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Sample records for spirit rover traverses

  1. Mars exploration rover geologic traverse by the spirit rover in the plains of Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, F.D.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Knudson, A.T.; Landis, G.A.; Li, R.; Maki, J.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Moersch, J.E.; Payne, M.C.; Rice, J.W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, S.W.; Sims, M.; Thompson, S.D.; Tosca, N.; Wang, A.; Whelley, P.; Wright, S.P.; Wyatt, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Spirit rover completed a 2.5 km traverse across gently sloping plains on the floor of Gusev crater from its location on the outer rim of Bonneville crater to the lower slopes of the Columbia Hills, Mars. Using the Athena suite of instruments in a transect approach, a systematic series of overlapping panoramic mosaics, remote sensing observations, surface analyses, and trenching operations documented the lateral variations in landforms, geologic materials, and chemistry of the surface throughout the traverse, demonstrating the ability to apply the techniques of field geology by remote rover operations. Textures and shapes of rocks within the plains are consistent with derivation from impact excavation and mixing of the upper few meters of basaltic lavas. The contact between surrounding plains and crater ejecta is generally abrupt and marked by increases in clast abundance and decimeter-scale steps in relief. Basaltic materials of the plains overlie less indurated and more altered rock types at a time-stratigraphic contact between the plains and Columbia Hills that occurs over a distance of one to two meters. This implies that regional geologic contacts are well preserved and that Earth-like field geologic mapping will be possible on Mars despite eons of overturn by small impacts. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  2. Mars Rover Curiosity Traverses of Sand Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.; Heverly, M.; Maimone, M.; Hartman, F.; Bellutta, P.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.

    2014-12-01

    Martian sand ripples present a challenge for rover mobility, with drives over ripples often characterized by high wheel sinkage and slippage that can lead to incipient embedding. Since landing in Gale Crater, Curiosity has traversed multiple sand ripples, including the transverse aeolian ridge (TAR) straddling Dingo Gap on sols 533 and 535. On sol 672, Curiosity crossed backward over a series of sand ripples before ending its drive after high motor currents initiated visual odometry (VO) processing, which detected 77% slip, well in excess of the imposed 60% slip limit. At the end of the drive, the right front wheel was deeply embedded at the base of a ripple flank with >20 cm sinkage and the rear wheels were near a ripple crest. As Curiosity continues its approach to Mount Sharp it will have to cross multiple ripples, and thus it is important to understand Curiosity's performance on sol 672 and over similar ripples. To this end the sol 672 drive was simulated in ARTEMIS (Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics Interaction Simulator), a software tool consisting of realistic rover mechanical models, a wheel-terrain interaction module for deformable and non-deformable surfaces, and realistic terrain models. ARTEMIS results, Dumont Dunes tests performed in the Mojave Desert using the Scarecrow test rover, and single wheel tests performed at MIT indicate that the high slip encountered on sol 672 likely occurred due to a combination of rover attack angle, ripple geometry, and soil properties. When ripple wavelength approaches vehicle length, the rover can reach orientations in which the leading wheels carry minimal normal loads and the trailing wheels sink deeply, resulting in high slippage and insufficient thrust to propel the rover over ripples. Even on relatively benign (i.e. low tilt) terrains, local morphology can impose high sinkage, thus impeding rover motion. Work is underway to quantify Curiosity's drive performance over various ripple geometries to retrieve soil

  3. Machine learning challenges in Mars rover traverse science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, R.; Judd, M.; Anderson, R. C.; Estlin, T.

    2003-01-01

    The successful implementation of machine learning in autonomous rover traverse science requires addressing challenges that range from the analytical technical realm, to the fuzzy, philosophical domain of entrenched belief systems within scientists and mission managers.

  4. Inferences of Strength of Soil Deposits along MER Rover Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Schmitz, N.; Weiss, S.; Mer/Athena Team

    As the two MER Mars Exploration Rovers ,Spirit' and ,Opportunity' traverse terrains within Gusev crater and at Meridiani Planum, respectively, they leave behind wheel tracks that are routinely imaged by the different sets of cameras as part of the Athena instrument suite. Stereo observations of these tracks reveal wheel sinkage depths which are diagnostic of the strength of the soil-like deposits crossed by the vehicles, and observations of track morphology at different imaging scales - including that of the Microscopic Imager - allow estimations of soil grain size distributions. This presentation will discuss results of systematic analyses of MER-A and -B wheel track observations with regard to solutions for soil bearing strength and soil shear strength. Data are analyzed in the context of wheel-soil theory calibrated to the shape of the MER wheel and by consulting comparisons with terrestrial soils. Results are applicable to the top ˜20-30 cm of the soil deposits, the depth primarily affected by the stress distribution under the wheels. The large number of wheel track observations per distance travelled enables investigations of variations of soil physical properties as a function of spatial scale, type of surface feature encountered, and local topography. Exploiting relationships between soil strength and degree of soil consolidation known from lunar regolith and dry terrestrial soils allows one to relate inferred soil strengths to bulk density. This provides a means to ground-truth radar Fresnel reflection coefficients obtained for the landing sites from Earth-based observations. Moreover, bulk density is correlated with soil dielectric constant, a parameter of direct relevance also for Mars-orbiting radars. The obtained estimates for soil bulk density are also used to determine local thermal conductivity of near-surface materials, based on correlations between the two quantities, and to subsequently estimate thermal inertia. This represents an independent

  5. Autonomous Rover Traverse and Precise Arm Placement on Remotely Designated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Michael; Nesnas, Issa A.; Pivtoraiko, Mihail; Kelly, Alonzo; Volpe, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Exploring planetary surfaces typically involves traversing challenging and unknown terrain and acquiring in-situ measurements at designated locations using arm-mounted instruments. We present field results for a new implementation of an autonomous capability that enables a rover to traverse and precisely place an arm-mounted instrument on remote targets. Using point-and-click mouse commands, a scientist designates targets in the initial imagery acquired from the rover's mast cameras. The rover then autonomously traverse the rocky terrain for a distance of 10 - 15 m, tracks the target(s) of interest during the traverse, positions itself for approaching the target, and then precisely places an arm-mounted instrument within 2-3 cm from the originally designated target. The rover proceeds to acquire science measurements with the instrument. This work advances what has been previously developed and integrated on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains, enabling tight thread-the-needle maneuvers. We integrated these algorithms on the newly refurbished Athena Mars research rover and fielded them in the JPL Mars Yard. We conducted 43 runs with targets at distances ranging from 5 m to 15 m and achieved a success rate of 93% for placement of the instrument within 2-3 cm.

  6. Autonomous Rover Traverse and Precise Arm Placement on Remotely Designated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A.; Pivtoraiko, Mihail N.; Kelly, Alonzo; Fleder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This software controls a rover platform to traverse rocky terrain autonomously, plan paths, and avoid obstacles using its stereo hazard and navigation cameras. It does so while continuously tracking a target of interest selected from 10 20 m away. The rover drives and tracks the target until it reaches the vicinity of the target. The rover then positions itself to approach the target, deploys its robotic arm, and places the end effector instrument on the designated target to within 2-3-cm accuracy of the originally selected target. This software features continuous navigation in a fairly rocky field in an outdoor environment and the ability to enable the rover to avoid large rocks and traverse over smaller ones. Using point-and-click mouse commands, a scientist designates targets in the initial imagery acquired from the rover s mast cameras. The navigation software uses stereo imaging, traversability analysis, path planning, trajectory generation, and trajectory execution. It also includes visual target tracking of a designated target selected from 10 m away while continuously navigating the rocky terrain. Improvements in this design include steering while driving, which uses continuous curvature paths. There are also several improvements to the traversability analyzer, including improved data fusion of traversability maps that result from pose estimation uncertainties, dealing with boundary effects to enable tighter maneuvers, and handling a wider range of obstacles. This work advances what has been previously developed and integrated on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains, enabling tight, thread-the-needle maneuvers. These algorithms were integrated on the newly refurbished Athena Mars research rover, and were fielded in the JPL Mars Yard. Forty-three runs were conducted with targets at distances ranging from 5 to 15 m, and a success rate of 93% was achieved for placement of the instrument within

  7. First Gravity Traverse on the Martian Surface from the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K. W.; Peters, S. F.; Gonter, K. A.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Orbital gravity surveys have been a key tool in understanding planetary interiors and shallow crustal structure, exemplified by recent missions such as GRAIL and Juno. However, due to the loss of spatial resolution with altitude, airborne and ground-based survey methods are typically employed on the Earth. Previously, the Lunar Traverse Gravimeter experiment on the Apollo 17 mission has been the only attempt to collect surface gravity measurements on another planetary body. We will describe the results of the first gravity survey on the Martian surface, using data from the Curiosity rover over its >10 km traverse across the floor of Gale crater and lower slopes of Mount Sharp. These results enable us to estimate bulk rock density, and to search for potential subsurface density anomalies. To measure local gravitational acceleration, we use one of the two onboard Rover Inertial Measurement Units (RIMU-A), designed for rover position and fine attitude determination. The IMU contains three-axis micro-electromechanical (MEMS) accelerometers and fiber-optic gyros, and is used for gyrocompassing by integrating data for several minutes on sols with no drive or arm motions (roughly 50% of sols to date). Raw acceleration data are calibrated for biases induced by temperature effects and rover orientation, along with rover elevation over the course of the mission using multiple regression. We use the best fit linear relationship between topographic height and gravitational acceleration to estimate a Bouguer correction for the observed change in magnitude over the mission as the rover has ascended over 100 meters up the lower slopes of Mount Sharp. We find a relatively low best-fit density of 1600 +/- 500 kg/m^3 for the rocks of Mount Sharp, consistent with rover-based measurements of thermal inertial, and potentially indicating pervasive fracturing, high porosity and/or low compaction within the original sediments at least to depths of order 100 meters. Future measurements

  8. Validation of Artemis Mobility Simulations for the Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity Mars Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heverly, M.; Lindemann, R.; Trease, B.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.

    2013-12-01

    Artemis is a framework for modeling the dynamical motions of rovers over realistic planetary terrains that include topography generated from orbital or rover-based data and interactions of driven wheels with deformable soils with compaction resistance due to wheel sinkage into soils (Bekker-Wong-Reece model) or with hard-surface contacts dominated by static and dynamic coefficients of friction (contact model). Artemis is being used to simulate flight-based drives for the Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit, Opportunity) and Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity). Critical to realistic simulations is validation of the models by comparison and registration to single-wheel tests in the laboratory using spare flight wheels and testing of rover drives on various surfaces on Earth. In this abstract we report results from modeling test rover drives on deformable soil and hard surfaces. First, a MER test rover was driven over a tilted hard-surfaced plane covered with high friction paint, with separate runs with tilts ranging from 0 to 20 degrees. The Artemis contact model with static and dynamic coefficients of friction of 0.780 and 0.580 reproduced the runs in a manner in which the tests and models were shown to be statistically indistinguishable. Second, the MSL Test Rover was driven over bedrock plates with slopes ranging from 0 to 30 degrees, and Artemis successfully modeled these runs with static and dynamic coefficients of friction of 0.577 and 0.450, respectively. The MSL Test Rover simulations yielded low, linearly increasing slip between 0% and 15% on slopes ranging from 0 to 20 deg, increasing nonlinearly to nearly 100% on the 30 degree slope. Third, both the MER and MSL Test Rovers were deployed to the Dumont Dunes in the Mojave Desert to do side-by-side runs up dune slopes with tilts ranging from 0 to 15 degrees. Test runs and Artemis (Bekker-Wong-Reece model) results are comparable in terms of wheel sinkages and slippage values. Uphill drives led to non

  9. Microbial Ecology of a Crewed Rover Traverse in the Arctic: Low Microbial Dispersal and Implications for Planetary Protection on Human Mars Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Lee, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    Between April 2009 and July 2011, the NASA Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) led the Northwest Passage Drive Expedition (NWPDX), a multi-staged long-distance crewed rover traverse along the Northwest Passage in the Arctic. In April 2009, the HMP Okarian rover was driven 496 km over sea ice along the Northwest Passage, from Kugluktuk to Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. During the traverse, crew members collected samples from within the rover and from undisturbed snow-covered surfaces around the rover at three locations. The rover samples and snow samples were stored at subzero conditions (-20°C to -1°C) until processed for microbial diversity in labs at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objective was to determine the extent of microbial dispersal away from the rover and onto undisturbed snow. Interior surfaces of the rover were found to be associated with a wide range of bacteria (69 unique taxa) and fungi (16 unique taxa). In contrast, snow samples from the upwind, downwind, uptrack, and downtrack sample sites exterior to the rover were negative for both bacteria and fungi except for two colony-forming units (cfus) recovered from one downwind (1 cfu; site A4) and one uptrack (1 cfu; site B6) sample location. The fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus (GenBank JX517279), and closely related bacteria in the genus Brevibacillus were recovered from both snow (B. agri, GenBank JX517278) and interior rover surfaces. However, it is unknown whether the microorganisms were deposited onto snow surfaces at the time of sample collection (i.e., from the clothing or skin of the human operator) or via airborne dispersal from the rover during the 12-18 h layovers at the sites prior to collection. Results support the conclusion that a crewed rover traveling over previously undisturbed terrain may not significantly contaminate the local terrain via airborne dispersal of propagules from the vehicle.

  10. Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Chojnacki, M.; Cohen, J.; Economou, T.E.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.; Fleischer, I.; Geissler, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Haberle, R.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herman, J.A.; Iagnemma, K.D.; Jolliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Knudson, A.T.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rice, M.S.; Schroder, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Aqueous processes at Gusev crater inferred from physical properties of rocks and soils along the Spirit traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Grin, E.A.; Ritcher, L.; Soderblom, L.; Li, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Landis, G.A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for Spirit on the basis of morphological evidence of long-lasting water activity, including possibly fluvial and lacustrine episodes. From the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills, Spirit's traverse provides a journey back in time, from relatively recent volcanic plains showing little evidence for aqueous processes up to the older hills, where rock and soil composition are drastically different. For the first 156 sols, the only evidence of water action was weathering rinds, vein fillings, and soil crust cementation by salts. The trenches of Sols 112-145 marked the first significant findings of increased concentrations of sulfur and magnesium varying in parallel, suggesting that they be paired as magnesium-sulfate. Spirit's arrival at West Spur coincided with a shift in rock and soil composition with observations hinting at substantial amounts of water in Gusev's past. We used the Microscopic Imager data up to Sol 431 to analyze rock and soil properties and infer plausible types and magnitude of aqueous processes through time. We show the role played early by topography and structure. The morphology, texture, and deep alteration shown by the rocks in West Spur and the Columbia Hills Formation (CHF) suggest conditions that are not met in present-day Mars and required a wetter environment, which could have included transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water, vapor in volcanic gases, hydrothermal circulation, or saturation in a briny fluid containing the same elements. Changing conditions that might have affected flow circulation are suggested by different textural and morphological characteristics between the rocks in the CHF and those of the plains, with higher porosity proxy, higher void ratio, and higher water storage potential in the CHF. Soils were used to assess aqueous processes and water pathways in the top layers of modern soils. We conclude that infiltration might have become more difficult

  12. Microbial Ecology of a Crewed Rover Traverse in the Arctic: Low Microbial Dispersal and Implications for Planetary Protection on Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Lee, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Between April 2009 and July 2011, the NASA Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) led the Northwest Passage Drive Expedition (NWPDX), a multi-staged long-distance crewed rover traverse along the Northwest Passage in the Arctic. In April 2009, the HMP Okarian rover was driven 496 km over sea ice along the Northwest Passage, from Kugluktuk to Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. During the traverse, crew members collected samples from within the rover and from undisturbed snow-covered surfaces around the rover at three locations. The rover samples and snow samples were stored at subzero conditions (-20C to -1C) until processed for microbial diversity in labs at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objective was to determine the extent of microbial dispersal away from the rover and onto undisturbed snow. Interior surfaces of the rover were found to be associated with a wide range of bacteria (69 unique taxa) and fungi (16 unique taxa). In contrast, snow samples from the upwind, downwind, uptrack, and downtrack sample sites exterior to the rover were negative for both bacteria and fungi except for two colony-forming units (cfus) recovered from one downwind (1 cfu; site A4) and one uptrack (1 cfu; site B6) sample location. The fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus (GenBank JX517279), and closely related bacteria in the genus Brevibacillus were recovered from both snow (B. agri, GenBank JX517278) and interior rover surfaces. However, it is unknown whether the microorganisms were deposited onto snow surfaces at the time of sample collection (i.e., from the clothing or skin of the human operator) or via airborne dispersal from the rover during the 12-18 h layovers at the sites prior to collection. Results support the conclusion that a crewed rover traveling over previously undisturbed terrain may not significantly contaminate the local terrain via airborne dispersal of propagules from the vehicle. Key Words: Planetary protection-Contamination-Habitability-Haughton Crater-Mars. Astrobiology

  13. VNIR Multispectral Observations of Rocks at Spirit of St. Louis Crater and Marathon Valley on Th Rim of Endeavour Crater Made by the Opportunity Rover Pancam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Mittlefehldt, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the western rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August, 2011. Recently, Opportunity has reached a break in the Endeavour rim that the rover team has named Mara-thon Valley. This is the site where orbital observations from the MRO CRISM imaging spectrometer indicated the presence of iron smectites. On the outer western portion of Marathon Valley, Opportunity explored the crater-form feature dubbed Spirit of St. Louis (SoSL) crater. This presentation describes the 430 to 1009 nm (VNIR) reflectance, measured by the rover's Pancam, of rock units present both at Spirit of St. Louis and within Marathon Valley.

  14. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  15. Evidence of phyllosilicates in Wooly Patch, an altered rock encountered at West Spur, Columbia Hills, by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Korotev, R.L.; Jolliff, B.L.; Haskin, L.A.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; de Souza, Jr.; Kusack, A.G.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Tosca, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    On its traverse to Columbia Hills, the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit investigated an outcrop designated "Wooly Patch" that exhibited morphological, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics at the extreme ends of ranges observed among rocks studied at West Spur, a westward projecting salient near the foot of the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater. The major-element composition and Fe-mineralogy, as determined by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer and Mo??ssbauer Spectrometer, are inconsistent with any reasonable assemblage of basaltic minerals in that there is an excess of Si and Al. The combined data are best explained by the presence of 14-17% phyllosilicate minerals. Phyllosilicates that account for the composition and cation ratios include members of the kaolinite, serpentine, chlorite, and septechlorite groups. The potential existence of kaolinite-type Al-rich phyllosilicates within the Wooly Patch outcrop suggests a mildly acidic environment (pH 4-6) in the past and an open hydrologic system with good drainage conditions in the environment where these rocks were altered. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Surface-based 3D measurements of small aeolian bedforms on Mars and implications for estimating ExoMars rover traversability hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matt; Robson, Ellen; Barnes, Rob; Butcher, Frances; Fawdon, Peter; Huber, Ben; Ortner, Thomas; Paar, Gerhard; Traxler, Christoph; Bridges, John; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge L.

    2018-04-01

    Recent aeolian bedforms comprising loose sand are common on the martian surface and provide a mobility hazard to Mars rovers. The ExoMars rover will launch in 2020 to one of two candidate sites: Mawrth Vallis or Oxia Planum. Both sites contain numerous aeolian bedforms with simple ripple-like morphologies. The larger examples are 'Transverse Aeolian Ridges' (TARs), which stereo imaging analyses have shown to be a few metres high and up to a few tens of metres across. Where they occur, TARs therefore present a serious, but recognized and avoidable, rover mobility hazard. There also exists a population of smaller bedforms of similar morphology, but it is unknown whether these bedforms will be traversable by the ExoMars rover. We informally refer to these bedforms as "mini-TARs", as they are about an order of magnitude smaller than most TARs observed to date. They are more abundant than TARs in the Oxia Planum site, and can be pervasive in areas. The aim of this paper is to estimate the heights of these features, which are too small to measured using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), from orbital data alone. Thereby, we aim to increase our knowledge of the hazards in the proposed ExoMars landing sites. We propose a methodology to infer the height of these mini-TARs based on comparisons with similar features observed by previous Mars rovers. We use rover-based stereo imaging from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and PRo3D software, a 3D visualisation and analysis tool, to measure the size and height of mini-TARs in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. These are good analogues for the smaller bedforms at the ExoMars rover candidate landing sites. We show that bedform height scales linearly with length (as measured across the bedform, perpendicular to the crest ridge) with a ratio of about 1:15. We also measured the lengths of many of the smaller aeolian bedforms in the ExoMars rover Oxia Planum

  17. RAT magnet experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and Opportunity beyond sol 500

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Goetz, Walter; Chan, Marjorie A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) magnet experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers was designed to collect dust from rocks ground by the RAT of the two rovers on the surface of Mars. The dust collected on the magnets is now a mixture of dust from many grindings. Here the new data from the experiment a...

  18. Use of Geochemistry Data Collected by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Gusev Crater to Teach Geomorphic Zonation through Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory exercise used to teach principal components analysis (PCA) as a means of surface zonation. The lab was built around abundance data for 16 oxides and elements collected by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Gusev Crater between Sol 14 and Sol 470. Students used PCA to reduce 15 of these into 3 components, which,…

  19. Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars exploration Rover Spirit at Gusev crater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Pernille; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties experiments are designed to help identify the magnetic minerals in the dust and rocks on Mars-and to determine whether liquid water was involved in the formation and alteration of these magnetic minerals. Almost all of the dust particles suspended in the martian atmosphere...... must contain ferrimagnetic minerals (such as maghemite or magnetite) in an amount of similar to2% by weight. The most magnetic fraction of the dust appears darker than the average dust. Magnetite was detected in the first two rocks ground by Spirit....

  20. Characteristics of pebble and cobble-sized clasts along the Curiosity rover traverse from sol 100 to 750: Terrain types, potential sources, and transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Cropper, K.; Gupta, S.; Kah, L. C.; Williams, R. M. E.; Blank, J.; Calef, F.; Hamilton, V. E.; Lewis, K.; Shechet, J.; McBride, M.; Bridges, N.; Frias, J. Martinez; Newsom, H.

    2016-12-01

    We combine the results of orbitally-derived morphologic and thermal inertia data with in situ observations of abundance, size, morphologic characteristics, and distribution of pebble- to cobble-sized clasts along the Curiosity rover traverse. Our goals are to characterize rock sources and transport history, and improve our ability to predict upcoming terrain. There are ten clast types, with nine types interpreted as sedimentary rocks. Only Type 3 clasts had morphologies indicative of significant wear through transport; thus, most clast types are indicative of nearby outcrops or prior presence of laterally extensive sedimentary rock layers, consistent with the erosional landscape. A minor component may reflect impact delivery of more distant material. Types 1 and 4 are heavily-cemented sandstones, likely associated with a ;caprock; layer. Types 5 and 6 (and possibly 7) are pebble-rich sandstones, with varying amounts of cement leading to varying susceptibility to erosion/wear. Type 3 clasts are rounded pebbles likely transported and deposited alluvially, then worn out of pebbly sandstone/conglomerate. Types 9 and 10 are poorly-sorted sandstones, with Type 9 representing fragments of Square Top-type layers, and Type 10 deriving from basal or other Mt. Sharp layers. Types 2, 8 and 9 are considered exotics. There are few clear links between clast type and terrain surface roughness (particularly in identifying terrain that is challenging for the rover to navigate). Orbital data may provide a reasonable prediction of certain end-member terrains but the complex interplay between variables that contribute to surface characteristics makes discriminating between terrain types from orbital data problematic. Prediction would likely be improved through higher-resolution thermal inertia data.

  1. Mars Rover Photos API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This API is designed to collect image data gathered by NASA's Curiosity, Opportunity, and Spirit rovers on Mars and make it more easily available to other...

  2. Science Data Understanding for Autonomous Rover Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous rover traversal speed and capabilities are rapidly increasing, but communications bandwidth for planetary exploration remains limited. In order to...

  3. Rover Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...

  4. Mars Gusts Blow Toward Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows several gusts and whirlwinds carrying dust as they move toward NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. It consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on Spirit during the afternoon of the rover's 501st martian day, or sol (May 31, 2005). The camera was facing into the wind. Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  5. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Real‐Time Measurement of Wheel Performance on a Rover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wind-blown sand on Mars produces a high risk of entrapment for Mars rovers. This was evident when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was immobilized in a wind blown...

  7. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Autonomous Path Tracking Steering Controller for Extraterrestrial Terrain Exporation Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Sonsalla, Roland; Kirchner, Frank

    Extraterrestrial surface missions typically use a robotic rover platform to carry the science instrumentation (e.g.,the twin MER rovers). Due to the risks in the rover path (i.e. low trafficability of unrecognized soil patches), it is proposed in the FASTER footnote{\\url{https://www.faster-fp7-space.eu}} project that two rovers should be used. A micro scout rover is used for determining the traversability of the terrain and collaborate with a primary rover to lower the risk of entering hazardous areas. That will improve the mission safety and the effective traverse speed for planetary rover exploration. This paper presents the design and implementation of the path following controller for micro scout rover. The objective to synthesize a control law which allows the rover to autonomously follow a desired path in a stable manner. Furthermore, the software architecture controlling the rover and all its subsystems is depicted. The performance of the designed controller is discussed and demonstrated with realistic simulations and experiments, conclusions and an outlook of future work are also given. Key words: Micro Rover, Scout Rover, Mars Exploration, Multi-Rover Team, Mobile, All-Terrain, Hybrid-Legged Wheel, Path Following, Automatic Steer, nonlinear systems.

  12. Requirements assessment and operational demands for a resource mapping rover mission to the lunar polar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLARER,PAUL R.; BINDER,ALAN B.; LENARD,ROGER X.

    2000-01-26

    A preliminary set of requirements for a robotic rover mission to the lunar polar region are described and assessed. Tasks to be performed by the rover include core drill sample acquisition, mineral and volatile soil content assay, and significant wide area traversals. Assessment of the postulated requirements is performed using first order estimates of energy, power, and communications throughput issues. Two potential rover system configurations are considered, a smaller rover envisioned as part of a group of multiple rovers, and a larger single rover envisioned along more traditional planetary surface rover concept lines.

  13. Whirlwind Drama During Spirit's 496th Sol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil growing in size and blowing across the plain inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The clip consists of frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the morning of the rover's 496th martian day, or sol (May 26, 2005). Contrast has been enhanced for anything in the images that changes from frame to frame, that is, for the dust moved by wind.

  14. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  15. Spirit Hits a Home Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This week, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit arrived at 'Home Plate,' a feature that, when seen from orbit, looks like the home plate of a baseball diamond. Home Plate is a roughly circular feature about 80 meters (260 feet) in diameter that might be an old impact crater or volcanic feature. The Spirit team has been eager to get to Home Plate and has been enjoying distant views of the feature and a curious 'bathtub ring' of light-colored materials along its edges. The team has pushed the rover hard to get here before the deep Martian winter sets in. After scientists had identified Home Plate from orbit, they had many theories about what it could be and what they might see. But when Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took this and other images, the science team was stunned. This Pancam image is of an outcrop nicknamed 'Barnhill' and surrounding rocks on the north side of Home Plate, showing the most spectacular layering that Spirit has seen. Pancam and microscopic imager views of the layers in the rocks reveal a range of grain sizes and textures that change from the lower to the upper part of the outcrop. This may help scientists figure out how the material was emplaced. Spirit is also conducting work with its arm instruments to figure out the chemistry and mineralogy of the rocks. Scientists have several hypotheses about what Home Plate could be, including features made by volcanoes and impact craters, and ways that water could have played a role. They are busy trying to figure out what the data from Spirit is really telling us. As Spirit works at Home Plate during February, the science team is choosing informal names for rocks from the great players and managers of the Negro Leagues of baseball. This outcrop, 'Barnhill,' is informally named for David Barnhill, the ace of the New York Cubans' pitching staff during the early 1940s. He compiled an 18-3 record in 1941 and defeated Satchel Paige in the 1942 East-West all-star game. Other rocks in the area are

  16. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  17. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  18. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  19. Terrain Adaptive Navigation for Mars Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Larry H.; Helmick, Daniel M.; Angelova, Anelia; Livianu, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    A navigation system for Mars rovers in very rough terrain has been designed, implemented, and tested on a research rover in Mars analog terrain. This navigation system consists of several technologies that are integrated to increase the capabilities compared to current rover navigation algorithms. These technologies include: goodness maps and terrain triage, terrain classification, remote slip prediction, path planning, high-fidelity traversability analysis (HFTA), and slip-compensated path following. The focus of this paper is not on the component technologies, but rather on the integration of these components. Results from the onboard integration of several of the key technologies described here are shown. Additionally, the results from independent demonstrations of several of these technologies are shown. Future work will include the demonstration of the entire integrated system described here.

  20. Mars Exploration Rover Pancam Multispectral Imaging of Rocks, Soils, and Dust at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W. M.; Farrand, W.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Morris, R. V.; Sullivan, R. J.; Thompson, S.; Wang, A.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally- and mineralogically-relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish salty soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of martian surface materials.

  1. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Diving into traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas; Yang, Zhenbin

    2017-05-01

    We study various aspects of wormholes that are made traversable by an interaction beween the two asymptotic boundaries. We concentrate on the case of nearly-$AdS_2$ gravity and discuss a very simple mechanical picture for the gravitational dynamics. We derive a formula for the two sided correlators that includes the effect of gravitational backreaction, which limits the amount of information we can send through the wormhole. We emphasize that the process can be viewed as a teleportation protocol where the teleportee feels nothing special as he/she goes through the wormhole. We discuss some applications to the cloning paradox for old black holes. We point out that the same formula we derived for $AdS_2$ gravity is also valid for the simple SYK quantum mechanical theory, around the thermofield double state. We present a heuristic picture for this phenomenon in terms of an operator growth model. Finally, we show that a similar effect is present in a completely classical chaotic system with a large number of degrees of freedom.

  4. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  5. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Spirit acquired this mosaic with the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The view presented here is an approximately true-color rendering.

  6. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Sancti Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucho más alto que el último pueblo del valle, a 1.500 metros de altitud, las aguas del San Nicolau, cansadas de saltar cascadas, se detienen a lo largo de unos pocos kilómetros, entreteniéndose en suaves meandros antes de volver a precipitarse en otra cascada mayor. La nieve cubre esa región la mayor parte del año, y en los meses de verano es lugar delicioso para el excursionista y el pescador de truchas. Sólo las tormentas bruscas, violentas y breves llegan con frecuencia a turbar la paz de su reposo en aquel edén. Puede cobijarse entonces bajo la media naranja del refugio, orientada a sotavento; y mientras pasa el aguacero, contemplar sus frescos inspirados por el nombre del lugar: Sancti Spirit.

  9. Traversable Wormholes and Black Hole Complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gottesman, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Black hole complementarity is incompatible with the existence of traversable wormholes. In fact, traversable wormholes cause problems for any theory where information comes out in the Hawking radiation.

  10. Chaotic Traversal (CHAT): Very Large Graphs Traversal Using Chaotic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changaival, Boonyarit; Rosalie, Martin; Danoy, Grégoire; Lavangnananda, Kittichai; Bouvry, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Graph Traversal algorithms can find their applications in various fields such as routing problems, natural language processing or even database querying. The exploration can be considered as a first stepping stone into knowledge extraction from the graph which is now a popular topic. Classical solutions such as Breadth First Search (BFS) and Depth First Search (DFS) require huge amounts of memory for exploring very large graphs. In this research, we present a novel memoryless graph traversal algorithm, Chaotic Traversal (CHAT) which integrates chaotic dynamics to traverse large unknown graphs via the Lozi map and the Rössler system. To compare various dynamics effects on our algorithm, we present an original way to perform the exploration of a parameter space using a bifurcation diagram with respect to the topological structure of attractors. The resulting algorithm is an efficient and nonresource demanding algorithm, and is therefore very suitable for partial traversal of very large and/or unknown environment graphs. CHAT performance using Lozi map is proven superior than the, commonly known, Random Walk, in terms of number of nodes visited (coverage percentage) and computation time where the environment is unknown and memory usage is restricted.

  11. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it. The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica. This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide. Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica. Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz. In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could have been from water in a hot

  12. Spirit Does a 'Jig' at Laguna Hollow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This front hazard-avoidance image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 45 shows Spirit in its new location after a drive totaling about 20 meters (65.6 feet). The circular depression that Spirit is in, dubbed 'Laguna Hollow,' was most likely formed by a small impact.Scientists were interested in reaching Laguna Hollow because of the location's abundance of very fine, dust-like soil. The fine material could be atmospheric dust that has settled into the depression, or a salt-based material that causes crusts in the soils and coating on rocks. Either way, scientists hope to be able to characterize the material and broaden their understanding of this foreign world.To help scientists get a better look at the variations in the fine-grained dust at different depths, controllers commanded Spirit to 'jiggle' its wheels in the soil before backing away to a distance that allows the area to be reached with the robotic arm. Spirit will likely spend part of sol 46 analyzing this area with the instruments on its robotic arm.

  13. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Compositional Variations in Sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from Visible-Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy and Comparison to Ground-Truth from the Curiosity Rover

    OpenAIRE

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity ...

  16. Positive-Buoyancy Rover for Under Ice Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichty, John M.; Klesh, Andrew T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Hand, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    A buoyant rover has been developed to traverse the underside of ice-covered lakes and seas. The rover operates at the ice/water interface and permits direct observation and measurement of processes affecting freeze- over and thaw events in lake and marine environments. Operating along the 2- D ice-water interface simplifies many aspects of underwater exploration, especially when compared to submersibles, which have difficulty in station-keeping and precision mobility. The buoyant rover consists of an all aluminum body with two aluminum sawtooth wheels. The two independent body segments are sandwiched between four actuators that permit isolation of wheel movement from movement of the central tether spool. For normal operations, the wheels move while the tether spool feeds out line and the cameras on each segment maintain a user-controlled fixed position. Typically one camera targets the ice/water interface and one camera looks down to the lake floor to identify seep sources. Each wheel can be operated independently for precision turning and adjustments. The rover is controlled by a touch- tablet interface and wireless goggles enable real-time viewing of video streamed from the rover cameras. The buoyant rover was successfully deployed and tested during an October 2012 field campaign to investigate methane trapped in ice in lakes along the North Slope of Alaska.

  17. A Cross-Site Visual Localization Method for Yutu Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Wang, B.; Zhou, J.

    2014-04-01

    Localization of the rover is critical to support science and engineering operations in planetary rover missions, such as rover traverse planning and hazard avoidance. It is desirable for planetary rover to have visual localization capability with high degree of automation and quick turnaround time. In this research, we developed a visual localization method for lunar rover, which is capable of deriving accurate localization results from cross-site stereo images. Tie points are searched in correspondent areas predicted by initial localization results and determined by ASIFT matching algorithm. Accurate localization results are derived from bundle adjustment based on an image network constructed by the tie points. In order to investigate the performance of proposed method, theoretical accuracy analysis on is implemented by means of error propagation principles. Field experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in practical applications. Experiment results prove that the proposed method provides more accurate localization results (1 %~4 %) than dead-reckoning. After more validations and enhancements, the developed rover localization method has been successfully used in Chang'e-3 mission operations.

  18. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Mars Exploration Rovers 2004-2013: Evolving Operational Tactics Driven by Aging Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie; Seibert, Michael; Bellutta, Paolo; Ferguson, Eric; Forgette, Daniel; Herman, Jennifer; Justice, Heather; Keuneke, Matthew; Sosland, Rebekah; Stroupe, Ashley; hide

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of more than 10 years of continuous operations on the Martian surface, the operations team for the Mars Exploration Rovers has encountered and overcome many challenges. The twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, designed for a Martian surface mission of three months in duration, far outlived their life expectancy. Spirit explored for six years and Opportunity still operates and, in January 2014, celebrated the 10th anniversary of her landing. As with any machine that far outlives its design life, each rover has experienced a series of failures and degradations attributable to age, use, and environmental exposure. This paper reviews the failures and degradations experienced by the two rovers and the measures taken by the operations team to correct, mitigate, or surmount them to enable continued exploration and discovery.

  20. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Rocky 7 prototype Mars rover field geology experiments 1. Lavic Lake and sunshine volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Acton, C.; Blaney, D.; Bowman, J.; Kim, S.; Klingelhofer, G.; Marshall, J.; Niebur, C.; Plescia, J.; Saunders, R.S.; Ulmer, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with the Rocky 7 rover were performed in the Mojave Desert to better understand how to conduct rover-based, long-distance (kilometers) geological traverses on Mars. The rover was equipped with stereo imaging systems for remote sensing science and hazard avoidance and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers for in situ determination of mineralogy of unprepared rock and soil surfaces. Laboratory data were also obtained using the spectrometers and an X ray diffraction (XRD)/XRF instrument for unprepared samples collected from the rover sites. Simulated orbital and descent image data assembled for the test sites were found to be critical for assessing the geologic setting, formulating hypotheses to be tested with rover observations, planning traverses, locating the rover, and providing a regional context for interpretation of rover-based observations. Analyses of remote sensing and in situ observations acquired by the rover confirmed inferences made from orbital and simulated descent images that the Sunshine Volcanic Field is composed of basalt flows. Rover data confirmed the idea that Lavic Lake is a recharge playa and that an alluvial fan composed of sediments with felsic compositions has prograded onto the playa. Rover-based discoveries include the inference that the basalt flows are mantled with aeolian sediment and covered with a dense pavement of varnished basalt cobbles. Results demonstrate that the combination of rover remote sensing and in situ analytical observations will significantly increase our understanding of Mars and provide key connecting links between orbital and descent data and analyses of returned samples. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Night Rover Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...

  3. Recent results from the Microscopic Imagers on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ashley, J. W.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI), designed to simulate a geologist’s hand lens. The fixed-focus MI is mounted on the instrument arm and can resolve objects 0.1 mm in size or larger. Spirit MI observations of the rocks on “Home Plate” continue to be consistent with a volcaniclastic origin. A total of 124 individual soil samples were analyzed using MI images acquired between landing and Sol 1980, including 28 bedforms, 35 composite soils, 49 unstructured soils, and 6 trenches including natural vertical exposures and those dug by Spirit’s wheels. Six outcrops and rocks were also analyzed as plausible source areas for the spherules and other particles observed in the soil around Home Plate, or when associated with large patches of soils. The rocks on Home Plate were covered by enough dust that RAT brushing was required to allow textures to be seen by the MI, such as the dark, moderately sorted and rounded grains (lapilli?) of the rock “Pecan Pie.” The MI also monitored the MER magnets and solar panels at the 2008 winter haven on the north side of Home Plate. After solar power was sufficient to allow Spirit to drive again, the MI was used to examine the silica-rich rock “Stapledon” just north of Home Plate. The texture of Stapledon appears similar to that seen in the silica-rich rocks on the east side of Home Plate, suggestive of secondary mineralization through precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. While plans for extracting Spirit from the sands of “Troy” are being made, the MI has been extensively used to examine the rocks and soils accessible to the instrument arm. These data show that moderately sorted, salty aggregate soils at depth are overlain by a thin crust near the present surface. These observations, along with MI images showing Spirit’s underbelly, are being used to inform extraction testing in the MER testbed at JPL. While the MI was not designed to take images of

  4. Five dimensional cosmological traversable wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, S.; Rostami, T., E-mail: t_rostami@sbu.ac.ir; Jalalzadeh, S., E-mail: s-jalalzadeh@sbu.ac.ir

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, a traversable wormhole in the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model with one extra spacelike compact dimension is studied. We have chosen dynamical compactification as the evolution of the fifth dimension. In this respect, we study how the existence of the extra dimension affects the behavior of the energy density, the shape function and the scale factor. It is shown that the total matter can be non-exotic and the violation of the weak energy condition can be avoided.

  5. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Grupo de Cosmologia y Gravitacion-UBB, Concepcion (Chile); Liempi, Luis [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universidad San Sebastian, Facultad de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Concepcion (Chile); Rodriguez, Pablo [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)

  6. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β -parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented.

  7. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodriguez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)

  8. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Multiple images taken with Spirit's panoramic camera are combined here into a stereo view that appears three-dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses, with the red lens on the left.

  9. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; Mohanty, Susmita; Özdemir, Kürsad; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Frischauf, Norbert; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Waclavicek, René

    The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general

  11. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Black holes and traversible wormholes: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2002-01-01

    A unified framework for black holes and traversible wormholes is described, where both are locally defined by outer trapping horizons, two-way traversible for wormholes and one-way traversible for black or white holes. In a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, examples are given of: construction of wormholes from black holes; operation of wormholes for transport, including back-reaction; maintenance of an operating wormhole; and collapse of wormholes to black holes. In spherically symmetric...

  13. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11973 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  15. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate.

  16. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  17. Cerebellum Augmented Rover Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Bio-Inspired Technologies and Systems (BITS) are a very natural result of thinking about Nature's way of solving problems. Knowledge of animal behaviors an be used in developing robotic behaviors intended for planetary exploration. This is the expertise of the JFL BITS Group and has served as a philosophical model for NMSU RioRobolab. Navigation is a vital function for any autonomous system. Systems must have the ability to determine a safe path between their current location and some target location. The MER mission, as well as other JPL rover missions, uses a method known as dead-reckoning to determine position information. Dead-reckoning uses wheel encoders to sense the wheel's rotation. In a sandy environment such as Mars, this method is highly inaccurate because the wheels will slip in the sand. Improving positioning error will allow the speed of an autonomous navigating rover to be greatly increased. Therefore, local navigation based upon landmark tracking is desirable in planetary exploration. The BITS Group is developing navigation technology based upon landmark tracking. Integration of the current rover architecture with a cerebellar neural network tracking algorithm will demonstrate that this approach to navigation is feasible and should be implemented in future rover and spacecraft missions.

  18. SPIRIT 2013 Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol......; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators...

  19. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  20. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars

  1. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  2. Proposing an International Collaboration on Lightweight Autonomous Vehicles to Conduct Scientific Traverses and Surveys over Antarctica and the Surrounding Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Behar, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We have continued to develop a concept for use of autonomous rovers, originally developed for use in planetary exploration, in polar science on Earth; the concept was the subject of a workshop, and this report summarizes and extends that workshop. The workshop on Antarctic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society on February 14 and 15, 2001 to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of autonomous rovers. The participants enthusiastically viewed rovers as being uniquely valuable for such tasks as data taking on tedious or repetitive routes, traverses in polar night, difficult or hazardous routes, extremely remote regions, routes requiring only simple instrumentation, traverses that must be conducted at low speed, augments of manned traverses, and scientific procedures not compatible with human presence or combustion engines. The workshop has concluded that instrumented autonomous vehicles, of the type being developed for planetary exploration, have the potential to contribute significantly to the way science in conducted in Antarctica while also aiding planetary technology development, and engaging the public's interest. Specific objectives can be supported in understanding ice sheet mass balance, sea ice heat and momentum exchange, and surface air chemistry processes. In the interval since the workshop, we have concluded that organized program to employ such rovers to perform scientific tasks in the Fourth International Polar Year would serve the objectives of that program well.

  3. Textures of the soils and rocks at Gusev crater from Spirit's Microscopic Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herkenhoff, K.E.; Squyres, S.W.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Microscopic Imager on the Spirit rover analyzed the textures of the soil and rocks at Gusev crater on Mars at a resolution of 100 micrometers. Weakly bound agglomerates of dust are present in the soil near the Columbia Memorial Station. Some of the brushed or abraded rock surfaces show igneous...

  4. Textures of the soils and rocks at Gusev crater from Spirit's Microscopic Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herkenhoff, K.E.; Squyres, S.W.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Microscopic Imager on the Spirit rover analyzed the textures of the soil and rocks at Gusev crater on Mars at a resolution of 100 micrometers. Weakly bound agglomerates of dust are present in the soil near the Columbia Memorial Station. Some of the brushed or abraded rock surfaces show igneou...

  5. Aerokats and Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, G.; Miles, T.; Nagchaudhuri, A.; Henry, A.; Coronado, P.; Smith, S.; Bydlowski, D.; Gaines, J.; Hartman, C.

    2015-12-01

    Two novel tools are being developed for team-based environmental and science observations suitable for use in Middle School through Undergraduate settings. Partnerships with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center are critical for this work, and the concepts and practices are aimed at providing affordable and easy-to-field hardware to the classroom. The Advanced Earth Research Observation Kites and Atmospheric and Terrestrial Sensors (AEROKATS) system brings affordable and easy-to-field remote sensing and in-situ measurements within reach for local-scale Earth observations and data gathering. Using commercial kites, a wide variety of sensors, and a new NASA technology, AEROKATS offers a quick-to-learn method to gather airborne remote sensing and in-situ data for classroom analysis. The Remotely Operated Vehicle for Education and Research (ROVER) project introduces team building for mission operations and research, using modern technologies for exploring aquatic environments. ROVER projects use hobby-type radio control hardware and common in-water instrumentation, to highlight the numerous roles and responsibilities needed in real-world research missions, such as technology, operations, and science disciplines. NASA GSFC's partnerships have enabled the fielding of several AEROKATS and ROVER prototypes, and results suggest application of these methods is feasible and engaging.

  6. Multispectral Imaging Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Athena Science

    2004-11-01

    Multispectral images from 400 to 1000 nm from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and Opportunity Pancams have provided new information on the morphology, physical properties, and mineralogy of rocks and soils at Gusev and Meridiani and have played a critical role in helping to choose specific targets for detailed compositional analyses using the rovers' arm instruments. Images within the Gusev plains reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with moderate- to high-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular hollows. Optically thick coverings or coatings of fine-grained ferric-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces show near-IR signatures consistent with mafic silicates like pyroxene or olivine. Imaging in the Columbia Hills reveals evidence for outcrop, layered materials, and a different style of physical and/or chemical weathering of some rocks than in the plains. At Meridiani, images within Eagle crater and in the plains during the traverse to Endurance crater reveal a low-albedo, generally flat and rock-free surface. Outcrops of higher-albedo, red, laminated rocks are observed within and around small craters, riftlike cracks in the plains, and well into Endurance crater. Fine-grained materials include dark ferrous-Fe rich basaltic sand, angular rock clasts, bright dust, and mm-size, low- and high-albedo spherical granules (spherules) that occur within and near the bright outcrop. Spectra of the low-albedo sand, small rock clasts, and one larger dark rock found on the plains show near-IR signatures consistent with the presence of pyroxene or olivine. Spectra of the dark spherules are consistent with the presence of crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, supporting their interpretation as concretions. Bright spherule spectra are consistent with dark spherules covered or coated by nanocrystalline ferric-rich dust. Spectra of the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence

  7. ARPS Enabled Titan Rover Concept with Inflatable Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    The Decadal Survey identified Titan as one of the top priority science destinations in the large moons category, while NASA's proposed Design Reference Mission Set ranked a Titan in-situ explorer second, after a recommended Europa Geophysical Observer mission. This paper discusses a Titan rover concept, enabled by a single advanced Radioisotope Power System that could provide about 110We (BOL). The concept targets the smaller Flagship or potentially the New Frontiers mission class. This MSL class rover would traverse on four 1.5 m diameter inflatable wheels during its 3 years mission duration and would use as much design and flight heritage as possible to reduce mission cost. Direct to Earth communication would remove the need for a relay orbiter. Details on the strawman instrument payload, and rover subsystems are given for this science driven mission concept. In addition, power system trades between Advanced RTG, TPV, and Advanced Stirling and Brayton Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are outlined. While many possible approaches exist for Titan in-situ exploration, the Titan rover concept presented here could provide a scientifically interesting and programmatically affordable solution.

  8. Li-ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar; Smart, M.; Whitacanack, L.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have contributed significantly to the success of NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity that have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last two years and performing astounding geological studies to answer the ever-puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and the origin of our planets. Combined with the triple-junction solar cells, the lithium-ion batteries have been powering the robotic rovers, and assist in keeping the rover electronics warm, and in supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has resulted in significant benefits in several categories, such as mass, volume, energy efficiency, self discharge, and above all low temperature performance. Designed initially for the primary mission needs of 300 cycles over 90 days of surface operation, the batteries have been performing admirably, over the last two years. After about 670 days of exploration and at least as many cycles, there is little change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages or capacities of these batteries, as estimated from the in-flight data and corroborated by ground testing. Aided by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond two years. In this paper, we will describe the performance characteristics of these batteries during launch, cruise phase and on the surface of Mars thus far.

  9. Static traversable wormholes in Lyra manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, A. Sayahian; Moradpour, H.

    At first, considering the Einstein framework, we introduce some new static traversable wormholes and study the effects of a dark energy-like source on them. Thereinafter, a brief review on Einstein field equations in Lyra manifold is presented, and we address some static traversable wormholes in the Lyra manifold which satisfy the energy conditions. It is also shown that solutions introduced in the Einstein framework may also meet the energy conditions in the Lyra manifold. Finally, we focus on vacuum Lyra manifold and find some traversable asymptotically flat wormholes. In summary, our study shows that it is theoretically possible to find a Lyra displacement vector field in a manner in which traversable wormholes satisfy the energy conditions in a Lyra manifold.

  10. RTSAH Traversal Order for Occlusion Rays

    KAUST Repository

    Ize, Thiago

    2011-04-01

    We accelerate the finding of occluders in tree based acceleration structures, such as a packetized BVH and a single ray kd-tree, by deriving the ray termination surface area heuristic (RTSAH) cost model for traversing an occlusion ray through a tree and then using the RTSAH to determine which child node a ray should traverse first instead of the traditional choice of traversing the near node before the far node. We further extend RTSAH to handle materials that attenuate light instead of fully occluding it, so that we can avoid superfluous intersections with partially transparent objects. For scenes with high occlusion, we substantially lower the number of traversal steps and intersection tests and achieve up to 2× speedups. © 2010 The Author(s).

  11. Mars Exploration Rovers as Virtual Instruments for Determination of Terrain Roughness and Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Lindemann, R.; Matijevic, J.; Richter, L.; Sullivan, R.; Haldemann, A.; Anderson, R.; Snider, N.

    2003-01-01

    The two 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), in combination with the Athena Payload, will be used as virtual instrument systems to infer terrain properties during traverses, in addition to using the rover wheels to excavate trenches, exposing subsurface materials for remote and in-situ observations. The MERs are being modeled using finite element-based rover system transfer functions that utilize the distribution of masses associated with the vehicle, together with suspension and wheel dynamics, to infer surface roughness and mechanical properties from traverse time series data containing vehicle yaw, pitch, roll, encoder counts, and motor currents. These analyses will be supplemented with imaging and other Athena Payload measurements. The approach is being validated using Sojourner data, the FIDO rover, and experiments with MER testbed vehicles. In addition to conducting traverse science and associated analyses, trenches will be excavated by the MERs to depths of approximately 10-20 cm by locking all but one of the front wheels and rotating that wheel backwards so that the excavated material is piled up on the side of the trench away from the vehicle. Soil cohesion and angle of internal friction will be determined from the trench telemetry data. Emission spectroscopy and in-situ observations will be made using the Athena payload before and after imaging. Trenching and observational protocols have been developed using Sojourner results; data from the FIDO rover, including trenches dug into sand, mud cracks, and weakly indurated bedrock; and experiments with MER testbed rovers. Particular attention will be focused on Mini-TES measurements designed to determine the abundance and state of subsurface water (e.g. hydrated, in zeolites, residual pore ice?) predicted to be present from Odyssey GRS/NS/HEND data.

  12. Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen

    When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P <0.0001, ANOVA). Traversal probability increased with and traversal time decreased with beam separation. These results confirmed our hypothesis and support the plausibility of locomotion energy landscapes for understanding the formation of locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.

  13. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. The image is presented here as a vertical projection, as if looking straight down, and in false color, which brings out subtle color differences.

  14. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. The image is presented here in false color that is used to bring out subtle differences in color.

  15. Discerning the Spirits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    This response to Swedish scholar Jayne Svenungsson's keynote on the return of spirituality sets off by agreeing in general to her thesis that there is a return of spirituality - or rather a return of the Spirit. But whilst Svenungsson in her paper endeavours to see the return of spirituality...

  16. INCULCATING ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    this paper advocates the use and teaching of indigenous languages (Igbo) not only from primary and post-primary level ... process of inculcating entrepreneurial spirit should start at the elementary school level through ... productively in their indigenous languages and posits that, "A Scientific impetus or technology acquired ...

  17. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  18. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  19. Traversable wormholes via a double trace deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Jafferis, Daniel Louis; Wall, Aron C.

    2017-12-01

    After turning on an interaction that couples the two boundaries of an eternal BTZ black hole, we find a quantum matter stress tensor with negative average null energy, whose gravitational backreaction renders the Einstein-Rosen bridge traversable. Such a traversable wormhole has an interesting interpretation in the context of ER=EPR, which we suggest might be related to quantum teleportation. However, it cannot be used to violate causality. We also discuss the implications for the energy and holographic entropy in the dual CFT description.

  20. Circolo enogastronomico "Della Rovere" = The Della Rovere Club

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Della Rovere Klubist, mis on Itaalia Önogastronoomiliste Ühenduste Föderatsiooni ja Euroopa Önogastronoomia Vennaskondade Nõukogu liige ja mille missiooniks on kohalike traditsioonide säilitamine, erinevate toiduainete omaduste tutvustamine, veinikultuuri õpetamine jne

  1. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  2. An Embarrassment of Spirits: Spirits, Hauntology and Democracy in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2014-01-01

    Kyai Muzakkin is the spiritual leader of a Koranic school (pesantren) in East Java that he claims is the only pesantren in the world that is attended entirely by spirits (jin). Kyai Muzakkin is also the founder of an anti-corruption NGO. In 2009, he gained national notoriety and infamy when he...... combined his vocational interest in spirits and anti-corruption and sent a thousand spirits to Jakarta to protect the supporters of the Indonesian president at an anti-corruption rally. The introduction of spirits into the increasingly ‘occult’ Indonesian politics of 2009 was as apt as it was embarrassing...... effects....

  3. An Update on the Performance of Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries on Mars Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumara, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Ewell, R. C.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last thirty months, far exceeding the primary mission life of three months, performing astounding geological studies to examine the habitability of Mars. Such an extended mission life may be attributed to impressive performances of several subsystems, including power subsystem components, i.e., solar array and batteries. The novelty and challenge for this mission in terms of energy storage is the use of lithium-ion batteries, for the first time in a major NASA mission, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has considerably enhanced or even enabled these rovers, by providing greater mass and volume allocations for the payload and wider range of operating temperatures for the power subsystem and thus reduced thermal management. After about 800 days of exploration, there is only marginal change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages of the batteries or in their capacities, as estimated from in-flight voltage data and corroborated by ground testing of prototype batteries. Enabled by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from a cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond 1000 sols, though other components have started showing signs of decay. In this paper, we will update the performance characteristics of these batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity.

  4. Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grădinaru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.

  5. Field Experiments using Telepresence and Virtual Reality to Control Remote Vehicles: Application to Mars Rover Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe a series of field experiments to develop and demonstrate file use of Telepresence and Virtual Reality systems for controlling rover vehicles on planetary surfaces. In 1993, NASA Ames deployed a Telepresence-Controlled Remotely Operated underwater Vehicle (TROV) into an ice-covered sea environment in Antarctica. The goal of the mission was to perform scientific exploration of an unknown environment using a remote vehicle with telepresence and virtual reality as a user interface. The vehicle was operated both locally, from above a dive hole in the ice through which it was launched, and remotely over a satellite communications link from a control room at NASA's Ames Research center, for over two months. Remote control used a bidirectional Internet link to the vehicle control computer. The operator viewed live stereo video from the TROV along with a computer-gene rated graphic representation of the underwater terrain showing file vehicle state and other related information. Tile actual vehicle could be driven either from within the virtual environment or through a telepresence interface. In March 1994, a second field experiment was performed in which [lie remote control system developed for the Antarctic TROV mission was used to control the Russian Marsokhod Rover, an advanced planetary surface rover intended for launch in 1998. Marsokhod consists of a 6-wheel chassis and is capable of traversing several kilometers of terrain each day, The rover can be controlled remotely, but is also capable of performing autonomous traverses. The rover was outfitted with a manipulator arm capable of deploying a small instrument, collecting soil samples, etc. The Marsokhod rover was deployed at Amboy Crater in the Mojave desert, a Mars analog site, and controlled remotely from Los Angeles. in two operating modes: (1) a Mars rover mission simulation with long time delay and (2) a Lunar rover mission simulation with live action video. A team of planetary

  6. Progress in Development of the Axel Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A.; Helmick, Daniel M.; Volpe, Richard A.; Abad-Manterola, Pablo; Edlund, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    ). Sensors, computation, and communication modules are also housed inside Axel s body. A pair of stereo vision cameras provides three-dimensional view for autonomous navigation and avoiding obstacles. Inertial sensors determine the tilt of the robot and are used for estimating its motion. In a fully developed version, power would be supplied by rechargeable batteries aboard Axel; at the time of reporting the information for this article, power was supplied from an external source via a cable. In and of itself, the Axel rover is fully capable of traversing and sampling terrains on planetary surfaces. By use of only the two main wheel actuators and the caster link actuator, Axel can be made to follow an arbitrary path, turn in place, and operate upside- down or right-side-up. If operated in a tethered configuration, as shown in Figure 1, it can be made to move down and up a steep crater wall, descend from an overhang to a cave, and ascend from the cave back to the overhang, all by use of the same three actuators. Such tethered operation could be useful in searching for accident victims or missing persons in mines, caves, and rubble piles. Running the tether through the caster link enhances the stability of Axel and provides a restoring force that keeps the link off the ground for the most part during operation on a steep slope. In its extended configuration, two Axel modules can dock to either side of a payload module to form the four wheeled Axel2 rover (Figure 2). Additional payload and Axel modules can dock to either side of the Axel2 to form the Axel3 rover, extending its payload capacity and its mobility capabilities.

  7. Traversable asymptotically flat wormholes in Rastall gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradpour, H.; Sadeghnezhad, N.; Hendi, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    There are some gravitational theories in which the ordinary energy-momentum conservation law is not valid in the curved spacetime. Rastall gravity is one of the known theories in this regard which includes a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter fields. Equipped with the basis of such theory, we study the properties of traversable wormholes with flat asymptotes. We investigate the possibility of exact solutions by a source with the baryonic matter state parameter. Our survey indicates that Rastall theory has considerable effects on the wormhole characteristics. In addition, we study various case studies and show that the weak energy condition may be met for some solutions. We also give a discussion regarding to traversability of such wormhole geometry with phantom sources.

  8. Traversing the Fantasy of the Heroic Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmann Johnsen, Christian; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: While considerable critical energy has been devoted to unmasking the figure of the heroic entrepreneur, the idea that entrepreneurs are unique individuals with special abilities continues to be widespread in scholarly research, social media and popular culture. The purpose of this paper...... is to traverse the fantasy of the heroic entrepreneur by offering a reading of Richard Branson’s autobiography, Losing My Virginity. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical approach of this paper is informed by Slavoj Žižek’s concept of fantasy and his critical analytical strategy of “traversing the fantasy......”. Žižek offers a theoretical framework that allows us to understand how narratives of famous entrepreneurs create paradoxical fantasies that produce desire. Findings: By offering a reading of Richard Branson’s autobiography, Losing My Virginity, this paper serves to illustrate how the fantasy...

  9. Small rover exploration capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make the vehicles easier to handle, safer to use and more efficient in the field to cross an obstacle. The final recommendation is to use winches and ramps, which already are widely used by quad drivers. We report on the extension of the reachable areas if such tools were available. This work has been supported by ILEWG, EuroMoonMars and the Austrian Space Forum (OEWF).

  10. Ice Velocities Around the 2000 Meter Traverse in Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains traverse measurements used to infer the mass balance of central parts of the ice sheet upslope from the traverse, and results from this work...

  11. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  12. Comparing Rover and Orbiter based observations at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Campbell, J. L.; Clark, B. C.; Squyres, S.; Yen, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on board the MER rover Opportunity has documented the chemical composition of the bedrock at Meridiani Planum over the traverse of ~33 km so far. The bedrock is very high in sulfate, up to ~ 25 weight percents SO3, interpreted as sedimentary sandstone. The high precision and consistency of the acquired APXS data, mainly of the abraded samples, allowed the characterization of the homogeneous bedrock over the traverse. Inside Victoria and Endurance Crater the abundance of magnesium and sulfur dropped in a 1:1 molar ratio by about 30 % in parallel with an increase of chlorine by a factor of 3. This inferred the presence of magnesium sulfate and an unknown chlorine-compound. Moreover the identical change in soluble minerals between Victoria and Endurance craters (~6 km apart) might indicate a large scale change in a subsurface water table in the past. Using the scatter peak method in the APXS spectra, the excess of oxygen was determined to be equivalent to ~ 14% bound water for the average Meridiani outcrop. Besides bedrock, basaltic soil and a lag of hematitic concretions, the rover encountered several erratic rocks sitting on the plains. Both, iron-nickel meteorites and cobbles with a basaltic mineralogy are suggestive of emplacement as meteorites. The basaltic rocks, Bounce Rock and Marquette, are ejecta from different regions on Mars. The APXS data of even unbrushed surfaces, typically a mixture or airborne dust, soil and alteration rinds, clearly indicated significant differences to the dominating bedrock. Opportunity is expected to reach the rim of the Noachian-aged Endurance Crater in August 2011, where orbital instruments detected evidence for polyhydrated sulfates, Fe-Mg Smectites, as well as basaltic materials. It is unprecedented for a rover to drive into an area with these significant alteration minerals predicted from orbit. While the mineral spectrometers on the rover are now significantly degraded, the APXS

  13. Terrain physical properties derived from orbital data and the first 360 sols of Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover observations in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Garvin, J. B.; Gasnault, O.; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Heverly, M.; Iagnemma, K. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Lanza, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Mangold, N.; Ming, D. W.; Mehta, M.; Morris, R. V.; Newsom, H. E.; Rennó, N.; Rubin, D.; Schieber, J.; Sletten, R.; Stein, N. T.; Thuillier, F.; Vasavada, A. R.; Vizcaino, J.; Wiens, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical properties of terrains encountered by the Curiosity rover during the first 360 sols of operations have been inferred from analysis of the scour zones produced by Sky Crane Landing System engine plumes, wheel touch down dynamics, pits produced by Chemical Camera (ChemCam) laser shots, rover wheel traverses over rocks, the extent of sinkage into soils, and the magnitude and sign of rover-based slippage during drives. Results have been integrated with morphologic, mineralogic, and thermophysical properties derived from orbital data, and Curiosity-based measurements, to understand the nature and origin of physical properties of traversed terrains. The hummocky plains (HP) landing site and traverse locations consist of moderately to well-consolidated bedrock of alluvial origin variably covered by slightly cohesive, hard-packed basaltic sand and dust, with both embedded and surface-strewn rock clasts. Rock clasts have been added through local bedrock weathering and impact ejecta emplacement and form a pavement-like surface in which only small clasts (soil during wheel passages. The bedded fractured (BF) unit, site of Curiosity's first drilling activity, exposes several alluvial-lacustrine bedrock units with little to no soil cover and varying degrees of lithification. Small wheel sinkage values (<1 cm) for both HP and BF surfaces demonstrate that compaction resistance countering driven-wheel thrust has been minimal and that rover slippage while traversing across horizontal surfaces or going uphill, and skid going downhill, have been dominated by terrain tilts and wheel-surface material shear modulus values.

  14. The Spirit of Logotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Costello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to adduce the meaning of Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy and existential analysis—the spirit of logotherapy—in the two-fold sense of its core teachings, as well as its emphasis on the spiritual dimension of the human person. Firstly, I situate Frankl’s tri-dimensional ontology—his philosophical anthropology—within a Platonic perspective, asserting that it was Plato who first gave us a picture and model of mental health which he based on the harmony of the disparate parts of the personality—the aim to become One instead of Many, which finds a modern parallel in Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy, which likewise stresses the importance of inner wholeness (an anthropological oneness despite our ontological differences. Classical Greek philosophers all pointed to the Logos as source of order—to the horizon of meaning-potentials, so I visit the various understandings of this term from the pre-Socratics to Frankl, albeit briefly, to avoid semantic confusion in what is to follow. I then discuss in some detail the exact meaning that logos/spirit has in Frankl’s philosophical conceptualisations. Disorders of logos may be seen in various psychopathologies and pnemopathologies which I go on to consider, highlighting the differences between various terms that are commonly left unclarified. Next, I adumbrate the differences between psychotherapy and logotherapy, which ultimately revolves around the difference between instincts and spirit before demarcating the boundaries between religion (as salvation and logotherapy (as sanity. The question I pose next is: what exactly constitutes the spiritual in logotherapy, as in life? An example is given to concretise the conceptual considerations previously elucidated before drawing on another distinction, that between “ultimate meaning” and “the meaning of the moment”. The paper concludes with a brief excursus into the work of Ken Wilber by way of enabling us to appreciate and

  15. CRAFT: Collaborative Rover and Astronauts Future Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Poian, V. D. P.; Koryanov, V. V. K.

    2018-02-01

    Our project is focusing on the relationship between astronauts and rovers to best work together during surface explorations. Robots will help and assist astronauts, and will also work autonomously. Our project is to develop this type of rover.

  16. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  17. Data-Driven Surface Traversability Analysis for Mars 2020 Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Rothrock, Brandon; Almeida, Eduardo; Ansar, Adnan; Otero, Richard; Huertas, Andres; Heverly, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is three-fold: 1) to describe the engineering challenges in the surface mobility of the Mars 2020 Rover mission that are considered in the landing site selection processs, 2) to introduce new automated traversability analysis capabilities, and 3) to present the preliminary analysis results for top candidate landing sites. The analysis capabilities presented in this paper include automated terrain classification, automated rock detection, digital elevation model (DEM) generation, and multi-ROI (region of interest) route planning. These analysis capabilities enable to fully utilize the vast volume of high-resolution orbiter imagery, quantitatively evaluate surface mobility requirements for each candidate site, and reject subjectivity in the comparison between sites in terms of engineering considerations. The analysis results supported the discussion in the Second Landing Site Workshop held in August 2015, which resulted in selecting eight candidate sites that will be considered in the third workshop.

  18. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full...... understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement...

  19. NAT Traversing Solutions for SIP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ya-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Session Initiation Protocol (SIP has been proposed for multimedia services and wide-area connectivity in smart home environments (SHEs. An important issue for SIP deployment in SHEs is network address translator (NAT traversing. SIP and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP packets are delivered between an SHE (i.e., private IP network and Internet (i.e., a public IP network through an NAT function of a home gateway, and the NAT translates the IP/transport layer address and port number but leaves the application layer content unchanged. This results in inconsistency between the IP addresses/port numbers in the IP/transport layers and those in the SIP layer. To resolve this issue, we describe six solutions including static route, UPnP, STUN, ICE, ALG, and SBC. Then we compare these solutions in terms of smart home appliance (SHA modification, scope of NATs supported, multilayer NAT traversal, ease of configuration, security issue, and time complexities.

  20. Trajectories and traversal times in quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhi Hong.

    1989-01-01

    The classical concepts of trajectories and traversal times applied to quantum tunneling are discussed. By using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, it is found that in a forbidden region of a multidimensional space the wave function can be described by two sets of trajectories, or equivalently by two sets of wave fronts. The trajectories belonging to different sets are mutually orthogonal. An extended Huygens construction is proposed to determine these wave fronts and trajectories. In contrast to the classical results in the allowed region, these trajectories couple to each other. However, if the incident wave is normal to the turning surface, the trajectories are found to be independent and can be determined by Newton's equations of motion with inverted potential and energy. The multidimensional tunneling theory is then applied to the scanning tunneling microscope to calculate the current density distribution and to derive the expressions for the lateral resolution and the surface corrugation amplitude. The traversal time in quantum tunneling, i.e. tunneling time, is found to depend on model calculations and simulations. Computer simulation of a wave packet tunneling through a square barrier is performed. Several approaches, including the phase method, Larmor clock, and time-dependent barrier model, are investigated. For a square barrier, two characteristic times are found: One is equal to the barrier width divided by the magnitude of the imaginary velocity; the other is equal to the decay length divided by the incident velocity. It is believed that the tunneling time can only be defined operationally

  1. Traversable braneworld wormholes supported by astrophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the characteristics and properties of a traversable wormhole constrained by the current astrophysical observations in the framework of modified theories of gravity (MOG). As a concrete case, we study traversable wormhole space-time configurations in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld scenario, which are supported by the effects of the gravity leakage of extra dimensions. We find that the wormhole space-time structure will open in terms of the 2 σ confidence level when we utilize the joint constraints supernovae (SNe) Ia + observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) + Planck + gravitational wave (GW) and z wormholes can be divided into four classes during the evolutionary processes of the universe based on various energy conditions; (ii) we can offer a strict restriction to the local wormhole space-time structure by using the current astrophysical observations; and (iii) we can clearly identify a physical gravitational resource for the wormholes supported by astrophysical observations, namely the dark energy components of the universe or equivalent space-time curvature effects from MOG. Moreover, we find that the strong energy condition is always violated at low redshifts.

  2. Initial Observations by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at Cape York, Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of its mission, the MER rover Opportunity has visited a sequence of progressively larger impact craters in order to characterize rocks that represent an ever broader stratigraphic range. Endeavour Crater is by far the largest crater that this rover has visited, therefore the crater rim provides materials from strata that are much deeper and older than any materials yet sampled. Indeed, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument detected spectral signatures of hydrated phyllosilicates in several rim segments, consistent with a Noachian provenance. In addition, the crater rim might have recorded the effects of the original impact as well as the thermal processes that occurred in its aftermath. This report summarizes initial observations of geologic structures and the fabrics, chemistry and mineralogy of rocks. Cape York is an N/NE - S/SW-trending segment of crater rim that is bounded by rim segments that are more deeply eroded, forming embayments. Opportunity drove onto the southwest margin of Cape York and has traversed across the Cape to a ridge near its northern end. The rim of Endeavour Crater was severely degraded and then on lapped by Meridiani sulfate-rich deposits, indicating that Cape York deposits experienced extensive erosion prior to the deposition of Meridiani Planum sulfate-rich sediments. Cape York consists of impact-uplifted rocks that are surrounded by a younger bedrock bench that might represent sediments shed from Cape York. The uplifted rock "Tisdale-2," located near the southern end of Cape York, is a polymict lithic breccia. Its elemental composition resembles a mixture of basalt plus bedrock encountered previously at Meridiani Planum, and it is relatively enriched in Ni, Zn, P, characteristic of hydrothermal fluids. "Chester Lake" and "Greeley Haven" are bedrock surfaces located near the southern and northern ends of Cape York, respectively, and they exhibit fabrics reminiscent of suevites. The rocks that were analyzed

  3. Education and entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of a man is influenced by the quality of education. Too often we use to exclusively impute to the system the educational problems of individuals and groups. It is necessary to look lucidly and to identify the role of family, civil society and individuals in education. Exercising leadership means continuously learning and, therefore, it is difficult to separate the educational dynamics from the team evolution at organizational level. The training of individuals occurs in variable contexts that they create or in which they are involved. From the leadership perspective, education is also a problem of assuming responsibilities. The set of values that outlines a social behaviour imposes also disclaimers. In such context, disclaimers can define the understanding of the efficient use of resources in favour of the group and not in one’s own interest. Hence, the management lesson for those who will be prepared to lead begins. That’s how the practical management and leadership lessons can contribute to the creation of complex personalities. Leaders and managers define a reality in which education plays a central role. Therefore, selfeducation becomes a must because it will impose the development of the spirit of initiative and the selection of those having both potential and skills to become leaders, managers and entrepreneurs. We can say that it is imperative to move on from “the game of chance” to the real performance standards in training tomorrow’s decision-makers.

  4. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  5. Dune and ripple migration along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has safely landed near a 35-km-long dark dune field in Gale Crater on Mars. This dune field lies along Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp). Here we present new evidence of aeolian activity and further estimate wind directions within the dune field through analysis of ripple migration with the COSI-Corr technique, which provides precise measurements of ripple displacement at the sub-pixel scale.The area analyzed is located ~10 km southwest of rover Curiosity's current position and ~4 km SW of its selected path through Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) (Fig. 1a). Here barchan dunes with elongated horns and seif dunes coexist with more typical barchan and dome dunes (Fig. 1a, b), with slopes sculpted by two intersecting ripple crestline orientations trending at 45° and 330°. The range of dune types and ripple orientations indicate the dune field morphology is influenced by at least two winds from the NW and the NE. The direction of migration is toward the SW, suggesting the most recent sand transporting winds were from the NE (Fig. 1c). These results match previous predictions and can be used to forecast the wind conditions close to the entry point to Mt. Sharp. Fig. 1: a-b) Study area c) Ripple migration direction computed using the COSI-Corr technique

  6. Pervasive aeolian activity along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Rossi, A.; Flahaut, J.; Fenton, L. K.; Geissler, P. E.; Michaels, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has safely landed in Gale Crater (Mars). This crater has been severely modified by the action of the wind which has led to the development of several dark dune fields. One of these fields crosses the landing ellipse from the NE to the SW, and despite its fresh appearance, no evidence of sand movement has been detected until recently. Here we present evidence of current aeolian activity in the form of ripple and dune migration close to the expected traverse of the MSL rover, Curiosity. We calculate a minimum ripple displacement of 1.16 m and a dune migration rate of 0.4 meters/Earth year. Both ripples and dunes migrated toward the SW, suggesting winds above the saltation threshold from the NE. Such winds are predicted by the MRAMS atmospheric model (Fig. 1). The dunes are undergoing changes on a timescale of weeks to a few years that should be detectable by rover instruments. Using theoretical and experimental considerations, we calculate a wind gust velocity of 35 m/s at 1.5 m of height. In addition, we estimate that saltating grains would reach a distance of ~27 m and extend a maximum height of 2 m above the surface. Our constraints on the wind regime provide a unique opportunity to use ground measurements from MSL to test the accuracy of winds predicted from orbital data.RAMS modeled winds in the MSL landing site

  7. Thermophysical Properties Along Curiosity's Traverse in Gale Crater, Mars, Derived from the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rovers traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock dominated surfaces [approx. 350-550 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1 s(exp. -1/2 )] are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. -1/2) for mudstone sites and approx. 700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. - 1/2) for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  8. Dissipation and traversal time in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Ranfagni, Anedio; Moretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The various ways of evaluating dissipative effects in macroscopic quantum tunneling are re-examined. The results obtained by using functional integration, while confirming those of previously given treatments, enable a comparison with available experimental results relative to Josephson junctions. A criterion based on the shortening of the semiclassical traversal time τ of the barrier with regard to dissipation can be established, according to which Δτ/τ > or approx. N/Q, where Q is the quality factor of the junction and N is a numerical constant of order unity. The best agreement with the experiments is obtained for N=1.11, as it results from a semiempirical analysis based on an increase in the potential barrier caused by dissipative effects.

  9. Paleo-environmental Setting of the Murray Formation of Aeolis Mons, Gale Crater, Mars, as Explored by the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K. W.; Fedo, C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Stein, N.; Rivera-Hernandez, F.; Watkins, J. A.; Banham, S.; Edgett, K. S.; Minitti, M. E.; Schieber, J.; Edgar, L. A.; Siebach, K. L.; Stack, K.; Newsom, H. E.; House, C. H.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Since landing, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover climbed 300 meters in elevation from the floor of north Gale crater up the lower northwest flank of Aeolis Mons ("Mount Sharp"). Nearly 200 meters of this ascent was accomplished in the 1.5 years alone, as the rover was driven up-section through the sedimentary rocks of the informally designated "Murray" formation. This unit comprises a large fraction of the lower strata of Mt. Sharp along the rover traverse. Our exploration of the Murray formation reveals a diverse suite of fine-grained facies. Grain sizes range from finer grains than can be resolved by the MAHLI imager (particles bearing Vera Rubin Ridge, continues to reveal the complex and long-lived depositional history of the Gale crater basin.

  10. Planetary rovers and data fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Masuku, Anthony Dumisani

    2012-01-01

    This research will investigate the problem of position estimation for planetary rovers. Diverse algorithmic filters are available for collecting input data and transforming that data to useful information for the purpose of position estimation process. The terrain has sandy soil which might cause slipping of the robot, and small stones and pebbles which can affect trajectory. The Kalman Filter, a state estimation algorithm was used for fusing the sensor data to improve the p...

  11. P-CSCF's Algorithm for Solving NAT Traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Jae-Oh

    Many ways for efficient use of limited IP address of IPv4 are existed. The one of these ways is to construct the private network using Network Address Translator (NAT). NAT filtering rule makes network management easier. However, NAT Filtering rule makes NAT Traversal. Many solutions like Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN), Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) and Media Relay method exist. But these solutions require additional servers or devices. So, we suggest that P-CSCFs in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) change the packet's header and solve the NAT Traversal without any additional equipment.

  12. Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finseth, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

  13. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  14. Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, R.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries have been operating successfully on both Spirit and Opportunity rovers for the last two years, which includes six months of Assembly Launch and Test Operations (ATLO), seven months of cruise and about eleven months of surface operations. The Battery Control Boards designed and fabricated in-house would protect cells against overcharge and over-discharge and provide cell balance. Their performance has thus far been quite satisfactory. The ground data o the mission simulation battery project little capacity loss of less than 3% during cruise and 180 sols. Batteries are poised to extend the mission beyond six months, if not a couple of years.

  15. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  16. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  17. The Spirit of the Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Olynda

    2013-01-01

    "The real preparation for education is a study of one's self. The training of the teacher who is to help life is something far more than a learning of ideas. It includes the training of character, it is a preparation of the spirit."--Maria Montessori". It is common knowledge among Montessorians that spiritual preparation was…

  18. CHINCHIRISI: THE PHENOMENON OF "SPIRIT CHILDREN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINCHIRISI: THE PHENOMENON OF "SPIRIT CHILDREN" AMONG. THE NANKANI OF NORTHERN GHANA1. Rose Ma7y Amenga-Etego*. Abstract. The identity of the 'spirit child' may be ambiguous, but 'its'place in the experiences and in explaining the intricacies between the human nature and the spirit world remains ...

  19. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be determined by reference to Table 4. However, in the case of spirits which contain solids in... ascertaining the wine gallons per pound of the spirits and multiplying the wine gallons per pound by the weight...) and dividing the result by 100. The wine gallons per pound of spirits containing solids in excess of...

  20. In Situ Visible to Short Wavelength Imaging Spectroscopy with the Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS): Case Studies from the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D.; Mouroulis, P.; Green, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Sellar, G.; Van Gorp, B.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Situ imaging spectroscopy provides a way to address complex questions of geological evolution for both aqueous and igneous processes by mapping mineral composition at the spatial scale of rocks and outcrops. Examination of locations studied by the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity can provide examples of the potential utility and define the needed measurement requirements. A compact instrument is needed to be able to adequately address these science questions from a rover platform. The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is an instrument designed to address the science need and implementation constraints.

  1. Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Younse, Paulo; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Teamed Robots for Exploration and Science in Steep Areas (TRESSA) is a system of three autonomous mobile robots that cooperate with each other to enable scientific exploration of steep terrain (slope angles up to 90 ). Originally intended for use in exploring steep slopes on Mars that are not accessible to lone wheeled robots (Mars Exploration Rovers), TRESSA and systems like TRESSA could also be used on Earth for performing rescues on steep slopes and for exploring steep slopes that are too remote or too dangerous to be explored by humans. TRESSA is modeled on safe human climbing of steep slopes, two key features of which are teamwork and safety tethers. Two of the autonomous robots, denoted Anchorbots, remain at the top of a slope; the third robot, denoted the Cliffbot, traverses the slope. The Cliffbot drives over the cliff edge supported by tethers, which are payed out from the Anchorbots (see figure). The Anchorbots autonomously control the tension in the tethers to counter the gravitational force on the Cliffbot. The tethers are payed out and reeled in as needed, keeping the body of the Cliffbot oriented approximately parallel to the local terrain surface and preventing wheel slip by controlling the speed of descent or ascent, thereby enabling the Cliffbot to drive freely up, down, or across the slope. Due to the interactive nature of the three-robot system, the robots must be very tightly coupled. To provide for this tight coupling, the TRESSA software architecture is built on a combination of (1) the multi-robot layered behavior-coordination architecture reported in "An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots" (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 65, and (2) the real-time control architecture reported in "Robot Electronics Architecture" (NPO-41784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 1 (January 2008), page 28. The combination architecture makes it possible to keep the three robots synchronized and coordinated, to use data

  2. Traversability analysis for a mine safety inspection robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available to determine potentially drivable surfaces. Connectivity between neighbouring drivable surfaces is used to determine obstacle, drivable, unsafe, unreachable and frontier cells. The algorithm is successfully applied to determine a traversability map for a Mine...

  3. APOLLO 17 TRAVERSE GRAVIMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a table of readings from the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment performed during the Apollo 17 mission. The gravimeter, which recorded relative...

  4. Traversable wormholes with arbitrarily small energy condition violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt; Kar, Sayan; Dadhich, Naresh

    2003-05-23

    Traversable wormholes necessarily require violations of the averaged null energy condition, this being the definition of "exotic matter." However, the theorems which guarantee the energy condition violation are remarkably silent when it comes to making quantitative statements regarding the "total amount" of energy condition violating matter in the spacetime. We develop a suitable measure for quantifying this notion and demonstrate the existence of spacetime geometries containing traversable wormholes that are supported by arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter.

  5. RAT magnet experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and Opportunity beyond sol 500

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leer, K.; Goetz, W.; Chan, M. A.; Gorevan, S.; Hansen, M. F.; Jensen, Ch. L.; Kletetschka, Günther; Kusack, A.; Madsen, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 4 (2011), E00F18-E00F18 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnet ic mineralogy * hematite * Mars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011

  6. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  7. Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars exploration Rover Spirit at Gusev crater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Pernille; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties experiments are designed to help identify the magnetic minerals in the dust and rocks on Mars-and to determine whether liquid water was involved in the formation and alteration of these magnetic minerals. Almost all of the dust particles suspended in the martian atmosphere...

  8. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  9. Two Years Onboard the MER Opportunity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Anderson, Robert C.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Burl, Michael; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel; Judd, Michele; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system provides automated data collection for planetary rovers. AEGIS is currently being used onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission's Opportunity to provide autonomous targeting of the MER Panoramic camera. Prior to AEGIS, targeted data was collected in a manual fashion where targets were manually identified in images transmitted to Earth and the rover had to remain in the same location for one to several communication cycles. AEGIS enables targeted data to be rapidly acquired with no delays for ground communication. Targets are selected by AEGIS through the use of onboard data analysis techniques that are guided by scientist-specified objectives. This paper provides an overview of the how AEGIS has been used on the Opportunity rover, focusing on usage that occurred during a 21 kilometer historic trek to the Mars Endeavour crater.

  10. Design of a pressurized lunar rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric; Wirz, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A pressurized lunar rover is necessary for future long-term habitation of the moon. The rover must be able to safely perform many tasks, ranging from transportation and reconnaissance to exploration and rescue missions. Numerous designs were considered in an effort to maintain a low overall mass and good mobility characteristics. The configuration adopted consists of two cylindrical pressure hulls passively connected by a pressurized flexible passageway. The vehicle has an overall length of 11 meters and a total mass of seven metric tons. The rover is driven by eight independently powered two meter diameter wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows a combination of articulated frame and double Ackermann steering for executing turns. In an emergency, the individual drive motors allow the option of skid steering as well. Two wheels are connected to either side of each cylinder through a pinned bar which allows constant ground contact. Together, these systems allow the rover to easily meet its mobility requirements. A dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), in conjunction with a closed Brayton cycle, supplied the rover with a continuous supply of 8.5 kW. The occupants are all protected from the DIPS system's radiation by a shield of tantalum. The large amount of heat produced by the DIPS and other rover systems is rejected by thermal radiators. The thermal radiators and solar collectors are located on the top of the rear cylinder. The solar collectors are used to recharge batteries for peak power periods. The rover's shell is made of graphite-epoxy coated with multi-layer insulation (MLI). The graphite-epoxy provides strength while the thermally resistant MLI gives protection from the lunar environment. An elastomer separates the two materials to compensate for the thermal mismatch. The communications system allows for communication with the lunar base with an option for direct communication with earth via a lunar satellite link. The various links are combined into one

  11. Curiosity rover searching for life on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John

    2017-01-01

    Simple text and "out-of-this-world" photography introduce readers to NASA's Curiosity rover, and its mission to search for signs of past life on Mars. Important details include a history of rovers on Mars, planning and construction of Curiosity, its launch from Earth, landing on Mars, and the science experiments it carried out and their results. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. A&D Xtreme is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  12. The Extended Mission Rover (EMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.; Halecki, Anthony; Chung, Manh; Clarke, Ken; Frankle, Kevin; Kassemkhani, Fariba; Kuhlhoff, John; Lenzini, Josh; Lobdell, David; Morgan, Sam

    A key component in ensuring America's status as a leader in the global community is its active pursuit of space exploration. On the twentieth anniversary of Apollo 11, President George Bush challenged the nation to place a man on the moon permanently and to conduct human exploration of Mars in the 21st century. The students of the FAMU/FSU College of Engineering hope to make a significant contribution to this challenge, America's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), with their participation in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program. The project selected by the 1991/1992 Aerospace Design group is the design of an Extended Mission Rover (EMR) for use on the lunar surface. This vehicle will serve as a mobile base to provide future astronauts with a 'shirt-sleeve' living and working environment. Some of the proposed missions are planetary surface exploration, construction and maintenance, hardware setup, and in situ resource experimentation. This vehicle will be put into use in the 2010-2030 time frame.

  13. The Spirit of Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassall Thomsen, Line Hassall; Willig, Ida

    Research on public service broadcasting tends to highlight norms and values at the strategic level. This paper explores ‘public service’ as an institutional logic guiding the everyday practice of journalists. The theoretical framework draws on Pierre Bourdieus’ field theory and recent works...... on cultural production and news work. Through fieldwork and interviews with Danish and British reporters/editors from DR 1, TV 2, BBC 1 and ITV we identify three components of a strong public service spirit present in the journalist’s understanding of the self: mass audience orientation, democratic...

  14. 27 CFR 24.232 - Gauge of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauge of spirits. 24.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.232 Gauge of spirits. (a) If the spirits to be used are in... the proof of the spirits and the quantity used by volume gauge or by weight. Upon completion of the...

  15. The Bagnold Dunes in Southern Summer: Active Sediment Transport on Mars Observed by the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. M.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Bridges, N. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Newman, C. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Edgett, K. S.; Lewis, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Since its landing at Gale crater five years ago, the Curiosity rover has provided us with unparalleled data to study active surface processes on Mars. Repeat imaging campaigns (i.e. "change-detection campaigns") conducted with the rover's cameras have allowed us to study Martian atmosphere-surface interactions and characterize wind-driven sediment transport from ground-truth observations. Utilizing the rover's periodic stops to image identical patches of ground over multiple sols, these change-detection campaigns have revealed sediment motion over a wide range of grain sizes. These results have been corroborated in images taken by the rover's hand lens imager (MAHLI), which have captured sand transport occurring on the scale of minutes. Of particular interest are images collected during Curiosity's traverse across the Bagnold Dune Field, the first dune field observed to be active in situ on another planet. Curiosity carried out the first phase of the Bagnold Dunes campaign (between Ls 72º and 109º) along the northern edge of the dune field at the base of Aeolis Mons, where change-detection images showed very limited sediment motion. More recently, a second phase of the campaign was conducted along the southern edge of the dune field between Ls 312º to 345º; here, images captured extensive wind-driven sand motion. Observations from multiple cameras show ripples migrating to the southwest, in agreement with predicted net transport within the dune field. Together with change-detection observations conducted outside of the dune field, the data show that ubiquitous Martian landscapes are seasonally active within Gale crater, with the bulk of the sediment flux occurring during southern summer.

  16. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  17. Economic Analysis of the Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Traverse (GrIT) Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry James H. Lever, Geoff Phillips, and Jay Burnside June...Inland Traverse (GrIT) James H. Lever U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory...14,000 lb roller- packer while the other rear sled carried food and tools inside a tent enclosure. As with its bladder sleds, GrIT towed the assembly of

  18. Curiosity rover LEGO® version could land soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Now that NASA's Curiosity rover has landed on Mars, a smaller LEGO® plastic brick construction version could be landing in toy stores. Less than 2 weeks after Curiosity set down on 5 August, a LEGO® set concept model designed by a mechanical and aerospace engineer who worked on the real rover garnered its 10,000th supporter on the Web site of CUUSOO, a Japanese partner of the LEGO® group. That milestone triggered a company review that began in September 2012 to test the model's “playability, safety, and ft with the LEGO® brand,” according to a congratulatory statement from the company to designer Stephen Pakbaz. Pakbaz told Eos that he has been an avid LEGO® and space exploration fan for most of his life. “For me, creating a LEGO® model of Curiosity using my firsthand knowledge of the rover was inevitable. What I enjoyed most was being able to faithfully replicate and subsequently demonstrate the rocker-bogie suspension system to friends, family, and coworkers,” he noted, referring to the suspension system that allows the rover to climb over obstacles while keeping its wheels on the ground. Pakbaz, who is currently with Orbital Sciences Corporation, was involved with aspects of the rover while working at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 2007 to 2011 as a mechanical engineer.

  19. Requirements and designs for Mars Rover RTGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Sankarankandath, V.; Shirbacheh, M.

    1989-01-01

    A typical Rover mission, its requirements, the environment it imposes on the radionuclide thermoelectric generator (RTG), and a design approach for making the RTG operable in such an environment are described. Specific RTG designs for various thermoelectric element alternatives are presented. The results of studies show that current multifoil-insulated GPHS (general-purpose heat source) RTG and Mod-RTG designs can be modified to operate in an environment with an external atmosphere (e.g., Mars). This can be done while the helium generated by the fuel's alpha decay is vented to the external atmosphere. The use of novel selective vents and high-capacity getters is not required. The Rover RTGs can be built from standard, proven GPHS modules and standard SiGe unicouples or SiGe/GaP multicouples, using demonstrated thermoelectric material performance parameters. Rover's 500-W power requirement can be satisfied with two 250-W or four 125-W RTGs, whose sizes are compatible with currently envisaged Rover designs. An auxiliary cooling loop (e.g., water and antifreeze) will be required to cool the RTG while it is within the Rover's aeroshell during launch and transit to Mars.

  20. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rob and Jean

    theorisation of the world in order to understand and affect it. Key words: Spirit Possession; .... about twenty-five minutes in, the music changed, beginning to slow and quieten. As it did so, the songs of the .... other stories that are passed on in discussions (such as the memory of spirits living Lake. Victoria or tales of armies of ...

  1. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  2. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...

  3. Robotic Arm and Rover Actuator Systems for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, L.; Brawn, D.; Noon, D.

    1999-01-01

    Missions such as the Sojourner Rover, the Robotic Arm for Mars Polar Lander, and the 2003 Mars Rover, Athena, use numerous actuators that must operate reliably in extreme environments for long periods of time.

  4. Visualisation of very high resolution Martian topographic data and its application on landing site selection and rover route navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Hong, J.; Park, D.; Yoon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    installed on the rover were used. Along with close range photogrammetric techniques, the rover location and also traverse navigation could be solved. A virtual reality (VR) system is useful to support decisions of landing site selection and rover traverse determination. Hence the topographic data were indigested into a powerful VR system which is provided by Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI). As the VR system is established based on high speed parallel processors, high definition 3D display, control pointer and visualisation packages, a full-scale, seamless and real-time visualisation of Mars virtual environment is realised. In addition to the Mars rover applications described above, the VR scheme implemented in this research will also give great opportunities for scientific research in geology and geomorphology. Kim, J. R., and Muller, J-P., (2009). Multi-resolution topographic data extraction from Martian stereo imagery, Planetary and Space Science, 57 (15), 2095-2112.

  5. Visual Prediction of Rover Slip: Learning Algorithms and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    stuck. For example, one of the rovers of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission got trapped in a sand dune for several weeks, experiencing 100% slip...area which is part of a dune -like or ripple -like formation is very likely to contain finer material which has less friction, and therefore is likely...the scene the rover is going to encounter. For example, understanding the whole scene and recognizing if the rover is among sand dunes or in rocky

  6. Characterization of Fillite as a planetary soil simulant in support of rover mobility assessment in high-sinkage/high-slip environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael

    This thesis presents the results of a research program characterizing a soil simulant called Fillite, which is composed of alumino-silicate hollow microspheres harvested from the pulverized fuel ash of coal-fired power plants. Fillite is available in large quantities at a reasonable cost and it is chemically inert. Fillite has been selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center to simulate high-sinkage/high-slip environment in a large test bed such as the ones encountered by the Spirit rover on Mars in 2009 when it became entrapped in a pocket of soft, loose regolith on Mars. The terms high-sinkage and high-slip used here describe the interaction of soils with typical rover wheels. High-sinkage refers to a wheel sinking with little to no applied force while high-slip refers to a spinning wheel with minimal traction. Standard material properties (density, specific gravity, compression index, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio) of Fillite were determined from a series of laboratory tests conducted in general accordance with ASTM standards. Tests were also performed to determine some less standard material properties of Fillite such as the small strain shear wave velocity, maximum shear modulus, and several pressure-sinkage parameters for use in pressure-sinkage models. The experiments include an extensive series of triaxial compression tests, bender element tests, and normal and shear bevameter tests. The unit weight of Fillite on Earth ranges between 3.9 and 4.8 kN/m 3, which is similar to that of Martian regolith (about 3.7 -- 5.6 kN/m3) on Mars and close to the range of the unit weight of lunar regolith (about 1.4 -- 2.9 kN/m3) on the Moon. The data presented here support that Fillite has many physical and mechanical properties that are similar to what is known about Martian regolith. These properties are also comparable to lunar regolith. Fillite is quite dilatant; its peak and critical angles of internal friction are

  7. Benefit of "Push-pull" Locomotion for Planetary Rover Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Colin M.; Moreland, Scott Jared; Skonieczny, K.; Johnson, K.; Asnani, V.; Gilligan, R.

    2011-01-01

    As NASAs exploration missions on planetary terrains become more aggressive, a focus on alternative modes of locomotion for rovers is necessary. In addition to climbing steep slopes, the terrain in these extreme environments is often unknown and can be extremely hard to traverse, increasing the likelihood of a vehicle or robot becoming damaged or immobilized. The conventional driving mode in which all wheels are either driven or free-rolling is very efficient on flat hard ground, but does not always provide enough traction to propel the vehicle through soft or steep terrain. This paper presents an alternative mode of travel and investigates the fundamental differences between these locomotion modes. The methods of push-pull locomotion discussed can be used with articulated wheeled vehicles and are identified as walking or inchinginch-worming. In both cases, the braked non-rolling wheels provide increased thrust. An in-depth study of how soil reacts under a rolling wheel vs. a braked wheel was performed by visually observing the motion of particles beneath the surface. This novel technique consists of driving or dragging a wheel in a soil bin against a transparent wall while high resolution, high-rate photographs are taken. Optical flow software was then used to determine shearing patterns in the soil. Different failure modes were observed for the rolling and braked wheel cases. A quantitative comparison of inching vs. conventional driving was also performed on a full-scale vehicle through a series of drawbar pull tests in the Lunar terrain strength simulant, GRC-1. The effect of tire stiffness was also compared; typically compliant tires provide better traction when driving in soft soil, however its been observed that rigid wheels may provide better thrust when non-rolling. Initial tests indicate up to a possible 40 increase in pull force capability at high slip when inching vs. rolling.

  8. Comparative Field Tests of Pressurised Rover Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G. A.; Wood, N. B.; Clarke, J. D.; Piechochinski, S.; Bamsey, M.; Laing, J. H.

    The conceptual designs, interior layouts and operational performances of three pressurised rover prototypes - Aonia, ARES and Everest - were field tested during a recent simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. A human factors experiment, in which the same crew of three executed the same simulated science mission in each of the three vehicles, yielded comparative data on the capacity of each vehicle to safely and comfortably carry explorers away from the main base, enter and exit the vehicle in spacesuits, perform science tasks in the field, and manage geological and biological samples. As well as offering recommendations for design improvements for specific vehicles, the results suggest that a conventional Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) would not be suitable for analog field work; that a pressurised docking tunnel to the main habitat is essential; that better provisions for spacesuit storage are required; and that a crew consisting of one driver/navigator and two field science crew specialists may be optimal. From a field operations viewpoint, a recurring conflict between rover and habitat crews at the time of return to the habitat was observed. An analysis of these incidents leads to proposed refinements of operational protocols, specific crew training for rover returns and again points to the need for a pressurised docking tunnel. Sound field testing, circulating of results, and building the lessons learned into new vehicles is advocated as a way of producing ever higher fidelity rover analogues.

  9. Performance Testing of Lithium Li-ion Cells and Batteries in Support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(super 0)C to +40(super 0)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., including pre-launch and cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the inability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The primary focus of this paper is to communicate the latest results regarding Mars surface operation mission simulation testing, as well as, the corresponding performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by Yardney Technical Products, Inc.) have been demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, being able to support the operation of the rovers for over three years, and are projected to support an even further extended mission.

  10. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2004-01-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at PL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars. The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50We of power or 62OWh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  11. Malaria Sporozoites Traverse Host Cells within Transient Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Topçu, Selma; Marinach, Carine; Manzoni, Giulia; Bigorgne, Amélie E; Briquet, Sylvie; Baudin, Xavier; Lebrun, Maryse; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Silvie, Olivier

    2015-11-11

    Plasmodium sporozoites are deposited in the host skin by Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites migrate from the dermis to the liver, where they invade hepatocytes through a moving junction (MJ) to form a replicative parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Malaria sporozoites need to traverse cells during progression through host tissues, a process requiring parasite perforin-like protein 1 (PLP1). We find that sporozoites traverse cells inside transient vacuoles that precede PV formation. Sporozoites initially invade cells inside transient vacuoles by an active MJ-independent process that does not require vacuole membrane remodeling or release of parasite secretory organelles typically involved in invasion. Sporozoites use pH sensing and PLP1 to exit these vacuoles and avoid degradation by host lysosomes. Next, parasites enter the MJ-dependent PV, which has a different membrane composition, precluding lysosome fusion. The malaria parasite has thus evolved different strategies to evade host cell defense and establish an intracellular niche for replication.

  12. Absorbed dose from traversing spherically symmetric, Gaussian radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.; Poston, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    If a large radioactive cloud is produced, sampling may require that an airplane traverse the cloud. A method to predict the absorbed dose to the aircrew from penetrating the radioactive cloud is needed. Dose rates throughout spherically symmetric Gaussian clouds of various sizes, and the absorbed doses from traversing the clouds, were calculated. Cloud size is a dominant parameter causing dose to vary by orders of magnitude for a given dose rate measured at some distance. A method to determine cloud size, based on dose rate readings at two or more distances from the cloud center, was developed. This method, however, failed to resolve the smallest cloud sizes from measurements made at 1,000 m to 2,000 m from the cloud center

  13. CT-FC: more Comprehensive Traversal Focused Crawler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Kuspriyanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In todays world, people depend more on the WWW information, including professionals who have to analyze the data according their domain to maintain and improve their business. A data analysis would require information that is comprehensive and relevant to their domain. Focused crawler as a topical based Web indexer agent is used to meet this applications information need. In order to increase the precision, focused crawler face the problem of low recall. The study on WWW hyperlink structure characteristics indicates that many Web documents are not strong connected but through co-citation & co-reference. Conventional focused crawler that uses forward crawling strategy could not visit the documents in these characteristics. This study proposes a more comprehensive traversal framework. As a proof, CT-FC (a focused crawler with the new traversal framework ran on DMOZ data that is representative to WWW characteristics. The results show that this strategy can increase the recall significantly.

  14. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that X-ray diffraction-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are nonunique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold Dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative aeolian-transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances ( 20 wt %) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability may be enhanced by local mixing of well-sorted sand with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within Martian aeolian sandstones.

  15. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, Sarah E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single scattering albedo spectra and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that XRD-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are non-unique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains during aeolian saltation. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances (~20 wt%) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability induced by wind sorting may be enhanced by local mixing with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within martian aeolian sandstones.

  16. Twists of fate: Can we make traversable wormholes in spacetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James F.

    1997-04-01

    The scientific reasons for trying to make traversable wormholes are briefly reviewed. Methods for making wormholes employing a Machian transient mass fluctuation are examined. Several problems one might encounter are mentioned. They, however, may just be engineering difficulties. The use of “quantum inequalities” to constrain the existence of negative mass-energy required in wormhole formation is briefly examined. It is argued that quantum inequalities do not prohibit the formation of artificial concentrations of negative mass-energy.

  17. Traversable geometric dark energy wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-he [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, we introduce the astrophysical observations into the wormhole research. We investigate the evolution behavior of the dark energy equation of state parameter ω by constraining the dark energy model, so that we can determine in which stage of the universe wormholes can exist by using the condition ω < -1. As a concrete instance, we study the Ricci dark energy (RDE) traversable wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations. Particularly, we find from Fig. 5 of this work, when the effective equation of state parameter ω{sub X} < -1 (or z < 0.109), i.e., the null energy condition (NEC) is violated clearly, the wormholes will exist (open). Subsequently, six specific solutions of statically and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole supported by the RDE fluids are obtained. Except for the case of a constant redshift function, where the solution is not only asymptotically flat but also traversable, the five remaining solutions are all non-asymptotically flat, therefore, the exotic matter from the RDE fluids is spatially distributed in the vicinity of the throat. Furthermore, we analyze the physical characteristics and properties of the RDE traversable wormholes. It is worth noting that, using the astrophysical observations, we obtain the constraints on the parameters of the RDE model, explore the types of exotic RDE fluids in different stages of the universe, limit the number of available models for wormhole research, reduce theoretically the number of the wormholes corresponding to different parameters for the RDE model, and provide a clearer picture for wormhole investigations from the new perspective of observational cosmology. (orig.)

  18. Evaporation induced traversability of the Einstein--Rosen wormhole

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnikov, S.

    2005-01-01

    Suppose, the Universe comes into existence (as classical spacetime) already with an empty spherically symmetric macroscopic wormhole present in it. Classically the wormhole would evolve into a part of the Schwarzschild space and thus would not allow any signal to traverse it. I consider semiclassical corrections to that picture and build a model of an evaporating wormhole. The model is based on the assumption that the vacuum polarization and its backreaction on the geometry of the wormhole ar...

  19. Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space

    OpenAIRE

    Roes, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space” examines how existing spaces can be used as a basis for their rearrangement into meaningful, exitential (‘wezenlijke’) places. The research consists of a textual part and an artistic part (a series of works and exhibitions, including a retrospective on show in CIAP (Hasselt) from december 2015 – march 2016). One of the innovative aspects of this research is the unique methodology that was used. Through the point of vi...

  20. 27 CFR 19.998 - Transfer in bond of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer in bond of spirits. 19.998 Section 19.998 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... spirits plants. Spirits (not including spirits produced from petroleum, natural gas, or coal) may be...

  1. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in customs...

  2. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ofélia; Frazão, David; Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-07-27

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences ( p drink, which has gained market value.

  3. Raves, psychosis, and spirit healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2010-07-01

    This paper reflects the intersection of three cultures: the rave (all night dance party and use of the drug, Ecstasy) culture; the ward culture of an inpatient psychiatric program for First Episode Psychosis; the spirit healing culture of the Philippines. All three intersected in Toronto, Canada in the mid 1990s, as illustrated by the clinical case of a 19-year-old university student who was hospitalized with symptoms of drug-induced psychosis. Her initial treatment was not successful and presented dilemmas for the treating staff. Transfer to a second psychiatric facility that permitted attendance at a traditional Filipino healing ceremony resulted in a cure, with no recurrence 10 years later. According to James Dow's 1986 formulation, the components of the key spiritual healing session paralleled the very elements the young woman had sought by participating in raves, an activity that was problematic because it led to family displeasure. Whereas attendance at a rave triggered illness, the healing session, sanctioned by her family and taking place in their midst, resulted in healing.

  4. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  5. Chemical variations in Yellowknife Bay formation sedimentary rocks analyzed by ChemCam on board the Curiosity rover on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Dromart, G.; Stack, K.M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, Olivier; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Nachon, Marion; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Anderson, Ryan B.; Barraclough, Bruce; Bell, J.F.; Berger, G.; Blaney, D.L.; Bridges, J.C.; Calef, F.; Clark, Brian R.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Cousin, Agnes; Edgar, L.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, S.C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Kah, Linda C.; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, S.; Lewin, Eric; Malin, Michael; McLennan, Scott M.; Maurice, S.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Milliken, Ralph E.; Newsome, H.L.; Ollila, A.; Rowland, Scott K.; Sautter, Violaine; Schmidt, M.E.; Schroder, S.; D'Uston, C.; Vaniman, Dave; Williams, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowknife Bay formation represents a ~5 m thick stratigraphic section of lithified fluvial and lacustrine sediments analyzed by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater, Mars. Previous works have mainly focused on the mudstones that were drilled by the rover at two locations. The present study focuses on the sedimentary rocks stratigraphically above the mudstones by studying their chemical variations in parallel with rock textures. Results show that differences in composition correlate with textures and both manifest subtle but significant variations through the stratigraphic column. Though the chemistry of the sediments does not vary much in the lower part of the stratigraphy, the variations in alkali elements indicate variations in the source material and/or physical sorting, as shown by the identification of alkali feldspars. The sandstones contain similar relative proportions of hydrogen to the mudstones below, suggesting the presence of hydrous minerals that may have contributed to their cementation. Slight variations in magnesium correlate with changes in textures suggesting that diagenesis through cementation and dissolution modified the initial rock composition and texture simultaneously. The upper part of the stratigraphy (~1 m thick) displays rocks with different compositions suggesting a strong change in the depositional system. The presence of float rocks with similar compositions found along the rover traverse suggests that some of these outcrops extend further away in the nearby hummocky plains.

  6. Cultural Resources Investigations at the Lake Traverse-Bois de Sioux Project, Roberts County, South Dakota, Traverse County, Minnesota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    crowned Kinglet - Bombycilla garrulus Bohemian Waxwing S- Carduelis pinus Pine Siskin Pica pica Black-billed Magpie * Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe Anas...Inkpaduta and his small band of Wahpekute for the murders of over 30 people in 1857 in the Lake Okoboji area of Iowa and the government’s subsequent...area? 17. P. 54 para 1: "Two shorter northerly routes and righteously outraged Indains with murderous impulses near Lake Traverse undoubtedly hurt the

  7. Validation of Lithium-ion cell technology for JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    n early 2004 JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling >300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20 C to +40 C), withstanding long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of Lithium-ion technology to meet these stringent requirements, a comprehensive test program was implemented aimed at demonstrating the performance capability of prototype cells fabricated by Lithion, Inc. (Yardney Technical Products, Inc.). The testing performed includes, determining the (a) room temperature cycle life, (b) pulse capability as a function of temperature, (e) self-discharge and storage characteristics mission profile capability, (f) cycle life under mission simulation conditions, (g) impedance characteristics, (h) impact of cell orientation, and (i) performance in 8-cell engineering batteries. As will be discussed, the Lithium-ion prototype cells and batteries were demonstrated to meet, as well as, exceed the requirements defined by the mission.

  8. A Modular Re-configurable Rover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloubasis, A.; McKee, G.; Active Robotics Lab

    In this paper we present the novel concepts incorporated in a planetary surface exploration rover design that is currently under development. The Multitasking Rover (MTR) aims to demonstrate functionality that will cover many of the current and future needs such as rough-terrain mobility, modularity and upgradeability [1]. The rover system has enhanced mobility characteristics. It operates in conjunction with Science Packs (SPs) and Tool Packs (TPs) - modules attached to the main frame of the rover, which are either special tools or science instruments and alter the operation capabilities of the system. To date, each rover system design is very much task driven for example, the scenario of cooperative transportation of extended payloads [2], comprises two rovers each equipped with a manipulator dedicated to the task [3]. The MTR approach focuses mostly on modularity and upgradeability presenting at the same time a fair amount of internal re-configurability for the sake of rough terrain stability. The rover itself does not carry any scientific instruments or tools. To carry out the scenario mentioned above, the MTR would have to locate and pick-up a TP with the associated manipulator. After the completion of the task the TP could be put away to a storage location enabling the rover to utilize a different Pack. The rover will not only offer mobility to these modules, but also use them as tools, transforming its role and functionality. The advantage of this approach is that instead of sending a large number of rovers to perform a variety of tasks, a smaller number of MTRs could be deployed with a large number of SPs/TPs, offering multiples of the functionality at a reduced payload. Two SPs or TPs (or a combination of) can be carried and deployed. One of the key elements in the design of the four wheeled rover, lies within its suspension system. It comprises a linear actuator located within each leg and also an active differential linking the two shoulders. This novel

  9. Land rover military one-tonne

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, James

    2015-01-01

    A fully illustrated history of the Land Rover 101 One-Tonne - the forward-control military vehicle developed as a gun tractor for the British Army, in production from 1975-1978. This essential guide to these small yet powerful 4 x 4 vehicles covers: production histories; design and prototypes; specification guides; the 101 in British military service between 1975 and 1998; the 101 variants - ambulances, Rapier tractors, hard-bodied versions for electronic warfare and special field conversions; sales to overseas military authorities and, finally, advice on buying and owning a 101 today. Of great interest to Land Rover and military vehicle enthusiasts, historians and owners' clubs and illustrated with 207 original colour photographs.

  10. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  11. Student Participation in Rover Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Nelson, S. V.; Sherman, D. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    The LAPIS program was developed in 1999 as part of the Athena Science Payload education and public outreach, funded by the JPL Mars Program Office. For the past three years, the Athena Science Team has been preparing for 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission operations using the JPL prototype Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover in extended rover field trials. Students and teachers participating in LAPIS work with them each year to develop a complementary mission plan and implement an actual portion of the annual tests using FIDO and its instruments. LAPIS is designed to mirror an end-to-end mission: Small, geographically distributed groups of students form an integrated mission team, working together with Athena Science Team members and FIDO engineers to plan, implement, and archive a two-day test mission, controlling FIDO remotely over the Internet using the Web Interface for Telescience (WITS) and communicating with each other by email, the web, and teleconferences. The overarching goal of LAPIS is to get students excited about science and related fields. The program provides students with the opportunity to apply knowledge learned in school, such as geometry and geology, to a "real world" situation and to explore careers in science and engineering through continuous one-on-one interactions with teachers, Athena Science Team mentors, and FIDO engineers. A secondary goal is to help students develop improved communication skills and appreciation of teamwork, enhanced problem-solving skills, and increased self-confidence. The LAPIS program will provide a model for outreach associated with future FIDO field trials and the 2003 Mars mission operations. The base of participation will be broadened beyond the original four sites by taking advantage of the wide geographic distribution of Athena team member locations. This will provide greater numbers of students with the opportunity to actively engage in rover testing and to explore the possibilities of

  12. the spirit of the body of christ: the holy spirit's indwelling in the church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of Christ who indwells his body. ..... 12:12). Both belong intrinsically together. They are one and the same God in action. Now that Christ is in heaven, his Spirit is his own presence on earth and we must view the Spirit in this perspective: no ..... Christians are called to celebrate the Eucharist, in memory of the death.

  13. Slip Validation and Prediction for Mars Exploration Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique to validate and predict the rover slips on Martian surface for NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover mission (MER. Different from the traditional approach, the proposed method uses the actual velocity profile of the wheels and the digital elevation map (DEM from the stereo images of the terrain to formulate the equations of motion. The six wheel speed from the empirical encoder data comprises the vehicle's velocity, and the rover motion can be estimated using mixed differential and algebraic equations. Applying the discretization operator to these equations, the full kinematics state of the rover is then resolved by the configuration kinematics solution in the Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP. This method, with the proper wheel slip and sliding factors, produces accurate simulation of the Mars Exploration rovers, which have been validated with the earth-testing vehicle. This computational technique has been deployed to the operation of the MER rovers in the extended mission period. Particularly, it yields high quality prediction of the rover motion on high slope areas. The simulated path of the rovers has been validated using the telemetry from the onboard Visual Odometry (VisOdom. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed simulation is very effective in planning the path of the rovers on the high-slope areas.

  14. Requirements and Designs for Mars Rover RTGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Shirbacheh, M; Sankarankandath, V

    2012-01-19

    The current-generation RTGs (both GPHS and MOD) are designed for operation in a vacuum environment. The multifoil thermal insulation used in those RTGs only functions well in a good vacuum. Current RTGs are designed to operate with an inert cover gas before launch, and to be vented to space vacuum after launch. Both RTGs are sealed with a large number of metallic C-rings. Those seals are adequate for retaining the inert-gas overpressure during short-term launch operations, but would not be adequate to prevent intrusion of the Martian atmospheric gases during long-term operations there. Therefore, for the Mars Rover application, those RTGs just be modified to prevent the buildup of significant pressures of Mars atmosphere or of helium (from alpha decay of the fuel). In addition, a Mars Rover RTG needs to withstand a long-term dynamic environment that is much more severe than that seen by an RTG on an orbiting spacecraft or on a stationary planetary lander. This paper describes a typical Rover mission, its requirements, the environment it imposes on the RTG, and a design approach for making the RTG operable in such an environment. Specific RTG designs for various thermoelectric element alternatives are presented.; Reference CID #9268 and CID #9276.

  15. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  16. Training Revising Based Traversability Analysis of Complex Terrains for Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversability analysis is one of the core issues in the autonomous navigation for mobile robots to identify the accessible area by the information of sensors on mobile robots. This paper proposed a model to analyze the traversability of complex terrains based on rough sets and training revising. The model described the traversability for mobile robots by traversability cost. Through the experiment, the paper gets the conclusion that traversability analysis model based on rough sets and training revising can be used where terrain features are rich and complex, can effectively handle the unstructured environment, and can provide reliable and effective decision rules in the autonomous navigation for mobile robots.

  17. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  18. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr Esfahani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.

  19. Gravito-magnetic monopoles in traversable wormholes from WIMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jesús Martín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2017-03-01

    Using Weitzenböck Induced Matter Theory (WIMT), we study Schwarzschild wormholes performing different foliations on an extended (non-vacuum) 5D manifold. We explore the geodesic equations for observers which are in the interior of a traversable wormhole and how these observers can detect gravito-magnetic monopoles which are dual to gravito-electric sources observed in the outer zone of some Schwarzschild Black-Hole (BH). The densities of these monopoles are calculated and quantized in the Dirac sense. This kind of duality on the extended Einstein-Maxwell equations, relates electric and magnetic charges on causally disconnected space regions.

  20. Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maho, Yvon; Whittington, Jason D; Hanuise, Nicolas; Pereira, Louise; Boureau, Matthieu; Brucker, Mathieu; Chatelain, Nicolas; Courtecuisse, Julien; Crenner, Francis; Friess, Benjamin; Grosbellet, Edith; Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Olivier, Frédérique; Saraux, Claire; Vetter, Nathanaël; Viblanc, Vincent A; Thierry, Bernard; Tremblay, Pascale; Groscolas, René; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-12-01

    Investigating wild animals while minimizing human disturbance remains an important methodological challenge. When approached by a remote-operated vehicle (rover) which can be equipped to make radio-frequency identifications, wild penguins had significantly lower and shorter stress responses (determined by heart rate and behavior) than when approached by humans. Upon immobilization, the rover-unlike humans-did not disorganize colony structure, and stress rapidly ceased. Thus, rovers can reduce human disturbance of wild animals and the resulting scientific bias.

  1. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  2. Life and death in Kardecist Spiritism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses from an anthropological perspective how Brazilian Spiritism resignifies the current notions of life and death, comparing the notion of reincarnation with the Christian and Catholic notion of purgatory. The search for understanding of the processes of identity construction in this religious system leads to the examination of the notions of reincarnation, karma, evolution, mediumship and probation, which are central to Kardecian cosmology. With this active set of notions, Spiritism proposes a rich set of perspectives about the self, and simultaneously graduates and softens the otherness of death.

  3. Ground testing of the Li-ion batteries in support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2005-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(deg)C to +4O(deg)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit (RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The testing performed includes, (a) performing initial characterization tests (discharge capacity at different temperatures), (b) simulating the launch conditions, (c) simulating the cruise phase conditions (including trajectory corrections), (d) simulating the entry, decent, and landing pulse load profile (if required to support the pyros) (e) simulating the Mars surface operation mission simulation conditions, as well as, (f) assessing performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by LithiodYardney, Inc.) were demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, and are projected to support an extended mission (> 2 years) with margin to spare.

  4. 27 CFR 27.120 - Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Importation of Distilled Spirits In Bulk § 27.120 Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. Distilled spirits imported in bulk (i.e., in containers having a...

  5. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of spirits to wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed...

  6. George Peabody and the Spirit of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One of a collection of articles on philanthropist George Peabody tells the story of two bronze doors made by sculptor Louis Amateis for the U.S. Capitol. The doors include a panel entitled Apotheosis of America that captures Amateis' vision of the spirit of America and includes the figures of George Peabody and other historic personages. (SM)

  7. Science-its Philosophy and Spirit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Science - its Philosophy and Spirit. Hermann Bondi. Reflections Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 82-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/07/0082-0095. Author Affiliations.

  8. Methanol levels in methylated spirit drinking alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, K

    1986-10-08

    On three different occasions, blood samples sent to this laboratory from the accident and emergency department were found to contain potentially toxic amounts of methanol (30, 34 and 41 mmol/l) during analysis for ethanol by a gas chromatographic method. It is suggested that the simultaneous determination of both alcohols may be clinically important in methylated spirit drinking alcoholics.

  9. The Teacher as an Archetype of Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Many images of the teacher in the current literature on teaching and teacher reflectivity can be seen as aspects of the Jungian image of the teacher as an archetype of spirit. These images--the teacher as philosopher, prophet, Zen master, and priest--correspond to what I call dialogical, civic, ontological and incarnational spirituality,…

  10. Physics issues of a proposed program, SPIRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    Physics issues of the proposed program, SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Induction Techniques) are discussed. The main purpose of this program is to explore the physics of global stability and sustainment of compact toroids, including FRC (field reversed configuration) as well as low-aspect-ratio RFP (reversed field pinch), spheromak and spherical torus. (author)

  11. Europe's crisis : unification without a unifying spirit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margriet Krijtenburg

    2011-01-01

    What is happening to the EU? Following Schuman’s line of thought we can see that the crisis is linked with the lack of a European spirit among member states, together with the lack of a moral order as the guiding principle for European policies – including in the field of finance. It is the speed of

  12. Klubi "Spirit" = Club Spirit / Hanno Soans ; tõlk. Liisi Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti klubikultuurist 1990-ndatel. Klubi "Spirit" kujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tarmo Piirmets, Martti Siimann. Arhitekt Jüri Irik Arhitektuuribüroost Ehala & Irik. Projekt ja klubi valmis 2000. Flaierid kujundas Aadam Kaarma. 10 ill. Vaated, korruste plaanid

  13. Self-sustained traversable wormholes in noncommutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, Facolta di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy)], E-mail: remo.garattini@unibg.it; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: flobo@cosmo.fis.fc.ul.pt

    2009-01-12

    In this work, we find exact wormhole solutions in the context of noncommutative geometry, and further explore their physical properties and characteristics. The energy density of these wormhole geometries is a smeared and particle-like gravitational source, where the mass is diffused throughout a region of linear dimension {radical}({alpha}) due to the intrinsic uncertainty encoded in the coordinate commutator. Furthermore, we also analyze these wormhole geometries considering that the equation governing quantum fluctuations behaves as a backreaction equation. In particular, the energy density of the graviton one loop contribution to a classical energy in a traversable wormhole background and the finite one loop energy density is considered as a self-consistent source for these wormhole geometries. Interesting solutions are found for an appropriate range of the parameters, validating the perturbative computation introduced in this semi-classical approach.

  14. Applications of Coherent Radiation from Electrons traversing Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Überall, H.

    2000-04-01

    Historically, the first types of coherent radiation from electrons traversing crystals studied were coherent bremsstrahlung (CB: Dyson and Überall 1955; Überall 1956, 1962) and channeling radiation (CR: Kumakhov, 1976) which produce quasimonochromatic X-rays and γ-rays, as well as parametric X-rays (Baryshevsky and Feranchuk, 1983). Related non-crystal sources are transition radiation and synchrotron radiation. We here present a comparison of radiation types from these sources, and we discuss a series of their possible applications, namely (a) CR: X-ray lithography, angiography, structure analysis of macromolecules, and trace element analysis, and (b) for CB: Radiography, use as a neutron source, elemental analysis, radiation therapy, and radioisotope production for commercial or medical use. CR and CB are very intense sources, needing only low-energy, moderately-priced electron linacs for their generation, hence competing with (or surpassing) more conventional X-ray sources intensity-wise and from a cost standpoint.

  15. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The...

  16. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes. (a) Applicability. (1) Persons who produce spirits in industrial processes (including spirits...

  17. 27 CFR 19.984 - Record of spirits received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of spirits received. 19.984 Section 19.984 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Accounting for...

  18. Two Spirit: Counseling Native American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Barret, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The cultural world of the Two Spirit, the traditional role of Native individuals believed to possess both male and female spirit, is explored in both "old ways" and current-day experiences. Cultural beliefs and meanings around sexual identity are discussed from a Native perspective with recommendations for counseling Two Spirit clients.…

  19. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled spirits...

  20. 27 CFR 31.47 - Warehouse receipts covering spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.47 Warehouse receipts covering spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled spirits...

  1. Data Processing and Primary results of Lunar Penetrating Radar on Board the Chinese Yutu Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Feng, Jianqing; Dai, Shun; Ding, Chunyu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Li, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Radar is an attractive and powerful technique to observe the Moon. Radar mapping of the Moon's topography was first done by the Arecibo telescope at a wave- length of 70 cm in 1964 (Thompson & Dyce 1966). Chang'e-3 (CE-3) was successfully launched on 2013 December 2, and the landing place is in Mare Imbrium, about 40km south of the 6km diameter Laplace F crater, at 44.1214ON, 19.5116OW. The Lunar ground-Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of scientific payloads of the Yutu rover, aiming to achieve the first direct measurements and explore the lunar subsurface structure. Compared with ALSE and LRS, LPR works at higher frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Thus it can probe regions with shallower depth including the regolith and lunar crust at higher range resolution. The LPR uses one transmitting and one receiving dipole antenna for 60 MHz which are installed at the back of the rover. For 500 MHz, one transmitting and two bow-tie receiving antennas are attached to the bottom of the rover. It transmits a pulsed signal and receives the radar echo signal along the path that the Yutu rover traverses. The free space range resolutions are ~ 50 cm and ~ 25 m for 60 MHz and 500 MHz respectively. The radar data stop being sampled and are sent back to Earth when Yutu is stationary. Observations are simultaneously carried out at frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Since the Yutu rover had severe problems during its second lunar day, it is pity that the Yutu rover only transversed a limited distance of 114.8m. In total, 566 MB of data were obtained. The scientific data are archived and distributed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Data processing has been done in order to eliminate the effect of the instrument. To obtain clear radar images, more data processing need to be applied such as coordinate transformation, data editing, background removal, the operations of smoothing and gain resetting. The radar signal could detect hundreds of meters deep at

  2. Mars Exploration Rover parachute decelerator system program review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, A.; Bruno, R.

    2003-01-01

    In the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission, NASA returns to the red planet, following the extremely successful Mars Pathfinder in 1997. The mission will send two lander-rovers to the surface of Mars with separate launches in May and June, 2003. This paper describes the Parachute Decelerator System for the entry vehicle.

  3. Criticality safety for deactivation of the Rover dry headend process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Rover dry headend process combusted Rover graphite fuels in preparation for dissolution and solvent extraction for the recovery of 235 U. At the end of the Rover processing campaign, significant quantities of 235 U were left in the dry system. The Rover Dry Headend Process Deactivation Project goal is to remove the remaining uranium bearing material (UBM) from the dry system and then decontaminate the cells. Criticality safety issues associated with the Rover Deactivation Project have been influenced by project design refinement and schedule acceleration initiatives. The uranium ash composition used for calculations must envelope a wide range of material compositions, and yet result in cost effective final packaging and storage. Innovative thinking must be used to provide a timely safety authorization basis while the project design continues to be refined

  4. The Effects of Clock Drift on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khaled S.; Vanelli, C. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    All clocks drift by some amount, and the mission clock on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is no exception. The mission clock on both MER rovers drifted significantly since the rovers were launched, and it is still drifting on the Opportunity rover. The drift rate is temperature dependent. Clock drift causes problems for onboard behaviors and spacecraft operations, such as attitude estimation, driving, operation of the robotic arm, pointing for imaging, power analysis, and telecom analysis. The MER operations team has techniques to deal with some of these problems. There are a few techniques for reducing and eliminating the clock drift, but each has drawbacks. This paper presents an explanation of what is meant by clock drift on the rovers, its relationship to temperature, how we measure it, what problems it causes, how we deal with those problems, and techniques for reducing the drift.

  5. Effect of spirit irradiation with 60Co gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwardys, S.

    1975-01-01

    A few sorts of spirit were irradiated with a dose of 1 or 5 Mrad of 60 Co gamma-rays. Then the chemical composition of spirits was investigated. It was found that as a result of irradiation the content of acids, esters, acetal aldehydes and methanol increases, while the strength of higher alcohols decreases slightly. The changes of compounds content in particular spirits are dependent on radiation doses and chemical composition before irradiation. It was also discovered that spirit irradiation causes decrease or even disappearance of characteristic - for given spirits - maxima of UV absorption. (Z.M.)

  6. Automated Grouping of Opportunity Rover Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer Compositional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBommel, S. J.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schroder, C.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) conducts high-precision in situ measurements of rocks and soils on both active NASA Mars rovers. Since 2004 the rover Opportunity has acquired around 440 unique APXS measurements, including a wide variety of compositions, during its 42+ kilometers traverse across several geological formations. Here we discuss an analytical comparison algorithm providing a means to cluster samples due to compositional similarity and the resulting automated classification scheme. Due to the inherent variance of elements in the APXS data set, each element has an associated weight that is inversely proportional to the variance. Thus, the more consistent the abundance of an element in the data set, the more it contributes to the classification. All 16 elements standard to the APXS data set are considered. Careful attention is also given to the errors associated with the composition measured by the APXS - larger uncertainties reduce the weighting of the element accordingly. The comparison of two targets, i and j, generates a similarity score, S(sub ij). This score is immediately comparable to an average ratio across all elements if one assumes standard weighted uncertainty. The algorithm facilitates the classification of APXS targets by chemistry alone - independent of target appearance and geological context which can be added later as a consistency check. For the N targets considered, a N by N hollow matrix, S, is generated where S = S(sup T). The average relation score, S(sub av), for target N(sub i) is simply the average of column i of S. A large S(sub av) is indicative of a unique sample. In such an instance any targets with a low comparison score can be classified alike. The threshold between classes requires careful consideration. Applying the algorithm to recent Marathon Valley targets indicates similarities with Burns formation and average-Mars-like rocks encountered earlier at Endeavour Crater as well as a new class of felsic rocks.

  7. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  8. Decolonizing Education: Nourishing the Learning Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging Indigenous scholar completing a mainstream doctoral program, I was immediately drawn to the work of Marie Battiste. Her work inspires my commitment to approach my degree as a decolonizing journey that nourishes my own learning spirit. Battiste (1998 captures the paradox of mainstream education as it is experienced by Aboriginal students. As she pointed out while Aboriginal students are looking to liberate themselves and their communities through education, they are faced with a strenuous curriculum that does not “mirror” them. As a result, students experience a “fragmented existence” (p. 24. This has indeed been my experience. Her recent book, Decolonizing Education: Nourishing the Learning Spirit expresses the tensions Indigenous learners face in all levels of mainstream education. These are the very tensions I personally experienced throughout the entirety of my educational experience as I have attempted to secure my own space and sense of place as a student and now aspiring professor.

  9. Data Management for Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joseph F.; Smyth, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Data Management for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) project is a comprehensive system addressing the needs of development, test, and operations phases of the mission. During development of flight software, including the science software, the data management system can be simulated using any POSIX file system. During testing, the on-board file system can be bit compared with files on the ground to verify proper behavior and end-to-end data flows. During mission operations, end-to-end accountability of data products is supported, from science observation concept to data products within the permanent ground repository. Automated and human-in-the-loop ground tools allow decisions regarding retransmitting, re-prioritizing, and deleting data products to be made using higher level information than is available to a protocol-stack approach such as the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP).

  10. Adaptive multisensor fusion for planetary exploration rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Marie-France; Kumar, Krishen; Pampagnin, Luc-Henri

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the adaptive multisensor fusion system currently being designed at NASA/Johnson Space Center is to provide a robotic rover with assured vision and safe navigation capabilities during robotic missions on planetary surfaces. Our approach consists of using multispectral sensing devices ranging from visible to microwave wavelengths to fulfill the needs of perception for space robotics. Based on the illumination conditions and the sensors capabilities knowledge, the designed perception system should automatically select the best subset of sensors and their sensing modalities that will allow the perception and interpretation of the environment. Then, based on reflectance and emittance theoretical models, the sensor data are fused to extract the physical and geometrical surface properties of the environment surface slope, dielectric constant, temperature and roughness. The theoretical concepts, the design and first results of the multisensor perception system are presented.

  11. Red rover: inside the story of robotic space exploration, from genesis to the mars rover curiosity

    CERN Document Server

    Wiens, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In its eerie likeness to Earth, Mars has long captured our imaginations—both as a destination for humankind and as a possible home to extraterrestrial life. It is our twenty-first century New World; its explorers robots, shipped 350 million miles from Earth to uncover the distant planet’s secrets.Its most recent scout is Curiosity—a one-ton, Jeep-sized nuclear-powered space laboratory—which is now roving the Martian surface to determine whether the red planet has ever been physically capable of supporting life. In Red Rover, geochemist Roger Wiens, the principal investigator for the ChemCam laser instrument on the rover and veteran of numerous robotic NASA missions, tells the unlikely story of his involvement in sending sophisticated hardware into space, culminating in the Curiosity rover's amazing journey to Mars.In so doing, Wiens paints the portrait of one of the most exciting scientific stories of our time: the new era of robotic space exploration. Starting with NASA’s introduction of the Discovery...

  12. Volatile congeners in strong alcoholic fruit spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify and quantitatively analyze alcohol volatile congeners in different types of spirits from the domestic producers in order to evaluate their quality according to the Official Regulation. A total of 100 samples of three different types of grape brandies (lozova rakia, komova rakia and vinjak) and 30 samples of plum brandies obtained from seven domestic producers were analyzed on the content of ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, i-propanol, n- propanol, i-bu...

  13. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  14. Brane surgery: energy conditions, traversable wormholes, and voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Visser, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Branes are ubiquitous elements of any low-energy limit of string theory. We point out that negative tension branes violate all the standard energy conditions of the higher-dimensional spacetime they are embedded in; this opens the door to very peculiar solutions of the higher-dimensional Einstein equations. Building upon the (3+1)-dimensional implementation of fundamental string theory, we illustrate the possibilities by considering a toy model consisting of a (2+1)-dimensional brane propagating through our observable (3+1)-dimensional universe. Developing a notion of 'brane surgery', based on the Israel-Lanczos-Sen 'thin shell' formalism of general relativity, we analyze the dynamics and find traversable wormholes, closed baby universes, voids (holes in the spacetime manifold), and an evasion (not a violation) of both the singularity theorems and the positive mass theorem. These features appear generic to any brane model that permits negative tension branes: This includes the Randall-Sundrum models and their variants

  15. Radiometric Temperatures of Urban Canyon Walls obtained from Vehicle Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Building walls form an important component of the total surface area in cities, but are not generally considered in most attempts to measure urban surface temperatures. A procedure which allows sampling of the spatial and temporal variation of wall surface temperatures in urban areas is presented. Radiometric surface temperatures are monitored using an array of infrared thermometers mounted on a moving vehicle. It is necessary to remove observations which view sky, or mixed sky and building scenes. Distribution truncation and distribution modelling are investigated as methods to remove the unwanted observations. Use of the traverse method in several urban areas reveals strong temporal variations in wall temperatures due to solar loading. Significant spatial variations in temperatures suggest caution be used in the extrapolation of data from single canyon studies to larger scales. Times of strong surface temperature contrast between different walls are linked to canyon and solar geometry. In the light industrial and residential observation areas, north-south streets show mid-morning and late afternoon peaks of approximately equal magnitude in the difference between wall surface temperatures. East-west streets show a single peak in the hour following solar noon. The downtown study area, with streets oriented northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast, shows a double wave pattern with one peak dominant. These patterns are of interest because they can lead to large biases in remotely-observed surface temperature with view direction.

  16. 33 CFR 110.82a - Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich. 110.82a Section 110.82a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich. (a) Area 1. Beginning at latitude 45°25′42.2″ N...

  17. A Distributed Election and Spanning Tree Algorithm Based on Depth First Search Traversals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    The existence of an effective distributed traversal algorithm for a class of graphs has proven useful in connection with election problems for those classes. In this paper we show how a general traversal algorithm, such as depth first search, can be turned into an effective election algorithm using...... modular techniques. The presented method also constructs a spanning tree for the graph....

  18. Automated navigation of Mars rovers using HiRISE-CTX-HRSC co-registered orthorectified images and DTMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2014-05-01

    Fusion of orbital and rover imagery is critical to a better understanding of the geological and geomorphological context of current and future rovers on Mars. A critical component of this is to ensure that the most accurate possible co-registration can be achieved between orbital images (co-registered to MOLA tracks) and rover imagery. Currently this is either performed by hand or uses Incremental Bundle Adjustment that does not guarantee compliance of rover and global aerographic co-ordinates. The objective of this work is to produce the most accurate possible Mars rover locations in global aerographic coordinates. The first stage of the work involves automated tie-point/feature based co-registration of high-quality image maps from coarse to fine spatial resolutions, i.e. HRSC ORI (~12.5metre/pixel) and DTM (~75mpp), CTX ORI (~6mpp) and DTM (~6mpp), HiRISE ORI (~0.25mpp) and DTM (~1mpp). The second stage of the work involves stereo reconstruction using ground data captured by Navigation cameras onboard MER-A/-B/MSL rover, bundle adjustment of the NavCam ORI/DTM for wide baseline mosaic, and co-registration of NavCam ORI (0.01mpp) and HiRISE ORI based on combined mutual information and edge feature registration techniques. The registration accuracy achieved is up to the sub pixel level of the coarser layer, e.g. 1.25mpp for HRSC-to-CTX, and the final rover traverse has a resolution of 0.025mpp. The development work is based on previous research/development work on HiRISE/HRSC ORI/DTM co-registration [1], stereo ground reconstruction [2], and multi-resolution data fusion [3] within the EU-FP7-PRoVisG project (http://provisg.eu). The co-registered rover locations and multi-layer map have been partly integrated into the interactive web-GIS system (http://progisweb.eu) developed for scientific data selection and visualisation within the PRoVisG and EU-FP7-PRoViDE project (http://provide-space.eu). Further assessment will be performed within PRoViDE. The final products

  19. Using Multi-Core Systems for Rover Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Brad; Estlin, Tara; Bornstein, Benjamin; Springer, Paul; Anderson, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Task Objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate key capabilities for rover long-range science operations using multi-core computing, (a) Adapt three rover technologies to execute on SOA multi-core processor (b) Illustrate performance improvements achieved (c) Demonstrate adapted capabilities with rover hardware, (2) Targeting three high-level autonomy technologies (a) Two for onboard data analysis (b) One for onboard command sequencing/planning, (3) Technologies identified as enabling for future missions, (4)Benefits will be measured along several metrics: (a) Execution time / Power requirements (b) Number of data products processed per unit time (c) Solution quality

  20. SPIRIT GUSJIGANG KUDUS DAN TANTANGAN GLOBALISASI EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Mustaqim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available THE SPIRIT OF GUSJIGANG KUDUS AND THE ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION CHALLENGES. This paper intends to reveal the role of  Gusjigang business spirituality in facing the global economy. Kudus society known to have unique typology in business and learning, it is known as “Gusjigang”, it stands for the good, recite the Qur’an, and trade. Studies on the relationship between spirituality and business have been conducted a lot, but the study of the ethical spirit that focuses on business behavior of Muslim community in the context of  the trend of  economic globalization would still limited. The unique format and typology resulting from this study is expected to be a new concept for the development of Islamic economics and business at a different time and space in the future. In general, the results of this study came to the conclusion that Gusjigang spirit as glokalitas in business behavior. Glokalitas is a local moral value that is expected to become a universal character. This universal value if applied in the free competition, it will generate business behavior which always brings the perpetrators to goodness. Keywords: Gusjigang, Globalization, Economics. Tulisan ini bermaksud mengungkap peran spiritualitas bisnis Gusjigang dalam menghadapi ekonomi global. Masyarakat Kudus dikenal memiliki tipologi unik dalam berbisnis dan belajar, yang dikenal dengan istilah “Gusjigang”, kepanjangan dari bagus, ngaji, dan dagang. Kajian tentang hubungan antara spiritualitas dan perilaku bisnis memang sudah banyak dilakukan, tetapi kajian tentang spirit etik yang berfokus pada perilaku bisnis masyarakat Muslim konteksnya dengan kecenderungan globalisasi ekonomi kiranya masih terbatas. Format dan tipologi unik yang dihasilkan dari kajian ini diharapkan mampu menjadi konsep baru untuk pengembangan ekonomi dan bisnis Islam pada ruang dan waktu yang berbeda di masa mendatang. Secara umum, hasil kajian ini sampai pada penyimpulan spirit Gusjigang sebagai

  1. Volatile composition and sensory characters of commercial Galician orujo spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Sandra C; de la Peña, M Luisa G; Gómez, Esperanza F

    2005-08-24

    Nineteen samples of commercial Galician orujo spirits were analyzed by gas chromatography and distinguished from one another on the basis of the concentrations of major volatile compounds (methanol, higher alcohols, esters, acetates, and aldehydes). The spirits were also sensorily analyzed to emphasize this differentiation and to establish a sensory profile as a function of the attributes defined by the tasters. The results show that the Galician orujo spirits present notably significant differences in the concentrations of 2-butanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl lactate, whereas their ethylic esters contents are similar. Sensorily, the orujo spirits can be differentiated by taste but have similar characteristics of bouquet, the best of which are from the Godello variety. The descriptions employed to define the orujo spirits were herbaceous, floral, fruity, vegetal, alcohol, toasted, and "others". Floral and fruity were predominant in the Albariño orujo spirits; herbaceous was predominant in the plurivarietal orujo spirits, vegetal in the Godello spirits, and dried fruit or toasted in the Mencia spirits. The orujo spirits from Treixadura have the most diverse profile, with the participation of most of the attributes.

  2. Terradynamically streamlined shapes in animals and robots enhance traversability through densely cluttered terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew O; Haldane, Duncan W; Lam, Han K; Fearing, Ronald S; Full, Robert J

    2015-06-22

    Many animals, modern aircraft, and underwater vehicles use fusiform, streamlined body shapes that reduce fluid dynamic drag to achieve fast and effective locomotion in air and water. Similarly, numerous small terrestrial animals move through cluttered terrain where three-dimensional, multi-component obstacles like grass, shrubs, vines, and leaf litter also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role in traversal. Few ground vehicles or terrestrial robots have used body shape to more effectively traverse environments such as cluttered terrain. Here, we challenged forest-floor-dwelling discoid cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) possessing a thin, rounded body to traverse tall, narrowly spaced, vertical, grass-like compliant beams. Animals displayed high traversal performance (79 ± 12% probability and 3.4 ± 0.7 s time). Although we observed diverse obstacle traversal strategies, cockroaches primarily (48 ± 9% probability) used a novel roll maneuver, a form of natural parkour, allowing them to rapidly traverse obstacle gaps narrower than half their body width (2.0 ± 0.5 s traversal time). Reduction of body roundness by addition of artificial shells nearly inhibited roll maneuvers and decreased traversal performance. Inspired by this discovery, we added a thin, rounded exoskeletal shell to a legged robot with a nearly cuboidal body, common to many existing terrestrial robots. Without adding sensory feedback or changing the open-loop control, the rounded shell enabled the robot to traverse beam obstacles with gaps narrower than shell width via body roll. Such terradynamically 'streamlined' shapes can reduce terrain resistance and enhance traversability by assisting effective body reorientation via distributed mechanical feedback. Our findings highlight the need to consider body shape to improve robot mobility in real-world terrain often filled with clutter, and to develop better locomotor-ground contact models to understand

  3. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  4. Miniaturized Interrogation System for Marsupial Rover Sensing Tether, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development of its marsupial rover sensing tether (MaRS Tether) technology by miniaturizing the sensor's interrogation system. Luna is...

  5. Extended Length Marsupial Rover Sensing Tether, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development of its marsupial rover sensing tether (MaRS Tether) technology by extending the length of the sensing technology out to nearly...

  6. Visual Odometry for Planetary Exploration Rovers in Sandy Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Visual odometry provides planetary exploration rovers with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation, which needs effective feature tracking results, especially in barren sandy terrains. In this paper, a stereovision based odometry algorithm is proposed for a lunar rover, which is composed of corner extraction, feature tracking and motion estimation. First, a morphology based image enhancement method is studied to guarantee enough corners are extracted. Second, a Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm is proposed to make a robust estimation of the fundamental matrix, which is the basic and critical part of feature matching and tracking. Then, the 6 degrees of freedom rover position and orientation is estimated by the RANSAC algorithm. Finally, experiments are performed in a simulated lunar surface environment using a prototype rover, which have confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Soft-Robotic Rover with Electrodynamic Power Scavenging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a rover architecture for Europa and other planetary environments where soft robotics enables scientific investigation or human-precursor missions that...

  8. MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2 SPICE KERNELS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the complete set of Mars Exploration Rover 2 SPICE data files (kernel files'), which can be accessed using SPICE software. The SPICE data...

  9. MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 1 SPICE KERNELS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the complete set of Mars Exploration Rover 1 SPICE data files (kernel files''), which can be accessed using SPICE software. The SPICE data...

  10. Progress Towards Mars Rover Simulations in the Australian Outback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, B.; Fenton, A.; Hoffman, N.

    2001-03-01

    Mars Society Australia plans to conduct field operations of a simulated pressurised rover in the Australian desert. Scientific objectives will be combined with construction and design techniques to assist with future manned missions.

  11. Building and Executing Rover Plans with Contingent Tasks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During recent robotic field tests, NASA investigated the use of intelligent planetary rovers to improve the productivity of human explorers on planetary surfaces....

  12. A Framework for Distributed Rover Control and Three Sample Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Steve

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop quality control software for multiple robots, a common interface is required. By developing components in a modular fashion with well-defined boundaries, roboticists can write code to program a generic rover, and only require very simple modifications to run on any robot with a properly implemented framework. The proposed framework advances a Generic Rover that could be any rover, from Real World Interface's All Terrain Robot Vehicle Jr. series to the Fido-class rovers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to any other research robot. Using these generic hardware interfaces, software designers and engineers can concentrate on the actual code, and not have to worry about hardware details. In addition to the hardware support framework, three sample applications have been developed to demonstrate the flexibility and extensibility of the framework.

  13. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  14. The SOLERO Rover for Regional Exploration of Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R.; Lamon, P.; Michaud, S.; Schiele, A.; Siegwart, R.

    2003-04-01

    New planned missions such as Europe's EXOMARS mission call for regional exploration rover systems with an operational travel distance in the range of some kilometers or some tens of kilometers. This implies the requirement for a higher degree of autonomy for both, rover system operations for travel, and payload operations for scientific mission purposes. The efforts linked to control autonomy are closely linked to the active control needs of a rover's locomotion system: If a rover is capable to passively cope with a wide range of terrain topologies, the corresponding control system will be much simpler in terms of hardware and software. This contribution presents the results of a Technology Development Activity carried out for t he European Space Agency (ESA) under the label "SOLERO" - Solar Powered Exploration Rover. The activity defined a complete system for a regional exploration rover based on a new and innovative six-wheeled locomotion system. Furthermore, a breadboard model of the 10 kg-class rover was designed and realized in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the mechanical, power management, and control concepts. The SOLERO mechanical structure is an optimization of the "Shrimp" rover developed at EPFL. It has one wheel mounted on a fork in the front, one wheel in the rear and two bogies on each side. The parallel architecture of the bogies and the spring suspended fork provides a high ground clearance while keeping all its 6 motorized wheels in ground contact. This ensures excellent climbing capabilities over obstacles higher than the wheel diameter. Moreover, this original combination of wheeled locomotion and passive adaptation helps to reduce power consumption compared to active design such as legged rovers, without sensible reduction of climbing abilities. To remove the problems linked with energy storage, not only power reduction is important, but also the power management. SOLERO uses mainly solar cells to generate the electrical power, because

  15. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest, mind (slo. um, and spirit (slo. duh. They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to consciously comprehend and understand contents and objects of human activity. I delineate three “types” of spirit: personal spirit, objective spirit, and the objectification of spirit in productions of human culture; I have doubts, however, about the existence of cosmic or super-cosmic dimensions of spirit, although some interpretations of quantum physics and modern cosmology suggest that such dimensions are possible.

  16. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  17. (abstract) Telecommunications for Mars Rovers and Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Robert J.; Hastrup, Rolf C.; Horne, William; McOmber, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunications plays a key role in all rover and robotic missions to Mars both as a conduit for command information to the mission and for scientific data from the mission. Telecommunications to the Earth may be accomplished using direct-to-Earth links via the Deep Space Network (DSN) or by relay links supported by other missions at Mars. This paper reviews current plans for missions to Mars through the 2005 launch opportunity and their capabilities in support of rover and robotic telecommunications.

  18. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  19. Research on how to build team spirit of enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bingshun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the importance of team spirit in enterprisees. This article focuses on the team's meaning and the importance of modern enterprise organization, exploring the Chinese team construction of the enterprise and the problems that exist in team. Team spirit is the key point for team members to achieve the mutual goal. Team spirit is the spiritual pillar of the enterprise, without the spiritual pillar of enterprise, there will be no more energy and comp...

  20. Enhanced Central System of the Traversing Rod for High-Performance Rotor Spinning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtera Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the improvement of central traversing system on rotor spinning machines, where rectilinear motion with variable stroke is used. A new system of traversing rod with implemented set of magnetic-mechanical energy accumulators is described. Mathematical model of this system is analysed in the MSC. Software Adams/View and verified by an experimental measurement on a real-length testing rig. Analysis results prove the enhancement of devised traversing system, where the overall dynamic force is reduced considerably. At the same time, the precision of the traversing movement over the machine length is increased. This enables to increase machine operating speed while satisfying both the maximal tensile strength of the traversing rod and also output bobbin size standards. The usage of the developed mathematical model for determination of the optimal number and distribution of accumulators over the traversing rod of optional parameters is proved. The potential of the devised system for high-performance rotor spinning machines with longer traversing rod is also discussed.

  1. PDS MSL Analyst's Notebook: Supporting Active Rover Missions and Adding Value to Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Thomas

    , instruments, and data formats. In addition, observation planning and targeting information is extracted from each sol’s tactical science plan. A number of methods allow user access to the Notebook contents. The mission summary provides a high level overview of science operations. The Sol Summaries are the primary interface to integrated data and documents contained within the Notebooks. Data, documents, and planned observations are grouped for easy scanning. Data products are displayed in order of acquisition, and are grouped into logical sequences, such as a series of image data. Sequences and the individual products that comprise them may be viewed in detail, manipulated, and downloaded. Color composites and anaglyph stereo images may be created on demand. Graphs of some non-image data, such as spectra, may be viewed. Data may be downloaded as zip or gzip files, or as multiband ENVI image files. The Notebook contains a map with the rover traverse plotted on a HiRISE basemap using the raw and corrected drive telemetry provided by the project. Users may zoom and pan the map. Clicking on a traverse location brings up links to corresponding data. Three types of searching through data and documents are available within the Notebook. Free text searching of data set and sol documents are supported. Data are searchable by instrument, acquisition time, data type, and product ID. Results may be downloaded in a single collection or selected individually for detailed viewing. Additional resources include data set documents, references to published mission, links to related web resources, and online help. Finally, feedback is handled through an online forum. Work continues to improve functionality, including locating features of interest and a spectral library search/view/download tool. A number of Notebook functions are based on previous user suggestions, and feedback continues to be sought. The Analyst’s Notebook is available at http://an.rsl.wustl.edu.

  2. AHP 21: Review: Spirits of the Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available John Holt draws deeply upon more than twenty years of scholarship on the Theravadin world in Spirits of the Place, a work that analyzes the historical role of Buddhism in Laos. This work will appeal to scholars in such diverse fields as history, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, US foreign policy, and area studies. In this study Holt turns his focus to the Lao ethnic majority of Laos and the Lao ethnic minority of Isan Province, Thailand,1 in five chapters that compellingly combine historiographic and anthropological analysis, including what (MacDaniel 2010:120 has referred to as "the best Literature review of scholarship on Lao religion to date…" ...

  3. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of the spirit and mind in health and well-being among Chumash people. Prayer was the first step in healing since prayer invites the participation of God. Initiation practices are discussed that encouraged young people to develop the maturity and spiritual strength to become productive members of society. Pictographs were used in healing usually not only as a relaxation therapy, but also as a mode of education. A supportive environment was an important factor in Chumash health care, since the support of friends helps, comforts and relieves anxiety that is detrimental to healing.

  4. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Social network analysis and dual rover communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

  6. Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Leichty, J. M.; Klesh, A. T.; Matthews, J. B.; Hand, K. P.

    2012-12-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested a prototype robotic mobility platform for exploring the underside of ice sheets in frozen lake or ocean environments. The ice-water interface often provides some of the most interesting and dynamic chemistry in partially frozen systems, as dissolved impurities are rejected from the advancing freezing front. Higher concentrations of microorganisms can be found in this region, and the topography of the ice underside can help reveal the history of its formation. Furthermore, in lake environments ice cover can serve to trap gases released from biological and geological processes in the subsurface. The rover uses a two-wheeled design with a flexible dragging tail, enabling it to fit into a 10-inch diameter ice borehole. The sealed air-filled cylindrical body, along with closed-cell foam inside of cone-shaped wheels, provides buoyancy force to enable roving along the underside of the ice. The prototype contains two cameras that stream live video via a tethered connection to a ground station and uses semi-autonomous control via a PC. Preliminary testing of the prototype in a cold lab and in northern Alaskan thermokarst lakes demonstrates the utility and simplicity of this type of robotic platform for exploring the ice-water interface. This technology has potential future use in landed missions to icy ocean worlds in the solar system.

  7. Finding the Spirit Within: A Critical Analysis of Film Techniques in "Spirited Away"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Damon

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the New South Wales Board of Studies included Hayao Miyazaki's film "Spirited Away" as the prescribed text for the Higher School Certificate Japanese Extension course. A study of the film in this context requires students to engage with the text in three distinct ways: through language, cultural symbolism and relevance, and…

  8. 'Do not quench the Spirit!' The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis ...

  9. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 3. Sols 500-1525

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Grundy, William M.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Bell, James F.; Deen, R. G.

    2015-03-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity acquired visible/near-infrared (432-1009 nm) multispectral observations of soils and rocks under varying viewing and illumination geometries. Data retrieved from these images were modeled using radiative transfer theory to study the microphysical and surface scattering nature of materials at both sites. Nearly 57,000 individual measurements from 1900 images were collected of rock and soil units identified by their color and morphologic properties over a wide range of phase angles (0-150°). Images were acquired between Sols 500 and 1525 in the Columbia Hills and regions around Home Plate in Gusev Crater and in the plains and craters between Erebus and Victoria Craters in Meridiani Planum. Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed estimates of local facet orientations. For Spirit, soils at lower elevations near Home Plate were modeled with lower single scattering albedo (w) values than those on the summit of Husband Hill, but otherwise soils exhibited similar scattering properties to previous Gusev soils. Dark ripple sands at the El Dorado dunes were among the most forward-scattering materials modeled. Silica-rich soils and nodules near Home Plate were analyzed for the first time, and exhibited increased forward scattering behavior with increasing wavelength, consistent with microporosity inferred from previous high resolution images and thermal infrared spectroscopy. For Opportunity, the opposition effect width parameter for sandstone outcrop rocks was modeled for the first time, and demonstrated average values consistent with surfaces of intermediate porosity and/or grain size distribution between those modeled for spherule-rich soils and darker, clast-poor soils. Soils outside a wind streak emanating from the northern rim of Victoria Crater

  10. Benthic nitrogen cycling traversing the capitalize peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, L.; Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Mosch, T.; Hensen, C.; Noffke, A.; Scholz, F.; Wallmann, K.

    2011-10-01

    Benthic nitrogen (N) cycling was investigated at six stations along a transect traversing the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at 11°S. An extensive dataset including porewater concentration profiles and in situ benthic fluxes of nitrate (NO 3-), nitrite (NO 2-) and ammonium (NH 4+) was used to constrain a 1-D reaction-transport model designed to simulate and interpret the measured data at each station. Simulated rates of nitrification, denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by filamentous large sulfur bacteria (e.g. Beggiatoa and Thioploca) were highly variable throughout the OMZ yet clear trends were discernible. On the shelf and upper slope (80-260 m water depth) where extensive areas of bacterial mats were present, DNRA dominated total N turnover (⩽2.9 mmol N m -2 d -1) and accounted for ⩾65% of NO 3- + NO 2- uptake by the sediments from the bottom water. Nonetheless, these sediments did not represent a major sink for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO 3- + NO 2- + NH 4+) since DNRA reduces NO 3- and, potentially NO 2-, to NH 4+. Consequently, the shelf and upper slope sediments were recycling sites for DIN due to relatively low rates of denitrification and high rates of ammonium release from DNRA and ammonification of organic matter. This finding contrasts with the current opinion that sediments underlying OMZs are a strong sink for DIN. Only at greater water depths (300-1000 m) did the sediments become a net sink for DIN. Here, denitrification was the major process (⩽2 mmol N m -2 d -1) and removed 55-73% of NO 3- and NO 2- taken up by the sediments, with DNRA and anammox accounting for the remaining fraction. Anammox was of minor importance on the shelf and upper slope yet contributed up to 62% to total N 2 production at the 1000 m station. The results indicate that the partitioning of oxidized N (NO 3-, NO 2-) into DNRA or denitrification is a key factor determining the role of marine sediments as DIN

  11. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay... National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm of Grand Traverse Bay. At the conclusion of the National Cherry Festival on July 6, 2013, fireworks will be launched in...

  12. Conference report. Can spirit of Cairo survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    Country representatives from around the globe came together at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to draft a document in the spirit of compromise and unified intent. Marked controversy and conflict plagued the conference, both before and during the official meetings. Accord was nonetheless reached. The author wonders how long and to what extent the euphoria and compromise of the ICPD will last now that official talks are over. It is clear that paranoia and discord subsumed during the conference will persist, foment, and potentially resurface in confrontation over time. The South, for example, was upset about the failure of the conference to focus more upon development and environmental issues, while the Southern women's groups invested their energies into political ideologies and their development as a counterforce to international multinational scientific and corporate lobbies on pharmaceutical and contraceptive technologies. The women's caucus instead adopted a Western world view of sexuality which effectively permeated their lobbying and the conference. While dissent may resurface over time, the ICPD nonetheless set into motion positive processes for nongovernmental organization participation in a spirit of partnership within the UN systems and in the formulation of national policies and programs of their respective countries. In closing, the author expresses her regret that China and India maintained a low profile at the official meeting, and that Pakistan, rooted in Islam, spoke for the Indian subcontinent.

  13. A NOESY-HSQC simulation program, SPIRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Leiming; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    1998-01-01

    A program SPIRIT (Simulation Program considering Incomplete Recovery of z magnetization and INEPT Transfer efficiency) has been developed to simulate three-dimensional NOESY-HSQC spectra. This program takes into account (1) different transfer efficiency during INEPT and reverse INEPT durations due to differential relaxation rates and 1 J coupling constants; (2) the different effect of the sensitivity-enhancement scheme on CH, CH 2 and CH 3 systems; and (3) incomplete recovery of longitudinal magnetization between scans. The simulation program incorporates anisotropic tumbling mode for symmetric tops, and allows for differential external relaxation rates for protons. Some well-defined internal motions, such as the fast rotation of methyl groups, are taken into account. The simulation program also allows for input of multiple conformations and their relative populations to calculate the average relaxation matrix to account for slow internal motions. With the SPIRIT program, the sensitivity-enhanced NOESY-HSQC experiment can be used directly in the evaluation of the accuracy of structures, which can potentially be improved by direct refinement against the primary data. Abbreviations: NOESY, nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy; HSQC, heteronuclear single quantum correlation; INEPT, insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer

  14. The Mars Exploration Rover/Collaborative Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joan; Filman, Robert E.; Schreiner, John; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Astrology has long argued that the alignment of the planets governs human affairs. Science usually scoffs at this. There is, however, an important exception: sending spacecraft for planetary exploration. In late May and early June, 2003, Mars will be in position for Earth launch. Two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will rocket towards the red planet. The rovers will perform a series of geological and meteorological experiments, seeking to examine geological evidence for water and conditions once favorable for life. Back on earth, a small army of surface operations staff will work to keep the rovers running, sending directions for each day's operations and receiving the files encoding the outputs of the Rover's six instruments. (Mars is twenty light minutes from Earth. The rovers must be robots.) The fundamental purpose of the project is, after all, Science. Scientists have experiments they want to run. Ideally, scientists want to be immediately notified when the data products of their experiments have been received, so that they can examine their data and (collaboratively) deduce results. Mars is an unpredictable environment. We may issue commands to the rovers but there is considerable uncertainty in how the commands will be executed and whether what the rovers sense will be worthy of further pursuit. The steps of what is, to a scientist, conceptually an individual experiment may be scattered over a large number of activities. While the scientific staff has an overall strategic idea of what it would like to accomplish, activities are planned daily. The data and surprises of the previous day need to be integrated into the negotiations for the next day's activities, all synchronized to a schedule of transmission windows . Negotiations is the operative term, as different scientists want the resources to run possibly incompatible experiments. Many meetings plan each day's activities.

  15. Development of "Remotely Operated Vehicles for Education and Research" (ROVERs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. E.; Bland, G.; Bydlowski, D.

    2017-12-01

    The University of South Florida is a team member for the AREN project which develops educational technologies for data acquisition. "Remotely Operated Vehicles for Education and Research" (ROVERs) are floatable data acquisition systems used for Earth science measurements. The USF partnership was productive in the first year, resulting in new autonomous ROVER platforms being developed and used during a 5 week STEM summer camp by middle school youth. ROVERs were outfitted with GPS and temperature sensors and programmed to move forward, backwards, and to turn autonomously using the National Instruments myRIO embedded system. GLOBE protocols were used to collect data. The outreach program's structure lended itself to accomplishing an essential development effort for the AREN project towards the use of the ROVER platform in informal educational settings. A primary objective of the partnership is curriculum development to integrate GLOBE protocols and NASA technology and hardware/ROVER development wher new ROVER platforms are explored. The USF partnership resulted in two design prototypes for ROVERs, both of which can be created from recyclable materials for flotation and either 3D printed or laser cut components. In addition, both use the National Instruments myRIO for autonomous control. We will present two prototypes designed for use during the USF outreach program, the structure of the program, and details on the fabrication of prototype Z during the program by middle school students. Considering the 5-year objective of the AREN project is to "develop approaches, learning plans, and specific tools that can be affordably implemented nationwide (globally)", the USF partnership is key as it contributes to each part of the objective in a unique and impactful way.

  16. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  17. Effect of traverse speed on abrasive waterjet machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascalik, Ahmet; Caydas, Ulas; Gueruen, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    In the presented study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, known as one of the difficult-to-machine materials using conventional machining processes, was machined under varying traverse speeds of 60, 80, 120, 150, 200, and 250 mm/min by abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining. After machining, the profiles of machined surfaces, kerf geometries and microstructural features of the machined surfaces were examined using surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the traverse speed of the jet is a significant parameter on the surface morphology, and the widths and features of different regions formed in the cutting surface change according to the traverse speed. It was also observed that the kerf taper ratio and surface roughness increase with increasing traverse speed in chosen conditions

  18. Effect of traverse speed on abrasive waterjet machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hascalik, Ahmet [University of Firat, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Manufacturing, Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahascalik@firat.edu.tr; Caydas, Ulas [University of Firat, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Manufacturing, Elazig (Turkey); Gueruen, Hakan [University of Gazi, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Manufacturing, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    In the presented study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, known as one of the difficult-to-machine materials using conventional machining processes, was machined under varying traverse speeds of 60, 80, 120, 150, 200, and 250 mm/min by abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining. After machining, the profiles of machined surfaces, kerf geometries and microstructural features of the machined surfaces were examined using surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the traverse speed of the jet is a significant parameter on the surface morphology, and the widths and features of different regions formed in the cutting surface change according to the traverse speed. It was also observed that the kerf taper ratio and surface roughness increase with increasing traverse speed in chosen conditions.

  19. Small Power Technology for Tetrahedral Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Floyd, S. R.; Butler, C. D.; Flom, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Small Power Technology (SPOT) being studied at GSFC has the potential to be an efficient and compact radioisotope based electrical power system. Such a system would provide power for innovative tetrahedral robotic arms and walkers to support the lunar exploration initiative within the next decade. Presently, NASA has designated two flight qualified Radioisotope Power Supplies (RPS): the Multi-Mission RTG (MMRTG) which uses thermocouple technology and the more efficient but more massive Stirling RTG (SRTG) which uses a mechanical heat (Stirling) engine technology. With SPOT, thermal output from a radioisotope source is converted to electrical power using a combination of shape memory material and piezoelectric crystals. The SPOT combined energy conversion technologies are potentially more efficient than thermocouples and do not require moving parts, thus keeping efficiency high with an excellent mass to power ratio. Applications of particular interest are highly modular, addressable, reconfigurable arrays of tetrahedral structural components designed to be arms or rovers with high mobility in rough terrain. Such prototypes are currently being built at GSFC. Missions requiring long-lived operation in unilluminated environments preclude the use of solar cells as the main power source and must rely on the use of RPS technology. The design concept calls for a small motor and battery assembly for each strut, and thus a distributed power system. We estimate, based on performance of our current tetrahedral prototypes and power scaling for small motors, that such devices require tens of watts of power output per kilogram of power supply. For these reasons, SPOT is a good candidate for the ART (addressable Reconfigurable Technology) baseline power system.

  20. Self Sustained Traversable Wormholes Induced by Gravity’s Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garattini Remo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the effects of Noncommutative Geometry and Gravity’s Rainbow on traversable wormholes which are sustained by their own gravitational quantum fluctuations. Fixing the geometry on a well tested model, we find that the final result shows that the wormhole is of the Planckian size. This means that the traversability of the wormhole is in principle, but not in practice.

  1. V79 cell survival after a single lithium ion nuclear traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.; Buonanno, M.; Campajola, L.; Durante, M.; Grossi, G.; Publiese, G.; Scampoli, P.; Gialanella, G.; Manti, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Biological studies on the effects of low doses of densely ionising radiation are highly influenced by the stochastic character of the energy deposition events. For several end-points, including clonogenic survival, to follow-up individual cells that have undergone an exactly determined number of charged particle traversals is highly desirable. While RBE-LET curves have been measured after conventional 'broad beam' irradiation with several ions of varying energies, the probability of cell survival after a single charged particle traversal has only been determined for accelerated protons and alpha particles, whereas the ability of single particle traversals at higher LET to cause clonogenic death is yet unknown. Recently, low dose studies have also shown phenomena of high interest, such as the hypersensitivity/induced radioresistance(HS/IRR) adaptive responses. However, for particles of high LET, even a single nuclear traversal may deliver an average dose to a single cell that may be beyond the dose region of the HS/IRR response. We ave set up an experimental apparatus for the determination of the inactivation cross section after an exactly known number of accelerated Lithium ions traversals (210 keV/micron when hitting the cell surface). Using a bio-stack approach (Pugliese et al, IJRB Oct;72(4):397-407 1997) LR115 thin nuclear track detectors have been employed for the direct visualisation of Lithium ion traversals in V79 cells nuclei that are labeled with Hoechst 33258. A computer software has been designed and implemented to control micro-meter movements of a motorised Marzhauser stage, mounted on a fluorescent microscope, for the acquisition of individual attached cell coordinates, type of traversal, as well as for re-visiting the registered coordinates for analysis of survivors. The V79 cell survival experiment after exactly known numbers of Lithium ions traversals is in progress, along with a classical 'broad beam' survival assay

  2. The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... In his Apology, chapter 10, Athenagoras explicitly describes the Holy Spirit as part of God. He refutes the allegation that. Christians are atheists and describes God as the triune ruler of the spiritual world: The prophetic Spirit also agrees with our statements. 'The Lord,' it says, 'made me, the beginning of His ...

  3. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All...

  4. 27 CFR 19.996 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol fuel plant, they must be rendered unfit for beverage use as provided in this subpart. Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use (fuel alcohol) may be withdrawn free of tax from plant premises exclusively... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits. 19...

  5. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep records...

  6. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse receipts...

  7. Traversal Caches: A Framework for FPGA Acceleration of Pointer Data Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Coole

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs and other reconfigurable computing (RC devices have been widely shown to have numerous advantages including order of magnitude performance and power improvements compared to microprocessors for some applications. Unfortunately, FPGA usage has largely been limited to applications exhibiting sequential memory access patterns, thereby prohibiting acceleration of important applications with irregular patterns (e.g., pointer-based data structures. In this paper, we present a design pattern for RC application development that serializes irregular data structure traversals online into a traversal cache, which allows the corresponding data to be efficiently streamed to the FPGA. The paper presents a generalized framework that benefits applications with repeated traversals, which we show can achieve between 7x and 29x speedup over pointer-based software. For applications without strictly repeated traversals, we present application-specialized extensions that benefit applications with highly similar traversals by exploiting similarity to improve memory bandwidth and execute multiple traversals in parallel. We show that these extensions can achieve a speedup between 11x and 70x on a Virtex4 LX100 for Barnes-Hut n-body simulation.

  8. An Analog Rover Exploration Mission for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John; Campbell, Charissa L.; Smith, Christina L.; Cooper, Brittney A.

    2017-10-01

    This abstract describes an analog rover exploration mission designed as an outreach program for high school and undergraduate students. This program is used to teach them about basic mission control operations, how to manage a rover as if it were on another planetary body, and employing the rover remotely to complete mission objectives. One iteration of this program has been completed and another is underway. In both trials, participants were shown the different operation processes involved in a real-life mission. Modifications were made to these processes to decrease complexity and better simulate a mission control environment in a short time period (three 20-minute-long mission “days”). In the first run of the program, participants selected a landing site, what instruments would be on the rover - subject to cost, size, and weight limitations - and were randomly assigned one of six different mission operations roles, each with specific responsibilities. For example, a Science Planner/Integrator (SPI) would plan science activities whilst a Rover Engineer (RE) would keep on top of rover constraints. Planning consisted of a series of four meetings to develop and verify the current plan, pre-plan the next day's activities and uplink the activities to the “rover” (a human colleague). Participants were required to attend certain meetings depending upon their assigned role. To conclude the mission, students viewed the site to understand any differences between remote viewing and reality in relation to the rover. Another mission is currently in progress with revisions from the earlier run to improve the experience. This includes broader roles and meetings and pre-selecting the landing site and rover. The new roles are: Mission Lead, Rover Engineer and Science Planner. The SPI role was previously popular so most of the students were placed in this category. The meetings were reduced to three but extended in length. We are also planning to integrate this program

  9. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  10. Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

  11. Planetary surface exploration: MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Lentz, Dale; Laux, Richard; Nance, Preston

    1992-06-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray instruments (APX). The system is to be launched with the sixteen MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker was developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian surface. While on Mars the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar-terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation which NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. A detailed description of the designs, methods, and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs are included.

  12. Solidarity and Community Spirit during Evil Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA-GRAZIA DIMA,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims both at identifying the various facets under which human solidarity manifested itself during the War of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-1995 and at highlighting the growing awareness of the community spirit in the same period of time, resulting in a part of the population being saved and in many spiritual and material values being preserved. The analysis is based on genuine interviews given by subjects involved in the events, all of which being collected in the volume Good People in an Evil Time by Dr. Svetlana Broz, a journalist, social activist and cardiologist (now president of the Bosnia-Herzegovina branch of GARIWO International. This book has been a best seller, and has been translated in many languages and presented over many tours in about 50 universities in the USA.

  13. Preliminary assessment of rover power systems for the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Four isotope power system concepts were presented and compared on a common basis for application to on-board electrical prime power for an autonomous planetary rover vehicle. A representative design point corresponding to the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) preliminary mission requirements (500 W) was selected for comparison purposes. All systems concepts utilize the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) isotope heat source developed by DOE. Two of the concepts employ thermoelectric (TE) conversion: one using the GPHS Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) used as a reference case, the other using an advanced RTG with improved thermoelectric materials. The other two concepts employed are dynamic isotope power systems (DIPS): one using a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) turboalternator, and the other using a free piston Stirling cycle engine/linear alternator (FPSE) with integrated heat source/heater head. Near-term technology levels have been assumed for concept characterization using component technology figure-of-merit values taken from the published literature. For example, the CBC characterization draws from the historical test database accumulated from space Brayton cycle subsystems and components from the NASA B engine through the mini-Brayton rotating unit. TE system performance is estimated from Voyager/multihundred Watt (MHW)-RTG flight experience through Mod-RTG performance estimates considering recent advances in TE materials under the DOD/DOE/NASA SP-100 and NASA Committee on Scientific and Technological Information programs. The Stirling DIPS system is characterized from scaled-down Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) data using the GPHS directly incorporated into the heater head. The characterization/comparison results presented here differ from previous comparison of isotope power (made for LEO applications) because of the elevated background temperature on the Martian surface compared to LEO, and the higher sensitivity of dynamic systems to elevated

  14. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  15. Experimental Results of Rover-Based Coring and Caching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Younse, Paulo; DiCicco, Matthew; Hudson, Nicolas; Collins, Curtis; Allwood, Abigail; Paolini, Robert; Male, Cason; Ma, Jeremy; Steele, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for experiments performed using a prototype rover-based sample coring and caching system. The system consists of a rotary percussive coring tool on a five degree-of-freedom manipulator arm mounted on a FIDO-class rover and a sample caching subsystem mounted on the rover. Coring and caching experiments were performed in a laboratory setting and in a field test at Mono Lake, California. Rock abrasion experiments using an abrading bit on the coring tool were also performed. The experiments indicate that the sample acquisition and caching architecture is viable for use in a 2018 timeframe Mars caching mission and that rock abrasion using an abrading bit may be feasible in place of a dedicated rock abrasion tool.

  16. MARS EXPLORATION ROVER 2 RADIO SCIENCE SUBSYSTEM EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Exploration Rover 2 MER2) Radio Science (RS) data archive contains raw radio tracking data collected during the surface lifetime of the MER2 Rover. The data...

  17. Quantitative analysis of digital outcrop data obtained from stereo-imagery using an emulator for the PanCam camera system for the ExoMars 2020 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert; Gupta, Sanjeev; Gunn, Matt; Paar, Gerhard; Balme, Matt; Huber, Ben; Bauer, Arnold; Furya, Komyo; Caballo-Perucha, Maria del Pilar; Traxler, Chris; Hesina, Gerd; Ortner, Thomas; Banham, Steven; Harris, Jennifer; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu

    2017-04-01

    A key focus of planetary rover missions is to use panoramic camera systems to image outcrops along rover traverses, in order to characterise their geology in search of ancient life. This data can be processed to create 3D point clouds of rock outcrops to be quantitatively analysed. The Mars Utah Rover Field Investigation (MURFI 2016) is a Mars Rover field analogue mission run by the UK Space Agency (UKSA) in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). It took place between 22nd October and 13th November 2016 and consisted of a science team based in Harwell, UK, and a field team including an instrumented Rover platform at the field site near Hanksville (Utah, USA). The Aberystwyth University PanCam Emulator 3 (AUPE3) camera system was used to collect stereo panoramas of the terrain the rover encountered during the field trials. Stereo-imagery processed in PRoViP is rendered as Ordered Point Clouds (OPCs) in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the 3D outcrop model. Interpretations can be digitised directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements can be taken of the dimensions of the outcrop and sedimentary features, including grain size. Dip and strike of bedding planes, stratigraphic and sedimentological boundaries and fractures is calculated within PRo3D from mapped bedding contacts and fracture traces. Merging of rover-derived imagery with UAV and orbital datasets, to build semi-regional multi-resolution 3D models of the area of operations for immersive analysis and contextual understanding. In-simulation, AUPE3 was mounted onto the rover mast, collecting 16 stereo panoramas over 9 'sols'. 5 out-of-simulation datasets were collected in the Hanksville-Burpee Quarry. Stereo panoramas were processed using an automated pipeline and data transfer through an ftp server. PRo3D has been used for visualisation and analysis of this stereo data. Features of interest in the area could be annotated, and their distances between to the rover

  18. Gamma radiation use on the aging of sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, Julio M. M.; Spoto, Marta H. F.; Novaes, Fernando V.; Alcarde, Andre R.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the influence of gamma radiation on the aging of sugarcane spirit. Samples of sugarcane spirit (cachaca ) were irradiated in a Gammabeam Cobalt-60 source with doses between 0 (control) and 300 Gy, with 50 Gy increasing. The irradiated samples were offered to 5 expert judges for sensorial tests using the comparison: irradiated versus control. The chemical volatile components of the irradiated spirit were determined using a gas chromatograph. Sensorial tests elected the dose of 150 Gy as the best for sugarcane spirit irradiation based on its flavour and bouquet. These sensorial characteristics were due to the chemical changes observed in esters, aldehydes and higher alcohol's concentrations. The samples irradiated with 250 and 300 Gy developed a bitter taste and an 'oxidized' flavour. A second experiment was carried out using single and twice-distilled sugarcane spirit, normal aged in oak barrels or not, or added with oak extract. Samples were irradiated with the dose of 150 Gy and scored by the same sensorial analysis methodology. All irradiated samples had their flavour improved. The irradiation of the non-maturated twice-distilled sugarcane spirit produced a flavour compared to spirits maturated during one year of normal aging. (author)

  19. High-Resolution Textures of Soils and Rocks at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum From the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Microscopic Imagers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers have returned images of Mars with higher resolution than any previous camera system, allowing detailed petrographic and sedimentological studies of the rocks and soils at the Gusev and Meridiani landing sites. The Microscopic Imager (MI) is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the robotic arm of each Mars Exploration Rover (MER). The MI was designed to function like a geologist's hand lens, acquiring images at a scale of 31 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400-700 nm). The MI provides critical documentation of the constitution and texture of targets analyzed by the other MER in-situ instruments. The MI on the Spirit rover found weakly bound agglomerates of dust in the soil near the Columbia Memorial Station. Bedforms have coarser particles at their crests and finer grains in the troughs, like eolian ripples on Earth. Some of the brushed or abraded rock surfaces show igneous textures and evidence for alteration rinds, coatings, and veins consistent with secondary mineralization. The textures of rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are consistent with a volcanic origin and subsequent alteration and/or weathering by impact events, wind and possibly water. MI observations in the ''Columbia Hills'' are consistent with interpretations, based on syntheses of various MER data, that the rocks there are more altered than those on the floor of Gusev. The MI on the Opportunity rover has returned images of the Meridiani landing site that include evidence for both surface and ground water activity in Mars' ancient past. Soil particles imaged by the MI show constituents typical of windblown materials. The uppermost millimeter of some soils is weakly cemented, probably by salts precipitated from evaporating brines. Rock outcrops are laminated on a millimeter scale; image mosaics of cross-stratification suggest that some sediments were deposited by flowing water. Vugs in some outcrop faces are probably molds formed by

  20. Advanced Radioisotope Power System Enabled Titan Rover Concept with Inflatable Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews study into exploration of Titan. Including a possible Titan Rover that would use the advanced radioisotope power system (RPS). The goal of the study is to demonstrate a simple, credible and affordable rover mission concept for Titan in-situ exploration, enabled by an Advanced RPS. The presentation reviews the possible launch vehicle, and trajectory options; desired instrumentation that would be aboard the rover; and considerations for the design of the rover.

  1. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Crumpler, L.; McLennan, S.; Farrand, W. H.; Joliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Opportunity Rover is currently in its 11th year of operations, exploring the rim of the approximately 22 km wide Noachian-age Endeavour Crater. Opportunity spent its 5th winter season in Cook Haven, a gentle swale along Murray Ridge. Two small rocks serendipitously overturned by rover wheel motions show evidence for aqueous precipitation of sulfates, and interaction with a strong oxidant (e.g., O2) to form a thin, high valence state Mn oxide coating. After the winter, Opportunity headed south to Cape Tribulation and explored Shoemaker formation impact breccias, finding numerous Ca-sulfate veins cutting across outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is approximately 25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven and the Hueytown (fracture running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright polygonal outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August

  2. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  3. Breaking the Game: The traversal of the emergent narrative in video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In video games the player’s actions shape the narrative of their personal experience, molding what otherwise would be a linear course. This emergent narrative is in a state of constant transformation, dependent on how the player influences it. This paper explores how the players traverse ergodic media such as video games and how narrative emerges from the interactions between them and the system. In a previous text we have proposed three types of traversal in video games (Cardoso & Carvalhais, 2013: 1 that in which the player has the ability to choose between mutually exclusive paths; 2 that in which the player has the ability to expand the narrative; and 3 that in which the traversal is determined by the disposition of the other actors in the game world towards the player and each other. This paper intends to further contribute by adding another one: 4 a type of traversal that is rooted in the exploitation of any flaws and glitches in the system, allowing the player to traverse the game through an overlooked side of the algorithm, journeying through a world of unpredictable behaviours and events, that may ultimately break the game altogether.  

  4. Machine vision for space telerobotics and planetary rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision allows a non-contact means of determining the three-dimensional shape of objects in the environment, enabling the control of contact forces when manipulation by a telerobot or traversal by a vehicle is desired. Telerobotic manipulation in Earth orbit requires a system that can recognize known objects in spite of harsh lighting conditions and highly specular or absorptive surfaces. Planetary surface traversal requires a system that can recognize the surface shape and properties of an unknown and arbitrary terrain. Research on these two rather disparate types of vision systems is described.

  5. Mars Exploration Rover mobility and robotic arm operational performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward; Maimone, Mark; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Yen, Jeng; Petras, Richard; Wilson, Reg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an actual instance of a practical human-robot system used on a NASA Mars rover mission that has been underway since January 2004 involving daily intercation between humans on Earth and mobile robots on Mars.

  6. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  7. Simulations of the magnetic properties experiment on Mars Exploration Rovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Worm, E. S.; Bertelsen, P.; Goetz, W.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Merrison, J. P.; Nornberg, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present some of the main findings from simulation studies of the Magnetic Properties Experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers. The results suggest that the dust has formed via mechanical breakdown of surface rocks through the geological history of the planet, and that liquid water need not have played any significant role in the dust formation processes.

  8. Using a Multicore Processor for Rover Autonomous Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Benjamin; Estlin, Tara; Clement, Bradley; Springer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Multicore processing promises to be a critical component of future spacecraft. It provides immense increases in onboard processing power and provides an environment for directly supporting fault-tolerant computing. This paper discusses using a state-of-the-art multicore processor to efficiently perform image analysis onboard a Mars rover in support of autonomous science activities.

  9. Pressure and Relative Humidity Measurement Devices for Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the scientific payloads onboard the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission is Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA): a set of environmental sensors for Mars surface weather measurements. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for MEDA.

  10. Autonomous navigation and mobility for a planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Lambert, Kenneth E.; Bickler, Donald; Bernard, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the onboard subsystems that will be used in guiding a planetary rover. Particular emphasis is placed on the planning and sensing systems and their associated costs, particularly in computation. Issues that will be used in evaluating trades between the navigation system and mobility system are also presented.

  11. Physical properties of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites as inferred from Mini-TES-derived thermal inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Bell, J.F.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers provides the first opportunity to observe thermal properties from the Martian surface, relate these properties to orbital data, and perform soil conductivity experiments under Martian conditions. The thermal inertias of soils, bedforms, and rock at each landing site were derived to quantify the physical properties of these features and understand geologic processes occurring at these localities. The thermal inertia for the. Gusev plains rock target Bonneville Beacon (???1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) is consistent with a dense, basaltic rock, but the rocks at the Columbia Hills have a lower thermal inertia (???620 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting that they have a volcaniclasic origin. Bedforms on the floors of craters at both landing sites have thermal inertias of 200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, consistent with a particle diameter of ???160 ??m. This diameter is comparable to the most easily moved grain size in the current atmosphere on Mars, suggesting that these bedforms may have formed under current atmospheric conditions. Along the Meridiani plains, the thermal inertia is lower than that derived from TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) orbital data. This discrepancy is not well understood. Mini-TES-derived thermal inertias at Gusev along a ???2.5 km traverse follow trends in thermal inertia measured from orbit with TES and THEMIS. However, along the traverse, there are variability and mixing of particle sizes that are not resolved in the orbital thermal inertia data due to meter-scale processes that are not identifiable at larger scales. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Self-supervised Traversability Assessment in Field Environments with Lidar and Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Kragh; Underwood, James; Karstoft, Henrik

    , the visual classifier detects non-traversable image patches as outliers from a Gaussian Mixture Model that maintains the appearance of only traversable ground. Results Our method is evaluated using a diverse dataset of agricultural fields and orchards gathered with a perception research robot developed......Introduction The application of robotic automation within agriculture is increasing. There is a high demand for fully autonomous robots that are both efficient, reliable and affordable. In order to ensure safety, autonomous agricultural vehicles must perceive the environment and detect potential...... obstacles and threats across a variety of environmental conditions. In this paper, a self-supervised framework is proposed, combining laser range sensing from a lidar with images from a monocular camera to reliably assess terrain traversability/navigability. Methods The method uses a near-to-far approach...

  13. Igneous composition vaiations determined by ChemCam along Curiosity's traverse from Bradbury to Rocknest area at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Violaine; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    Since landing in Gale Crater (-4.59, 137,44°) the rover Curiosity, has driven during the first 90 sols, 420 meter east descending ∼ 20m from the Bradbury Landing site towards Glenelg. From sols 13 on, the ChemCam instrument suite performed compositional and imaging analyses of rocks and soils along the route. Each Chem- Cam LIBS observations covers a spot between 350 and 550 μm dia thus individual observations generally do not represent the whole rock composition but rather represent individual grains or a mixture thereof. Most of observations consist of a linear 5-point raster or a 3 x 3 grid. All major elements were regularly reported together with minor and trace elements. During the traverse, two distinct zones have been characterized: Zone I, from sol 0 to sol 47 (i.e. 280 meter traverse), belongs to the Humocky terrains supposed to be a part of the alluvial fan below Peace Vallis, which descends from the crater rim to the Northwest. It is defined by abundant gravels and igneous float rocks and isolated conglomerate outcrops. Rock textures indicate a high ratio of intrusive over extrusive: plutonic rocks vary from homogenous grain size either coarse (1-3mm grains Mara) or fine grained (less than 300 m Coronation) to variable grain size within a given rock (Jake-M). Some contain abundant laths of whitish minerals. ChemCam analyses are Si-rich (up to 60% wt.% or more) together with high Al (more than 15%) and high alkali (Na > K) in a range expected for alkali feldspar compositions. The lowest Si content correlates with low Al and high Fe consistent with ferromagnesian composition. The highest Si content (Stark a white vesicular rock) could indicate the presence of quartz. Clasts analyzed in one conglomerate (Link) had a range of compositions dominated by feldspathic material consistent with loose pebbles in the area and igneous porphyroblast. Beyond Anton soil (sol48), Curiosity entered zone II, transitional to a more distal unit with respect to the fan

  14. 27 CFR 19.372 - Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which received until used. Spirits and wines received by pipeline shall be deposited in tanks, gauged by... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.372 Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic...

  15. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded premises... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...

  16. 27 CFR 30.51 - Procedures for measurement of bulk spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the standard temperature by means of table 7. In the case of denatured spirits, the temperature..., should be that given in table 7 for 100 proof spirits. When the quantity of spirits, in wine gallons, has... the wine gallons by the proof of the spirits as determined under § 30.31. Example. Gauge glass reading...

  17. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...

  18. 27 CFR 28.26 - Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible for export with benefit of drawback. Bottled distilled spirits eligible for export with benefit of... bonded warehouse from which distilled spirits may be exported. These withdrawals shall be treated as... spirits were for exportation. (c) Time deemed exported. For the purpose of this part, distilled spirits...

  19. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Wen Chan

    Full Text Available The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  20. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  1. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  2. Design and construction of the spirit TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwancharoen, Suwat

    The nuclear symmetry energy, the density dependent term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS), governs important properties of neutron stars and dense nuclear matter. At present, it is largely unconstrained in the supra-saturation density region. This dissertation concerns the design and construction of the SpiRIT Time Projection Chamber (SpiRIT-TPC) at Michigan State University as part of an international collaborations to constrain the symmetry energy at supra-saturation density. The SpiRIT-TPC has been constructed during the dissertation and transported to Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, Japan where it will be used in conjunction with the SAMURAI Spectrometer. The detector will measure yield ratios for pions and other light charged particles produced in central collisions of neutron-rich heavy ions such as 132Sn + 124Sn. The dissertation describes the design and solutions to the problem presented by the measurement. This also compares some of the initial fast measurement of the TPC to calculation of the performance characteristics.

  3. Using Wind Driven Tumbleweed Rovers to Explore Martian Gully Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Woodard, Stanley E.; Hajos, Gregory A.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2005-01-01

    Gully features have been observed on the slopes of numerous Martian crater walls, valleys, pits, and graben. Several mechanisms for gully formation have been proposed, including: liquid water aquifers (shallow and deep), melting ground ice, snow melt, CO2 aquifers, and dry debris flow. Remote sensing observations indicate that the most likely erosional agent is liquid water. Debate concerns the source of this water. Observations favor a liquid water aquifer as the primary candidate. The current strategy in the search for life on Mars is to "follow the water." A new vehicle known as a Tumbleweed rover may be able to conduct in-situ investigations in the gullies, which are currently inaccessible by conventional rovers. Deriving mobility through use of the surface winds on Mars, Tumbleweed rovers would be lightweight and relatively inexpensive thus allowing multiple rovers to be deployed in a single mission to survey areas for future exploration. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing deployable structure Tumbleweed concepts. An extremely lightweight measurement acquisition system and sensors are proposed for the Tumbleweed rover that greatly increases the number of measurements performed while having negligible mass increase. The key to this method is the use of magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses whose attributes correspond to values of physical properties for which the sensors measure. The sensors do not need a physical connection to a power source or to data acquisition equipment resulting in additional weight reduction. Many of the sensors and interrogating antennae can be directly placed on the Tumbleweed using film deposition methods such as photolithography thus providing further weight reduction. Concepts are presented herein for methods to measure subsurface water, subsurface metals, planetary winds and environmental gases.

  4. Measuring Soil Moisture in Skeletal Soils Using a COSMOS Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.; Neely, H.; Desilets, D.; Mohanty, B.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of coarse fragments directly influences the volumetric water content of the soil. Current surface soil moisture sensors often do not account for the presence of coarse fragments, and little research has been done to calibrate these sensors under such conditions. The cosmic-ray soil moisture observation system (COSMOS) rover is a passive, non-invasive surface soil moisture sensor with a footprint greater than 100 m. Despite its potential, the COSMOS rover has yet to be validated in skeletal soils. The goal of this study was to validate measurements of surface soil moisture as taken by a COSMOS rover on a Texas skeletal soil. Data was collected for two soils, a Marfla clay loam and Chinati-Boracho-Berrend association, in West Texas. Three levels of data were collected: 1) COSMOS surveys at three different soil moistures, 2) electrical conductivity surveys within those COSMOS surveys, and 3) ground-truth measurements. Surveys with the COSMOS rover covered an 8000-h area and were taken both after large rain events (>2") and a long dry period. Within the COSMOS surveys, the EM38-MK2 was used to estimate the spatial distribution of coarse fragments in the soil around two COSMOS points. Ground truth measurements included coarse fragment mass and volume, bulk density, and water content at 3 locations within each EM38 survey. Ground-truth measurements were weighted using EM38 data, and COSMOS measurements were validated by their distance from the samples. There was a decrease in water content as the percent volume of coarse fragment increased. COSMOS estimations responded to both changes in coarse fragment percent volume and the ground-truth volumetric water content. Further research will focus on creating digital soil maps using landform data and water content estimations from the COSMOS rover.

  5. Lightweight rovers for Mars science exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Sword, Lee F.; Ganino, A. J.; Bickler, Donald B.; Hickey, G. S.; Brown, D. K.; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Matthies, Larry H.; Wilcox, Brian H.; Balch, T.; Aghazarian, H.; Garrett, M. S.

    1997-09-01

    We report on the development of new mobile robots for Mars exploration missions. These 'lightweight survivable rover (LSR)' systems are of potential interest to both space and terrestrial applications, and are distinguished from more conventional designs by their use of new composite materials, collapsible running gear, integrated thermal-structural chassis, and other mechanical features enabling improved mobility and environmental robustness at reduced mass, volume, and power. Our first demonstrated such rover architecture, LSR-1, introduces running gear based on 2D composite struts and 3D machined composite joints, a novel collapsible hybrid composite-aluminum wheel design, a unit-body structural- thermal chassis with improved internal temperature isolation and stabilization, and a spot-pushbroom laser/CCD sensor enabling accurate, fast hazard detection and terrain mapping. LSR-1 is an approximately .7 $MIL 1.0 meter(Lambda) 2(W X L) footprint six-wheel (20 cm dia.) rocker-bogie geometry vehicle of approximately 30 cm ground clearance, weighing only 7 kilograms with an onboard .3 kilogram multi-spectral imager and spectroscopic photometer. By comparison, NASA/JPL's recently flown Mars Pathfinder rover Sojourner is an 11+ kilogram flight experiment (carrying a 1 kg APXS instrument) having approximately .45 X .6 meter(Lambda) 2(WXL) footprint and 15 cm ground clearance, and about half the warm electronics enclosure (WEE) volume with twice the diurnal temperature swing (-40 to +40 degrees Celsius) of LSR- 1 in nominal Mars environments. We are also developing a new, smaller 5 kilogram class LSR-type vehicle for Mars sample return -- the travel to, localization of, pick-up, and transport back to an Earth return ascent vehicle of a sample cache collected by earlier science missions. This sample retrieval rover R&D prototype has a completely collapsible mobility system enabling rover stowage to approximately 25% operational volume, as well an actively articulated axle

  6. TESLA'S INVENTIONS IN PHYSICS AND HIS ENGINEERING SPIRIT

    OpenAIRE

    Petković, T.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes Tesla’s inventions in physics. Tesla’s engineering spirit is compared to M. Faraday’s and A. A. Michelson’s spirit of discovery in electromagnetism. Tesla’s unfinished investigative journey, from great experiments in electrical technology and radio technology to the physical theories he derived from them, are examined historically and scientifically. Several discoveries and individual experiments are described that were significant in the subsequent development of accele...

  7. Spirit-guided care: Christian nursing for the whole person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lyn S; Walker, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare today is challenged to provide care that goes beyond the medical model of meeting physical needs. Despite a strong historical foundation in spiritual whole person care, nurses struggle with holistic caring. We propose that for the Christian nurse, holistic nursing can be described as Spirit-guided care--removing oneself as the moiatiating force and allowing Christ, in the furm of the Holy Spirit, to flow through and guide the nurse in care of patients and families.

  8. GPU accelerated tandem traversal of blocked bounding volume hierarchy collision detection for multibody dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Jesper; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    The performance bottleneck of physics based animation is often the collision detection. It is well known by practitioners that the collision detection may consume more than half of the simulation time. In this work, we will introduce a novel approach for collision detection using bounding volume...... hierarchies. Our approach makes it possible to perform non-convex object versus non-convex object collision on the GPU, using tandem traversals of bounding volume hierarchies. Prior work only supports single traversals on GPUs. We introduce a blocked hierarchy data structure, using imaginary nodes...

  9. Spin, torsion and violation of null energy condition in traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Battista, Emmanuele; Manfredonia, Mattia; Miele, Gennaro

    2017-12-01

    The static spherically symmetric traversable wormholes are analysed in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation. In particular, we computed the torsion tensor for matter fields with different spin S=0, 1/2, 1, 3/2. Interestingly, only for certain values of the spin, the torsion contribution to the Einstein-Cartan field equation allows one to satisfy both flaring-out condition and null energy condition. In this scenario, traversable wormholes can be produced by using usual (non-exotic) spinning matter.

  10. Influence of traverse speed on surface irregularities created by the abrasive waterjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valíček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the calculation of the optimal traverse speed for diff erent types of materials, which is very important for predication, imaginings and dimensioning of technological factors and selection of the materials with the aim to increase of surface quality at abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ technology. The surface irregularities of the experimental used materials AISI 304, AISI 309 have been measured by non-contact shadow method. New empirically compiled equations of the infl uence of the traverse speed on tensometrical state of cut, deformation resistance of material and surface roughness Ra are at AWJ cutting available.

  11. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Cape Tribulation, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Crumpler, L. S.; McLennan, S. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Opportunity Rover is in its 11th year of exploration, currently exploring the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the ~22 km wide Noachian Endeavour Crater and its tilted and fractured outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is ~25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S levels relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven (gentle swale superimposed on Murray Ridge and site of Opportunity's 5th winter site) and the Hueytown fracture (running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright, wind-scoured outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August 2015. Pervasive but modest aqueous alteration of Endeavour's rim is implied by the combination of CRISM and Opportunity data, providing insight into early aqueous processes dominated in this location by relatively low water to rock ratios, and at least in part associated with enhanced fluid flow along fractures.

  12. Determining best practices in reconnoitering sites for habitability potential on Mars using a semi-autonomous rover: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Berger, J.; Cohen, B. A.; Hynek, B.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2017-03-01

    We tested science operations strategies developed for use in remote mobile spacecraft missions, to determine whether reconnoitering a site of potential habitability prior to in-depth study (a walkabout-first strategy) can be a more efficient use of time and resources than the linear approach commonly used by planetary rover missions. Two field teams studied a sedimentary sequence in Utah to assess habitability potential. At each site one team commanded a human "rover" to execute observations and conducted data analysis and made follow-on decisions based solely on those observations. Another team followed the same traverse using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Test results indicate that for a mission with goals similar to our field case, the walkabout-first strategy may save time and other mission resources, while improving science return. The approach enabled more informed choices and higher team confidence in choosing where to spend time and other consumable resources. The walkabout strategy may prove most efficient when many close sites must be triaged to a smaller subset for detailed study or sampling. This situation would arise when mission goals include finding, identifying, characterizing or sampling a specific material, feature or type of environment within a certain area.

  13. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Wei; Ping Yin; Ian M. Newman; Ling Qian; Duane F. Shell; Lok-wa Yuen

    2017-01-01

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural res...

  14. Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further

  15. Embodiment of the Spirit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grimell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a longitudinal approach to exploring the psychology of the transition from military to civilian life, one case study is presented that adds a spiritual perspective to the transition process. This case study serves as an example representative from a group of participants who have been followed through a research project on identity reconstruction during the transition to civilian life. This individual, not unlike many others within the group, undergoes an unexpected progression of the military I-position of the self throughout the process of becoming a civilian. This study utilizes a dialogical approach to the identity work to further the understanding of longitudinal adjustments to the self. An analysis of the narrative developments and interactions among pre-existing and new I-positions of the self over time has been made based upon three annually conducted interviews spanning from 2014 to 2016. The results lead to the suggestion that if a military I-position of the self grows more salient and voiced throughout the process of transitioning into civilian life, then this vocalization may be related to the spirit of a person embodied in a specific I-position of the self. Such growth of a military I-position after leaving active service may gravitate around a deep sense of “who I am” with a profound sense of meaning attached to this position. Instead of perceiving as an unwanted development the growth of a military sense of “who I am,” one should acknowledge it as a deeper dimension of self and life. It is important to find an outlet for such a progression of the self so as to sustain balance and dialogue. Future research is encouraged to further examine these qualitative findings.

  16. Multispectral VNIR Observations by the Opportunity Rover Pancam of Multiple Episodes of Aqueous Alteration in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Rice, Melissa S.

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2015, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the break in the rim of Endeavour Crater dubbed Marathon Valley by the rover team. Marathon Valley was identified by orbital hyperspectral data from the MRO CRISM as having a relatively strong spectral feature in the 2.3 micrometer region indicative of an Mg or Fe-OH combination overtone absorption band indicative of smectite clay. Earlier in its mission, Opportunity examined the Matijevic Hill region on the more northerly Cape York crater rim segment and found evidence for smectite clays in a stratigraphically lower, pre-impact formed unit dubbed the Matijevic formation. However, the smectite exposures in Marathon Valley appear to be associated with the stratigraphically higher Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Evidence for alteration in this unit in Marathon Valley is provided by Pancam multispectral observations in the 430 to 1010 nm visible/near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Sinuous troughs ("red zones") contain fragmented cobbles and pebbles displaying higher blue-to-red slopes, moderately higher 535 nm band depths, elevated 754 to 934 nm, and negative 934 to 1009 nm slopes. The lack of an absorption at 864 to 904 nm indicates the lack of crystalline red hematite in these red zones, but likely an enrichment in nanophase ferric oxides. The negative 934 to 1009 nm slope is potentially indicative of the presence of adsorbed or structurally bound water. A scuff in a red zone near the southern wall of Marathon Valley uncovered light-toned soils and a pebble with an 803 to 864 nm absorption resembling that of light-toned Fe-sulfate bearing soils uncovered by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. APXS chemical measurements indicated enrichments of Mg and S in the scuff soils and the pebble, Joseph Field, with the strongest 803 nm band- consistent with Mg and Fe sulfates. The presence of Fe and Mg sulfates can be interpreted as evidence of a potentially later episode of

  17. The influence of acoustoelectronic interactions on a traverse acoustic waves propagation in plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlyij, P.V.; Kozachenko, V.V.; Korobkyina, O.O.; Kucherov, Yi.Ya.; Yil'yin, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The accoustoelectronic interactions influence on a traverse acoustical waves, propagation speed in plates of C 6ν crystals is investigated. It is shown, that in the low frequencies and at small thickness of plates it is much more than for bulk waves

  18. Expanding the Detection of Traversable Area with RealSense for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kailun; Wang, Kaiwei; Hu, Weijian; Bai, Jian

    2016-11-21

    The introduction of RGB-Depth (RGB-D) sensors into the visually impaired people (VIP)-assisting area has stirred great interest of many researchers. However, the detection range of RGB-D sensors is limited by narrow depth field angle and sparse depth map in the distance, which hampers broader and longer traversability awareness. This paper proposes an effective approach to expand the detection of traversable area based on a RGB-D sensor, the Intel RealSense R200, which is compatible with both indoor and outdoor environments. The depth image of RealSense is enhanced with IR image large-scale matching and RGB image-guided filtering. Traversable area is obtained with RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) segmentation and surface normal vector estimation, preliminarily. A seeded growing region algorithm, combining the depth image and RGB image, enlarges the preliminary traversable area greatly. This is critical not only for avoiding close obstacles, but also for allowing superior path planning on navigation. The proposed approach has been tested on a score of indoor and outdoor scenarios. Moreover, the approach has been integrated into an assistance system, which consists of a wearable prototype and an audio interface. Furthermore, the presented approach has been proved to be useful and reliable by a field test with eight visually impaired volunteers.

  19. Traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank. Rubidium isotopes, strontium 86 and strontium 87 were used to determine the rock age. The petrogenetic aspects relating to the Nelspruit batholith were also studied

  20. Peano—A Traversal and Storage Scheme for Octree-Like Adaptive Cartesian Multiscale Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Weinzierl, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Almost all approaches to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) are based upon a spatial discretization of the computational domain-a grid. This paper presents an algorithm to generate, store, and traverse a hierarchy of d-dimensional Cartesian grids represented by a (k = 3)- spacetree, a generalization of the well-known octree concept, and it also shows the correctness of the approach. These grids may change their adaptive structure throughout the traversal. The algorithm uses 2d + 4 stacks as data structures for both cells and vertices, and the storage requirements for the pure grid reduce to one bit per vertex for both the complete grid connectivity structure and the multilevel grid relations. Since the traversal algorithm uses only stacks, the algorithm\\'s cache hit rate is continually higher than 99.9 percent, and the runtime per vertex remains almost constant; i.e., it does not depend on the overall number of vertices or the adaptivity pattern. We use the algorithmic approach as the fundamental concept for a mesh management for d-dimensional PDEs and for a matrix-free PDE solver represented by a compact discrete 3 d-point operator. In the latter case, one can implement a Jacobi smoother, a Krylov solver, or a geometric multigrid scheme within the presented traversal scheme which inherits the low memory requirements and the good memory access characteristics directly. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. The Athena Science Payload for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Haskin, L.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Athena Mars rover payload is a suite of scientific instruments and tools for geologic exploration of the martian surface. It is designed to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials, including soils, rock surfaces, and rock interiors. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. Two identical copies of the Athena payload will be flown in 2003 on the two Mars Exploration Rovers. The payload is at a high state of maturity, and first copies of several of the instruments have already been built and tested for flight.

  2. Low computation vision-based navigation for a Martian rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Andrew S.; Brooks, Rodney A.

    1994-01-01

    Construction and design details of the Mobot Vision System, a small, self-contained, mobile vision system, are presented. This system uses the view from the top of a small, roving, robotic vehicle to supply data that is processed in real-time to safely navigate the surface of Mars. A simple, low-computation algorithm for constructing a 3-D navigational map of the Martian environment to be used by the rover is discussed.

  3. Researches on hazard avoidance cameras calibration of Lunar Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Lu, Xin; Chen, Jihua; Fan, Shenghong

    2017-11-01

    Lunar Lander and Rover of China will be launched in 2013. It will finish the mission targets of lunar soft landing and patrol exploration. Lunar Rover has forward facing stereo camera pair (Hazcams) for hazard avoidance. Hazcams calibration is essential for stereo vision. The Hazcam optics are f-theta fish-eye lenses with a 120°×120° horizontal/vertical field of view (FOV) and a 170° diagonal FOV. They introduce significant distortion in images and the acquired images are quite warped, which makes conventional camera calibration algorithms no longer work well. A photogrammetric calibration method of geometric model for the type of optical fish-eye constructions is investigated in this paper. In the method, Hazcams model is represented by collinearity equations with interior orientation and exterior orientation parameters [1] [2]. For high-precision applications, the accurate calibration model is formulated with the radial symmetric distortion and the decentering distortion as well as parameters to model affinity and shear based on the fisheye deformation model [3] [4]. The proposed method has been applied to the stereo camera calibration system for Lunar Rover.

  4. The spirit of hypnosis: doing hypnosis versus being hypnotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapko, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The spirit of hypnosis is reflected in the belief that people are more resourceful than they realize and through hypnosis can create meaningful possibilities. Thus, it is puzzling why hypnosis isn't better regarded. Do we present as too internally conflicted to inspire others' confidence? Do we overstate the dangers of hypnosis and scare people away? Do we define hypnosis as such a unique approach that others don't see its relevance for their work? Self-exploration is important if we want to ensure we are not unwittingly adding to our image problems as a field. Beyond these considerations, the novel and spirited application of hypnosis in the context of captive elephant breeding is discussed, as is a personal acknowledgment of some of the pioneers who manifested the spirit of hypnosis.

  5. Spiritual Treatment for Depression in Brazil: An Experience From Spiritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero; Peres, Mario F Prieto; Vallada, Homero P; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Spiritism has been strongly connected with mental health in Brazil. However, there is a lack of descriptions of spiritual treatment provided by thousands of Brazilian Spiritist centers. The present study aims to describe the spiritual care for depression provided by one large Spiritist center in São Paulo, Brazil. This is a descriptive study carried out in 2012 at "São Paulo Spiritist Federation." Authors visited the "spiritual intervention sections," observed the therapies provided, listened to the "spirits' communication," and interviewed two patients. The assistance consists on a 90-min "Spiritual healing" session which includes educational lectures, "disobsession" (spirit release therapy), "passe" (laying on of hands) and person advice. Both patients had remitted depression when they were interviewed. Further studies would be necessary to report other religious/spiritual treatments in order to improve our understanding of the available practices used by patients and optimize the integration of conventional care with spiritual treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ‘Do not quench the Spirit!’ The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis of earlier, Jewish traditions. It situates the development of the idea of the Holy Spirit as God’s presence in past and present within the social history of the developing Christian movement, and shows how this idea was connected to the concept of apostolic succession. Thus, emerging Christianity legitimised itself and its social structures by the theology of the Holy Spirit. Its message was presented as old instead of new, as the Holy Spirit had foretold the Christ event. Its organisation was seen as divinely inspired, because its leaders were thought to be endowed with the Spirit. In this development, the narrative of Luke-Acts has thoroughly influenced the way in which Christianity developed a new discourse to present itself as old.

  7. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  8. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  9. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  10. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...... with democracy and spirits in fact reflect a set of contradictions within democracy itself. The book will be of interest to academics in the fields of Asian Studies, anthropology and political science and relevant for the study of Indonesian politics and democracy in Asia and beyond....

  11. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient’s own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfull......, the majority showed no detectable differences with respect to mutations or mobilome when compared to their faecal counterpart. The results show that UPECs are successful in colonizing both the bladder and gut without adaptation....

  12. MSL MARS ROVER ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING STATION 2 EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Raw, unprocessed scientific and housekeeping engineering data taken from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory.

  13. Autonomous Decision Making for Planetary Rovers Using Diagnostic and Prognostic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rover missions typically involve visiting a set of predetermined waypoints to perform science functions, such as sample collection. Given the communication delay...

  14. The Fate of a Normal Human Cell Traversed by a Single Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C.; Zahnreich, S.; Kraft, D.; Friedrich, T.; Voss, K.-O.; Durante, M.; Ritter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term “fate” of normal human cells after single hits of charged particles is one of the oldest unsolved issues in radiation protection and cellular radiobiology. Using a high-precision heavy-ion microbeam we could target normal human fibroblasts with exactly one or five carbon ions and measured the early cytogenetic damage and the late behaviour using single-cell cloning. Around 70% of the first cycle cells presented visible aberrations in mFISH after a single ion traversal, and about 5% of the cells were still able to form colonies. In one third of selected high-proliferative colonies we observed clonal (radiation-induced) aberrations. Terminal differentiation and markers of senescence (PCNA, p16) in the descendants of cells traversed by one carbon ion occurred earlier than in controls, but no evidence of radiation-induced chromosomal instability was found. We conclude that cells surviving single-ion traversal, often carrying clonal chromosome aberrations, undergo accelerated senescence but maintain chromosomal stability. PMID:22966418

  15. The Fate of a Normal Human Cell Traversed by a Single Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C.; Zahnreich, S.; Kraft, D.; Friedrich, T.; Voss, K.-O.; Durante, M.; Ritter, S.

    2012-09-01

    The long-term ``fate'' of normal human cells after single hits of charged particles is one of the oldest unsolved issues in radiation protection and cellular radiobiology. Using a high-precision heavy-ion microbeam we could target normal human fibroblasts with exactly one or five carbon ions and measured the early cytogenetic damage and the late behaviour using single-cell cloning. Around 70% of the first cycle cells presented visible aberrations in mFISH after a single ion traversal, and about 5% of the cells were still able to form colonies. In one third of selected high-proliferative colonies we observed clonal (radiation-induced) aberrations. Terminal differentiation and markers of senescence (PCNA, p16) in the descendants of cells traversed by one carbon ion occurred earlier than in controls, but no evidence of radiation-induced chromosomal instability was found. We conclude that cells surviving single-ion traversal, often carrying clonal chromosome aberrations, undergo accelerated senescence but maintain chromosomal stability.

  16. 27 CFR 28.192 - Packages of distilled spirits to be gauged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packages which are to be removed for export with benefit of drawback, shall be gauged by the distilled... Spirits With Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.192 Packages of distilled spirits to be...

  17. An Update of the Ground Testing of the Li-ion Batteries in Support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration (>9 months), both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which have enabled operation for over 854 and 834 Sols of operation, respectively, to date. Given that the batteries were required to support the mission for 90 Sols of operation by design, it is significant that the batteries have demonstrated over a nine fold increase in life over mission objectives. In addition to supporting the surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays, the batteries were designed to aid in the launch and the EDL pyros, and allow for anomalies during cruise. In summary, the requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20 C to +30 C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted orientation, and support high current pulses (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit (RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 10 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The testing includes, (a) performing initial characterization tests (discharge capacity at different temperatures), (b) simulating the launch conditions, (c) simulating the cruise phase conditions (including trajectory correction maneuvers), (d) simulating the entry, decent, and landing (EDL) pulse load profile (required to support the pyros) (e) simulating the Mars surface operation mission simulation conditions, as well as, (f) assessing capacity loss and impedance characteristics as

  18. 27 CFR 19.701 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawn shall be limited to an amount necessary for conduct of the testing, research or development. If... other market analysis) to determine the quality or character of the finished product. The quantity of spirits so withdrawn shall not exceed the amount necessary for conduct of the proprietor's operations. (b...

  19. Engaging in Educational Leadership: The Generosity of Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Maenette; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study presents key principles and a model of engaged leadership in indigenous communities. Engaged leadership champions children and youth, delivers learning and teaching within the context of place and spirit, and occurs in partnerships with diverse communities. Stories of educational leaders grounded in the concepts of "ha," place,…

  20. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where the... who certifies to the lading for attachment to the outgoing manifest. The other two copies shall be... shall be delivered to the customs officer for attachment to the incoming manifest. The remaining copy...

  1. Chinchirisi: The Phenomenon of "Spirit Children" Among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... what others say or do, 'it is in our blood', they say. This raises concerns. In what ways and to what extent is this religio-cultural phenomenon a challenge to euthanasia, human rights and rural development in the contemporary society? This paper examines the phenomenon of 'spirit children' from an insider perspective.

  2. The Spirit of Creativity and Innovation in Mathematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. The Spirit of Creativity and Innovation in Mathematics. S Ramanan. Reflections Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 82-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/01/0082-0090 ...

  3. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  4. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation: Camphor to Vitamin B12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 593-623 ...

  5. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  6. St Paul on Soul, Spirit and the Inner Man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; Elkaisy-Friemuth, M.; Dillon, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “St Paul on Soul, Spirit and the Inner Man,” in The Afterlife of the Platonic Soul: Reflections on Platonic Psychology in the Monotheistic Religions (ed. Maha Elkaisy-Friemuth and John M. Dillon; Ancient Mediterranean and Medieval Texts and Contexts: Studies in Platonism,

  7. Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

    1999-10-01

    The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain.

  8. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation. Camphor to Vitamin B. 12. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu and Subramania Ranganathan. What is described in the pages that follow, is the recounting of an exciting epoch in creative chemistry, namely, the synthesis of the complex molecule cyanocobalamin or vitamin B. 12 . It is the ...

  9. Biodegradation of premium motor spirit (PMS) by lipase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of premium motor spirit (PMS) by lipase from Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  10. Book Reviews: The Spirit Level | Turok | New Agenda: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spirit level - Why more equal societies almost always do better. Richard Wilkinson, Kate Pickett. Allen Lane: London. 2009. 340 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Performing the Holy Spirit: Ritualised Manifestation of Faith in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines the aesthetic manifestations of religious belief, particularly in the Holy Spirit, through consideration of the performative dimensions and ritualised behaviours in the church services of an African Independent Church, namely, the New Gospel Church in Zion of Africa (NGCZA). The significance of ...

  12. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  13. Discursive investigation into John's internalised spirit identity and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What does it mean to live in a society where everything good is located within one ethnicity, and geography? In reading the gospel of John, one gets the impression that faithful disciples, the Holy Spirit and morality are exclusively located within the Johannine community and can only permeate to the outside through the ...

  14. The Holy Spirit as Dove and as Tongues of Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    and the dove as metaphor in the Old Testament and in Mark 1:9-11 (the baptism of Jesus). Theories on metaphors, intertextuality and Conceptual Blending are applied to show how Gustava Brandt gives an interpretation of the holy spirit as a messenger of love where love is both burning and purifying. Finally...

  15. Sulfur Geochemical Analysis and Interpretation with ChemCam on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Frydenvang, J.; Forni, O.; Newsom, H. E.; Blaney, D. L.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Curiosity rover has encountered many forms of sulfur including calcium sulfate veins [1], hydrated Mg sulfates, and Fe sulfates along the traverse through Gale crater. A new SO3 calibration model for the remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique used by the ChemCam instrument enables improved quantitative analysis of SO3, which has not been previously reported by ChemCam on a routine or quantitative basis. In this paper, the details of this new LIBS calibration model will be described and applied to many disparate Mars targets. Among them, Mavor contains a calcium sulfate vein surrounded by bedrock. In contrast, Jake M. is a float rock, Wernecke is a bedrock, Cumberland and Windjana are drill targets. In 2015 the ChemCam instrument team completed a re-calibration of major elements based on a significantly expanded set of >500 geochemical standards using the ChemCam testbed at Los Alamos National Laboratory [2]. In addition to these standards, the SO3 compositional range was recently extended with a series of doped samples containing various mixtures of Ca- and Mg-sulfate with basalt BHVO2. Spectra from these standards were processed per [4]. Calibration and Mars spectra were converted to peak-area-summed LIBS spectra that enables the SO3 calibration. These peak-area spectra were used to generate three overlapping partial least squares (PLS1) calibration sub-models as described by Anderson et al. [3, 5]. ChemCam analysis of Mavor involved a 3x3 raster in which locations 5 and 6 primarily probed Ca-sulfate material. The new ChemCam SO3 compositions for Mavor 5 and Mavor 6 are 48.6±1.2 and 50.3±1.2 wt% SO3, respectively. The LIBS spectra also recorded the presence of other elements that are likely responsible for the departure from pure Ca-sulfate chemistry. On the low-abundance side, the remaining 7 Mavor locations, Jake M., Cumberland, Windjana, and Wernecke all contain much lower SO3, between 1.4±0.5 wt% and 2.3±0.3 wt% SO3. [1] Nachon et

  16. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  17. An Overview of Wind-Driven Rovers for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajos, Gregory A.; Jones, Jack A.; Behar, Alberto; Dodd, Micheal

    2005-01-01

    The use of in-situ propulsion is considered enabling technology for long duration planetary surface missions. Most studies have focused on stored energy from chemicals extracted from the soil or the use of soil chemicals to produce photovoltaic arrays. An older form of in-situ propulsion is the use of wind power. Recent studies have shown potential for wind driven craft for exploration of Mars, Titan and Venus. The power of the wind, used for centuries to power wind mills and sailing ships, is now being applied to modern land craft. Efforts are now underway to use the wind to push exploration vehicles on other planets and moons in extended survey missions. Tumbleweed rovers are emerging as a new type of wind-driven science platform concept. Recent investigations by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) indicate that these light-weight, mostly spherical or quasi-spherical devices have potential for long distance surface exploration missions. As a power boat has unique capabilities, but relies on stored energy (fuel) to move the vessel, the Tumbleweed, like the sailing ships of the early explorers on earth, uses an unlimited resource the wind to move around the surface of Mars. This has the potential to reduce the major mass drivers of robotic rovers as well as the power generation and storage systems. Jacques Blamont of JPL and the University of Paris conceived the first documented Mars wind-blown ball in 1977, shortly after the Viking landers discovered that Mars has a thin CO2 atmosphere with relatively strong winds. In 1995, Jack Jones, et al, of JPL conceived of a large wind-blown inflated ball for Mars that could also be driven and steered by means of a motorized mass hanging beneath the rolling axis of the ball. A team at NASA Langley Research Center started a biomimetic Tumbleweed design study in 1998. Wind tunnel and CFD analysis were applied to a variety of concepts to optimize the aerodynamic

  18. A Distributed Control System for the CMU Rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    Sl-K-0503. The .. first author is supported in part by the Conseiho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico 0., - CNPq, Brazil, under...presented in this paper and future work to be performed is mentioned. 1 Introduction ’This paper is a progress reporton the CMU Rover Project [1,2]. The CMU...the degree of progress made towards completing this plan. A high level diagram of the Distributed Control System is shown is Fig. 3. 3.3.2 Details Each

  19. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  20. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  1. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  2. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension and...

  3. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits. Untaxpaid...

  4. The role of the Holy spirit in Calvin's doctrine of the sacraments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calvin has frequently been labeled "the theologian of the Holy Spirit". Although there have been a number of studies of various aspects of the Holy Spirit in Calvin's theology since the significant works of Simon van der Linde (1943) and Werner Krusche (1957), none has dealt with the role the Spirit plays in Calvin's doctrine ...

  5. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of...

  6. 27 CFR 28.310 - Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit. 28.310 Section 28.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Denatured Spirits § 28.310 Loss of specially denatured spirits in transit. Losses of specially denatured...

  7. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon...

  8. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  9. 27 CFR 19.396 - Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. 19.396 Section 19.396 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... § 19.396 Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico with...

  10. “Bond of love”: The action of the spirit | Williams | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ancient idea, seen especially in Augustine, is that the main activity of the Spirit is that of providing relationship, as the “bond of love”; this provides a key concept which undergirds the work of the Spirit in creation, redemption, sanctification and empowering. It is hoped that increased understanding of the work of the Spirit ...

  11. Initial Results on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mar Exploration Rover Gusev Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2004-05-01

    The Spirit rover has investigated the geochemistry and mineralogy of the Gusev crater site using in situ Alpha Proton X-Ray, Mossbauer, visible, and infrared spectroscopy. The Gusev site is covered with angular to sub-rounded rocks that are typically less than 1 m in maximum dimension. More than 90 percent of these rocks are dark-toned, with the remainder being lighter-toned rocks that may predominantly be dark rocks with a thin (10's of microns) coating of easily removed fines. APXS analysis has been obtained of a rock (Adirondack) following the removal by grinding of the surface dust and the upper few mm of the rock surface. These data give a modal mineralogy corresponding to olivine basalt. High quality Mini-TES data have not been obtained of a completely dust-free rock surface. The Mini-TES data of Adirondack do show long wavelength (15-25 microns) absorptions due to olivine of composition ~Fo60. All of the rocks observed are very compositionally homogeneous in the Mini-TES spectra. These findings are consistent with the detection of olivine-bearing basalt at this site from orbital TES infrared spectroscopy. Mossbauer spectra of Adirondack show the presence of forsteritic olivine and magnetite, with possible pyroxene. The soils at Gusev are a mixture of reddish fine-grained to sandy materials, granular-sized particles that occur in ripple forms, and minor pebbles. Mini-TES spectra of the soil show an excellent match to the TES spectra of high-albedo, fine-grained material found in regional bright regions that is interpreted to be windblown dust. This agreement suggests at least the uppermost layer of the soil at Gusev has been accumulated from airfall dust. By analogy with prior analysis of TES data these materials contain several percent carbonate, minor bound water, and a framework silicate interpreted to be either feldspar or zeolite. APXS spectra show similar oxide abundances to those determined for the Pathfinder site, except for higher MgO, and lower

  12. Ice Core Chemistry from the Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica, IPY 2007-2009, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations versus depth in seven ice cores that were obtained by the Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Traverse...

  13. Kevin Traverse-Healy: kommunikatsiooni eesmärk on muuta käitumist / intervjueerinud Annela Laaneots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traverse-Healy, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Intervjuu strateegianõuniku ja rahvusvaheliselt tuntud kommunikatsioonieksperdi Kevin Traverse-Healyga, kes peab eduka kommunikatsioonijuhi töös oluliseks luua õige kommunikatsioon, mille eesmärgiks on sihtrühma käitumise muutus

  14. Radar Studies of Internal Stratigraphy and Bed Topography along the US ITASE-II Traverse, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ice penetrating radar data from the US-International Trans-Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE) Traverse, from Taylor Dome to South Pole...

  15. The K9 On-Board Rover Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, Maria; Fair, Michael; Washington, Richard; Wright, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the software architecture of NASA Ames Research Center s K9 rover. The goal of the onboard software architecture team was to develop a modular, flexible framework that would allow both high- and low-level control of the K9 hardware. Examples of low-level control are the simple drive or pan/tilt commands which are handled by the resource managers, and examples of high-level control are the command sequences which are handled by the conditional executive. In between these two control levels are complex behavioral commands which are handled by the pilot, such as drive to goal with obstacle avoidance or visually servo to a target. This paper presents the design of the architecture as of Fall 2000. We describe the state of the architecture implementation as well as its current evolution. An early version of the architecture was used for K9 operations during a dual-rover field experiment conducted by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from May 14 to May 16, 2000.

  16. Autonomously Generating Operations Sequences for a Mars Rover Using Artificial Intelligence-Based Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R.; Mutz, D.; Estlin, T.; Chien, S.; Backes, P.; Norris, J.; Tran, D.; Cooper, B.; Rabideau, G.; Mishkin, A.; Maxwell, S.

    2001-07-01

    This article discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from high-level science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This artificial intelligence (AI)-based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules. An automated planning and scheduling system encodes rover design knowledge and uses search and reasoning techniques to automatically generate low-level command sequences while respecting rover operability constraints, science and engineering preferences, environmental predictions, and also adhering to hard temporal constraints. This prototype planning system has been field-tested using the Rocky 7 rover at JPL and will be field-tested on more complex rovers to prove its effectiveness before transferring the technology to flight operations for an upcoming NASA mission. Enabling goal-driven commanding of planetary rovers greatly reduces the requirements for highly skilled rover engineering personnel. This in turn greatly reduces mission operations costs. In addition, goal-driven commanding permits a faster response to changes in rover state (e.g., faults) or science discoveries by removing the time-consuming manual sequence validation process, allowing rapid "what-if" analyses, and thus reducing overall cycle times.

  17. Coordinated motion control model of a six-wheeled rocker lunar rover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present, control methods of the six-wheeled rocker lunar rover primarily consist of setting the same driving parameters for each wheel. This type of control method ignores the multiple active driving characteristics of the lunar rover and causes parasitic power loss. The main cause of the parasitic power loss is the uncoordinated motion of the driving elements. Therefore, in this article, a coordinated motion programming model of the six-wheeled rocker lunar rover based on the velocity projection theorem, the quasi-static mechanical model, and the rated power of the motor is established to eliminate parasitic loss, reduce driving energy, and improve energy efficiency. The analytical solution of the programming model based on the Kuhn–Tucker condition is also calculated. The coordinated motion control model saves energy, and it is suitable for other wheeled-type planet rovers. This model provides technical support for reducing the energy consumption of planet rovers.

  18. The University Rover Challenge: A competition highlighting Human and Robotic partnerships for exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather; Duncan, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The University Rover Challenge began in 2006 with 4 American college teams competing, now in it's 10th year there are 63 teams from 12 countries registered to compete for the top rover designed to assist humans in the exploration of Mars. The Rovers compete aided by the University teams in four tasks (3 engineering and 1 science) in the Mars analog environment of the Utah Southern Desert in the United States. In this presentation we show amazing rover designs with videos demonstrating the incredible ingenuity, skill and determination of the world's most talented college students. We describe the purpose and results of each of the tasks: Astronaut Assistant, Rover Dexterity, Terrain maneuvering, and Science. We explain the evolution of the competition and common challenges faced by the robotic explorers

  19. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  20. On the propagation of sound waves in a stellar wind traversed by periodic strong shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pijpers, F. P.

    1994-01-01

    It has been claimed that in stellar winds traversed by strong shocks the mechanism for driving the wind by sound wave pressure cannot operate because sound waves cannot propagate past the shocks. It is shown here that sound waves can propagate through shocks in one direction and that this is a sufficient condition for the sound wave pressure mechanism to work. A strong shock amplifies a sound wave passing through it and can drag the sound wave away from the star. It is immaterial for the soun...

  1. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max

    2010-01-01

    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  2. Effects of Majorana physics on the UHE ν{sub τ} flux traversing the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Universidad de la Republica, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Zapata, Gabriel; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), CONICET, UNMDP, Departamento de Fisica, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2017-02-15

    We study the effects produced by sterile Majorana neutrinos on the ν{sub τ} flux traversing the Earth, considering the interaction between the Majorana neutrinos and the standard matter as modeled by an effective theory. The surviving tau-neutrino flux is calculated using transport equations including Majorana neutrino production and decay. We compare our results with the pure Standard Model interactions, computing the surviving flux for different values of the effective lagrangian couplings, considering the detected flux by IceCube for an operation time of 10 years, and Majorana neutrinos with mass m{sub N} ∝ m{sub τ}. (orig.)

  3. Traversable terrain classification for outdoor autonomous robots using single 2D laser scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Blas, Morten Rufus; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting laser data to allow autonomous robot navigation on paved as well as dirt roads using a fixed angle 2D laser scanner is a daunting task. This paper introduces an algorithm for terrain classification that fuses seven distinctly different classifiers: raw height, roughness, step size......, curvature, slope, width and invalid data. These are then used to extract road borders, traversable terrain and identify obstacles. Experimental results are shown and discussed. The results were obtained using a DTU developed mobile robot, and the autonomous tests were conducted in a national park...

  4. Spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Pedia; Dharma, S. Mira

    2018-03-01

    Historical city area was developing by an accumulation of developmental stages which influenced by various factors. The factors are political, economic, social, cultural, and modernization. The research will discuss the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang city, Meranti Islands. The purpose is to identify the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor and to find out the tourism concept by characters that support urban tourism in Selatpanjang city. The research method used is qualitative research method with the rationalistic paradigm. Based on cultural history, physical building, and spatial pattern, Merdeka corridor has unique characteristic, and it persists if compared by another in Selatpanjang city. However, damage of corridor, physical changes, and functions can slowly happen due to modernization and cannot avoid.

  5. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: Six Years On (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, P.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences - from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface, and educational philosophy, summarizes achievements and lessons learned, and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  6. Forma dat esse: a Christian ontology of human spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martínez Porcell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forma dat esse was initially high fertility existential anthropology. Christian philosophy inherited although explanations hylemorphic with explaining human nature knew register the being and doing of the person inside the ontology of created spirits. The presence of human corporeality was a spirit that existed in the boundary and the horizon of eternity. The plasticity of human tendencies was a sign of his intelligence and it should be defined by their spirituality. The word was being-communication and love was the most important act of his life fertility. No wonder that we offer existential self as memory itself and the presence of the soul from the patenting of his spiritual being.

  7. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... theme. METHODS: Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises...... spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further research is necessary...

  8. Medical Eschatologies: The Christian Spirit of Hospital Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    If much has been written of the forms of bodiliness reinforced by hospitals, less attention has been paid to the medicalization of the soul. The medical management of death institutionalizes divisions between body and soul, and matter and spirit, infusing end-of-life care with latent Christian theological presumptions. The invisibility of these presumptions is partly sustained by projecting religiosity on those who endorse other cosmologies, while retaining for medicine a mask of secular science. Stories of conflict with non-Christian patients force these presumptions into visibility, suggesting alternative ethics of care and mourning rooted in other understandings. In this article, I explore one such story. Considering the story as an allegory for how matter and spirit figure in contemporary postmortem disciplines, I suggest that it exposes both the operation of a taboo against mixing material and spiritual agendas, and an assumption that appropriate mourning is oriented toward symbolic homage, rather than concern for the material welfare of the dead.

  9. 27 CFR 19.742 - Tank record of wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof to show deposits into, withdrawals from, and the... spirits by pipeline; (6) Wine gallons of wine, or proof gallons of spirits deposited; (7) If subject to... its serial number for deposits or withdrawals; (10) Wine gallons of wine, or proof gallons of spirits...

  10. 27 CFR 27.56 - Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. 27.56 Section 27.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Packaging and Marking of Distilled Spirits § 27.56 Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon. Bottled distilled spirits imported...

  11. Technical Preparation of the Airplane "Spirit of St. Louis."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donald A

    1927-01-01

    Given here is a brief history of the design and construction of the "Spirit of St. Lewis", the airplane that Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic. Although the plan was to modify a standard model Ryan M-2, it was quickly determined that modification was less practical than redesign. Colonel Lindbergh's active participation in the design of the aircraft is noted. Given here are the general dimensions, specifications, weight characteristics, and man hours required to build the aircraft.

  12. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Ule

    2015-01-01

    The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly) used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest), mind (slo. um), and spirit (slo. duh). They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to conscious...

  13. Puumeelsuse ülistus - Spirit of Nature / Agneta Land

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline puitarhitektuuri näitus 11.09.- 31.10.2008 Lahtis (Soome) Pro Puu galeriis. Eksponeeritakse Renzo Piano (Itaalia), Kengo Kuma (Jaapan), Richard Leplastrier'i (Austraalia), Peter Zumthor'i (Šveits) ja Jose Cruz Ovalle (Tšiili) loomingut. 2008. aastal pälvis Spirit of Nature auhinna tšiili arhitekt Jose Cruz Ovalle (sünd. 1948). Tema eluloolisi andmeid, looming, portreefoto

  14. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is ...

  15. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    OpenAIRE

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-01-01

    Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican ...

  16. Brazilian organic sugarcane spirits: Physicochemical and chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been a growing demand for products from organic agriculture for the food market. Brazil leads the production of sugarcane spirits and produces about 1.6 billion liters/year. New technologies have been sought throughout the supply chain to improve production, and organic raw material has been used in the production of sugar cane for the production of beverages. This study aimed to define the physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of eleven organic sugarcane spirits samples from various Brazilian states. The secondary components and contaminants were identified and quantified through physicochemical analyses, HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. A significant percentage of the organic sugarcane spirits samples contained concentrations of components that were above the limits required by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provisioning (MAPA, specifically the esters (18.20%, copper and dry extract (9.10%. This contamination is caused by bad conditions employed during the production process, which are not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices determined and legislated by Brazilian law.

  17. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  18. Traversing the Cell: Agrobacterium T-DNA’s Journey to the Host Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium is unique in its ability to conduct interkingdom genetic exchange. Virulent Agrobacterium strains transfer single-strand forms of T-DNA (T-strands) and several Virulence effector proteins through a bacterial type IV secretion system into plant host cells. T-strands must traverse the plant wall and plasma membrane, traffic through the cytoplasm, enter the nucleus, and ultimately target host chromatin for stable integration. Because any DNA sequence placed between T-DNA “borders” can be transferred to plants and integrated into the plant genome, the transfer and intracellular trafficking processes must be mediated by bacterial and host proteins that form complexes with T-strands. This review summarizes current knowledge of proteins that interact with T-strands in the plant cell, and discusses several models of T-complex (T-strand and associated proteins) trafficking. A detailed understanding of how these macromolecular complexes enter the host cell and traverse the plant cytoplasm will require development of novel technologies to follow molecules from their bacterial site of synthesis into the plant cell, and how these transferred molecules interact with host proteins and sub-cellular structures within the host cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:22645590

  19. Coulomb nanoradiator-mediated, site-specific thrombolytic proton treatment with a traversing pristine Bragg peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Kun; Han, Sung-Mi; Min, Soon-Ki; Seo, Seung-Jun; Ihm, Kyuwook; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-11-01

    Traversing proton beam-irradiated, mid/high-Z nanoparticles produce site-specific enhancement of X-ray photon-electron emission via the Coulomb nanoradiator (CNR) effect, resulting in a nano- to micro-scale therapeutic effect at the nanoparticle-uptake target site. Here, we demonstrate the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) and nanoradiator-mediated, site-specific thrombolysis without damaging the vascular endothelium in an arterial thrombosis mouse model. The enhancement of low-energy electron (LEE) emission and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from traversing proton beam-irradiated IONs was examined. Flow recovery was only observed in CNR-treated mice, and greater than 50% removal of the thrombus was achieved. A 2.5-fold greater reduction in the thrombus-enabled flow recovery was observed in the CNR group compared with that observed in the untreated ION-only and proton-only control groups (p ROS by the proton-irradiated IONs, which suggests chemical degradation of the thrombus without potent emboli.

  20. Building Hybrid Rover Models for NASA: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeke, Thomas; Dearden, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Particle filters have recently become popular for diagnosis and monitoring of hybrid systems. In this paper we describe our experiences using particle filters on a real diagnosis problem, the NASA Ames Research Center's K-9 rover. As well as the challenge of modelling the dynamics of the system, there are two major issues in applying a particle filter to such a model. The first is the asynchronous nature of the system-observations from different subsystems arrive at different rates, and occasionally out of order, leading to large amounts of uncertainty in the state of the system. The second issue is data interpretation. The particle filter produces a probability distribution over the state of the system, from which summary statistics that can be used for control or higher-level diagnosis must be extracted. We describe our approaches to both these problems, as well as other modelling issues that arose in this domain.

  1. Mars Rover Sample Return aerocapture configuration design and packaging constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shelby J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the aerodynamics requirements, volume and mass constraints that lead to a biconic aeroshell vehicle design that protects the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission elements from launch to Mars landing. The aerodynamic requirements for Mars aerocapture and entry and packaging constraints for the MRSR elements result in a symmetric biconic aeroshell that develops a L/D of 1.0 at 27.0 deg angle of attack. A significant problem in the study is obtaining a cg that provides adequate aerodynamic stability and performance within the mission imposed constraints. Packaging methods that relieve the cg problems include forward placement of aeroshell propellant tanks and incorporating aeroshell structure as lander structure. The MRSR missions developed during the pre-phase A study are discussed with dimensional and mass data included. Further study is needed for some missions to minimize MRSR element volume so that launch mass constraints can be met.

  2. Cross-coupled control for all-terrain rovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Giulio

    2013-01-08

    Mobile robots are increasingly being used in challenging outdoor environments for applications that include construction, mining, agriculture, military and planetary exploration. In order to accomplish the planned task, it is critical that the motion control system ensure accuracy and robustness. The achievement of high performance on rough terrain is tightly connected with the minimization of vehicle-terrain dynamics effects such as slipping and skidding. This paper presents a cross-coupled controller for a 4-wheel-drive/4-wheel-steer robot, which optimizes the wheel motors' control algorithm to reduce synchronization errors that would otherwise result in wheel slip with conventional controllers. Experimental results, obtained with an all-terrain rover operating on agricultural terrain, are presented to validate the system. It is shown that the proposed approach is effective in reducing slippage and vehicle posture errors.

  3. Cross-Coupled Control for All-Terrain Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Reina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are increasingly being used in challenging outdoor environments for applications that include construction, mining, agriculture, military and planetary exploration. In order to accomplish the planned task, it is critical that the motion control system ensure accuracy and robustness. The achievement of high performance on rough terrain is tightly connected with the minimization of vehicle-terrain dynamics effects such as slipping and skidding. This paper presents a cross-coupled controller for a 4-wheel-drive/4-wheel-steer robot, which optimizes the wheel motors’ control algorithm to reduce synchronization errors that would otherwise result in wheel slip with conventional controllers. Experimental results, obtained with an all-terrain rover operating on agricultural terrain, are presented to validate the system. It is shown that the proposed approach is effective in reducing slippage and vehicle posture errors.

  4. xLuna - D emonstrator on ESA Mars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, P.; Henriques, L.; Carvalho, B.; Chevalley, P.; Zulianello, M.

    2008-08-01

    There is a significant gap between the services offered by existing space qualified Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS) and those required by the most demanding future space applications. New requirements for autonomy, terrain mapping and navigation, Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM), improvement of the throughput of science tasks, all demand high level services such as file systems or POSIX compliant interfaces. xLuna is an operating system that aims fulfilling these new requirements. Besides providing the typical services that of an RTOS (tasks and interrupts management, timers, message queues, etc), it also includes most of the features available in modern general-purpose operating systems, such as Linux. This paper describes a case study that proposes to demonstrate the usage of xLuna on board a rover currently in use for the development of algorithms in preparation of a mission to Mars.

  5. Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, K.W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhfer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Autonomous Vision-Based Tethered-Assisted Rover Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dorian; Nesnas, Issa A.D.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    Many intriguing science discoveries on planetary surfaces, such as the seasonal flows on crater walls and skylight entrances to lava tubes, are at sites that are currently inaccessible to state-of-the-art rovers. The in situ exploration of such sites is likely to require a tethered platform both for mechanical support and for providing power and communication. Mother/daughter architectures have been investigated where a mother deploys a tethered daughter into extreme terrains. Deploying and retracting a tethered daughter requires undocking and re-docking of the daughter to the mother, with the latter being the challenging part. In this paper, we describe a vision-based tether-assisted algorithm for the autonomous re-docking of a daughter to its mother following an extreme terrain excursion. The algorithm uses fiducials mounted on the mother to improve the reliability and accuracy of estimating the pose of the mother relative to the daughter. The tether that is anchored by the mother helps the docking process and increases the system's tolerance to pose uncertainties by mechanically aligning the mating parts in the final docking phase. A preliminary version of the algorithm was developed and field-tested on the Axel rover in the JPL Mars Yard. The algorithm achieved an 80% success rate in 40 experiments in both firm and loose soils and starting from up to 6 m away at up to 40 deg radial angle and 20 deg relative heading. The algorithm does not rely on an initial estimate of the relative pose. The preliminary results are promising and help retire the risk associated with the autonomous docking process enabling consideration in future martian and lunar missions.

  7. In situ characterization of martian materials and detection of organic compounds with the MOMA investigation onboard the ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Li, X.; Kaplan, D.; Pinnick, V. T.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Goesmann, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based observations (e.g., via the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility) and in situ investigations, including flybys (e.g., Mariner Program), orbiters (most recently MAVEN and ExoMars TGO), stationary landers (i.e., Viking, Pathfinder and Phoenix), and mobile rovers (i.e., Sojourner, Spirit/Opportunity and Curiosity), have enabled the progressive exploration of the Martian surface. Evidence for liquid water, manifest as hydrated and amorphous materials representative of alteration products of primary minerals/lithologies, and geomorphological features such as recurring slope lineae (RSL), valley networks and open-basin lakes, indicates that Mars may have hosted habitable environments, at least on local scales (temporally and spatially). However, the preservation potential of molecular biosignatures in the upper meter(s) of the surface is limited by destructive cosmic radiation and oxidative chemical reactions. Moreover, the determination of indigenous versus exogenous origins, and biotic versus abiotic formation mechanisms of detected organic material, provide additional challenges for future missions to the red planet. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) onboard the ExoMars rover, set to launch in 2020, provides an unprecedented opportunity to discover unambiguous indicators of life. The MOMA instrument will investigate the compositions of materials collected during multiple vertical surveys, extending as deep as two meters below the surface, via: i) gas chromatography mass spectrometry, a method geared towards the detection of volatile organics and the determination of molecular chirality, mapping to previous in situ Mars investigations; and, ii) laser desorption mass spectrometry, a technique commonly employed in research laboratories to detect larger, more refractory organic materials, but a first for spaceflight applications. Selective ion excitation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques support the isolation and disambiguation of complex

  8. Dynamic Modeling and Soil Mechanics for Path Planning of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian; Arvidson, Raymond; Lindemann, Randel; Bennett, Keith; Zhou, Feng; Iagnemma, Karl; Senatore, Carmine; Van Dyke, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    To help minimize risk of high sinkage and slippage during drives and to better understand soil properties and rover terramechanics from drive data, a multidisciplinary team was formed under the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project to develop and utilize dynamic computer-based models for rover drives over realistic terrains. The resulting tool, named ARTEMIS (Adams-based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Interaction Simulator), consists of the dynamic model, a library of terramechanics subroutines, and the high-resolution digital elevation maps of the Mars surface. A 200-element model of the rovers was developed and validated for drop tests before launch, using MSC-Adams dynamic modeling software. Newly modeled terrain-rover interactions include the rut-formation effect of deformable soils, using the classical Bekker-Wong implementation of compaction resistances and bull-dozing effects. The paper presents the details and implementation of the model with two case studies based on actual MER telemetry data. In its final form, ARTEMIS will be used in a predictive manner to assess terrain navigability and will become part of the overall effort in path planning and navigation for both Martian and lunar rovers.

  9. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johansson, Joel [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Masci, Frank J.; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Andrews, Jennifer E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bally, John; Green, Wayne [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hsiao, Eric, E-mail: jj@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States); and others

    2017-03-10

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer /IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ( M {sub [4.5]} = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ( D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s{sup −1}), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μ m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A {sub V} = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous ( M {sub 4.5} = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A{sub V} ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  10. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11 and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28. The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100% and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  11. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Abuga, Kennedy O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-10-17

    Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits ( n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ' chang'aa' , ( n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8-85.8% vol and 28.3-56.7% vol for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3-4.2 and 4.4-4.8 for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  12. Boulder abundances and size-frequency distributions on Oxia Planum-Mars: Scientific implications for the 2020 ESA ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Baratti, Emanuele; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Quantin, Cathy; Carter, John; Thollot, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the abundances and the size-frequency distributions (SFD) of boulders identified on a sector of the prime landing site for the ExoMars 2020 rover, in Oxia Planum region. By means of a HiRISE image, boulders ≥ 1.75 m across have been identified and subdivided according to the two main Oxia Planum geological units: the Noachian clay-rich formation (Nc), and the Amazonian volcanic deposit (Av). The spatial density of boulders ≥ 1.75 m over the entire study area is 6.75 × 10-4/m2, with a size-frequency that is best fit both with power-law and exponential-law curves with indices of -4.9 + 0.1/-0.2 and -1.29 + 0.04/-0.06 respectively. Significant differences were found by analysing separately the Av and Nc geological units. The data collected in the Av unit are well-fitted with a power-law curve with an index equal to -4.8 +/-0.2 and with an exponential-law curve with an index of -1.24 + 0.05,-0.06, whilst in the Nc unit such indices are -5.5 + 0.3/-0.4 and -1.70 + 0.09/-0.12 (power-law and exponential-law curve, respectively). The spatial density of boulders in the Av unit is 7.0 times larger than in the Nc one. This may be due primarily to the distinct mechanical properties of the two units that may result in a different production rate or preservation of the boulders. Secondly, the Av unit overlies the Nc unit, possibly resulting in more impacts and/or different weathering processes throughout the ages. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the abundances of boulders ≥ 1.75 m across on Oxia Planum: it is therefore a reference for the ExoMars 2020 mission, both during the landing phase and the rover traverse to specific areas of interest. The landing ellipse presents much higher abundances of boulders ≥ 1.75 m than all previous Martian rover landing areas. This is particularly evident when the rougher Av unit is taken into account. Contrarily, the Nc unit shows a much more comparable value, but still slightly higher, to the Mars

  13. Spirits Trade After Reform in 1863: To the Issue of Efficiency of State Regulation of Spirits Turnover in Terms of Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ye. Goryushkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of published and non-published archive materials the article estimates efficiency of state regulation of spirits turnover in terms of excise taxation period. It also states types of spirits trade, types of public houses, groups of people that have obtained the right for wholesale, retail and that of small amount tradeoff spirits. License gaining procedures are widely described as well. The author pays significant attention to the areas in cities and countryside, where the public houses should not have been opened as well as the individuals who were admitted to spirits trade; also he states events which influenced the sale of spirits. The requirements to interior of public houses, working hours, quality and volumes of trade are also specified. It is pointed out that the officials of excise tax board were to control the regulations of spirit trade, their authority extended to public houses control in 1885. The author comes to the conclusion that regulatory means of excise tax was efficient and by increasing and decreasing of license cost, complication and simplification of new public houses opening all together allowed to regulate the turnover of spirits in terms of free trade thus influencing the number, types, density, range and quality of spirits. However, there was distinct ambiguity in Ministry of Finance policy during the stated excise taxation period. On the one hand it limited free sale of spirits, eradicating public houses which were considered detrimental. On the other hand, the Ministry was set not to notice abuse in trade which gave the opportunity to gain greater benefits at public cost from spirits sales.

  14. Radar Sounding Investigations of the Martian Subsurface by the 2018 ExoMars-C Rover

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarletti, Valérie; Plettemeier, Dirk; Cais, Ph.; Clifford, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observation on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar will fly on the ESA-NASA 2018 ExoMars-C mission, which combines the science payload of the original ESA ExoMars Rover with the robotic arm and sample cache of NASA's Max-C Rover into a single rover, whose samples will ult imately be retrieved by a future Mars Sample Return mission. WISDOM was designed to investigate the nearsubsurface down to a depth of ~2-3 m, commensurate with the ...

  15. Optomechanical design of 10 modular cameras for the Mars exploration rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Virginia G.; Karlmann, Paul; Hagerott, Edward C.; Scherr, Lawrence M.

    2002-09-01

    The 2003 mission to Mars includes two Rovers, which will land on the Martian surface. Each Rover carries 9 cameras of 4 different designs. In addition, one similar camera is mounted to each lander assembly to monitor the descent and provide information for firing the control jets during landing. This paper will discuss the mechanical systems design of the cameras, including fabrication tolerances of the lenses, thermal issues, radiation shielding, planetary protection, detector mounting, electronics, the modularity achieved, and how the 10 different locations were accommodated on the very tight real estate of the Rovers and Landers.

  16. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  17. Proceedings 3rd Workshop on GRAPH Inspection and Traversal Engineering (GRAPHITE 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    to various computational algorithms in order to analyze them. Just restricting the attention to the analysis of software, graph analysis algorithms are used, for instance, to verify properties using model checking techniques that explore the system's state space graph or static analysis techniques based......These are the proceedings of the Third Workshop on GRAPH Inspection and Traversal Engineering (GRAPHITE 2014), which took place on April 5, 2014 in Grenoble, France, as a satellite event of the 17th European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS 2014). The aim of GRAPHITE...... is to foster the convergence on research interests from several communities dealing with graph analysis in all its forms in computer science, with a particular attention to software development and analysis. Graphs are used to represent data and processes in many application areas, and they are subjected...

  18. Traversing every edge in each direction once, but not at once: Cubic (polyhedral graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Rosenfeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A {\\em retracting-free bidirectional circuit} in a graph $G$ is a closed walk which traverses every edge exactly once in each direction and such that no edge is succeeded by the same edge in the opposite direction. Such a circuit revisits each vertex only in a number of steps. Studying the class $\\mathit{\\Omega}$ of all graphs admitting at least one retracting-free bidirectional circuit was proposed by Ore (1951 and is by now of practical use to nanotechnology. The latter needs in various molecular polyhedra that are constructed from a single chain molecule in the retracting-free way. Some earlier results for simple graphs, obtained by Thomassen and, then, by other authors, are specially refined by us for a cubic graph $Q$. Most of such refinements depend only on the number $n$ of vertices of $Q$.

  19. A New MANET wormhole detection algorithm based on traversal time and hop count analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S; Pulkkis, Göran

    2011-01-01

    As demand increases for ubiquitous network facilities, infrastructure-less and self-configuring systems like Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) are gaining popularity. MANET routing security however, is one of the most significant challenges to wide scale adoption, with wormhole attacks being an especially severe MANET routing threat. This is because wormholes are able to disrupt a major component of network traffic, while concomitantly being extremely difficult to detect. This paper introduces a new wormhole detection paradigm based upon Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA), which in comparison to existing algorithms, consistently affords superior detection performance, allied with low false positive rates for all wormhole variants. Simulation results confirm that the TTHCA model exhibits robust wormhole route detection in various network scenarios, while incurring only a small network overhead. This feature makes TTHCA an attractive choice for MANET environments which generally comprise devices, such as wireless sensors, which possess a limited processing capability.

  20. A New MANET Wormhole Detection Algorithm Based on Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Pulkkis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As demand increases for ubiquitous network facilities, infrastructure-less and self-configuring systems like Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET are gaining popularity. MANET routing security however, is one of the most significant challenges to wide scale adoption, with wormhole attacks being an especially severe MANET routing threat. This is because wormholes are able to disrupt a major component of network traffic, while concomitantly being extremely difficult to detect. This paper introduces a new wormhole detection paradigm based upon Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA, which in comparison to existing algorithms, consistently affords superior detection performance, allied with low false positive rates for all wormhole variants. Simulation results confirm that the TTHCA model exhibits robust wormhole route detection in various network scenarios, while incurring only a small network overhead. This feature makes TTHCA an attractive choice for MANET environments which generally comprise devices, such as wireless sensors, which possess a limited processing capability.

  1. Identifying time measurement tampering in the traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) wormhole detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S; Pulkkis, Göran

    2013-05-17

    Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  2. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  3. From the Flamm-Einstein-Rosen bridge to the modern renaissance of traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the possibility of multiply-connected spacetimes, ranging from the Flamm-Einstein-Rosen bridge, geons, and the modern renaissance of traversable wormholes. A fundamental property in wormhole physics is the flaring-out condition of the throat, which through the Einstein field equation entails the violation of the null energy condition (NEC). In the context of modified theories of gravity, it has also been shown that the normal matter can be imposed to satisfy the energy conditions, and it is the higher order curvature terms, interpreted as a gravitational fluid, that sustain these nonstandard wormhole geometries, fundamentally different from their counterparts in general relativity (GR). We explore interesting features of these geometries, in particular, the physical properties and characteristics of these ‘exotic spacetimes’.

  4. Dynamic Rocker-Bogie: A Stability Enhancement for High-Speed Traversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-an Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The rocker-bogie suspension mechanism it’s currently NASA’s favored design for wheeled mobile robots, mainly because it has robust capabilities to deal with obstacles and because it uniformly distributes the payload over its 6 wheels at all times. Even though it has many advantages when dealing with obstacles, there is one major shortcoming which is its low average speed of operation, making the rocker-bogie system not suitable for situations where high-speed traversal over hard-flat surfaces is needed to cover large areas in short periods of time, mainly due to stability problems. This paper proposes to increase the stability of the rocker-bogie system by expanding its support polygon, making it more stable and adaptable while moving at high speed, but keeping its original robustness against obstacles: One rocker-bogie system, two modes of operation.

  5. Seasonal Atmospheric Argon Variability Measured in the Equatorial Region of Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers: Evidence for an Annual Argon-Enriched Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBommel, S. J.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (MER-B) has been exploring the surface of Mars since landing in 2004. Its Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is primarily used to interrogate the chemical composition of rocks and soil samples in situ. Additionally, the APXS has measured the atmosphere of Mars with a regular cadence, monitoring the change in relative atmospheric argon density. Atmospheric measurements with the MER-B APXS span over six Mars years providing an unprecedented level of statistics for careful study of the ubiquitous APXS spectral background. Several models were applied to high-frequency long-duration Spirit rover atmospheric APXS measurements. The most stable model with the least uncertainty was applied to the MER-B data set. Seasonal variation of 10-15% in equatorial atmospheric argon density was observed - in agreement with existing literature and global climate models. Unseen in previous work and global climate models, an abrupt deviation from the model-predicted annual mixing ratio was measured by the MER-B APXS around Ls 150. The sharp change, 10% over 10° Ls, provides strong evidence for a northward migrating front, enriched in argon, sourced from the south pole at the end of southern winter. A similar weaker front is possibly observed around Ls 325, sourced from the northern polar region.

  6. Self-sacrificial behavior and its explanation in terms of Max Scheler's concept of spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyushin, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    One of the key concepts of the German philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) is his concept of spirit. He understands spirit as one of several naturally functioning human mental agencies, such as consciousness, will, memory, etc. That is, he treats the mental agency of spirit in a scientific way and avoids any esoteric or religious connotations that this peculiar term may involve. The nature of human spirit, according to Scheler, is the ability to withstand and deliberately redirect biological imperatives and instinctive drives, up to the point of purposefully throwing away one's own life. The presence of spirit constitutes the essence of the human being that differentiates him qualitatively from all animals. In this article, I argue that it is human spirit that plays the determinative role in causing heroic and self-sacrificial behavior. I also argue that the individual human spirit experiences its inherent development, thus having several rather dissimilar stages and manifestations. I discuss the meaning that the term 'spirit' has in the English and the American philosophical and psychological traditions and the meaning of the corresponding term 'der Geist' in the German traditions. The specific English-language understanding of the term 'spirit', compared to its German counterpart 'der Geist', namely, less scientific and more religious and esoteric and metaphorical for the former, makes it alien and almost unusable in the English and American traditions. The linguistic difference leads to the misunderstanding of some very important ideas brought by the concept of spirit as introduced by Scheler. My purpose is to overcome this discrepancy and omission and to introduce the notion and the concept of spirit, in their scientific understanding, into the arsenal of modern English-language cognitive science, psychology, and philosophy in order to provide for the full explanatory force of the hitherto neglected concept of spirit.

  7. The role of photogeologic mapping in traverse planning: lessons learned from DRATS 2010 activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    We produced a 1:24,000 scale photogeologic map of the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 simulated lunar mission traverse area and surrounding environments located within the northeastern part of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. To mimic an exploratory mission, we approached the region "blindly" by rejecting prior knowledge or preconceived notions of the regional geologic setting and focused instead only on image and topographic base maps that were intended to be equivalent to pre-cursor mission "orbital returns". We used photogeologic mapping techniques equivalent to those employed during the construction of modern planetary geologic maps. Based on image and topographic base maps, we identified 4 surficial units (talus, channel, dissected, and plains units), 5 volcanic units (older cone, younger cone, older flow, younger flow, and block field units), and 5 basement units (grey-toned mottled, red-toned platy, red-toned layered, light-toned slabby, and light-toned layered units). Comparison of our remote-based map units with published field-based map units indicates that the two techniques yield pervasively similar results of contrasting detail, with higher accuracies linked to remote-based units that have high topographic relief and tonal contrast relative to adjacent units. We list key scientific questions that remained after photogeologic mapping and prior to DRATS activities and identify 13 specific observations that the crew and science team would need to make in order to address those questions and refine the interpreted geologic context. We translated potential observations into 62 recommended sites for visitation and observation during the mission traverse. The production and use of a mission-specific photogeologic map for DRATS 2010 activities resulted in strategic and tactical recommendations regarding observational context and hypothesis tracking over the course of an exploratory mission.

  8. Wind-driven particle mobility on Mars: Insights from Mars Exploration Rover observations at "El Dorado" and surroundings at Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J.F.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Thompson, S.; Whelley, P.; Wray, J.

    2008-01-01

    The ripple field known as 'El Dorado' was a unique stop on Spirit's traverse where dust-raising, active mafic sand ripples and larger inactive coarse-grained ripples interact, illuminating several long-standing issues of Martian dust mobility, sand mobility, and the origin of transverse aeolian ridges. Strong regional wind events endured by Spirit caused perceptible migration of ripple crests in deposits SSE of El Dorado, erasure of tracks in sandy areas, and changes to dust mantling the site. Localized thermal vortices swept across El Dorado, leaving paths of reduced dust but without perceptibly damaging nearly cohesionless sandy ripple crests. From orbit, winds responsible for frequently raising clay-sized dust into the atmosphere do not seem to significantly affect dunes composed of (more easily entrained) sand-sized particles, a long-standing paradox. This disparity between dust mobilization and sand mobilization on Mars is due largely to two factors: (1) dust occurs on the surface as fragile, low-density, sand-sized aggregates that are easily entrained and disrupted, compared with clay-sized air fall particles; and (2) induration of regolith is pervasive. Light-toned bed forms investigated at Gusev are coarse-grained ripples, an interpretation we propose for many of the smallest linear, light-toned bed forms of uncertain origin seen in high-resolution orbital images across Mars. On Earth, wind can organize bimodal or poorly sorted loose sediment into coarse-grained ripples. Coarse-grained ripples could be relatively common on Mars because development of durable, well-sorted sediments analogous to terrestrial aeolian quartz sand deposits is restricted by the lack of free quartz and limited hydraulic sediment processing. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Rover Radar for Surface Navigation, Hazard Detection and Negative Obstacle Avoidance, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Topic X1.03 NASA (JPL) is seeking to extend and implement long distance exploratory surface rover missions to gain knowledge of surface topology and roughness....

  10. Remote Under-Ice Roving in Alaska with the Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Leichty, J.; Klesh, A.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration (BRUIE) is two-wheeled robot capable of roving in two-dimensional space in the under-ice environment. The rover has positive buoyancy, allowing it to stick to the ice underside and operate using similar control principles as those used for traditional above-ground rovers. Recently added capability allows the rover to operate without a tether, communicating with a nearby above-ice ground station, which can relay data to a remote command center for remote operation. Additional upgrades include a dissolved methane sensor and improved capability for escape from entrapment in soft ice pockets. The system has been tested in thermokarst lakes near Barrow, Alaska, and data from onboard video and methane sensors gives scientific insight to the formation and distribution of trapped methane pockets in the lake ice. Here we present the updated design and preliminary data from deployments in the fall seasons of 2012 and 2013.

  11. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Determining best practices in reconnoitering sites for habitability potential on Mars using a semi-autonomous rover: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R.A.; Berger, J.; Cohen, B.A.; Hynek, B.; Schmidt, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    We tested science operations strategies developed for use in remote mobile spacecraft missions, to determine whether reconnoitering a site of potential habitability prior to in-depth study (a walkabout-first strategy) can be a more efficient use of time and resources than the linear approach commonly used by planetary rover missions. Two field teams studied a sedimentary sequence in Utah to assess habitability potential. At each site one team commanded a human “rover” to execute observations and conducted data analysis and made follow-on decisions based solely on those observations. Another team followed the same traverse using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Test results indicate that for a mission with goals similar to our field case, the walkabout-first strategy may save time and other mission resources, while improving science return. The approach enabled more informed choices and higher team confidence in choosing where to spend time and other consumable resources. The walkabout strategy may prove most efficient when many close sites must be triaged to a smaller subset for detailed study or sampling. This situation would arise when mission goals include finding, identifying, characterizing or sampling a specific material, feature or type of environment within a certain area. PMID:29307922

  13. Using panel data to determine the effect of advertising on brand-level distilled spirits sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gius, M P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect that brand-level advertising has on brand-level spirits demand. Using a panel data set consisting of 16 brands and 14 years of data, a fixed effects model of brand-level spirits demand was estimated. It was found that own-brand advertising, income, rival-brand price, a time trend and brand loyalty all have a significant effect on brand-level spirits demand. These results indicate that brand-level spirits advertising results only in brand switching and does not increase the overall size of the market.

  14. Gathering and Dispersing: The Absolute Spirit in Hegel’s Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vassilacopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the meaning and being of the absolute spirit in Hegelrsquo;s thought by reflecting through the idea that spirit is the activity and being of gathering through dispersal. In Hegelrsquo;s thought gathering and dispersing are the primary movements through which spirit engages in the processes of its absolute self-cognition, the processes, that is, that underpin the eternal becoming of communal being. Gathering and dispersing thus define the pulsating movement of the absolute spirit in all its facets

  15. Green waste from spirit; Gruener Abfall zu Sprit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heida, Lydia

    2013-05-15

    Bio MCN (Almere, The Netherlands) has built the largest factory of the world for the production of bio-methanol. This factory produces 250 million liter methanol annually from natural gas, green gas (from the fermentation of sugar beet residues) and crude glycerol. Crude glycerol arises from the biodiesel production. As part of the Wood Spirit Project, Bio MCN constructs an additional plant that converts 750,000 tons of wood waste to 250 million liters of methanol. The waste wood is chipped and converted to biochar by means of torrefaction. Biochar is pulverized and converted to synthesis gas. This synthesis gas is converted to methanol by means of a chemical catalyst.

  16. [Study of alcohol-soluble lignin in cognac spirits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarnitskiĭ, A F; Askenderov, K A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structure of alcohol-soluble lignin in cognac spirits from Spain (7-year aging) and Azerbaijan (15-year aging). Alcohol-soluble lignin was precipitated and refractionated by means of preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Lignin was studied by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lignin hydrolysis products were assayed by the method of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The structure of lignans was reconstructed from these fragments. Lignans from Spanish and Azeri alcohol were arbitrarily designated as sinapoconiferal triglycoside and glucoferulate flavone diglycoside, respectively.

  17. Project-Based Organizations and the New Spirit of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello’s analysis of recent changes in capitalism – Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme - is an important contribution to the sociological analysis of capitalism. The aim of this paper is to present their main argument. It is argued that a particular important aspect...... of their analysis is the ideal-typical model of the new spirit of capitalism, the ideological underpinning of project-based organizations in ‘The Project World’. It is argued that the ideal-typical model of the Project World is the most elaborated description of the ‘cultural code’ of the emergent form...

  18. Body, spirit and gender in Maria Komornicka’s poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lisowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns three significant concepts in Maria Komornicka’s writings: body, spirit and gender. The first two are closely related to each other, thus initial paragraphs are devoted to them both. On the basis of these reflections, I draw some conclusion about the image of gender created by the poet. The notion of gender is analysed in terms of Young Poland discourse of gender and from the perspective of modern methodologies: feminist criticism as well as gender and queer studies. This paper aims at encouraging the reader to reinterpret M. Komornicka’s output with contemporary awareness.

  19. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.

  20. Managerial Spirit from de Social Representations: Venezuelan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Borjas de Xena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to characterize the central and peripheral structures of the Social Representations (SR on Entrepreneurial Spirit (ES. The SR are ways of social thinking that include information, beliefs, attitudes, practices and experiences. This type of research is complementary. The methodology called for the analysis of content found in secondary literature and in depth interviews. The corpus includes 65 articles in the 2006-2009 period. The results showed that the anchorage of the SR in the Venezuelan context could be characterized as “highly” entrepreneur

  1. A Mars orbital laser altimeter for rover trafficability: Instrument concept and science potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Zuber, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    Limited information on the types of geologic hazards (boulders, troughs, craters etc.) that will affect rover trafficability on Mars are available for the two Viking Lander sites, and there are no prospects for increasing this knowledge base in the near future. None of the instrument payloads on the upcoming Mars Observer or Soviet PHOBOS missions can directly measure surface obstacles on the scales of concern for rover safety (a few meters). Candidate instruments for the Soviet Mars 92 orbiter/balloon/rover mission such as balloon-borne stereo imaging, rover panoramic imaging, and orbital synthetic aperature imaging (SAR) are under discussion, but data from this mission may not be available for target areas of interest for the U.S. Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission. In an effort to determine how to directly measure the topography of surface obstacles that could affect rover trafficability on Mars, we are studying how to design a laser altimeter with extremely high spatial and vertical resolution that would be suitable for a future Mars Orbiter spacecraft (MRSR precursor or MRSR orbiter). This report discusses some of the design issues associated with such an instrument, gives examples of laser altimeter data collected for Mars analog terrains on Earth, and outlines the scientific potential of data that could be obtained with the system.

  2. Architecture for Control of the K9 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, maria; Fair, Michael; Wright, Anne; Washington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Software featuring a multilevel architecture is used to control the hardware on the K9 Rover, which is a mobile robot used in research on robots for scientific exploration and autonomous operation in general. The software consists of five types of modules: Device Drivers - These modules, at the lowest level of the architecture, directly control motors, cameras, data buses, and other hardware devices. Resource Managers - Each of these modules controls several device drivers. Resource managers can be commanded by either a remote operator or the pilot or conditional-executive modules described below. Behaviors and Data Processors - These modules perform computations for such functions as planning paths, avoiding obstacles, visual tracking, and stereoscopy. These modules can be commanded only by the pilot. Pilot - The pilot receives a possibly complex command from the remote operator or the conditional executive, then decomposes the command into (1) more-specific commands to the resource managers and (2) requests for information from the behaviors and data processors. Conditional Executive - This highest-level module interprets a command plan sent by the remote operator, determines whether resources required for execution of the plan are available, monitors execution, and, if necessary, selects an alternate branch of the plan.

  3. Rover/NERVA-derived near-term nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    FY-92 accomplishments centered on conceptual design and analyses for 25, 50, and 75 K engines with emphasis on the 50 K engine. During the first period of performance, flow and energy balances were prepared for each of these configurations and thrust-to-weight values were estimated. A review of fuel technology and key data from the Rover/NERVA program established a baseline for proven reactor performance and areas of enhancement to meet near-term goals. Studies were performed of the criticality and temperature profiles for probable fuel and moderator loadings for the three engine sizes, with a more detailed analysis of the 50 K size. During the second period of performance, analyses of the 50 K engine continued. A chamber/nozzle contour was selected and heat transfer and fatigue analyses were performed for likely construction materials. Reactor analyses were performed to determine component radiation heating rates, reactor radiation fields, water immersion poisoning requirements, temperature limits for restartability, and a tie-tube thermal analysis. Finally, a brief assessment of key enabling technologies was made, with a view toward identifying development issues and identification of the critical path toward achieving engine qualification within 10 years.

  4. Crystal Water on Mars: Insights from the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to constrain the total water contents from crystal H2O and OH in several materials analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Crystal H2O is part of the unit cell and cannot be removed without changing the structure. Minerals that contain only OH in their structures are anhydrous minerals containing hydroxyls, although they are formed as a product of aqueous activity and will decompose with evolution of H2O when heated. The crystal water and OH contents of a bulk material at the MER landing sites can be estimated from mineralogical composition, which is determined by a combination of Fe-mineralogy obtained by the Mossbauer Spectrometer and mineral abundances based upon the chemical composition determined by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer. Jarosite, along with Ca- and Mg-sulfates, have been suggested as the sulfur-bearing phases in Meridiani Planum outcrop. Models of various hydration states of Fe-, Ca-, and Mg-sulfates and other possible secondary phases suggest that 6 to 22 wt.% of the outcrop may occur as crystal H2O and/or OH (Clark et al., 2005). This estimate of water is consistent with measurements from the Odyssey orbiter, where 7 % H2O-equivalent H was measured down to a depth of approximately 1 m for the region (Feldman et al., 2004).

  5. Design and operation of the Rover vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.; Griffith, D.L.; Rivera, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover process for recovering unused uranium from graphite fuels was operated during 1983 and 1984, and then shut down in 1984. The first steps of the process used fluidized alumina beds to burn away the graphite and produce a uranium bearing ash. The ash was then transferred to a different process cell for acid dissolution. At the time of shutdown, a significant, but unmeasureable, quantity of highly enriched uranium was left in the process vessels. Normal decontamination procedures could not be used due to plugged process lines and the exclusion of moderator materials (water or finely divided organic substances) for criticality safety. The presence of highly enriched uranium in poorly defined quantity and configuration led to concerns for criticality safety, nuclear materials accountability, and physical security. A project was established to eliminate these concerns by cleaning and/or removing the process vessels, piping, and cells and sending the recovered Uranium Bearing Material (UBM) to secure storage. A key element of this project was the design of a system for collecting and transporting dry solids to a location where they could be loaded into critically favorable storage cans

  6. Realization of Best-in-Class Workflows Using Open Spirit Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, K.

    2002-01-01

    Open Spirit is the realization of a long sought after dream to create an open systems approach to G and G computing. The focus is on developing a plug-and-play, platform independent, vendor neutral application framework to enable workflow optimization for the oil and gas industry. Through Open Spirit, Oil and gas clients can either develop or purchase Open Spirit enabled applications and combine those applications together to optimize a particular workflow. Currently Open Spirit supports GeoQuest's Geo Frame and Landmark's Open Works project data stores. There are three primary benefits to using Open Spirit enabled applications. Users of Open Spirit enabled applications can access data from a variety of data sources without having to move or reformat the data. This reduces the time to get the information into the appropriate application and eliminates the need to have multiple copies of the same data, simplifying data management efforts. Second, Open Spirit bridges the gap between Unix and PC applications. Through Open Spirit, any applications developed for the NT platform can access information residing in a Unix project data store. Third, Open Spirit supports the concept of a virtual project set. A user can combine any number project data stores (GeoFrame, Open Works, Finder, RECALL and PDS/Tigress) and use the combined project sets as if they were a single project. The data is not moved, but instead accessed dynamically through Open Spirit from the appropriate native data store. Open Spirit allows interpreters to develop their own Best-in-Class workflow and to mix and match the applications they determine to be the best of their interpretation teams independent of vendor

  7. Does price matter? The effect of decreased price on spirits consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meichun; Heeb, Jean-Luc; Gmel, Gerhard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-04-01

    On July 1st, 1999, the spirits market in Switzerland was reformed based on the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. The tax reform, in addition to increased competition, has resulted in a 30-50% decrease in price for foreign spirits (liquor). The purpose of the present study is to examine whether decreased prices due to the tax reform and the liberalized spirits market in Switzerland have had an effect on spirits consumption, and whether the effect differs by demographic and other correlates. The present study uses data from a longitudinal study on changes in alcohol consumption in Switzerland's resident population. The baseline survey was conducted 3 months before the tax reform and the follow-up was conducted 28 months after the tax reform. A randomly selected sample of 4007 residents aged 15 years or older participated in the baseline survey and 73% in the follow-up survey. The data were obtained by computer-assisted telephone interview, including detailed questions on alcohol consumption, drinking habits, problem drinking, purchase of spirits and socio-demographic characteristics. Consumption of spirits increased after the price of spirits decreased. The increase in spirits consumption was consistent across subgroups, with the exception of the group aged 60 or older. Moreover, the increase in spirits consumption persisted even after adjustment for significant correlates of spirits consumption. Apart from age, there was no evidence that the increase in spirits consumption differed between subgroups as defined by sex, region, working status, education, smoking, drinking frequency, or average number of drinks. The findings demonstrate that younger people are more affected by price than older persons. This study demonstrated that price should be considered an effective policy to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems, especially among the younger population.

  8. Study on a Suspension of a Planetary Exploration Rover to Improve Driving Performance During Overcoming Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    We-Sub Eom

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The planetary exploration rover executes various missions after moving to the target point in an unknown environment in the shortest distance. Such missions include the researches for geological and climatic conditions as well as the existence of water or living creatures. If there is any obstacle on the way, it is detected by such sensors as ultrasonic sensor, infrared light sensor, stereo vision, and laser ranger finder. After the obtained data is transferred to the main controller of the rover, decisions can be made to either overcome or avoid the obstacle on the way based on the operating algorithm of the rover. All the planetary exploration rovers which have been developed until now receive the information of the height or width of the obstacle from such sensors before analyzing it in order to find out whether it is possible to overcome the obstacle or not. If it is decided to be better to overcome the obstacle in terms of the operating safety and the electric consumption of the rover, it is generally made to overcome it. Therefore, for the purpose of carrying out the planetary exploration task, it is necessary to design the proper suspension system of the rover which enables it to safely overcome any obstacle on the way on the surface in any unknown environment. This study focuses on the design of the new double 4-bar linkage type of suspension system applied to the Korea Aerospace Research Institute rover (a tentatively name that is currently in the process of development by our institute in order to develop the planetary exploration rover which absolutely requires the capacity of overcoming any obstacle. Throughout this study, the negative moment which harms the capacity of the rover for overcoming an obstacle was induced through the dynamical modeling process for the rocker-bogie applied to the Mars exploration rover of the US and the improved version of rocker-bogie as well as the suggested double 4-bar linkage type of suspension

  9. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay... the hazards associated with fireworks displays and aircraft involved in the National Cherry Festival... Festival fireworks display and air show. At the close of the comment period, no comments were received in...

  10. The effects of in vitro exposure to white spirit on [Ca2+] in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, S.; Hass, Ulla; Ravn-Jonsen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Female rats were exposed to white spirit (400 and 800 ppm for 6 hr/day) at day 7-20 during pregnancy. Thirty-five days after birth all female offspring were sacrificed, the brains removed, and the synaptosomal fractions prepared for in vitro studies. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... using the FURA-2 technique. The results show that cytosolic calcium was increased in synaptosomes from rats exposed to white spirit prenatally compared to synaptosomes from unexposed rats. When synaptosomes were exposed to white spirit in vitro, the cytosolic calcium concentration changes were identical...... in all groups of rats. The membrane leakage measured as FURA-2 leakage from the synaptosomes identical in all three groups of animals. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to white spirit induces long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes in calcium homeostasis in the rat nervous system....

  11. [Investigation of new classification and repair methods for fingertip traverse amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Xu, Yajun; Rui, Yongjun; Yao, Qun

    2008-09-01

    To investigate new classification and repair methods for the traverse amputated fingertip. From March 2000 to October 2006, 20 cases of 20 fingers with traverse amputated fingertip, including 13 males and 7 females aged 17-47 years, were treated. Twenty patients (9 crush injuries, 5 cutting injuries and 6 sawing injuries) were classified into 4 types, namely type I (the distal one third of nail bed), type II (the middle of nail bed), type III (the proximal one third of nail bed), and type IV (the root of nail bed). There were 3 patients (2 index fingers and 1 little finger) of type I, 8 patients (2 thumbs, 3 index fingers and 3 middle fingers) of type II, 5 patients (3 index fingers, 1 ring finger and 1 little finger) of type III, and 4 patients (2 thumbs, 1 middle finger and 1 little finger) of type IV. The soft tissue defect ranged from 1.2 cm x 1.2 cm to 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm. The time from injury to surgery was 3-10 hours. Fingers of type I and type II were treated with forward flow axial flap and modified nail bed lengthening. Fingers of type III and type IV were treated with forward flow axial flap and partial nail bed replantation as well as modified nail bed lengthening. The flaps ranged in size from 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm to 2.0 cm x 1.4 cm. Twenty patients incisions healed by first intention and the flaps, nails and skin grafting survived. All donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up for 2-6 months (4 months on average). The appearances of fingertips were good. The texture of the flap was soft, and the fingers had no tenderness and motor disturbance. The two-point discrimination was 4.5-6.5 mm. The finger nails of type I and type II extended 3-4 mm after operation, while the finger nails of type III and type IV extended 8-10 mm after operation. All finger nails were smooth and flat without pain. Hook nail happened in 1 case 6 months after operation. Classification of the injured fingers according to the condition of the amputation base is

  12. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  13. 78 FR 38628 - Reclassification of Specially Denatured Spirits and Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... generally determined at the time the distilled spirits are withdrawn from the bonded premises of a distilled... industry, or for fuel, light, or power, except that, under 26 U.S.C. 5273(b), denatured spirits may not be....D.S.'' for purposes of this preamble). C.D.A. jeopardizes the revenue less than S.D.S. does--first...

  14. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy, possess, or sell, or transfer any imported...

  15. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which all...

  16. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax...

  17. 27 CFR 19.502 - Withdrawal of spirits on production or filling gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production or filling gauge. 19.502 Section 19.502 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Withdrawals General § 19.502 Withdrawal of spirits on production or filling gauge. When the production or filling gauge is made under the provisions of § 19.319(b), spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises...

  18. 27 CFR 19.682 - Receipt and gauge of returned taxpaid spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt and gauge of... Bonded Premises and Voluntary Destruction Returns § 19.682 Receipt and gauge of returned taxpaid spirits... bonded premises shall be immediately dumped. (b) Gauge. Spirits returned under § 19.681 shall be gauged...

  19. 27 CFR 30.52 - Procedure for measurement of cased spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits in cases shall be determined by multiplying the wine gallons by the proof (divided by 100). (Sec... spirits in a case is to be determined by volume, such determination shall be made by ascertaining the contents of one bottle in the case and multiplying that figure by the number of bottles in the case. For...

  20. 27 CFR 19.990 - Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. 19.990 Section 19.990 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Redistillation § 19.990 Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. (a) Receipts for redistillation. Proprietors of alcohol fuel plants may...

  1. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  2. 27 CFR 19.397 - Spirits not originally intended for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., originally intended for domestic use may be exported with benefit of drawback or without payment of tax if... intended for export. 19.397 Section 19.397 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX....397 Spirits not originally intended for export. Spirits manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles...

  3. 27 CFR 28.197 - Return of spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. 28.197 Section 28.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... spirits withdrawn for export with benefit of drawback. When notice is filed by an exporter as provided in... export with benefit of drawback as provided in § 28.171, but which spirits have not been laden for export...

  4. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  5. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    , but the neurophysiological tests showed adverse effects at this level. Fourth, neurophysiological methods may be more sensitive than histopathological, neurobehavioural and neurochemical methods. Overall, white spirit with a high and a low content of aromatics showed no overt difference in long-term effects in animals......Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content...

  6. Modeling and Simulation of the Dynamics of Dissipative, Inelastic Spheres with Applications to Planetary Rovers and Gravitational Billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Alexandre E.

    This dissertation provides a thorough treatment on the dynamic modeling and simulation of spherical objects, and its applications to planetary rovers and gravitational billiards. First, the equations governing the motion of a wind-driven spherical rover are developed, and a numerical procedure for their implementation is shown. Dynamic simulations (considering the Earth and Mars atmospheres) for several terrain types and conditions illustrate how a rover may maneuver across flat terrain, channels and craters. The effects of aerodynamic forces on the rover's motion is studied. The results show the wind force may both push and hinder the rover's motion while sliding, rolling and bouncing. The rover will periodically transition between these modes of movement when the rover impacts sloped surfaces. Combinations of rolling and bouncing may be a more effective means of transport for a rover traveling through a channel when compared to rolling alone. The aerodynamic effects, of drag and the Magnus force, are contributing factors to the possible capture of the rover by a crater. Next, a strategy is formulated for creating randomized Martian rock fields based on statistical models, where the rover's interactions with these fields are analyzed. Novel procedures for creating randomized Martian rock fields are presented, where optimization techniques allow terrain generation to coincide with the rover's motion. Efficient collision detection routines reduce the number of tests of potential collisions between the rover and the terrain while establishing new contact constraints. The procedures allow for the exploration of large regions of terrain while minimizing computational costs. Simulations demonstrate that bouncing is the rover's dominant mode of travel through the rock fields. Monte-Carlo simulations illustrate how the rover's down-range position depends on the rover design and atmospheric conditions. Moreover, the simulations verify the rover's capacity for long distance

  7. Mars Exploration Rover Navigation Camera in-flight calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, J.M.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Navigation Camera (Navcam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) spacecraft provide support for both tactical operations as well as scientific observations where color information is not necessary: large-scale morphology, atmospheric monitoring including cloud observations and dust devil movies, and context imaging for both the thermal emission spectrometer and the in situ instruments on the Instrument Deployment Device. The Navcams are a panchromatic stereoscopic imaging system built using identical charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors and nearly identical electronics boards as the other cameras on the MER spacecraft. Previous calibration efforts were primarily focused on providing a detailed geometric calibration in line with the principal function of the Navcams, to provide data for the MER navigation team. This paper provides a detailed description of a new Navcam calibration pipeline developed to provide an absolute radiometric calibration that we estimate to have an absolute accuracy of 10% and a relative precision of 2.5%. Our calibration pipeline includes steps to model and remove the bias offset, the dark current charge that accumulates in both the active and readout regions of the CCD, and the shutter smear. It also corrects pixel-to-pixel responsivity variations using flat-field images, and converts from raw instrument-corrected digital number values per second to units of radiance (W m-2 nm-1 sr-1), or to radiance factor (I/F). We also describe here the initial results of two applications where radiance-calibrated Navcam data provide unique information for surface photometric and atmospheric aerosol studies. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  9. An FMM based on dual tree traversal for many-core architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Yokota, Rio

    2013-09-01

    The present work attempts to integrate the independent efforts in the fast N-body community to create the fastest N-body library for many-core and heterogenous architectures. Focus is placed on low accuracy optimizations, in response to the recent interest to use FMM as a preconditioner for sparse linear solvers. A direct comparison with other state-of-the-art fast N-body codes demonstrates that orders of magnitude increase in performance can be achieved by careful selection of the optimal algorithm and low-level optimization of the code. The current N-body solver uses a fast multipole method with an efficient strategy for finding the list of cell-cell interactions by a dual tree traversal. A task-based threading model is used to maximize thread-level parallelism and intra-node load-balancing. In order to extract the full potential of the SIMD units on the latest CPUs, the inner kernels are optimized using AVX instructions.

  10. Variable-tension lightlike brane as a gravitational source of traversable Misner-Wheeler-type wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendelman, Eduardo [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, IL-84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il; Kaganovich, Alexander [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, IL-84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: alexk@bgu.ac.il; Nissimov, Emil [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko Chausee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: nissimov@inrne.bas.bg; Pacheva, Svetlana [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko Chausee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: svetlana@inrne.bas.bg

    2009-03-30

    Consistent Lagrangian description of variable-tension lightlike p-branes (LL-branes) is presented in two equivalent forms - a Polyakov-type formulation and a dual to it Nambu-Goto-type formulation. An important and non-standard characteristic feature of the LL-branes is that the brane tension appears as a non-trivial additional dynamical degree of freedom. We consider properties of p=2LL-brane dynamics (as a test brane) in D=4 Kerr or Kerr-Newman gravitational backgrounds in some detail. It is shown that the LL-brane automatically positions itself on the horizon and rotates along with the same angular velocity. Finally, we construct explicitly a traversable wormhole of Misner-Wheeler type based on a Reissner-Nordstroem geometry. This wormhole is constructed as a self-consistent solution of the electrically sourceless Einstein-Maxwell system in the D=4 bulk interacting with a LL-brane. The pertinent wormhole throat is located precisely at the LL-brane sitting on the outer Reissner-Nordstroem horizon with the Reissner-Nordstroem mass and charge being functions of the dynamical LL-brane tension.

  11. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  12. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Book Review: Gift & Giver: The Holy Spirit for Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Lathrop

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Craig Keener has established himself as a highly respected New Testament scholar. Over the years he has written a number of very significant commentaries including works on the gospels of Matthew and John, and the book of Acts. His highly acclaimed IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament is one of his best known works. In addition, he has produced books devoted to specific biblical topics such as miracles, women in marriage and ministry, and divorce and remarriage. He is not one to shy away from controversial subjects. In this present volume Keener writes about the Holy Spirit including the sometimes controversial charismatic aspects of His ministry. Gift & Giver was first published in theUnited States in 2001. More recently it has been translated into Indonesian and published inIndonesia.

  14. Behavioural characteristics of adulterated Premium Motor Spirit (PMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distillation profiles and chemical characteristics of ten suspected adulterated Premium Motor Spirit samples randomly collected from different dispensing points were analysed to determine the chemical characteristics of these samples when compared to a reference sample that is not adulterated. Results of the analyses show, Research Octane Number values ranged from 60.10 to 93.30, specific gravity ranged from 0.75 to 0.79, Reid Vapour Pressure ranged from 0.28 kgf/cm2 to 0.60 kgf/cm2 while Atmospheric distillation ranged from 189 to 251 °C. The results of this research reveal that most of the products are highly adulterated and may pose problems when sent to the market for intended end users.

  15. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs

  16. The Spirit counts - People at and around CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    After a few biographical remarks I shall concentrate on human aspects which are not covered by official documents, but which are as important to the success of CERN as scientific and technical competence. The approval of LEP, general problems of the project management and the approval of the LEP experiments under conditions never encountered before at CERN will be covered. The special spirit created at CERN based on the competence and solidarity of the CERN staff and its users made it possible to find new ways of successful international collaboration combining competition with cooperation. Career Summary Physics diploma and doctorate from Hamburg University, now Prof. emer.; research assistant at Stockholm Technical University (with Lise Meitner); Cavendish Laboratory UK (with O.R.Frisch); Cornell University (with R.R. Wilson); research in optics, nuclear and elementary particle physics. various professorships in Germany and director of university institutes; Director of DESY, Hamburg, 1973-1980...

  17. E and P integration via the OpenSpirit framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of inter-operability among a consortium of oil companies and E and P applications vendors was discussed. This paper describes the business problem including cost, cycle-time and efficiency and presents a solution. Benefits for applications developers will be single development environment for cross platform deployment; focus on value-added functionality instead of infrastructure; transparent access to widely-used data-stores; higher productivity and faster turnaround time to market. Application end-users will also benefit through elimination of the need to reformat due to cross platform and multi-vendor data access; utilization of Web browsers; integration with MS Office applications leveraging desk-top tools; lower purchase and integration cost of new applications. Strategic issues for application developers, and for oil companies, and competitive advantages of the E an P industry adopting OpenSpirit as the standard business object framework were also reviewed

  18. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas...... theme. METHODS: Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises...

  19. Negative Freedom as Politics of Spirit in Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Magno Veras Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present negative freedom as a moment of vitality in the formation of absolute freedom, represented by moral conscience, as a necessary process of realization in political representation based on Hegel’s Phenomenology of the Spirit. In the first moment, we will present the understanding of absolute freedom and the unfolding of its concept as universal will. In the second moment, we will discuss the conception of negative freedom as an experience of the French Revolution and its result as terror. The experience of negative freedom is understood as the possible means for the solution of contradiction, destruction, and death. These means originate from the political representation of the French Revolution. The hermeneutics presented leads to the positive exaltation of negative freedom as the way towards a possible solution of the problems inherent to a representation of absolute freedom as rational.

  20. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is necessary, and the effects of dependence can be both positive and negative depending on the relations between external entities and affected communities as well as the community capacity to absorb resources and information.