 82-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/01/0082-0090 ...

  20. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  1. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation: Camphor to Vitamin B12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 593-623 ...

  2. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  3. St Paul on Soul, Spirit and the Inner Man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; Elkaisy-Friemuth, M.; Dillon, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “St Paul on Soul, Spirit and the Inner Man,” in The Afterlife of the Platonic Soul: Reflections on Platonic Psychology in the Monotheistic Religions (ed. Maha Elkaisy-Friemuth and John M. Dillon; Ancient Mediterranean and Medieval Texts and Contexts: Studies in Platonism,

  4. Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

    1999-10-01

    The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain.

  5. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation. Camphor to Vitamin B. 12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu and Subramania Ranganathan. What is described in the pages that follow, is the recounting of an exciting epoch in creative chemistry, namely, the synthesis of the complex molecule cyanocobalamin or vitamin B. 12 . It is the ...

  6. Biodegradation of premium motor spirit (PMS) by lipase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of premium motor spirit (PMS) by lipase from Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  7. Book Reviews: The Spirit Level | Turok | New Agenda: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spirit level - Why more equal societies almost always do better. Richard Wilkinson, Kate Pickett. Allen Lane: London. 2009. 340 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  8. Performing the Holy Spirit: Ritualised Manifestation of Faith in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines the aesthetic manifestations of religious belief, particularly in the Holy Spirit, through consideration of the performative dimensions and ritualised behaviours in the church services of an African Independent Church, namely, the New Gospel Church in Zion of Africa (NGCZA). The significance of ...

  9. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  10. Discursive investigation into John's internalised spirit identity and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What does it mean to live in a society where everything good is located within one ethnicity, and geography? In reading the gospel of John, one gets the impression that faithful disciples, the Holy Spirit and morality are exclusively located within the Johannine community and can only permeate to the outside through the ...

  11. The Holy Spirit as Dove and as Tongues of Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    and the dove as metaphor in the Old Testament and in Mark 1:9-11 (the baptism of Jesus). Theories on metaphors, intertextuality and Conceptual Blending are applied to show how Gustava Brandt gives an interpretation of the holy spirit as a messenger of love where love is both burning and purifying. Finally...

  12. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  13. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...... galvanic industries....

  14. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  15. Partial Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Protease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... Purification of the enzyme by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 following ammonium sulphate precipitation gave 2.26 fold increase in purification with specific activity of 46.13 units/mg protein while purification on Sephadex CM50 resulted in reduced ...

  16. 3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Hui; Kelmann, Peter; Inati, Souheil

    framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved......Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron...

  17. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  18. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  19. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  20. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension and...

  1. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits. Untaxpaid...

  2. The role of the Holy spirit in Calvin's doctrine of the sacraments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calvin has frequently been labeled "the theologian of the Holy Spirit". Although there have been a number of studies of various aspects of the Holy Spirit in Calvin's theology since the significant works of Simon van der Linde (1943) and Werner Krusche (1957), none has dealt with the role the Spirit plays in Calvin's doctrine ...

  3. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of...

  4. 27 CFR 28.310 - Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit. 28.310 Section 28.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Denatured Spirits § 28.310 Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit. Losses of specially denatured...

  5. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon...

  6. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  7. 27 CFR 19.396 - Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. 19.396 Section 19.396 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... § 19.396 Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico with...

  8. “Bond of love”: The action of the spirit | Williams | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ancient idea, seen especially in Augustine, is that the main activity of the Spirit is that of providing relationship, as the “bond of love”; this provides a key concept which undergirds the work of the Spirit in creation, redemption, sanctification and empowering. It is hoped that increased understanding of the work of the Spirit ...

  9. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  10. Purification of cadmium by selective volatilization in vacuum in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As the degree of refinement increases to higher levels, purification methods are predominately based on physical processes like vacuum distillation, crystallization, diffusion, electro-migration, etc, (Singh et al 1968). The distillation at batch scale requires considerable control of experimen- tal parameters, which can play an ...

  11. Purification of HGI2 for nuclear detector fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    A process for purification of mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) to be used as a source material for the growth of detector quality crystals. The high purity HgI 2 raw material is produced by a combination of three stages: synthesis of HgI 2 from Hg and I 2 , repeated sublimation, and zone refining

  12. Purification the surface of detail from biological contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdrakhmanov, Az T; Israphilov, I H; Galiakbarov, A T; Gabdrakhmanov, Al T

    2017-01-01

    More than 70% of biodegradation occur due to the corrosion processes. A biological corrosion causes the greatest damage to the oil and gas-production industry, the Navy and pipelines, constructions of water supply, means of communication. This paper proposes an effective method of purification various surfaces from biological contaminations by using of cold plasma. (paper)

  13. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  15. Purification of industrial effluents with a high load of organic pollutants by a combined anaerobic/aerobic process; Reinigung organisch hochbelasteter Industriebwaesser durch eine anaerob/aerobe Verfahrenskombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidl, H.H. [AEW ESMIL GmbH fuer Wasser- und Abwassersyteme, Ratingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Organically polluted sewage water can be economically cleaned in an aerobic biological sewage treatment plant with upstream anaerobic as this saves activation volume and ventilation energy. This was demonstrated in the sewage treatment plant of the PWA in Redenfelden, where an anaerobic stage was installed which uses the BIOTHANE{sup R} process. The CARROUSEL-system of the anaerobic stage has proved a istself both in the PWA ans in municipal plants between 5000 to 100000 EW. It is a robust system with uncomplicated control which guarantees observance of maximum values and allows elimation of P and N. (orig.) [Deutsch] Organisch hochbelastete Abwaesser werden oekonomisch durch eine aerobe biologische Klaeranlage mit vorgeschalteter Anaerobie gereinigt, weil dadurch Belebungsvolumen und Belueftungsenergie eingespart werden. Dies wurde am Beispiel der Abwasserreinigungsanlage der PWA Redenfelden gezeigt, bie der eine Anaerobstufe nach den BIOTHANE{sup R}-Verfahren installiert ist. Das dort eingesetzte CARROUSEL-System fuer die Aerobstufe hat sich sowohl bei der PWA als auch im kommunalen Bereich bei Anlagen zwischen 5000 und 100000 EW, als robustes System mit unkomplizierter Steuerung bewaehrt, das eine sichere Einhaltung der Grenzwerte garantiert und die Moeglichkeit zur P- und N-Elimination bietet. (orig.)

  16. Purification and characterization of an anti-cancer enzyme produced by marine Vibrio Costicola under a novel solid state fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagendra Prabhu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available L - Glutaminase, a therapeutically and industrially important enzyme, was produced from marine Vibrio costicola by a novel solid state fermentation process using polystyrene beads as inert support. The new fermentation system offered several advantages over the conventional systems, such as the yield of leachate with minimum viscosity and high specific activity for the target product besides facilitating the easy estimation of biomass. The enzyme thus produced was purified and characterised. It was active at physiological pH, showed high substrate specificity towards L - glutamine and had a Km value of 7.4 x 10-2 M. It also exhibited high salt and temperature tolerance indicating good scope for its industrial and therapeutic applications.O L - Glutaminase, uma enzima terapêutica industrialmente importante foi produzida a partir do Vibrio costicola marinho. Por um processo de fermentação no estado sólido, em particular contas de poliestireno foram utilizadas como suporte inerte. O novo sistema de fermentação ofereceu várias vantagens sobre os sistemas convencionais, como rendimento de "leachate" com viscosidade mínima e atividade específica alta para o produto; facilidade a estimação da biomassa. A enzima assim produzida foi purificada e caracterizada. A enzima apresentou atividade elevada em pH fisiológico e alta especificidade ao substrato em direção a L - glutamina com um valor Km de 7.4 x 10-2 M. A enzima também exibiu alta tolerância ao sal e temperatura demonstrando ser um bom indicador para aplicações terapêuticas e industriais.

  17. The dynamics of the CHO host cell protein profile during clarification and protein A capture in a platform antibody purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogwood, Catherine E M; Tait, Andrew S; Koloteva-Levine, Nadejda; Bracewell, Daniel G; Smales, C Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant protein products such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in the clinic must be clear of host cell impurities such as host cell protein (HCP), DNA/RNA, and high molecular weight immunogenic aggregates. Despite the need to remove and monitor HCPs, the nature, and fate of these during downstream processing (DSP) remains poorly characterized. We have applied a proteomic approach to investigate the dynamics and fate of HCPs in the supernatant of a mAb producing cell line during early DSP including centrifugation, depth filtration, and protein A capture chromatography. The primary clarification technique selected was shown to influence the HCP profile that entered subsequent downstream steps. MabSelect protein A chromatography removed the majority of contaminating proteins, however using 2D-PAGE we could visualize not only the antibody species in the eluate (heavy and light chain) but also contaminant HCPs. These data showed that the choice of secondary clarification impacts upon the HCP profile post-protein A chromatography as differences arose in both the presence and abundance of specific HCPs when depth filters were compared. A number of intracellularly located HCPs were identified in protein A elution fractions from a Null cell line culture supernatant including the chaperone Bip/GRP78, heat shock proteins, and the enzyme enolase. We demonstrate that the selection of early DSP steps influences the resulting HCP profile and that 2D-PAGE can be used for monitoring and identification of HCPs post-protein A chromatography. This approach could be used to screen cell lines or hosts to select those with reduced HCP profiles, or to identify HCPs that are problematic and difficult to remove so that cell-engineering approaches can be applied to reduced, or eliminate, such HCPs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of an innovative process for sustainable purification of effluents, especially in countries with high insolation. Final report; Entwicklung eines innovativen Verfahrens zur nachhaltigen Abwasserreinigung, besonders in Laendern mit hoher Sonneneinstrahlung. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    General globalisation and increasing orientation of exporting branches of environmental technology towards the so called developing countries or threshold countries require new technological approaches which facilitate sustainable management in those countries especially with waste and sewage treatment. In order to protect ground and surface waters and to reduce ecological damages / nutrient discharge there is an urgent demand to remove not only oxygen consuming organic carbon compounds, but for example also ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater in order to prevent further eutrophication of the waters. However it is known that this results in a high technological and financial expenditure. The algae reactor developed in the research project makes use of the synergetic effect of heterotrophic and photoauto-/-heterotrophic organisms immobilized on an inert carrier material as biofilm, in order to achieve a purification efficiency that could so far only be reached with costly procedural solutions. The auto- and heterotrophic microalgae and cyanobacteria established in the biofilm contributed to the COD-decomposition and the oxygen supply for the heterotrophic bacteria in the biofilm. This synergetic effect enabled a COD-decomposition of up to 94%. The developed and tested process allowed for an extensive nitrogen decomposition of up to 80%. The phosphorus reduction correlated with the content of green algae in the biofilm and amounted up to 40%. The excess biomass formed during the process could be anaerobically converted into biogas at high methane contents (up to 74%). Alternatively, the excess biomass could also be utilized as NPK-fertilizer. A first calculation of profitability showed that the compact design and the fact that a technical ventilation of the algae reactor is not necessary because of the oxygen supply for the heterotrophic bacteria by microalgae and cyanobacteria resulted in extensive economies for investment costs and

  19. Installation of the Tritium Purification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labik, G.; Golian, T.; Satkofsky, J.; Sichta, P.; Crook, D.; Dudek, L.; Coward, G.; Parsells, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes and details the design, the tasks, and the considerations for the mechanical and electrical installation of the TFTR Tritium Purification System (TPS) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) designed, fabricated, assembled and tested the Tritium Purification System in Ontario, Canada. After system tests were accepted by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the assembled components were disassembled into a set of subassemblies and were shipped to PPPL. The subassemblies were reassembled at PPPL and installed primarily in the Decon Facility. The original site selection was within the TFTR tritium processing area and that selection impacted the column design. The Decon Facility was later chosen to permit a better layout of equipment and improved access for installation personnel. Selection of the Decon Facility site resulted in longer line runs for most of the process streams including the tritium product line. The initial review of the proposed installation was conducted during September of 1994 and the System Integrated Test began during April 1995, subsequent to a successful Operational Readiness Assessment conducted during March of 1995.

  20. A versatile multidimensional protein purification system with full internet remote control based on a standard HPLC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Uwe; Ramirez, Sacnicte; Wallimann, Theo; Schlattner, Uwe

    2009-05-01

    The standard Akta Explorer high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system has limitations for the automation of multidimensional protein purification. Here, we describe simple modifications that allow for automated multidimensional purification protocols to extend the possibilities of the Akta three-dimensional purification kit in terms of column number, flexibility of volumes stocked for re-injection of samples, and available choice of buffers. These modifications do not preclude the use of standard one-dimensional purification protocols. Additionally, we demonstrate a technology for encrypted full remote control of the machine over the Internet by cost-effective use of standard asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) that enables direct remote interaction with the machine without preventing local control. A 4-column purification scheme, including equilibration and cleaning in place (CIP) procedures, was implemented on such a system. It significantly increased reproducibility and shortened processing time by 85%, as compared with manual operation, thus allowing for automated protein purification overnight.

  1. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALKALINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    phosphatase activity upon phosphate deprivation with much of the enzyme released into the medium during osmotic shock, indicating .... shaking. Protein purification. Three millilitres of overnight culture (400 ml) was harvested by centrifugation at 6000x g for 1 min. The supernatant was decanted and pellet washed twice in ...

  2. Purification of indium, gallium, and antimony by melting with synthetic slug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Nowicki, A.

    1997-01-01

    The tracer technique has been used for metal purification process control. The indium, gallium and antimony have been purified up to semiconductor purity in the melting with synthetic slug process. The 115m Cd, 59 Fe, 204 Tl. 76 As, 210 Bi have been used as tracers. The high effectiveness of proposed purification method have been found in the cases of indium and gallium. 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Gas purification using membrane gas absorption processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the increasing energy demand and the abundance of low quality natural gas reservoirs containing high percentages of CO2, considerable attention is given to the bulk removal of CO2 and upgrading of low quality natural gas. The main goal in doing so is to increase the heating value of natural

  4. Purification of adenoviral vectors using expanded bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, C; Ferreira, T B; Carrondo, M J T; Cruz, P E; Alves, P M

    2006-03-01

    The increasing numbers of pre-clinical and clinical trials where recombinant adenoviral vectors are used for gene therapy and vaccination require the development of cost-effective and reproducible large scale purification strategies of the biologically active particles. Alternatives to the traditional laboratory scale CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation method, such as fixed bed chromatography strategies, have been developed, but the yields of final recovery remain too low due mainly to the capture and concentration steps taking place before and between the chromatographic stages. In this study, a rapid and efficient scale-able purification protocol allowing to obtain concentrated, pure and bioactive adenoviral vectors was developed. This allows efficient levels of binding to the column media and vector purification without centrifugation or filtration steps. Expanded bed chromatography followed by hollow fiber concentration allows the capture of viral particles directly from cellular extracts with high efficiency and vector purification is achieved in less than one working day with a minimal amount of sample handling, thus presenting an improvement over existing processes. The overall process yield reached 32%, representing an eight-fold improvement over results reported previously, while the purity is comparable to that obtained with the CsCl method.

  5. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  6. Aroma profile design of wine spirits: Multi-objective optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Pérez-Correa, José R; López, Francisco

    2018-04-15

    Developing new distillation strategies can help the spirits industry to improve quality, safety and process efficiency. Batch stills equipped with a packed column and an internal partial condenser are an innovative experimental system, allowing a fast and flexible management of the rectification. In this study, the impact of four factors (heart-cut volume, head-cut volume, pH and cooling flow rate of the internal partial condenser during the head-cut fraction) on 18 major volatile compounds of Muscat spirits was optimized using response surface methodology and desirability function approaches. Results have shown that high rectification at the beginning of the heart-cut enhances the overall positive aroma compounds of the product, reducing off-flavor compounds. In contrast, optimum levels of heart-cut volume, head-cut volume and pH factors varied depending on the process goal. Finally, three optimal operational conditions (head off-flavors reduction, flowery terpenic enhancement and fruity ester enhancement) were evaluated by chemical and sensory analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  8. Spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Pedia; Dharma, S. Mira

    2018-03-01

    Historical city area was developing by an accumulation of developmental stages which influenced by various factors. The factors are political, economic, social, cultural, and modernization. The research will discuss the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang city, Meranti Islands. The purpose is to identify the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor and to find out the tourism concept by characters that support urban tourism in Selatpanjang city. The research method used is qualitative research method with the rationalistic paradigm. Based on cultural history, physical building, and spatial pattern, Merdeka corridor has unique characteristic, and it persists if compared by another in Selatpanjang city. However, damage of corridor, physical changes, and functions can slowly happen due to modernization and cannot avoid.

  9. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: Six Years On (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, P.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences - from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface, and educational philosophy, summarizes achievements and lessons learned, and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  10. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Forma dat esse: a Christian ontology of human spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martínez Porcell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forma dat esse was initially high fertility existential anthropology. Christian philosophy inherited although explanations hylemorphic with explaining human nature knew register the being and doing of the person inside the ontology of created spirits. The presence of human corporeality was a spirit that existed in the boundary and the horizon of eternity. The plasticity of human tendencies was a sign of his intelligence and it should be defined by their spirituality. The word was being-communication and love was the most important act of his life fertility. No wonder that we offer existential self as memory itself and the presence of the soul from the patenting of his spiritual being.

  12. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... theme. METHODS: Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises...... spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further research is necessary...

  13. Medical Eschatologies: The Christian Spirit of Hospital Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    If much has been written of the forms of bodiliness reinforced by hospitals, less attention has been paid to the medicalization of the soul. The medical management of death institutionalizes divisions between body and soul, and matter and spirit, infusing end-of-life care with latent Christian theological presumptions. The invisibility of these presumptions is partly sustained by projecting religiosity on those who endorse other cosmologies, while retaining for medicine a mask of secular science. Stories of conflict with non-Christian patients force these presumptions into visibility, suggesting alternative ethics of care and mourning rooted in other understandings. In this article, I explore one such story. Considering the story as an allegory for how matter and spirit figure in contemporary postmortem disciplines, I suggest that it exposes both the operation of a taboo against mixing material and spiritual agendas, and an assumption that appropriate mourning is oriented toward symbolic homage, rather than concern for the material welfare of the dead.

  14. Remote sensing time series analysis for crop monitoring with the SPIRITS software: new functionalities and use examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eRembold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring crop and natural vegetation conditions is highly relevant, particularly in the food insecure areas of the world. Data from remote sensing image time series at high temporal and medium to low spatial resolution can assist this monitoring as they provide key information about vegetation status in near real-time over large areas. The Software for the Processing and Interpretation of Remotely sensed Image Time Series (SPIRITS is a stand-alone flexible analysis environment created to facilitate the processing and analysis of large image time series and ultimately for providing clear information about vegetation status in various graphical formats to crop production analysts and decision makers. In this paper we present the latest functional developments of SPIRITS and we illustrate recent applications. The main new developments include: HDF5 importer, Image re-projection, additional options for temporal Smoothing and Periodicity conversion, computation of a rainfall-based probability index (Standardized Precipitation Index for drought detection and extension of the Graph composer functionalities.In particular,. The examples of operational analyses are taken from several recent agriculture and food security monitoring reports and bulletins. We conclude with considerations on future SPIRITS developments also in view of the data processing requirements imposed by the coming generation of remote sensing products at high spatial and temporal resolution, such as those provided by the Sentinel sensors of the European Copernicus programme.

  15. 27 CFR 19.742 - Tank record of wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof to show deposits into, withdrawals from, and the... spirits by pipeline; (6) Wine gallons of wine, or proof gallons of spirits deposited; (7) If subject to... its serial number for deposits or withdrawals; (10) Wine gallons of wine, or proof gallons of spirits...

  16. 27 CFR 27.56 - Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. 27.56 Section 27.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Packaging and Marking of Distilled Spirits § 27.56 Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. Bottled distilled spirits imported...

  17. Technical Preparation of the Airplane "Spirit of St. Louis."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donald A

    1927-01-01

    Given here is a brief history of the design and construction of the "Spirit of St. Lewis", the airplane that Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic. Although the plan was to modify a standard model Ryan M-2, it was quickly determined that modification was less practical than redesign. Colonel Lindbergh's active participation in the design of the aircraft is noted. Given here are the general dimensions, specifications, weight characteristics, and man hours required to build the aircraft.

  18. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Ule

    2015-01-01

    The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly) used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest), mind (slo. um), and spirit (slo. duh). They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to conscious...

  20. Puumeelsuse ülistus - Spirit of Nature / Agneta Land

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline puitarhitektuuri näitus 11.09.- 31.10.2008 Lahtis (Soome) Pro Puu galeriis. Eksponeeritakse Renzo Piano (Itaalia), Kengo Kuma (Jaapan), Richard Leplastrier'i (Austraalia), Peter Zumthor'i (Šveits) ja Jose Cruz Ovalle (Tšiili) loomingut. 2008. aastal pälvis Spirit of Nature auhinna tšiili arhitekt Jose Cruz Ovalle (sünd. 1948). Tema eluloolisi andmeid, looming, portreefoto

  1. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is ...

  2. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    OpenAIRE

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-01-01

    Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican ...

  3. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  4. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  7. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Hugo; Bergström, Lennart; Liu, Peng; Mathew, Aji P

    2017-03-05

    Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present-in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  8. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Voisin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present—in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  9. Transformasi Spirit Enterpreneural (Kewirausahaan Menuj Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nur Budiyanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BAPPEDA at regency/city in local autonomy has important position and very strategic. It caused all of the planning process and development in local governmentprocessed 6y that body. Because of that it's very important if BAPPEDA at regency/ city performance need to improve, base on it's mandate, vision and mission. The same as condition at BAPPEDA Ponorogo regency in local autonomy era will always try to improve has performance as a professional planner development institution project stamp. It means BAPPEDA have already worked yet as a professionalplanner institution. This describe about how is the strategy to increase BAPPEDA Ponorogo regenvg performance. Base on research which is use strategic management concept, writer did strategic management analysis strategic issue identification and finally range the strategies. SWOT model analysis explain thet there are problems become strategic issue all at once with are need to notice and hadling quickly and accurately to increase BAPPEDA Ponorogo regency.

  10. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johansson, Joel [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Masci, Frank J.; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Andrews, Jennifer E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bally, John; Green, Wayne [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hsiao, Eric, E-mail: jj@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States); and others

    2017-03-10

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer /IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ( M {sub [4.5]} = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ( D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s{sup −1}), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μ m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A {sub V} = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous ( M {sub 4.5} = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A{sub V} ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  11. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11 and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28. The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100% and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  12. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Abuga, Kennedy O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-10-17

    Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits ( n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ' chang'aa' , ( n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8-85.8% vol and 28.3-56.7% vol for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3-4.2 and 4.4-4.8 for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  13. Fast and efficient protein purification using membrane adsorber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, Kirstin; Walter, Johanna; Menzel, Frauke; Tappe, Alexander; Kasper, Cornelia; Naumann, Claudia; Zeidler, Robert; Scheper, Thomas

    2006-02-10

    The purification of proteins from complex cell culture samples is an essential step in proteomic research. Traditional chromatographic methods often require several steps resulting in time consuming and costly procedures. In contrast, protein purification via membrane adsorbers offers the advantage of fast and gentle but still effective isolation. In this work, we present a new method for purification of proteins from crude cell extracts via membrane adsorber based devices. This isolation procedure utilises the membranes favourable pore structure allowing high flow rates without causing high back pressure. Therefore, shear stress to fragile structures is avoided. In addition, mass transfer takes place through convection rather than diffusion, thus allowing very rapid separation processes. Based on this membrane adsorber technology the separation of two model proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and immungluboline G (IgG) is shown. The isolation of human growth hormone (hGH) from chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatant was performed using a cation exchange membrane. The isolation of the enzyme penicillin acylase from the crude Escherichia coli supernatant was achieved using an anion exchange spin column within one step at a considerable purity. In summary, the membrane adsorber devices have proven to be suitable tools for the purification of proteins from different complex cell culture samples.

  14. Isolation and Purification of Biotechnological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Kula, Maria-Regina

    2007-05-01

    The production of modern pharma proteins is one of the most rapid growing fields in biotechnology. The overall development and production is a complex task ranging from strain development and cultivation to the purification and formulation of the drug. Downstream processing, however, still accounts for the major part of production costs. This is mainly due to the high demands on purity and thus safety of the final product and results in processes with a sequence of typically more than 10 unit operations. Consequently, even if each process step would operate at near optimal yield, a very significant amount of product would be lost. The majority of unit operations applied in downstream processing have a long history in the field of chemical and process engineering; nevertheless, mathematical descriptions of the respective processes and the economical large-scale production of modern pharmaceutical products are hampered by the complexity of the biological feedstock, especially the high molecular weight and limited stability of proteins. In order to develop new operational steps as well as a successful overall process, it is thus a necessary prerequisite to develop a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and physics behind the applied processes as well as the implications for the product.

  15. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  16. Spirits Trade After Reform in 1863: To the Issue of Efficiency of State Regulation of Spirits Turnover in Terms of Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ye. Goryushkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of published and non-published archive materials the article estimates efficiency of state regulation of spirits turnover in terms of excise taxation period. It also states types of spirits trade, types of public houses, groups of people that have obtained the right for wholesale, retail and that of small amount tradeoff spirits. License gaining procedures are widely described as well. The author pays significant attention to the areas in cities and countryside, where the public houses should not have been opened as well as the individuals who were admitted to spirits trade; also he states events which influenced the sale of spirits. The requirements to interior of public houses, working hours, quality and volumes of trade are also specified. It is pointed out that the officials of excise tax board were to control the regulations of spirit trade, their authority extended to public houses control in 1885. The author comes to the conclusion that regulatory means of excise tax was efficient and by increasing and decreasing of license cost, complication and simplification of new public houses opening all together allowed to regulate the turnover of spirits in terms of free trade thus influencing the number, types, density, range and quality of spirits. However, there was distinct ambiguity in Ministry of Finance policy during the stated excise taxation period. On the one hand it limited free sale of spirits, eradicating public houses which were considered detrimental. On the other hand, the Ministry was set not to notice abuse in trade which gave the opportunity to gain greater benefits at public cost from spirits sales.

  17. Purificação do subproduto do processo de extração de esteviosídeo Purification of the by-product of the stevioside extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Malachini Miotto

    2004-03-01

    , CaX and MgX. Two experiments were accomplished: a test of saturation of the adsorbents to evaluate its adsorption capacity and a test for maximum clarification to determine the maximum purification reached by adsorption in zeolites. Starting from the results, it was verified that CaX is a more effective adsorbent. Zeolites can be reused up to twice, needing regeneration soon after. The test for maximum clarification showed almost clear solutions, with high clarification levels (80-90% of the compounds with larger likeness, but with high retentions of the sweeteners (~70%, because zeolites retain most of the pigments of the caramel solution, but they also drag stevioside and rebaudioside A, resulting in a process with low yield in relation to the recovery of the sweeteners, but considered satisfactory, in view that caramel, in spite of being rich in sweeteners, has no use at present.

  18. Antibody Fragments and Their Purification by Protein L Affinity Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies and related proteins comprise one of the largest and fastest-growing classes of protein pharmaceuticals. A majority of such molecules are monoclonal antibodies; however, many new entities are antibody fragments. Due to their structural, physiological, and pharmacological properties, antibody fragments offer new biopharmaceutical opportunities. In the case of recombinant full-length antibodies with suitable Fc regions, two or three column purification processes centered around Protein A affinity chromatography have proven to be fast, efficient, robust, cost-effective, and scalable. Most antibody fragments lack Fc and suitable affinity for Protein A. Adapting proven antibody purification processes to antibody fragments demands different affinity chromatography. Such technology must offer the unit operation advantages noted above, and be suitable for most of the many different types of antibody fragments. Protein L affinity chromatography appears to fulfill these criteria—suggesting its consideration as a key unit operation in antibody fragment processing.

  19. Automated small‐scale protein purification and analysis for accelerated development of protein therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSaout, Xavier; Costioli, Matteo; Jordan, Lynn; Lambert, Jeremy; Beighley, Ross; Provencher, Laurel; McGuire, Kevin; Verlinden, Nico; Barry, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Small‐scale protein purification presents opportunities for accelerated process development of biotherapeutic molecules. Miniaturization of purification conditions reduces time and allows for parallel processing of samples, thus offering increased statistical significance and greater breadth of variables. The ability of the miniaturized platform to be predictive of larger scale purification schemes is of critical importance. The PerkinElmer JANUS BioTx Pro and Pro‐Plus workstations were developed as intuitive, flexible, and automated devices capable of performing parallel small‐scale analytical protein purification. Preprogrammed methods automate a variety of commercially available ion exchange and affinity chromatography solutions, including miniaturized chromatography columns, resin‐packed pipette tips, and resin‐filled microtiter vacuum filtration plates. Here, we present a comparison of microscale chromatography versus standard fast protein LC (FPLC) methods for process optimization. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of the JANUS BioTx Pro‐Plus robotic platform for miniaturized chromatographic purification of proteins with the GE ӒKTA Express system. We were able to demonstrate predictive analysis similar to that of larger scale purification platforms, while offering advantages in speed and number of samples processed. This approach is predictive of scale‐up conditions, resulting in shorter biotherapeutic development cycles and less consumed material than traditional FPLC methods, thus reducing time‐to‐market from discovery to manufacturing. PMID:27774045

  20. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  1. Relationship Between Growth of AIgae and Water Purification in a Slow Sand Filter in Summe

    OpenAIRE

    中本, 信忠; 池田, 大介; 田口, 香代; 山本, 満寿夫; 松田, 卓也

    1995-01-01

    The effects of water depth on the growth of algae and on the purification capacity of water in slow sand filters in summer were studied. Filamentous algae grew well in a shallow filter pond. The higher removal rates of available nutrients and dissolved organic carbon in a raw water were observed in the filteration of a shallow filter pond. Importance of algae as a nutrient assimilator and as an oxygen producer in the purification process was discussed.

  2. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  3. Purification of tritium-free water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.

    1982-10-01

    Ground water which has been out of contact with the atmosphere for a long time as compared to the half life of tritium (12.43 years) does not contain any measureable amount of tritium. Such water is called tritium-free water. It may contain dissolved and suspended impurities and has to be purified before it can be used for the preparation of blanks and standards required in the routine measurement of low level tritium in water samples. The purification of tritium-free water by distillation in a closed system has been described. The quality of processed tritium-free water was precisely checked at International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna and found satisfactory. (authors)

  4. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  5. Self-sacrificial behavior and its explanation in terms of Max Scheler's concept of spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyushin, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    One of the key concepts of the German philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) is his concept of spirit. He understands spirit as one of several naturally functioning human mental agencies, such as consciousness, will, memory, etc. That is, he treats the mental agency of spirit in a scientific way and avoids any esoteric or religious connotations that this peculiar term may involve. The nature of human spirit, according to Scheler, is the ability to withstand and deliberately redirect biological imperatives and instinctive drives, up to the point of purposefully throwing away one's own life. The presence of spirit constitutes the essence of the human being that differentiates him qualitatively from all animals. In this article, I argue that it is human spirit that plays the determinative role in causing heroic and self-sacrificial behavior. I also argue that the individual human spirit experiences its inherent development, thus having several rather dissimilar stages and manifestations. I discuss the meaning that the term 'spirit' has in the English and the American philosophical and psychological traditions and the meaning of the corresponding term 'der Geist' in the German traditions. The specific English-language understanding of the term 'spirit', compared to its German counterpart 'der Geist', namely, less scientific and more religious and esoteric and metaphorical for the former, makes it alien and almost unusable in the English and American traditions. The linguistic difference leads to the misunderstanding of some very important ideas brought by the concept of spirit as introduced by Scheler. My purpose is to overcome this discrepancy and omission and to introduce the notion and the concept of spirit, in their scientific understanding, into the arsenal of modern English-language cognitive science, psychology, and philosophy in order to provide for the full explanatory force of the hitherto neglected concept of spirit.

  6. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Using panel data to determine the effect of advertising on brand-level distilled spirits sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gius, M P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect that brand-level advertising has on brand-level spirits demand. Using a panel data set consisting of 16 brands and 14 years of data, a fixed effects model of brand-level spirits demand was estimated. It was found that own-brand advertising, income, rival-brand price, a time trend and brand loyalty all have a significant effect on brand-level spirits demand. These results indicate that brand-level spirits advertising results only in brand switching and does not increase the overall size of the market.

  9. Green waste from spirit; Gruener Abfall zu Sprit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heida, Lydia

    2013-05-15

    Bio MCN (Almere, The Netherlands) has built the largest factory of the world for the production of bio-methanol. This factory produces 250 million liter methanol annually from natural gas, green gas (from the fermentation of sugar beet residues) and crude glycerol. Crude glycerol arises from the biodiesel production. As part of the Wood Spirit Project, Bio MCN constructs an additional plant that converts 750,000 tons of wood waste to 250 million liters of methanol. The waste wood is chipped and converted to biochar by means of torrefaction. Biochar is pulverized and converted to synthesis gas. This synthesis gas is converted to methanol by means of a chemical catalyst.

  10. [Study of alcohol-soluble lignin in cognac spirits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarnitskiĭ, A F; Askenderov, K A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structure of alcohol-soluble lignin in cognac spirits from Spain (7-year aging) and Azerbaijan (15-year aging). Alcohol-soluble lignin was precipitated and refractionated by means of preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Lignin was studied by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lignin hydrolysis products were assayed by the method of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The structure of lignans was reconstructed from these fragments. Lignans from Spanish and Azeri alcohol were arbitrarily designated as sinapoconiferal triglycoside and glucoferulate flavone diglycoside, respectively.

  11. Project-Based Organizations and the New Spirit of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello’s analysis of recent changes in capitalism – Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme - is an important contribution to the sociological analysis of capitalism. The aim of this paper is to present their main argument. It is argued that a particular important aspect...... of their analysis is the ideal-typical model of the new spirit of capitalism, the ideological underpinning of project-based organizations in ‘The Project World’. It is argued that the ideal-typical model of the Project World is the most elaborated description of the ‘cultural code’ of the emergent form...

  12. Body, spirit and gender in Maria Komornicka’s poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lisowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns three significant concepts in Maria Komornicka’s writings: body, spirit and gender. The first two are closely related to each other, thus initial paragraphs are devoted to them both. On the basis of these reflections, I draw some conclusion about the image of gender created by the poet. The notion of gender is analysed in terms of Young Poland discourse of gender and from the perspective of modern methodologies: feminist criticism as well as gender and queer studies. This paper aims at encouraging the reader to reinterpret M. Komornicka’s output with contemporary awareness.

  13. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.

  14. Managerial Spirit from de Social Representations: Venezuelan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Borjas de Xena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to characterize the central and peripheral structures of the Social Representations (SR on Entrepreneurial Spirit (ES. The SR are ways of social thinking that include information, beliefs, attitudes, practices and experiences. This type of research is complementary. The methodology called for the analysis of content found in secondary literature and in depth interviews. The corpus includes 65 articles in the 2006-2009 period. The results showed that the anchorage of the SR in the Venezuelan context could be characterized as “highly” entrepreneur

  15. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FUELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedrach, L.W.; Glamm, A.C.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process of refining or decontaminating uranium is presented. The impure uranium is made the anode of an electrolytic cell. The molten salt electrolyte of this cell comprises a uranium halide such as UF/sub 4/ or UCl/sub 3/ and an alkaline earth metal halide such as CaCl/sub 2/, BaF/sub 2/, or BaCl/sub 2/. The cathode of the cell is a metal such as Mn, Cr, Co, Fe, or Ni which forms a low melting eutectic with U. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting point of U. In operation the electrodeposited uranium becomes alloyed with the metal of the cathode, and the low melting alloy thus formed drips from the cathode.

  16. Purification of zirconium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.E.P.

    1976-01-01

    A commercial grade ZrO 2 and an ammonium uranate (yellow cake) are obtained from the caldasito ore processing. This ore is found in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caldasito is an uranigerous zirconium ore, a mixture of zircon and baddeleyite and contains 60% ZrO 2 and 0,3% U 3 O 8 . The chemical opening of the ore was made by alkaline fusion with NaOH at controlled temperature. The zirconium-uranium separation took place by a continuous liquid-liquid extraction in TBP-varsol-HNO 3 -H 2 O system. The raffinate containing zirconium + impurities (aluminium, iron and titanium) was purified by an ion exchange operation using a strong cationic resin [pt

  17. Preliminary studies on the purification of a monoclonal antibody by affinity precipitation with Eudragit S-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, M A; Kaul, R; Mattiasson, B; Cabral, J M

    1998-01-01

    A simple procedure for the purification of an IgG-type monoclonal antibody by affinity precipitation using Eudragit S-100 is presented. The ligand, a microbial lipase previously used as antigen, was coupled to the polymer at a concentration of 40 mg lipase/g Eudragit. This macroligand was reversibly precipitated by manipulating the pH at values higher and lower than 4.8. The effects of polymer concentration and dilution of hybridoma culture supernatant on the overall precipitation process were evaluated. The best purification factor was achieved with a polymer concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and a supernatant dilution of 1:3. The preliminary studies reported here enabled the purification of a monoclonal antibody in one step with an activity yield (by ELISA) of 50%-55% and a purification factor of ca 6.

  18. Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale.

  19. Two-Step Vapor/Liquid/Solid Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical distillation system combines in single operation advantages of multiple zone refining with those of distillation. Developed specifically to load Bridgman-Stockbarger (vertical-solidification) growth ampoules with ultrapure tellurium and cadmium, system, with suitable modifications, serves as material refiner. In first phase of purification process, ampoule heated to drive off absorbed volatiles. Second phase, evaporator heated to drive off volatiles in charge. Third phase, slowly descending heater causes distillation from evaporator to growing crystal in ampoule.

  20. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  1. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  2. Purification of trioctylphosphine oxide by liquid extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddour, Laaldja

    1996-04-01

    Many methods of TOPO synthesis are known in the litterature. Neverthless, the purification methods still unknown or quite known. In this work, we have proposed to develop a new method of purification and we have used the extraction properties of TOPO. This method consist to extracting the molybdene with TOPO in acid medium

  3. Purification and characterization of amidase from acrylamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An amidase from a newly isolated acrylamide-degrading bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain DR.Y27 was purified to homogeneity by a combination of anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purification strategy achieved 11.15 of purification fold and a yield of 1.55%. The purified amidase consisted of four ...

  4. Physical-chemical evaluation of commercial sugar cane spirits and the study about the quality and influence of the irradiation on the beverage and on the oak barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mariana Branco de

    2005-01-01

    It was performed in this study a survey on the quality of commercial sugar cane spirits. The problems that the cachaca faces, mainly in the international market, are due to its low quality and to the lack of standardization of the drink. Commercial samples of sugar cane spirits were analyzed according to the standards of the identity and quality established by the Brazilian law (physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses). There was a great variation in the concentration of the compounds, except in alcoholic content, indicating that the Brazilian sugar cane spirit presents a great variability in the chemical composition among the brands. Among the 94 analyzed brands, 48% did not answer at least one of the standards. Another study performed was the influence of oak wood and the gamma radiation on the sugar cane spirits aging. The aging or maturation process of the drink improves the sensorial characteristics of the product, making it a qualified drink with a higher economical value. The traditional maturation method of the drinks is their interaction with the wood, but the irradiation can accelerate this aging process up. The sugar cane spirit and the oak barrels with 20 liters capacity were subjected to gamma irradiation treatments (150 Gy). Physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses were performed constantly for 390 days during the drink aging period. The sugar cane spirit and barrel irradiation didn't change most of volatile components of the same type coefficient such as volatile acidity, esters, superior alcohols and furfural during the 390 days. There are evidences, however, that some components parameters like aldehydes, tannin, color and copper concentration are in some way influenced, resulting in partial acceleration of the aging or maturing process. At the end of the aging period, a sensorial analysis was made using 30 non-trained people who tasted the drink. The aging process acceleration was confirmed by the sensorial evaluation, where the sugar

  5. Continuous Purification of Colloidal Quantum Dots in Large-Scale Using Porous Electrodes in Flow Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hosub; Woo, Ju Young; Lee, Doh Chang; Lee, Jinkee; Jeong, Sohee; Kim, Duckjong

    2017-11-01

    Colloidal Quantum dots (QDs) afford huge potential in numerous applications owing to their excellent optical and electronic properties. After the synthesis of QDs, separating QDs from unreacted impurities in large scale is one of the biggest issues to achieve scalable and high performance optoelectronic applications. Thus far, however, continuous purification method, which is essential for mass production, has rarely been reported. In this study, we developed a new continuous purification process that is suitable to the mass production of high-quality QDs. As-synthesized QDs are driven by electrophoresis in a flow channel and captured by porous electrodes and finally separated from the unreacted impurities. Nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared absorption spectroscopic data clearly showed that the impurities were efficiently removed from QDs with the purification yield, defined as the ratio of the mass of purified QDs to that of QDs in the crude solution, up to 87%. Also, we could successfully predict the purification yield depending on purification conditions with a simple theoretical model. The proposed large-scale purification process could be an important cornerstone for the mass production and industrial use of high-quality QDs.

  6. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  7. Method for purification of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastrup, N.E.

    1981-11-17

    The present invention is directed to a method for selective purification of gases. The method comprises feeding an exhaust gas containing a solid impurity and a gaseous impurity to a separator. A substantial portion of the solid impurity is separated. Then, the partially-purified gas is fed to a spray dryer. That gas is sprayed with an absorption agent to separate gaseous impurities. Then, the further, partially-purified gas is fed to another separator to separate remaining solid impurity. An exhaust gas which is substantially free of solid and gaseous impurities and fly ash having a desired quality are recovered.

  8. THE PURIFICATION OF HYPERTENSIN I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeggs, Leonard T.; Marsh, Walton H.; Kahn, Joseph R.; Shumway, Norman P.

    1954-01-01

    The purification of hypertensin I has been described. The final product which is four times as powerful a pressor agent as l-arterenol, is obtained with an over-all recovery of 40 per cent. The product consists of a single component in countercurrent distribution, having a nitrogen content of 15.97 per cent and a specific activity of 7050 Goldblatt units per mg. of N or 1125 units per mg. of solid. Acid hydrolysis and paper chromatography indicate in a preliminary fashion that there are about nine amino acids present in the intact polypeptide. PMID:13201713

  9. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  11. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  12. Realization of Best-in-Class Workflows Using Open Spirit Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, K.

    2002-01-01

    Open Spirit is the realization of a long sought after dream to create an open systems approach to G and G computing. The focus is on developing a plug-and-play, platform independent, vendor neutral application framework to enable workflow optimization for the oil and gas industry. Through Open Spirit, Oil and gas clients can either develop or purchase Open Spirit enabled applications and combine those applications together to optimize a particular workflow. Currently Open Spirit supports GeoQuest's Geo Frame and Landmark's Open Works project data stores. There are three primary benefits to using Open Spirit enabled applications. Users of Open Spirit enabled applications can access data from a variety of data sources without having to move or reformat the data. This reduces the time to get the information into the appropriate application and eliminates the need to have multiple copies of the same data, simplifying data management efforts. Second, Open Spirit bridges the gap between Unix and PC applications. Through Open Spirit, any applications developed for the NT platform can access information residing in a Unix project data store. Third, Open Spirit supports the concept of a virtual project set. A user can combine any number project data stores (GeoFrame, Open Works, Finder, RECALL and PDS/Tigress) and use the combined project sets as if they were a single project. The data is not moved, but instead accessed dynamically through Open Spirit from the appropriate native data store. Open Spirit allows interpreters to develop their own Best-in-Class workflow and to mix and match the applications they determine to be the best of their interpretation teams independent of vendor

  13. Does price matter? The effect of decreased price on spirits consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meichun; Heeb, Jean-Luc; Gmel, Gerhard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-04-01

    On July 1st, 1999, the spirits market in Switzerland was reformed based on the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. The tax reform, in addition to increased competition, has resulted in a 30-50% decrease in price for foreign spirits (liquor). The purpose of the present study is to examine whether decreased prices due to the tax reform and the liberalized spirits market in Switzerland have had an effect on spirits consumption, and whether the effect differs by demographic and other correlates. The present study uses data from a longitudinal study on changes in alcohol consumption in Switzerland's resident population. The baseline survey was conducted 3 months before the tax reform and the follow-up was conducted 28 months after the tax reform. A randomly selected sample of 4007 residents aged 15 years or older participated in the baseline survey and 73% in the follow-up survey. The data were obtained by computer-assisted telephone interview, including detailed questions on alcohol consumption, drinking habits, problem drinking, purchase of spirits and socio-demographic characteristics. Consumption of spirits increased after the price of spirits decreased. The increase in spirits consumption was consistent across subgroups, with the exception of the group aged 60 or older. Moreover, the increase in spirits consumption persisted even after adjustment for significant correlates of spirits consumption. Apart from age, there was no evidence that the increase in spirits consumption differed between subgroups as defined by sex, region, working status, education, smoking, drinking frequency, or average number of drinks. The findings demonstrate that younger people are more affected by price than older persons. This study demonstrated that price should be considered an effective policy to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems, especially among the younger population.

  14. The spirits of capitalism and christianity and their impact on the formation of healthcare leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMothe, Ryan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I portray how the ethos of Christianity, broadly speaking, and the mores of capitalism intersect in the formation of healthcare leaders and the difficult decisions they make in insuring the viability of healthcare institutions. More particularly, I argue that healthcare leaders in Christian healthcare institutions are largely formed by and dependent on a capitalistic ethos in making decisions and less so by a Christian ethos. There are key differences in these two meaning systems, and these differences, in part, reveal an incompatibility between them. This incompatibility does not imply a rejection of capitalism, if that is even possible, but rather a recognition of its effects and limits vis-à-vis the formation of healthcare leaders and their decision-making process. Finally, I offer an approach that deals with the spirits of capitalism and Christianity in forming healthcare leaders and their decision-making.

  15. In the spirit of creativity: the learning and teaching of ethics in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Gweneth Hartrick

    2002-09-01

    This paper discusses the development of a pedagogy that nurtures not only the caring and the critical, but also the creative spirit of nursing. To explore the idea of creative pedagogy the learning/teaching of ethics in nursing is considered. Based on the understanding of ethics as a deeply personal process that is lived in the complexity and ambiguity of everyday nursing work I describe a pedagogy that seeks to support students to 'become' moral agents -- to see ethics as something they are, not merely as something they follow, and to develop the knowledge and ability to live in and navigate their way through the complex, ambiguous, and shifting terrain of ethical nursing practice. An example of one student's experience is used to illustrate how a pedagogy of creativity can promote the development of students' creative capacity in their everyday ethical practice.

  16. Resonant leadership, workplace empowerment, and "spirit at work": impact on RN job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joan I J; Warren, Sharon; Cummings, Greta; Smith, Donna L; Olson, Joanne K

    2013-12-01

    Canadian researchers have developed the Spirit At Work (SAW) tool for identifying the experiences of individuals who are passionate about and energized by their work. This article describes (a) what registered nurses perceive as contributing to their personal SAW; and (b) the relationships among resonant leadership, structural empowerment concepts, psychological empowerment concepts, SAW concepts, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and the demographic variables of experience, education, and rank in the RN workplace. The theoretical model was tested using LISREL 8.80 and survey data from 147 randomly selected RNs. Engaging work was found to account for 63% of the explained variance in the model's endogenous variables. Spiritual connection had a causal effect on organizational commitment, while resonant leadership and individual empowerment had significant causal influence on SAW, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. These results strengthen those of previous studies reporting workplace structures/processes/contributions leading to superior care environments. Future studies will clarify the role of SAW in the workplace.

  17. Mind, medicine, and metaphysics: reflections on the reclamation of the human spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Michael L; Wilson, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Following the publication of such works as Auguste Comte's Cour de Philosophie Positive (1830-1842), in which he argued the inherent immaturity of metaphysical discourse, metaphysics, for Western intellectuals--and especially for Western intellectuals committed to science--has largely been abandoned. In recent years, however, we have seen renewed interest in metaphysics among some researchers and clinicians, due, in part, to increasing attempts to integrate diverse fields of study into some unified and coherent understanding of human life. For many psychologists and psychiatrists, this renewed interest is accompanied by an implicit, and sometimes explicit, re-embrace of the notion of the "human spirit." In this paper we explore some of the processes animating this movement and some of the clinical implications that flow from it.

  18. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  19. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-08-15

    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rendimento e composição das aguardentes de cana, laranja e uva com utilização de lecitina no processo fermentativo Yield and composition of sugar cane, orange and grape spirits using lecithin in the fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vicente Gaiotto Cleto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de lecitina aos mostos de cana, laranja e uva sobre o rendimento e composição das aguardentes. O delineamento empregado para a análise estatística foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2x3, empregando-se dois fatores - lecitina e mosto - em dois níveis para lecitina: ausência (índice um e presença (índice dois; e em três níveis para mosto: cana, laranja e uva. A metodologia empregada foi a recomendada pelo setor aguardenteiro e as análises químicas dos componentes secundários foram realizadas por cromatografia gasosa e espectrofotometria. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que quando se adiciona lecitina aos mostos de cana, laranja e uva, o vinho obtido após a fermentação tem maior concentração de glicerol, e as aguardentes produzidas pela destilação têm maior concentração de isobutanol. Já nos mostos em que foi adicionada a lecitina, o rendimento alcoólico total das aguardentes foi menor do que nos mostos que não a recebeu. Os componentes secundários acetaldeído, acetato de etila e acidez total aumentaram com o aumento da acidez nos vinhos. Por outro lado, o propanol, isobutanol e álcool isoamílico aumentaram com os aumentos dos pH e das concentrações nos mostos, dos aminoácidos treonina, valina e leucina. A concentração do furfural foi maior nas aguardentes provenientes dos mostos de cana e laranja.The present research was carried out to evaluate the effect of lecithin addition into sugar cane, orange and grape musts on the spirits yield and composition. The statistical design was randomized blocks, in 2x3 factorial array, using two factors: lecithin and must, two levels for lecithin (absence and presence; and three levels for must (sugar cane, orange and grape. The method used in this work is recommended by mills. The measurement of by-products was made through gas chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results

  1. The effects of in vitro exposure to white spirit on [Ca2+] in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, S.; Hass, Ulla; Ravn-Jonsen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Female rats were exposed to white spirit (400 and 800 ppm for 6 hr/day) at day 7-20 during pregnancy. Thirty-five days after birth all female offspring were sacrificed, the brains removed, and the synaptosomal fractions prepared for in vitro studies. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... using the FURA-2 technique. The results show that cytosolic calcium was increased in synaptosomes from rats exposed to white spirit prenatally compared to synaptosomes from unexposed rats. When synaptosomes were exposed to white spirit in vitro, the cytosolic calcium concentration changes were identical...... in all groups of rats. The membrane leakage measured as FURA-2 leakage from the synaptosomes identical in all three groups of animals. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to white spirit induces long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes in calcium homeostasis in the rat nervous system....

  2. Uranium hexafluoride purification; Purificacao de hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-07-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF{sub 6}-HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF{sub 6}-HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  3. Drinking water purification in the Czech Republic and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmela, Jan; Beckova, Vera; Vlcek, Jaroslav; Marhol, Milan

    2012-06-01

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Legislative (hygienic) requirements for technologies applied to drinking water purification with focus on uranium elimination; (ii) Technological drinking water treatment processes (settling, filtration, precipitation, acidification, iron and manganese removal) ; (iii) State Office for Nuclear Safety requirements for the operation of facilities to separate uranium from drinking water and for the handling of saturated ionexes from such facilities; (iv) Material requirements for the operation of ionex filters serving to separate uranium from drinking water; (v) Effect of enhanced uranium concentrations in drinking waters on human body; (vi) Uranium speciation in ground waters; (vii) Brief description of technologies which are used worldwide for uranium removal; (viii) Technologies which are usable and are used in the Czech Republic for drinking water purification from uranium; (ix) Inorganic and organic ion exchangers and sorbents. (P.A.)

  4. Influence of the drying method in chitosans purification step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Ana C.M.; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Bettega, Antonio; Lima, Nelson B. de

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the study of extracellular biopolymers properties has received prominence for being easy extraction and purification. Chitosan has been an attractive proposition for applications in various fields such as engineering, biotechnology, medicine and pharmacology. For such applications, it is necessary purification of chitosan to obtain a product more concentrated and free of undesirable impurities. However, at this stage of the process of obtaining the biopolymer may occur morphological and physicochemical changes. This study evaluated the influence of the drying process after purification of a commercial chitosan sample and the importance of this step and its cost/benefit in applications requiring a high degree of purity. The method of drying influenced in the organoleptic properties and in the main characteristics of material. Analysis of the crystal structure by X-ray diffraction showed that the degree of crystallinity, X (%), in the purified chitosan samples was lower when compared with the unpurified sample. The degree of acetylation, DA (%), was analyzed by spectroscopy infrared with no significant changes on the three drying methods assessed, unlike the viscosimetric molecular weight, M v , determined by capillary viscometry. (author)

  5. Preparative Purification of Liriodendrin from Sargentodoxa cuneata by Macroporous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di-Hua; Wang, Yan; Lv, Yuan-Shan; Liu, Jun-Hong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Kun; Zhuo, Yu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The preparative purification of liriodendrin from Sargentodoxa cuneata using macroporous resin combined with crystallization process was evaluated. The properties of adsorption/desorption of liriodendrin on eight macroporous resins were investigated systematically. X-5 resin was selected as the most suitable medium for liriodendrin purification. The adsorption of liriodendrin on X-5 resin fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Dynamic adsorption/desorption tests were performed using a glass column packed with X-5 resin to optimize the separation process of liriodendrin. After one treatment with X-5 resin, the content of liriodendrin in the product was increased 48.73-fold, from 0.85% to 41.42%, with a recovery yield of 88.9%. 97.48% liriodendrin was obtained by further crystallization and determined by HPLC. The purified product possessed strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, purification of liriodendrin might expend its further pharmacological researches and further applications in pharmacy. PMID:26236742

  6. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  7. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  8. 78 FR 38628 - Reclassification of Specially Denatured Spirits and Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... generally determined at the time the distilled spirits are withdrawn from the bonded premises of a distilled... industry, or for fuel, light, or power, except that, under 26 U.S.C. 5273(b), denatured spirits may not be....D.S.'' for purposes of this preamble). C.D.A. jeopardizes the revenue less than S.D.S. does--first...

  9. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy, possess, or sell, or transfer any imported...

  10. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which all...

  11. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax...

  12. 27 CFR 19.502 - Withdrawal of spirits on production or filling gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production or filling gauge. 19.502 Section 19.502 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Withdrawals General § 19.502 Withdrawal of spirits on production or filling gauge. When the production or filling gauge is made under the provisions of § 19.319(b), spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises...

  13. 27 CFR 19.682 - Receipt and gauge of returned taxpaid spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt and gauge of... Bonded Premises and Voluntary Destruction Returns § 19.682 Receipt and gauge of returned taxpaid spirits... bonded premises shall be immediately dumped. (b) Gauge. Spirits returned under § 19.681 shall be gauged...

  14. 27 CFR 30.52 - Procedure for measurement of cased spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits in cases shall be determined by multiplying the wine gallons by the proof (divided by 100). (Sec... spirits in a case is to be determined by volume, such determination shall be made by ascertaining the contents of one bottle in the case and multiplying that figure by the number of bottles in the case. For...

  15. 27 CFR 19.990 - Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. 19.990 Section 19.990 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Redistillation § 19.990 Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. (a) Receipts for redistillation. Proprietors of alcohol fuel plants may...

  16. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  17. 27 CFR 19.397 - Spirits not originally intended for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., originally intended for domestic use may be exported with benefit of drawback or without payment of tax if... intended for export. 19.397 Section 19.397 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX....397 Spirits not originally intended for export. Spirits manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles...

  18. 27 CFR 28.197 - Return of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. 28.197 Section 28.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. When notice is filed by an exporter as provided in... export with benefit of drawback as provided in § 28.171, but which spirits have not been laden for export...

  19. Membrane-based techniques for the separation and purification of proteins: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Arunima; Tripathi, Bijay P; Kumar, Mahendra; Shahi, Vinod K

    2009-01-30

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in both upstream and downstream technology, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, emerging processes as membrane chromatography, high performance tangential flow filtration and electrophoretic membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing critical role in the field of separation/purification of biotechnological products. Membranes became an integral part of biotechnology and improvements in membrane technology are now focused on high resolution of bioproduct. In bioseparation, applications of membrane technologies include protein production/purification, protein-virus separation. This manuscript provides an overview of recent developments and published literature in membrane technology, focusing on special characteristics of the membranes and membrane-based processes that are now used for the production and purification of proteins.

  20. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  1. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    , but the neurophysiological tests showed adverse effects at this level. Fourth, neurophysiological methods may be more sensitive than histopathological, neurobehavioural and neurochemical methods. Overall, white spirit with a high and a low content of aromatics showed no overt difference in long-term effects in animals......Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content...

  2. Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    In Arequipa, Peru’s second largest city, engineers work hard to control water flows and provide different sectors with clean and sufficient water. In 2011, only 10 percent of the totality of water used daily by Arequipa’s then close to 1 million people—in households, tourism, industry, and mining......—was treated before it was returned to the river where it continues its flow downstream towards cultivated fields and, finally, into the Pacific Ocean. It takes specialized knowledge and manifold technologies to manage water and sustain life in Arequipa, and engineers are central actors for making water flow....... Examining the ecology of water management, this article asks to what extent we can talk of a way of knowing and enacting water that is particular to engineers. Through engineering practices, a technical domain emerges as separate from and superior to political and social domains. This production...

  3. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  4. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Book Review: Gift & Giver: The Holy Spirit for Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Lathrop

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Craig Keener has established himself as a highly respected New Testament scholar. Over the years he has written a number of very significant commentaries including works on the gospels of Matthew and John, and the book of Acts. His highly acclaimed IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament is one of his best known works. In addition, he has produced books devoted to specific biblical topics such as miracles, women in marriage and ministry, and divorce and remarriage. He is not one to shy away from controversial subjects. In this present volume Keener writes about the Holy Spirit including the sometimes controversial charismatic aspects of His ministry. Gift & Giver was first published in theUnited States in 2001. More recently it has been translated into Indonesian and published inIndonesia.

  6. Behavioural characteristics of adulterated Premium Motor Spirit (PMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distillation profiles and chemical characteristics of ten suspected adulterated Premium Motor Spirit samples randomly collected from different dispensing points were analysed to determine the chemical characteristics of these samples when compared to a reference sample that is not adulterated. Results of the analyses show, Research Octane Number values ranged from 60.10 to 93.30, specific gravity ranged from 0.75 to 0.79, Reid Vapour Pressure ranged from 0.28 kgf/cm2 to 0.60 kgf/cm2 while Atmospheric distillation ranged from 189 to 251 °C. The results of this research reveal that most of the products are highly adulterated and may pose problems when sent to the market for intended end users.

  7. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs

  8. The Spirit counts - People at and around CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    After a few biographical remarks I shall concentrate on human aspects which are not covered by official documents, but which are as important to the success of CERN as scientific and technical competence. The approval of LEP, general problems of the project management and the approval of the LEP experiments under conditions never encountered before at CERN will be covered. The special spirit created at CERN based on the competence and solidarity of the CERN staff and its users made it possible to find new ways of successful international collaboration combining competition with cooperation. Career Summary Physics diploma and doctorate from Hamburg University, now Prof. emer.; research assistant at Stockholm Technical University (with Lise Meitner); Cavendish Laboratory UK (with O.R.Frisch); Cornell University (with R.R. Wilson); research in optics, nuclear and elementary particle physics. various professorships in Germany and director of university institutes; Director of DESY, Hamburg, 1973-1980...

  9. E and P integration via the OpenSpirit framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of inter-operability among a consortium of oil companies and E and P applications vendors was discussed. This paper describes the business problem including cost, cycle-time and efficiency and presents a solution. Benefits for applications developers will be single development environment for cross platform deployment; focus on value-added functionality instead of infrastructure; transparent access to widely-used data-stores; higher productivity and faster turnaround time to market. Application end-users will also benefit through elimination of the need to reformat due to cross platform and multi-vendor data access; utilization of Web browsers; integration with MS Office applications leveraging desk-top tools; lower purchase and integration cost of new applications. Strategic issues for application developers, and for oil companies, and competitive advantages of the E an P industry adopting OpenSpirit as the standard business object framework were also reviewed

  10. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas...... theme. METHODS: Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises...

  11. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is necessary, and the effects of dependence can be both positive and negative depending on the relations between external entities and affected communities as well as the community capacity to absorb resources and information.

  12. Purification Protocols for Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rebecca E; Korbie, Darren; Trau, Matt; Hill, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides a description of some of the standard methods used for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from a variety of biological fluids, including cell culture media, urine, plasma and serum. The methods presented include ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, proprietary polymer-based reagents, size exclusion chromatography, density gradient separation, and immunoaffinity capture. Ultracentrifugation methods use high speed centrifugation to pellet vesicles, whilst polymer-based reagents are added to the sample to facilitate vesicle precipitation using lower speeds. Ultrafiltration involves the concentration of vesicles from a large volume of biological fluid using a centrifugal filter unit. Size exclusion chromatography and density gradient separation are both designed to allow the separation of vesicles from other nonvesicular debris. Immunoaffinity capture methods use antibody-coated beads to selectively isolate vesicles displaying a surface marker of interest. Ultimately, the choice of purification method for an individual experiment is influenced by time, cost, and equipment considerations, as well as the sample requirements for any downstream analyses.

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or for...

  14. 27 CFR 28.199 - Responsibility for return of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. 28.199 Section 28.199 Alcohol, Tobacco... EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Distilled Spirits With Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.199 Responsibility for return of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. The...

  15. Countercurrent tangential chromatography for large-scale protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkazh, Oleg; Kanani, Dharmesh; Barth, Morgan; Long, Matthew; Hussain, Daniar; Zydney, Andrew L

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in cell culture technology have created significant pressure on the downstream purification process, leading to a "downstream bottleneck" in the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins for the treatment of cancer, genetic disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Countercurrent tangential chromatography overcomes many of the limitations of conventional column chromatography by having the resin (in the form of a slurry) flow through a series of static mixers and hollow fiber membrane modules. The buffers used in the binding, washing, and elution steps flow countercurrent to the resin, enabling high-resolution separations while reducing the amount of buffer needed for protein purification. The results obtained in this study provide the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of using countercurrent tangential chromatography for the separation of a model protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and myoglobin using a commercially available anion exchange resin. Batch uptake/desorption experiments were used in combination with critical flux data for the hollow fiber filters to design the countercurrent tangential chromatography system. A two-stage batch separation yielded the purified target protein at >99% purity with 94% recovery. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of using countercurrent tangential chromatography for the large-scale purification of therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Purification of Sardine Fish Oil Through Degumming and Neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bija

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sardine fish oil can be improved by purification method through the step of degumming and neutralization. The aimed of this this study was analysis characteristic of crude sardin fish oil and determined the best method of purification. Degumming was carried out using 30% water and salt at concentration 5%, 8%, 10% b/v. Neutralization process using  NaOH with 16°Be and bleaching using 5% Magnesol XL. All step of refining was done at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. The result of analysis showed that sardine crude fish oil had 24.86% of palmitic acid as the highest fatty acid, heavy metal was not detected,dencity was 0.92 g/cm3 and viscocity was 51 cPs. The best treatment of purification method was degumming using 5% NaCl at 50°C with rendement 65.37±0.72%; free fatty acid (FFA 0.38±0.03%; peroxide (PV 1.07±0.12 mEq/kg; anisidine (p-AnV 15.18±0.16 mEq/kg; total oxidation value (TOTOX 17.31±0.39 mEq/kg; and clarity was 75.09± 1.20%.

  17. Design and function of biomimetic multilayer water purification membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shengjie; Qin, Zhao; Huang, Wenwen; Cao, Sufeng; Kaplan, David L; Buehler, Markus J

    2017-04-01

    Multilayer architectures in water purification membranes enable increased water throughput, high filter efficiency, and high molecular loading capacity. However, the preparation of membranes with well-organized multilayer structures, starting from the nanoscale to maximize filtration efficiency, remains a challenge. We report a complete strategy to fully realize a novel biomaterial-based multilayer nanoporous membrane via the integration of computational simulation and experimental fabrication. Our comparative computational simulations, based on coarse-grained models of protein nanofibrils and mineral plates, reveal that the multilayer structure can only form with weak interactions between nanofibrils and mineral plates. We demonstrate experimentally that silk nanofibril (SNF) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) can be used to fabricate highly ordered multilayer membranes with nanoporous features by combining protein self-assembly and in situ biomineralization. The production is optimized to be a simple and highly repeatable process that does not require sophisticated equipment and is suitable for scaled production of low-cost water purification membranes. These membranes not only show ultrafast water penetration but also exhibit broad utility and high efficiency of removal and even reuse (in some cases) of contaminants, including heavy metal ions, dyes, proteins, and other nanoparticles in water. Our biomimetic design and synthesis of these functional SNF/HAP materials have established a paradigm that could lead to the large-scale, low-cost production of multilayer materials with broad spectrum and efficiency for water purification, with applications in wastewater treatment, biomedicine, food industry, and the life sciences.

  18. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water purification device that harnesses the unique properties of carbon nanotubes and will operate...

  19. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2

  20. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Filho, D.; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Baba, S.; Miranda, L.E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author)

  1. Purification and concentration of uranium-bearing solutions at the plants of the Societe industrielle des minerais de l'Ouest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollerin, G.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the various processes for purification of uranium-bearing solutions used at the plants of the Societe industrielle des minerais de l'Ouest (SIMO) from their commissioning up to the present time, together with the purification circuit adopted at the two plants at present operating in Niger. (author)

  2. Optimized Expression and Purification for High-Activity Preparations of Algal [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoby, I.; Tegler, L. T.; Pochekailov, S.; Zhang, S.; King, P. W.

    2012-04-01

    Recombinant expression and purification of metallo-enzymes, including hydrogenases, at high-yields is challenging due to complex, and enzyme specific, post-translational maturation processes. Low fidelities of maturation result in preparations containing a significant fraction of inactive, apo-protein that are not suitable for biophysical or crystallographic studies. We describe the construction, overexpression and high-yield purification of a fusion protein consisting of the algal [2Fe2S]-ferredoxin PetF (Fd) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1. The maturation of Fd-HydA1 was optimized through improvements in culture conditions and media components used for expression. We also demonstrated that fusion of Fd to the N-terminus of HydA1, in comparison to the C-terminus, led to increased expression levels that were 4-fold higher. Together, these improvements led to enhanced HydA1 activity and improved yield after purification. The strong binding-affinity of Fd for DEAE allowed for two-step purification by ion exchange and StrepTactin affinity chromatography. In addition, the incorporation of a TEV protease site in the Fd-HydA1 linker allowed for the proteolytic removal of Fd after DEAE step, and purification of HydA1 alone by StrepTactin. In combination, this process resulted in HydA1 purification yields of 5 mg L{sup -1} of culture from E. coli with specific activities of 1000 U (U = 1 {micro}mol hydrogen evolved mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}). The [FeFe]-hydrogenases are highly efficient enzymes and their catalytic sites provide model structures for synthetic efforts to develop robust hydrogen activation catalysts. In order to characterize their structure-function properties in greater detail, and to use hydrogenases for biotechnological applications, reliable methods for rapid, high-yield expression and purification are required.

  3. Purification and characterization of thermostable glucoamylase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermostable glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus SK5 mutant was purified in a 3-step purification using Imarsil, activated charcoal and Sephadex-G-100 to achieve a 40-fold purification. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 5.0 and temperature of 80 °C. It exhibited a half-life of 60 minutes at 70 °C. Its stability was ...

  4. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  5. Pathological spirit possession as a cultural interpretation of trauma-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Barnewitz, Eva; Stenmark, Hakon; Iversen, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Spirit possession is a phenomenon frequently occurring in war-torn countries. It has been shown to be an idiom of distress entailing dissociative symptoms. However, its association with trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders remains unclear. This study aimed to explore subjective disease models and the relationship between pathological spirit possession and trauma-related disorders in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Seventy-three (formerly) possessed persons (74% female, mean age = 34 years), referred by traditional and spiritual healers, were interviewed about their experiences of pathological spirit possession, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, shame and guilt, psychotic symptoms, somatic complaints, and the impairment of psychosocial functioning. The most common disease model for pathological spirit possession was another person having sent the spirit, mostly a family member or a neighbor, out of jealousy or conflict over resources. Significant correlations were found between spirit possession over lifetime and PTSD symptom severity, feelings of shame and guilt, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and psychotic symptoms. Spirit possession during the preceding 4 weeks was associated with PTSD symptom severity, impairment of psychosocial functioning, and psychotic symptom severity. The results of this study indicate that pathological spirit possession is a broad explanatory framework for various subjectively unexplainable mental and physical health problems, including but not limited to trauma-related disorders. Understanding pathological spirit possession as a subjective disease model for various mental and physical health problems may help researchers and clinicians to develop culturally sensitive treatment approaches for affected individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Behavioural effects in rats after prenatal exposure to dearomatized white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential developmental neurotoxicity of the widely used organic solvent, white spirit. Rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 0 or 800 ppm dearomatized white spirit for 6 hr per day on gestation days 7-20. Developmental and neurobehavioural effects...... months, learning and memory deficits were observed in exposed offspring. The differences were not related to poorer swimming capabilities. because swim speeds were similar to control values. The results show that prenatal exposure to 800 ppm white spirit caused longlasting learning and memory deficits...

  7. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on the quality of sugar cane spirit and on the cask of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, M.B. de; Horii, J.; Alcarde, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ageing or maturing process of drink improves the sensorial characteristics of the product making it a qualified drink with higher economical value. The traditional maturing method of drinks involves their interaction with wood and irradiation can accelerate this ageing process. Sugar cane spirit and oak barrels with a 20 L capacity were treated using gamma irradiation (150 Gy). Physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses were constantly performed for 390 days during the drink ageing period. The sugar cane spirit and barrel irradiation did not change most volatile components of the same type coefficient such as volatile acidity, esters, superior alcohols and furfural throughout the 390 days. There is evidence, however, that some component parameters like aldehydes, tannin, color and copper concentration are in some way influenced resulting in partial acceleration of the ageing or maturing process. At the end of the ageing period, a sensorial analysis was made using 30 non-trained people who tasted the drink. The ageing process acceleration was confirmed by the sensorial evaluation, where the irradiated sugar cane spirit and/or barrel had higher approval regarding all parameters analyzed (scent, flavor and appearance) [pt

  8. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation (60 Co) on the quality of sugar cane spirit and on the cask of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mariana Branco de; Horii, Jorge; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The ageing or maturing process of drink improves the sensorial characteristics of the product making it a qualified drink with higher economical value. The traditional maturing method of drinks involves their interaction with wood and irradiation can accelerate this ageing process. Sugar cane spirit and oak barrels with a 20 L capacity were treated using gamma irradiation (150 Gy). Physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses were constantly performed for 390 days during the drink ageing period. The sugar cane spirit and barrel irradiation did not change most volatile components of the same type coefficient such as volatile acidity, esters, superior alcohols and furfural throughout the 390 days. There is evidence, however, that some component parameters like aldehydes, tannin, color and copper concentration are in some way influenced resulting in partial acceleration of the ageing or maturing process. At the end of the ageing period, a sensorial analysis was made using 30 non-trained people who tasted the drink. The ageing process acceleration was confirmed by the sensorial evaluation, where the irradiated sugar cane spirit and/or barrel had higher approval regarding all parameters analyzed (scent, flavor and appearance). (author)

  9. Integrated process for the purification and immobilization of the envelope protein domain III of dengue virus type 2 expressed in Rachiplusia nu larvae and its potential application in a diagnostic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, María Emilia; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Cerezo, Julieta; Morales, María Alejandra; Miranda, María Victoria; Talou, Julián Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Dengue incidence has grown dramatically in the last years, with about 40% of the world population at risk of infection. Recently, a vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been registered, but only in a few countries. Moreover, specific antiviral drugs are not available. Thus, an efficient and accurate diagnosis is important for disease management. To develop a low-cost immunoassay for dengue diagnosis, in the present study we expressed the envelope protein domain III of dengue virus type 2 in Rachiplusia nu larvae by infection with a recombinant baculovirus. The antigen was expressed as a fusion to hydrophobin I (DomIIIHFBI) to easily purify it by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) and to efficiently immobilize it in immunoassay plates. A high level of recombinant DomIIIHFBI was obtained in R. nu, where yields reached 4.5 mg per g of larva. Also, we were able to purify DomIIIHFBI by an ATPS with 2% of Triton X-114, reaching a yield of 73% and purity higher than 80% in a single purification step. The recombinant DomIIIHFBI was efficiently immobilized in hydrophobic surface plates. The immunoassay we developed with the immobilized antigen was able to detect IgG specific for dengue virus type 2 in serum samples and not for other serotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Efficiency of the preparation "Ekolan-M" for purification of oil polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogina, T M; Dumanskaia, T U; Khomenko, L A; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of purification of oil contaminated loamy chernozem by the preparation "Ekolan-M" was investigated. During 12 months a complex soil bioremediation using the preparation and alfalfa, as the land-improving plant, at the final stage of purification resulted in the reduction of hydrocarbon content by 97.0%, and without the preparation - by 65.5 %. In the version of experiment with the preparation a 100% decrease of soil phytotoxicity was achieved and a significant stimulation of plant growth and development was observed. The process of soil purification was accompanied by intensive development of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, the amount of which during the process of oil concentration gradually decreased, approaching the level in the control uncontaminated soil.

  11. Quantum Poetics: Science and Spirit in Twentieth Century American Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, (Mary) Patricia

    Concepts from quantum physics illuminate ways in which five 20th century American poets struggle with the expression of nonlinear, nontemporal experiences in linear, temporal language. An "experience of spirit"- -an experience of cosmic unity which occurs in a timeless moment and involves a paradoxical sensuality--is expressed by poets Wallace Stevens, Albert Goldbarth, Nancy Willard, Linda Gregg and Marilyn Waniek. Contemporary science similarly seeks ways to express nonlinear realities in linear language. The English language is found to guide users to linear, time-bounded expression through the noun (leading to nominalization), the verb (demanding experience be limited to past, present or future), adverb and adjective (which separate senses from each other and divide attributes from essence). English presents structural difficulties to those who wish to express experiences of spirit--difficulties also articulated by quantum theorists struggling to express unvisualizable concepts. Wallace Stevens devoted the first half of his poetic career to questions of order, which find reflections within the works of quantum physicists who theorize an "implicate order" within the subatomic universe. During his later years, Stevens turned to the question of chaos, an interest paralleled by recent developments in dynamical systems theory. Albert Goldbarth and Nancy Willard alter narrative form in three ways to convey nonlinear possibilities. The "parabolic" narrative uses story to exemplify a moral or philosophical message. The "midrashic" illuminates the meaning of one story by the telling of another. Finally, the "coyotic" begins with one, apparently ordinary, story which is then altered to introduce fantastical realities. These narratives form a "relative time," similar to that which Einstein defined in his special theory of relativity. The works of Marilyn Waniek and Linda Gregg are examined in terms of the language of paradoxical sensuality, which calls into question the

  12. Spirit Piagam Jakarta Dalam Undang-Undang Dasar 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujar Ibnu Syarif

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the second trial BPUPKI, both nationalist and Islamic groups consensual that the future of Indonesia's independence will be based on the principle "godhood by running Shari'ah obligation for adherents". The consensus seems to be built on the foundation is not solid. Therefore it is not surprising that one day after the proclamation of independence, the agreement re-questioned. That same day, PPKI held a hearing to review the deal. As a result, the clause contained in the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution was changed to "Based on Belief in God Almighty". After the issuance of a Presidential Decree, began the debate about the existence of the spirit of the Jakarta Charter in 1945 which is applicable in the context of Indonesian politics in this contemporary age.  Abstrak: Spirit Piagam Jakarta dalam Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Pasca Lahirnya Dekrit Presiden 5 Juli 1959. Pada sidang kedua Badan Penyelidik Usaha-Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI / Dokuritsu Zyunbi Tyosakai yang berlangsung sejak tanggal 10 hingga 16 Juli 1945, baik golongan nasionalis maupun golongan Islam berkonsensus bahwa masa depan Indonesia merdeka akan didasarkan pada sila "Ketuhanan dengan kewajiban menjalankan syari'at Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya".  Penting dicatat, konsensus tersebut agaknya dibangun di atas landasan yang tidak kokoh. Karena itu, tidak aneh bila satu hari setelah proklamasi Kemerdekaan RI, tepatnya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945, kesepakatan tersebut kembali dipersoalkan. Pada hari itu juga, Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI yang dibentuk tanggal 7 Agustus 1945 dan diketuai oleh Soekarno, menyelenggarakan sidang untuk meninjau kembali kesepakatan tersebut. Dalam sidang tersebut, anak kalimat  yang terdapat dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945 (Piagam Jakarta, yakni: "Berdasarkan kepada Ketuhanan, dengan kewajiban menjalankan syari'at Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya" diubah menjadi "Berdasar atas Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa".  Setelah

  13. Tetanus toxoid purification: chromatographic procedures as an alternative to ammonium-sulphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojićević, Ivana; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana; Dovezenski, Nebojša; Živković, Irena; Petrušić, Vladimir; Marinković, Emilija; Inić-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Marijana

    2011-08-01

    Given an existing demand to establish a process of tetanus vaccine production in a way that allows its complete validation and standardization, this paper focuses on tetanus toxoid purification step. More precisely, we were looking at a possibility to replace the widely used ammonium-sulphate precipitation by a chromatographic method. Based on the tetanus toxin's biochemical characteristics, we have decided to examine the possibility of tetanus toxoid purification by hydrophobic chromatography, and by chromatographic techniques based on interaction with immobilized metal ions, i.e. chelating chromatography and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We used samples obtained from differently fragmented crude tetanus toxins by formaldehyde treatment (assigned as TTd-A and TTd-B) as starting material for tetanus toxoid purification. Obtained results imply that purification of tetanus toxoid by hydrophobic chromatography represents a good alternative to ammonium-sulphate precipitation. Tetanus toxoid preparations obtained by hydrophobic chromatography were similar to those obtained by ammonium-sulphate precipitation in respect to yield, purity and immunogenicity. In addition, their immunogenicity was similar to standard tetanus toxoid preparation (NIBSC, Potters Bar, UK). Furthermore, the characteristics of crude tetanus toxin preparations had the lowest impact on the final purification product when hydrophobic chromatography was the applied method of tetanus toxoid purification. On the other hand, purifications of tetanus toxoid by chelating chromatography or immobilized metal affinity chromatography generally resulted in a very low yield due to not satisfactory tetanus toxoid binding to the column, and immunogenicity of the obtained tetanus toxoid-containing preparations was poor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Philosophical views of V. S. Soloviev and N. A. Berdyaev on the problem of «spirit»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Astakhova

    2017-03-01

    It has been evaluated that in search of transition from rationalistic forms of humanism to the spiritual experience of Christianity, the philosophers of this tradition, V.S. Soloviev and N.A. Berdyaev, reproduced the approaches of gnostic thought and forms of spiritual experience, related to it. It has been discovered that the strong side of V.S. Soloviev and N.A. Berdyaev’s philosophy is that they insisted on the independent and specific reality of spirit, comparing with nature. It is possible to discover this reality only in the process of implementation, i.e. in the process, when each individual goes through their spiritual experience. To those critics who would say that, in this respect, the spiritual experience is in actual fact regarded in its highest meaning, the meaning of high tension, «the burning of spirit», N.A. Berdyaev replies that the main thing is that spiritual experience exists and it is real; decadence or the absence of spiritual life in any case doesn’t influence the proof of its real existence.

  15. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  16. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Plenge, P.; Jørgensen, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    , and subcellular levels. This study investigates the effects of two types of white spirit on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters (5-HTT), 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptor expression in forebrain, and on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 25-kDa synaptosomal associated protein (SNAP-25) concentrations when......Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional...... applied as indices for synaptic remodeling in forebrain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 400, or 800 ppm of aromatic (20 vol.% aromatic hydrocarbons) or dearomatized white spirit (catalytically hydrogenated white spirit) in the inhaled air for 6 h/day, 7 days...

  17. Administrator of 9/11 victim compensation fund to administer Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech President Charles Steger has asked Kenneth R. Feinberg, who served as "Special Master of the federal September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001," to administer distributions of the university Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund (HSMF).

  18. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Plenge, P.; Jørgensen, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional......, and subcellular levels. This study investigates the effects of two types of white spirit on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters (5-HTT), 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptor expression in forebrain, and on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 25-kDa synaptosomal associated protein (SNAP-25) concentrations when...... applied as indices for synaptic remodeling in forebrain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 400, or 800 ppm of aromatic (20 vol.% aromatic hydrocarbons) or dearomatized white spirit (catalytically hydrogenated white spirit) in the inhaled air for 6 h/day, 7 days...

  19. PENN neurodegenerative disease research - in the spirit of Benjamin Franklin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowski, John Q

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was entrepreneur, statesman, supporter of the public good as well as inventor, and his most significant invention was the University of Pennsylvania (PENN). Franklin outlined his plans for a college providing practical and classical instruction to prepare youth for real-world pursuits in his 'Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania' (1749), and Franklin's spirit of learning to serve society guides PENN to the present day. This is evidenced by the series of articles in this special issue of Neurosignals, describing research conducted by seasoned and newly recruited PENN faculty, addressing consequences of the longevity revolution which defines our epoch at the dawn of this millennium. While aging affects all organ systems, the nervous system is most critical to successful aging. Thus, the articles in this special issue of Neurosignals focus on research at PENN that is designed to prevent or ameliorate aging-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This research could enhance our chances of aging successfully in the continuing longevity revolution, and the essay here provides context and background on this research.

  20. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...