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Sample records for spiral knowledge approach

  1. A Learner-Centered Spiral Knowledge Approach to Teaching Isotope Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Aided by the insights I gained by participation in the Arizona Board of Regents Tri-University Collaboration on Learner-Centered Practice, I made major changes to a graduate course in isotope geology (GLG617), including: 1) implementation of a spiral knowledge approach (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004); 2) incorporation of more learner-centered in-class activities; and 3) more explicit emphasis on skills that I regarded as important for success in geochemistry. In the geosciences, the field of isotope geology is now an essential area of inquiry with implications for geologic timescales, climate information, tracing geochemical processes, and biological evolution, to name a few. The traditional approach to teaching isotope geology suffers from the fact that learning tends to be compartmentalized by technique/approach and one subfield (e.g., stable or radiogenic isotopes) is usually favored by appearing earlier in semester. To make learning more integrated, I employed a simplified spiral learning approach so that common principles could be revisited several times over the course of the semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental principles could be scaffolded into greater understanding. Other learner-centered changes to the course included more explicit emphasis on helping students become comfortable with interpreting data displayed graphically and explicit emphasis on helping students give and evaluate oral presentations that rely on isotope data. I also developed a detailed grading rubric for the final paper and allowed students to have a draft of their final papers evaluated and graded (guided by Huba and Freed, 2000) A number of cooperative learning activities developed specifically for this course (19 in all) enabled me to gain a better appreciation for students' learning. Activities included pair share, round-robin, small group explorations of techniques and case studies (sometimes as introduction to, sometimes as review of material

  2. Learning in 3D Virtual Environments: Collaboration and Knowledge Spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Brian G.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine if learning occurred within a 3D virtual learning environment by determining if elements of collaboration and Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) knowledge spiral were present. A key portion of this research was the creation of a Virtual Learning Environment. This 3D VLE utilized the Torque Game Engine…

  3. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...

  4. Unraveling the unsustainability spiral in sub-Saharan Africa: an agent based modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep A. van den Broek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is trapped in a complex unsustainability spiral with demographic, biophysical, technical and socio-political dimensions. Unravelling the spiral is vital to perceive which policy actions are needed to reverse it and initiate sustainable pro-poor growth. The article presents an evolutionary, multi-agent modelling framework that marries a socio-ecological approach to a world system perspective and takes agriculture as the engine for sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of possibilities for empirical validation are proposed.

  5. New approaches to characterizing and understanding biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.

    2012-06-01

    Historically, biofouling research on spiral wound membrane systems is typically problem solving oriented. Membrane modules are studied as black box systems, investigated by autopsies. Biofouling is not a simple process. Many factors influence each other in a non-linear fashion. These features make biofouling a subject which is not easy to study using a fundamental scientific approach. Nevertheless to solve or minimize the negative impacts of biofouling, a clear understanding of the interacting basic principles is needed. Recent research into microbiological characterizing of biofouling, small scale test units, application of in situ visualization methods, and model approaches allow such an integrated study of biofouling. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  6. Spiraling in Urban Streams: A Novel Approach to Link Geomorphic Structure with Ecosystem Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R. A.; Lafrenz, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the relationship between channel complexity and nutrient spiraling along several reaches of an urbanized watershed in Portland, Oregon. Much research points to the effect urbanization has on watershed hydrology and nutrient loading at the watershed scale for various sized catchments. However the flux of nutrients over short reaches within a stream channel has been less studied because of the effort and costs associated with fieldwork and subsequent laboratory analysis of both surface and hyporheic water samples. In this study we explore a novel approach at capturing connectivity though nutrient spiraling along several short reaches (less than 100-meter) within the highly urbanized Fanno Creek watershed (4400 hectares). We measure channel complexity-sinuosity, bed material texture, organic matter-and use these measurements to determine spatial autocorrelation of 50 reaches in Fanno Creek, a small, urban watershed in Portland, Oregon. Using ion-selective electrodes, the fluxes of nitrate and ammonia are measured within each reach, which when combined with channel geometry and velocity measurements allow us to transform the values of nitrate and ammonia fluxes into spiraling metrics. Along each sampled reach, we collected three surface water samples to characterize nutrient amounts at the upstream, midstream, and downstream position of the reach. Two additional water samples were taken from the left and right bank hyporheic zones at a depth just below the armor layer of the channel bed using mini-piezometers and a hand-pumped vacuum device, which we constructed for this purpose. Adjacent to the hyporheic samples soil cores were collected and analyzed for organic matter composition, bulk density, and texture. We hypothesize that spiral metrics will respond significantly to the measured channel complexity values and will be a more robust predictor of nutrient flux than land cover characteristics in the area draining to each reach

  7. Unraveling the unsustainability spiral in sub-Saharan Africa: an agent based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofwegen, van G.; Becx, G.A.; Broek, van den J.A.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is trapped in a complex unsustainability spiral with demographic, biophysical, technical and socio-political dimensions. Unravelling the spiral is vital to perceive which policy actions are needed to reverse it and initiate sustainable pro-poor growth. The article presents an

  8. The Role of I.T In the Context of Knowledge Spiral: Case Study of A Travel Agency in Natal - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Almeida Rodrigues Smilay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge connected to Information Technologies in the current demanding and disputed market is synonymous with competitive advantage, but this requires that the strategic people management acts in participation processes of employees. It was based on the idea that initially, knowledge arises from individuals, this research has the objective to analyze the conversions of knowledge within an travel agency through Information Technologies used, and it was used the model of Knowledge Spiral of Takeuchi e Nonaka. It was applied a questionnaire with employees of a travel agency's franchise in Natal / RN, with molded questions based on the conceptual processes of Knowledge Spiral. As a result it was found the participation of tool's IT in Socialization and Internalization conversion processes more highlighted than in Combination and Externalization conversion processes, however there is still a trend turn to traditional communication tools.

  9. New approach to the defibrillation problem: Suppression of the spiral wave activity of cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, A. Yu.; Vysotskiĭ, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A model of an excitable medium is considered for describing the development of fibrillation (i.e., spatiotemporal chaos) in cardiac tissue through the generation of a set of coexisting spiral waves. It is shown that a weak external point action on such a medium leads to the suppression of all spiral waves and, correspondingly, to the stabilization of the system dynamics. After reaching the regular regime, only the external source exists in the medium. The frequencies and amplitudes at which such stabilization occurs are determined. The case of the action of several point sources is considered. Analysis is performed using the Bray method to identify the number of spiral waves.

  10. A dynamic approach to identifying desired physiological phases for cardiac imaging using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vembar, M.; Garcia, M.J.; Heuscher, D.J.; Haberl, R.; Matthews, D.; Boehme, G.E.; Greenberg, N.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, we describe a quantitative technique to measure coronary motion, which can be correlated with cardiac image quality using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scanners. MSCT scanners, with subsecond scanning, thin-slice imaging (sub-millimeter) and volume scanning capabilities have paved the way for new clinical applications like noninvasive cardiac imaging. ECG-gated spiral CT using MSCT scanners has made it possible to scan the entire heart in a single breath-hold. The continuous data acquisition makes it possible for multiple phases to be reconstructed from a cardiac cycle. We measure the position and three-dimensional velocities of well-known landmarks along the proximal, mid, and distal regions of the major coronary arteries [left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), right coronary artery (RCA), and left circumflex (LCX)] during the cardiac cycle. A dynamic model (called the 'delay algorithm') is described which enables us to capture the same physiological phase or 'state' of the anatomy during the cardiac cycle as the instantaneous heart rate varies during the spiral scan. The coronary arteries are reconstructed from data obtained during different physiological cardiac phases and we correlate image quality of different parts of the coronary anatomy with phases at which minimum velocities occur. The motion characteristics varied depending on the artery, with the highest motion being observed for RCA. The phases with the lowest mean velocities provided the best visualization. Though more than one phase of relative minimum velocity was observed for each artery, the most consistent image quality was observed during mid-diastole ('diastasis') of the cardiac cycle and was judged to be superior to other reconstructed phases in 92% of the cases. In the process, we also investigated correlation between cardiac arterial states and other measures of motion, such as the left ventricular volume during a cardiac cycle, which earlier has been

  11. Logarithmic Spiral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anti-clockwise direction and we get a right-handed spiral. (Figure 2). We know that the derivative of eX is also eX. Various properties of logarithmic spiral depend on this property of eX. Properties of Logarithmic Spiral. 1. The most important property of a logarithmic spiral is that r (i.e. the distance from the origin) increases.

  12. An Innovative Approach to Encouraging Spiral Learning for Third-Year Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Anne; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of tutorials was re-designed to further engage students in spiral learning and highlight development of transferable skills. The tutorials focused on self-directed and enquiry-based learning, both of which provided particular challenges to students and staff. The students were randomly allocated a media article related to psychology as a…

  13. Spiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan

    1992-01-01

    From the tiny twisted biological molecules to the gargantuan curling arms of many galaxies, the physical world contains a startling repetition of spiral patterns. Today, researchers have a keen interest in identifying, measuring, and defining these patterns in scientific terms. Spirals play an important role in the growth processes of many biological forms and organisms. Also, through time, humans have imitated spiral motifs in their art forms, and invented new and unusual spirals which have no counterparts in the natural world. Therefore, one goal of this multiauthored book is to stress the c

  14. Log-Spiral Keypoint: A Robust Approach toward Image Patch Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangho Paek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Matching of keypoints across image patches forms the basis of computer vision applications, such as object detection, recognition, and tracking in real-world images. Most of keypoint methods are mainly used to match the high-resolution images, which always utilize an image pyramid for multiscale keypoint detection. In this paper, we propose a novel keypoint method to improve the matching performance of image patches with the low-resolution and small size. The location, scale, and orientation of keypoints are directly estimated from an original image patch using a Log-Spiral sampling pattern for keypoint detection without consideration of image pyramid. A Log-Spiral sampling pattern for keypoint description and two bit-generated functions are designed for generating a binary descriptor. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method is more effective and robust than existing binary-based methods for image patch matching.

  15. The Spiral Arm Segments of the Galaxy within 3 kpc from the Sun: A Statistical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griv, Evgeny [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Jiang, Ing-Guey [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road 101, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hou, Li-Gang, E-mail: griv@bgu.ac.il [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia-20, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    As can be reasonably expected, upcoming large-scale APOGEE, GAIA, GALAH, LAMOST, and WEAVE stellar spectroscopic surveys will yield rather noisy Galactic distributions of stars. In view of the possibility of employing these surveys, our aim is to present a statistical method to extract information about the spiral structure of the Galaxy from currently available data, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The model differs from previous works studying how objects are distributed in space in its calculation of the statistical significance of the hypothesis that some of the objects are actually concentrated in a spiral. A statistical analysis of the distribution of cold dust clumps within molecular clouds, H ii regions, Cepheid stars, and open clusters in the nearby Galactic disk within 3 kpc from the Sun is carried out. As an application of the method, we obtain distances between the Sun and the centers of the neighboring Sagittarius arm segment, the Orion arm segment in which the Sun is located, and the Perseus arm segment. Pitch angles of the logarithmic spiral segments and their widths are also estimated. The hypothesis that the collected objects accidentally form spirals is refuted with almost 100% statistical confidence. We show that these four independent distributions of young objects lead to essentially the same results. We also demonstrate that our newly deduced values of the mean distances and pitch angles for the segments are not too far from those found recently by Reid et al. using VLBI-based trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions.

  16. The Spiral Arm Segments of the Galaxy within 3 kpc from the Sun: A Statistical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hou, Li-Gang

    2017-01-01

    As can be reasonably expected, upcoming large-scale APOGEE, GAIA, GALAH, LAMOST, and WEAVE stellar spectroscopic surveys will yield rather noisy Galactic distributions of stars. In view of the possibility of employing these surveys, our aim is to present a statistical method to extract information about the spiral structure of the Galaxy from currently available data, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The model differs from previous works studying how objects are distributed in space in its calculation of the statistical significance of the hypothesis that some of the objects are actually concentrated in a spiral. A statistical analysis of the distribution of cold dust clumps within molecular clouds, H ii regions, Cepheid stars, and open clusters in the nearby Galactic disk within 3 kpc from the Sun is carried out. As an application of the method, we obtain distances between the Sun and the centers of the neighboring Sagittarius arm segment, the Orion arm segment in which the Sun is located, and the Perseus arm segment. Pitch angles of the logarithmic spiral segments and their widths are also estimated. The hypothesis that the collected objects accidentally form spirals is refuted with almost 100% statistical confidence. We show that these four independent distributions of young objects lead to essentially the same results. We also demonstrate that our newly deduced values of the mean distances and pitch angles for the segments are not too far from those found recently by Reid et al. using VLBI-based trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions.

  17. Spiral magnetism in the single-band Hubbard model: the Hartree-Fock and slave-boson approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshev, P A; Timirgazin, M A; Gilmutdinov, V F; Arzhnikov, A K; Irkhin, V Yu

    2015-11-11

    The ground-state magnetic phase diagram is investigated within the single-band Hubbard model for square and different cubic lattices. The results of employing the generalized non-correlated mean-field (Hartree-Fock) approximation and generalized slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein with correlation effects included are compared. We take into account commensurate ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and incommensurate (spiral) magnetic phases, as well as phase separation into magnetic phases of different types, which was often lacking in previous investigations. It is found that the spiral states and especially ferromagnetism are generally strongly suppressed up to non-realistically large Hubbard U by the correlation effects if nesting is absent and van Hove singularities are well away from the paramagnetic phase Fermi level. The magnetic phase separation plays an important role in the formation of magnetic states, the corresponding phase regions being especially wide in the vicinity of half-filling. The details of non-collinear and collinear magnetic ordering for different cubic lattices are discussed.

  18. 'Dialogue, review and reflect': A spiral of co-learning and co-research to surface knowledge on the right to health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stuttaford

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how participants of a Learning Network, comprising members of six civil society organisations and academics from four universities, understand and participate in a dialogical process of co-learning and knowledge generation about the right to health. First, we describe a co-research process that facilitates the surfacing of previously suppressed or undocumented knowledge on the right to health. Second, we explore how co-research captures and disseminates knowledge related to collective action undertaken by civil society organisations working towards translating the right to health into practice. While undertaking this exploration, we maintain an interest in an African appreciation of ‘collective’ knowledge. Through the dialogical process and spiral of reflection, power between the research partners has been shared and spaces for co-learning and co-research created. Subaltern knowledge on the right to health has been placed within a constellation of plural knowledges, rather than at the periphery. Surfacing ‘other’ knowledge on the right to health reflects the lived realities of people and assists in understanding how the right to health can be achieved in practice. Keywords: Health and human rights, participatory action research, co-learning, co-research, knowledge, South Africa

  19. Nuclear Knowledge Management: the IAEA Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, M.; De Grosbois, J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge in an organization is residing in people, processes and technology. Adequate awareness of their knowledge assets and of the risk of losing them is vital for safe and secure operations of nuclear installations. Senior managers understand this important linkage, and in the last years there is an increasing tendency in nuclear organizations to implement knowledge management strategies to ensure that the adequate and necessary knowledge is available at the right time, in the right place. Specific and advanced levels of knowledge are clearly required to achieve and maintain technical expertise, and experience must be developed and be available throughout the nuclear technology lifecycle. If a nuclear organization does not possess or have access to the required technical knowledge, a full understanding of the potential consequences of decisions and actions may not be possible, and safety, security and safeguards might be compromised. Effective decision making during design, licencing, procurement, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance, refurbishment, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities needs to be risk-informed and knowledge-driven. Nuclear technology is complex and brings with it inherent and unique risks that must be managed to acceptably low levels. Nuclear managers have a responsibility not only to establish adequate technical knowledge and experience in their nuclear organizations but also to maintain it. The consequences of failing to manage the organizations key knowledge assets can result in serious degradations or accidents. The IAEA Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) sub-programme was established more than 10 years ago to support Nuclear Organizations, at Member States request, in the implementation and dissemination of the NKM methodology, through the development of guidance and tools, and by providing knowledge management services and assistance. The paper will briefly present IAEA understanding of and approach to knowledge

  20. Approaches to Maintaining and Building Organisational Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juurmaa, Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Involvement of people is one of the most important enablers of successful KM; • KM focuses on organisational knowledge that is needed for achieving business goals; • Working culture and KM activities embedded in the ways of working are essential for management of organisational knowledge; • Formal KM approach is needed as well, and one of its objectives is to support informal KM activities; • For a successful management of organisational knowledge, KM related functions need to be identified and understood as one entity

  1. Spiraling into Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranton, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how technical and vocational learning may spiral into transformative learning. Transformative learning theory is reviewed and the learning tasks of critical theory are used to integrate various approaches to transformative learning. With this as a foundation, the article explores how transformative learning can be fostered in…

  2. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the potential human health and/or ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the ambient environment is one of the central challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and bio-effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. We used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near two wastewater treatment plants. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data was also mapped to the assembly models to statistically evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses. The prior knowledge approach was able reasonably hypothesize the biological impacts at one site but not the other. Chemicals most likely contributing to the observed biological responses were identified at each location. Despite limitations to the approach, knowledge assembly models have strong potential for associating chemical occurrence with potential biological effects and providing a foundation for hypothesis generation to guide research and/or monitoring efforts relat

  3. A lateral approach for screw repair in lag fashion of spiral third metacarpal and metatarsal medial condylar fractures in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis C R; Greet, Timothy R C; Bathe, Andrew P

    2009-08-01

    To describe a lateral approach for screw fixation in lag fashion of simple spiral medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpus/metatarsus (MC3/MT3). Case series. Thoroughbred racehorses (n=9). Nondisplaced medial MC3/MT3 condylar fractures (3 thoracic, 6 pelvic limbs), with mean length 126 mm (range, 91-151 mm) were repaired by internal fixation, under general anesthesia, using multiple 4.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion from the lateral aspect of the limb, using radiographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Horses were recovered from anesthesia in half-limb casts; 7 unassisted and 2 using a rope-recovery system. Horses had 2 months box rest, 1 month in-hand walking, and follow-up radiographic examination at 3 months. Horses recovered uneventfully from anesthesia. Five horses raced; 1 returned to training, was persistently lame, and was retired to stud; 2 were retired directly to stud; and 1 horse was lost to follow-up. MC3/MT3 medial condylar fractures were successfully repaired by screws inserted n lag fashion form the lateral aspect. Use of a lateral approach to medial condylar MC3/MT3 fractures allows screw insertion perpendicular to the fracture plane without interference with palmar/plantar soft tissue structures or from the splint bones. Although repair was performed under general anesthesia, the technique should be adaptable to application in standing horses.

  4. Learning about knowledge: A complex network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2006-01-01

    An approach to modeling knowledge acquisition in terms of walks along complex networks is described. Each subset of knowledge is represented as a node, and relations between such knowledge are expressed as edges. Two types of edges are considered, corresponding to free and conditional transitions. The latter case implies that a node can only be reached after visiting previously a set of nodes (the required conditions). The process of knowledge acquisition can then be simulated by considering the number of nodes visited as a single agent moves along the network, starting from its lowest layer. It is shown that hierarchical networks--i.e., networks composed of successive interconnected layers--are related to compositions of the prerequisite relationships between the nodes. In order to avoid deadlocks--i.e., unreachable nodes--the subnetwork in each layer is assumed to be a connected component. Several configurations of such hierarchical knowledge networks are simulated and the performance of the moving agent quantified in terms of the percentage of visited nodes after each movement. The Barabasi-Albert and random models are considered for the layer and interconnecting subnetworks. Although all subnetworks in each realization have the same number of nodes, several interconnectivities, defined by the average node degree of the interconnection networks, have been considered. Two visiting strategies are investigated: random choice among the existing edges and preferential choice to so far untracked edges. A series of interesting results are obtained, including the identification of a series of plateaus of knowledge stagnation in the case of the preferential movement strategy in the presence of conditional edges

  5. The spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibace, Roger; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2013-01-01

    ’s work with Bernard Kaplan on symbol formation is a primer on this idea. This paper examines the idea of spirality and develops the notion of dynamic coexistence that can clarify the issue of directionality of development; that is, what is the general trajectory or ground plan that development assumes....... Directionality is discussed in terms of the organism-in-environment unfolding over time as the unit of developmental analysis. Thinking on this issue has proceeded from the nature–nurture debates, to recognition of the interaction of external and internal processes, to transactions between the organism...

  6. A Design Thinking Approach to Teaching Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2008-01-01

    Pedagogies for knowledge management courses are still undeveloped. This Teaching Tip introduces a design thinking approach to teaching knowledge management. An induction model used to guide students' real-life projects for knowledge management is presented. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  8. The process of using knowledge: systemic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid BABII

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The notions of data, knowledge, information, their theoretical and practical importance are analyzed and interpreted. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of knowledge, on the need to update knowledge, to use knowledge optimally. It is proposed the “chain” of generating knowledge, using it, and the factors with impact on knowledge are enumerated. The material can be useful to practitioners, governors, students of all backgrounds, master students, and collaborators of scientific institutions.

  9. KNOWLEDGE HUB: SPIRAL MATRIX THINKING AS A COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP LEARNING IN ONE DRIVE AND WORD ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Валерьевна Комиссарова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the modification of the Knowledge Hub communicative technique of teaching English and other disciplines based on the OneDrive\\Word-online cloud service. Specific options for the organization of group work and individual activities are considered. The article highlights the advantage and the efficiency of teaching and learning by the BYOD (Bring Your Own Device mode. The paper includes examples of organizing of mass support of the study of the course of English for Business and Entrepreneurship (MOOC-Coursera and of information technology of the Humanities program in the computer class and relying on BYOD mobile Internet access of students.

  10. Knowledge representation an approach to artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bench-Capon, TJM

    1990-01-01

    Although many texts exist offering an introduction to artificial intelligence (AI), this book is unique in that it places an emphasis on knowledge representation (KR) concepts. It includes small-scale implementations in PROLOG to illustrate the major KR paradigms and their developments.****back cover copy:**Knowledge representation is at the heart of the artificial intelligence enterprise: anyone writing a program which seeks to work by encoding and manipulating knowledge needs to pay attention to the scheme whereby he will represent the knowledge, and to be aware of the consequences of the ch

  11. Approaching Knowledge Management through the Lens of the Knowledge Life Cycle: A Case Study Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlin, Julaine M.; Cennamo, Katherine S.

    2017-01-01

    More organizational leaders are recognizing that their greatest competitive advantage is the knowledge base of their employees and for organizations to thrive knowledge management (KM) systems need to be in place that encourage the natural interplay and flow of tacit and explicit knowledge. Approaching KM through the lens of the knowledge life…

  12. Information and Knowledge Management: Dimensions and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Though literature on information and knowledge management is vast, there is much confusion concerning the meaning of these terms. Hence, this article should give some orientation and work out the main aspects of information and knowledge management. Method: An author co-citation analysis, which identified the main dimensions of…

  13. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  14. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  15. The Spiral of Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galpin, Charlotte; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Media scholars have increasingly examined the effects of a negativity bias that applies to political news. In the ‘spiral of cynicism’, journalist preferences for negative news correspond to public demands for sensational news. We argue that this spiral of cynicism in EU news results in a ‘spiral...

  16. Knowledge-Based Approaches: Two cases of applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT.......Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT....

  17. New approach to knowledge and information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization. The Agency is authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. Also, applications of isotopes and nuclear power expanded rapidly during sixties of the 20th century. The output of the related scientific literature was increased by all achievements and developments. It was necessary to have an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge from these fields of science. With this goal International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established in 1970 from International Atomic Energy Agency as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS becomes a big technological and science information system with 127 Members (108 countries and 19 international organizations). Expert participation from countries spread over a wide range of technological capability and infrastructure availability allowed INIS to assimilate all useful innovations in information technology into the INIS work. Countries at different levels of technological development could derive benefits from the output products but most of members are developing countries, in which the major population and economic growth is expected. A critical problem for future development is need for non-fossil and clean (in ecological sense) energy. Probably nuclear energy is not the best and only solution but it is obvious that nuclear sources of energy as a major energy sources are important for the future energy systems. Also, energy source problems should be solved according to demands for sustainable development. Nuclear energy and all application of it, including nuclear and radiation techniques, are very important for such development. Application of all techniques of interest in different areas such as medicine, agriculture, water resource

  18. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2005-01-01

    structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply....... These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide...

  19. Knowledge Representation in Patient Safety Reporting: An Ontological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Chen; Yang Gong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The current development of patient safety reporting systems is criticized for loss of information and low data quality due to the lack of a uniformed domain knowledge base and text processing functionality. To improve patient safety reporting, the present paper suggests an ontological representation of patient safety knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a framework for constructing an ontological knowledge base of patient safety. The present paper describes our desig...

  20. A knowledge-based approach for recognition of handwritten Pitman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a knowledge-based approach for the recognition of PSL strokes. Information about location and the direction of the starting point and final point of strokes are considered the knowledge base for recognition of strokes. The work comprises preprocessing, determination of starting and final points, ...

  1. Knowledge-Centric Technical Support Organization (TSO) Using Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States of America, Process Oriented Knowledge Management (POKM) Model has been successfully implemented in most of Nuclear Power Plants. This approach has been introduced in Nuclear Knowledge Management program by the IAEA since 2011. Malaysia has involved in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) focusing the approach started in 2011. The main objective for Malaysian participation of this project is to support readiness in terms of nuclear technical knowledge by Technical Support Organization (TSO) for Nuclear Power Program. This project has focused on several nuclear technical areas which consist of Public Information (PI), Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA), Nuclear Reactor Technology (NRT), Plant and Prototype Development (PDC) and nuclear knowledge management. This paper articulates the detail POKM approach and project experience in implementing the approach at organizational level. (author)

  2. Enhancing the Teaching-Learning Process: A Knowledge Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusry, Mamta; Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need for knowledge management (KM) in the teaching-learning process in technical educational institutions (TEIs) in India, and to assert the impact of information technology (IT) based KM intervention in the teaching-learning process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the paper is…

  3. A System Theoretical Inspired Approach to Knowledge Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    student's knowledge construction, in the light of operative constructivism, inspired by the German sociologist N. Luhmann's system theoretical approach to epistemology. Taking observations as operations based on distinction and indication (selection) contingency becomes a fundamental condition in learning....... In the light of operative constructivism this is a paradox and a challenge for the Educational system....... consequences for ways of organising teaching, and thereby the educational systems approaches to aims, goals, requirements, learning media and tests. The paper invite the educational system to rethink the condition for knowledge construction. The consequence of the systems theoretical approach...

  4. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  5. Noninvasive coronary artery imaging by multislice spiral computed tomography. A novel approach for a retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Inoue Fumio

    2003-01-01

    Although the excellent spatial resolution of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) enables the coronary arteries to be visualized, its limited temporal resolution results in poor image reproducibility because of cardiac motion artifact (CMA) and hence limits its widespread clinical use. A novel retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction method has been developed to minimize CMA. In 88 consecutive patients, the scan data were reconstructed using 2 retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction methods. Method 1: the end of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the peak of the P wave on ECG, which corresponded to the end of the slow filling phase during diastole immediately before atrial contraction. Method 2 (conventional method): relative retrospective gating with 50% referred to the R-R interval was performed so that the beginning of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the halfway point between the R-R intervals of the heart cycle. The quality of the coronary artery images was evaluated according to the presence or absence of CMA. The assessment was applied to the left main coronary artery (LMCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD, segments no.6, no.7, and no.8), the left circumflex artery (LCx, segments no.11 and no.13) and the right coronary artery (RCA, segments no.1, no.2 and no.3). The first diagonal artery (no.9-1), the obtuse marginal artery (no.12-1), the posterior descending artery (no.4-PD), the atrioventricular node branch (no.4-AV) and the first right ventricular branch (RV) were also evaluated. Of the 88 patients, 85 were eligible for image evaluation. Method 1 allowed visualization of the major coronary arteries without CMA in the majority of patients. The left coronary artery (LCA) system (segments no.5-7, no.11 and no.13) and the proximal portion of the RCA were visualized in more than 94% of patients. Artifact-free visualization of the distal portion of the LAD (segment no.8) and RCA (no.4

  6. Mathematical knowledge in teaching of fraction concepts using diagrammatical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Palanisamy Kathir; Puteh, Marzita

    2017-05-01

    Teachers need various types of knowledge in order to deliver various fraction concepts at elementary level. In this paper, Balls' framework (2008) or, Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) is used as benchmark guideline. This paper investigates and explores component of MKT knowledge among eight experienced teachers of the primary school. Data was collected using paper pencil test, interview and video recording. This paper, narrowed to teacher's knowledge and their practices while teaching of various fractions concepts using diagrammatical approach in present of MKT. The data gathered from teachers were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. The results indicated that teachers lack various components of MKT knowledge as a proposal by various researchers and assumed that teaching as procedural more than enough due to lack of deep understanding of mathematics and the various types of MKT is not required due to the present of practices in the mathematics classroom.

  7. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2005-01-01

    . These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide......In dealing with the strategic issues within a manufacturing system, it is necessary to facilitate formulating the composing elements of a set of strategic manufacturing practices and activity patterns that will support an enterprise to reinforce and increase its competitive advantage...... structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply...

  8. Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    . The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper...... vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can...

  9. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  10. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  11. Individual, social, and cultural approaches to knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widen, Gunilla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Workplace knowledge sharing is a complex process and there are a large number of studies in the area. In this article three theoretical approaches in library and information science are used to discuss knowledge sharing in the workplace. The approaches are information behavior, social capital, and information culture, and they bring important insights that need to be considered from a holistic management point of view when it comes to knowledge sharing. The individual's relation to different levels of context is important, meaning both in relation to work roles, work tasks, situations, organizational structures, and culture. The frameworks also shed light on where and how knowledge sharing activities are present in the organization. From a knowledge management point of view, it is important to acknowledge that when knowledge is valued, there is also an awareness of the knowledge sharing activities. Also, in addition to more traditional views of context, the frameworks bring forward different views on context, such as time and space as contextual factors.

  12. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  13. Playing with partial knowledge in membrane systems: A logical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2006-01-01

    M. Cavaliere, R. Mardare. Playing with partial knowledge in membrane systems: A logical approach. In Proc. of the seventh Workshop on Membrane Computing - At the Crossroads of Cell Biology and Computation (WMC2006), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4361:279-297, Springer, 2006......M. Cavaliere, R. Mardare. Playing with partial knowledge in membrane systems: A logical approach. In Proc. of the seventh Workshop on Membrane Computing - At the Crossroads of Cell Biology and Computation (WMC2006), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4361:279-297, Springer, 2006...

  14. Spiral finned crucible pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemowidagdo, Arianto Leman; Tiwan, Widarto, Ardian, Aan

    2018-02-01

    Innovation on a crucible furnace to increase its efficiency in aluminum melting has been done. The innovation was a spiral finned crucible pot. The inclination of the spiral finned was vary of 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees. The spiral finned effects was determined from the performance test result. A crucible pot without fin was also tested as a control. The crucible pot was examined at the same process condition. The crucible pot with the inclined fin of 10 degrees gives an optimum performance. It gives effective heating rate so that more efficient in LPG consumption. Therefore it saves energy in the aluminum melting process.

  15. Wave-particle dualism of spiral waves dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, I V; Biktashev, V N

    2003-02-01

    We demonstrate and explain a wave-particle dualism of such classical macroscopic phenomena as spiral waves in active media. That means although spiral waves appear as nonlocal processes involving the whole medium, they respond to small perturbations as effectively localized entities. The dualism appears as an emergent property of a nonlinear field and is mathematically expressed in terms of the spiral waves response functions, which are essentially nonzero only in the vicinity of the spiral wave core. Knowledge of the response functions allows quantitatively accurate prediction of the spiral wave drift due to small perturbations of any nature, which makes them as fundamental characteristics for spiral waves as mass is for the condensed matter.

  16. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography in patients with Crohn's disease using a negative oral contrast material: initial results of a noninvasive imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Goritschnig, Toria; Doerfler, Otto; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Preidler, Klaus W.; Szolar, Dieter H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively define the role of multiplanar spiral CT enterography with a new negative oral contrast material for noninvasive assessment of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease. Thirty patients with established Crohn's disease prospectively underwent spiral CT enterography at 45-60 min after distension of the small bowel with 1400 ml of a negative oral contrast material (Mucofalk water enema). Spiral CT scans were obtained 50 s after administration of intravenous contrast material with the following parameters: 5-mm collimation; 7.5-mm/s table feed; and 3-mm reconstruction interval. The adequacy of bowel opacification, luminal distension, and the contribution of two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted imaging were assessed by two observers. Spiral CT imaging findings were compared with results of enteroclysis as well as endoscopic and histological findings in all patients. Spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk water enema was well tolerated in 29 of 30 patients. Findings on spiral CT enterography were comparable with those of barium studies in 25 of 30 patients, superior to those on barium studies in 4 patients, and inferior in 1 patient (p<0.05). The addition of multiplanar reformatted images to axial spiral CT scans significantly improved observers' confidence in image interpretation (p<0.05) but did not reveal additional abnormalities. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk excellently provides information in patients with Crohn's disease. This technique accurately depicts the level of small bowel obstruction and the extent of inflammatory small bowel disease and its extraluminal complications. (orig.)

  17. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies...... of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Apple’s iPhone, Dialog’s search system and Google......’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples...

  18. Time, knowledge, and the clash of civilisations: An Islamic approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... augment the excitement of modern civilizations.1 This paper examines the Islamic perspective of time and the allencompassing nature of its wisdom or knowledge (which is beyond the absolute restriction of time and space) and its approach to the clash of civilizations. The theoretical framework is Huntington's CoC-theory.

  19. Intelligent assembly time analysis, using a digital knowledge based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Y.; Curran, R.; Butterfield, J.; Burke, R.; Welch, B.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of effective time analysis methods fast and accurately in the era of digital manufacturing has become a significant challenge for aerospace manufacturers hoping to build and maintain a competitive advantage. This paper proposes a structure oriented, knowledge-based approach for

  20. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  1. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  2. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  3. Explanatory approach for evaluation of machine learning-induced knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorman, Milan; Verlic, M

    2009-01-01

    Progress in biomedical research has resulted in an explosive growth of data. Use of the world wide web for sharing data has opened up possibilities for exhaustive data mining analysis. Symbolic machine learning approaches used in data mining, especially ensemble approaches, produce large sets of patterns that need to be evaluated. Manual evaluation of all patterns by a human expert is almost impossible. We propose a new approach to the evaluation of machine learning-induced knowledge by introducing a pre-evaluation step. Pre-evaluation is the automatic evaluation of patterns obtained from the data mining phase, using text mining techniques and sentiment analysis. It is used as a filter for patterns according to the support found in online resources, such as publicly-available repositories of scientific papers and reports related to the problem. The domain expert can then more easily distinguish between patterns or rules that are potential candidates for new knowledge.

  4. Selection of Construction Methods: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ferrada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods’ selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  5. Selection of construction methods: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada, Ximena; Serpell, Alfredo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method' selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS) was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods' selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  6. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  7. Pediatrician's knowledge on the approach of functional constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Mario C.; Negrelle, Isadora Carolina Krueger; Webber, Karla Ulaf; Gosdal, Marjorie; Truppel, Sabine Krüger; Kusma, Solena Ziemer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297) randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. Results: The majority of the p...

  8. Semantic Approaches for Knowledge Discovery and Retrieval in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej

    This thesis discusses potential applications of semantics to the recent literaturebased informatics systems to facilitate knowledge discovery, hypothesis generation, and literature retrieval in the domain of biomedicine. The approaches presented herein make use of semantic information extracted f...... the user to define context of interest for a search. The peer reviewed research articles, included in the appendices, discuss further the details of the presented methods, case studies, and provide other related information....

  9. Knowledge Representation in Patient Safety Reporting: An Ontological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current development of patient safety reporting systems is criticized for loss of information and low data quality due to the lack of a uniformed domain knowledge base and text processing functionality. To improve patient safety reporting, the present paper suggests an ontological representation of patient safety knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a framework for constructing an ontological knowledge base of patient safety. The present paper describes our design, implementation, and evaluation of the ontology at its initial stage. Findings: We describe the design and initial outcomes of the ontology implementation. The evaluation results demonstrate the clinical validity of the ontology by a self-developed survey measurement. Research limitations: The proposed ontology was developed and evaluated using a small number of information sources. Presently, US data are used, but they are not essential for the ultimate structure of the ontology. Practical implications: The goal of improving patient safety can be aided through investigating patient safety reports and providing actionable knowledge to clinical practitioners. As such, constructing a domain specific ontology for patient safety reports serves as a cornerstone in information collection and text mining methods. Originality/value: The use of ontologies provides abstracted representation of semantic information and enables a wealth of applications in a reporting system. Therefore, constructing such a knowledge base is recognized as a high priority in health care.

  10. A systematic approach: optimization of healthcare operations with knowledge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Bali, Rajeev K; Gibbons, M Chris; Choi, J H James; Schaffer, Jonathan L

    2009-01-01

    Effective decision making is vital in all healthcare activities. While this decision making is typically complex and unstructured, it requires the decision maker to gather multispectral data and information in order to make an effective choice when faced with numerous options. Unstructured decision making in dynamic and complex environments is challenging and in almost every situation the decision maker is undoubtedly faced with information inferiority. The need for germane knowledge, pertinent information and relevant data are critical and hence the value of harnessing knowledge and embracing the tools, techniques, technologies and tactics of knowledge management are essential to ensuring efficiency and efficacy in the decision making process. The systematic approach and application of knowledge management (KM) principles and tools can provide the necessary foundation for improving the decision making processes in healthcare. A combination of Boyd's OODA Loop (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act) and the Intelligence Continuum provide an integrated, systematic and dynamic model for ensuring that the healthcare decision maker is always provided with the appropriate and necessary knowledge elements that will help to ensure that healthcare decision making process outcomes are optimized for maximal patient benefit. The example of orthopaedic operating room processes will illustrate the application of the integrated model to support effective decision making in the clinical environment.

  11. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  12. Knowledge-based biomedical word sense disambiguation: comparison of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Alan R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD algorithms attempt to select the proper sense of ambiguous terms in text. Resources like the UMLS provide a reference thesaurus to be used to annotate the biomedical literature. Statistical learning approaches have produced good results, but the size of the UMLS makes the production of training data infeasible to cover all the domain. Methods We present research on existing WSD approaches based on knowledge bases, which complement the studies performed on statistical learning. We compare four approaches which rely on the UMLS Metathesaurus as the source of knowledge. The first approach compares the overlap of the context of the ambiguous word to the candidate senses based on a representation built out of the definitions, synonyms and related terms. The second approach collects training data for each of the candidate senses to perform WSD based on queries built using monosemous synonyms and related terms. These queries are used to retrieve MEDLINE citations. Then, a machine learning approach is trained on this corpus. The third approach is a graph-based method which exploits the structure of the Metathesaurus network of relations to perform unsupervised WSD. This approach ranks nodes in the graph according to their relative structural importance. The last approach uses the semantic types assigned to the concepts in the Metathesaurus to perform WSD. The context of the ambiguous word and semantic types of the candidate concepts are mapped to Journal Descriptors. These mappings are compared to decide among the candidate concepts. Results are provided estimating accuracy of the different methods on the WSD test collection available from the NLM. Conclusions We have found that the last approach achieves better results compared to the other methods. The graph-based approach, using the structure of the Metathesaurus network to estimate the relevance of the Metathesaurus concepts, does not perform well

  13. The spinning ball spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  14. Quarkyonic Chiral Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Kojo; Hidaka, Y.; Pisarski, R.; McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    We argue the properties of confining dense quark matter, 'quarkyonic' matter, from the viewpoint of both bulk properties and excitation modes. After a brief review of confining aspects, the chiral breaking/restoration will be discussed. We argue that the strong infrared correlations induce the chiral spiral, i.e., the spatial modulation of the chiral condensate which breaks the chiral symmetry locally but restore it globally. The effective dimensional reduction takes place, allowing us to analyzing the system as 2D model in which several exact results can be explicitly derived. We also discuss the excitation spectra, both mesonic and baryonic ones, on the chiral spiral. (author)

  15. Quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods: approaching indigenous ecological knowledge heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Spoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the use of quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods to document and operationalize Indigenous ecological knowledge, using case studies from the Nepalese Himalaya and Great Basin. Both case studies applied results to natural and cultural resource management and interpretation for the public. These approaches attempt to reposition the interview subjects to serve as active contributors to the research and its outcomes. I argue that the study of any body of Indigenous knowledge requires a context-specific methodology and mutually agreed upon processes and outcomes. In the Nepalese Himalaya, I utilized linked quantitative and qualitative methods to understand how tourism influenced Sherpa place-based spiritual concepts, species, and landscape knowledge inside Sagarmatha (Mount Everest National Park and Buffer Zone. In this method, Sherpa collaborated in the development of the research questions, the design, and in the review of results. The research in the Great Basin employed collaborative qualitative methods to document Numic (Southern Paiute and Western Shoshone ecological knowledge of federal lands within their ancestral territory and attempted to piece together fragmented and contested histories of place. In this method, Numic peoples collaborated on the development of research questions and design; however they also conducted most of the interviews. In both cases, I selected particular suites of methods depending on the context and created forums for the translation of this information to applied outcomes. The methods were also improved and innovated through praxis.

  16. Text Mining approaches for automated literature knowledge extraction and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Angelo; Mulas, Francesca; Gabetta, Matteo; Arbustini, Eloisa; Zupan, Blaz; Larizza, Cristiana; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Due to the overwhelming volume of published scientific papers, information tools for automated literature analysis are essential to support current biomedical research. We have developed a knowledge extraction tool to help researcher in discovering useful information which can support their reasoning process. The tool is composed of a search engine based on Text Mining and Natural Language Processing techniques, and an analysis module which process the search results in order to build annotation similarity networks. We tested our approach on the available knowledge about the genetic mechanism of cardiac diseases, where the target is to find both known and possible hypothetical relations between specific candidate genes and the trait of interest. We show that the system i) is able to effectively retrieve medical concepts and genes and ii) plays a relevant role assisting researchers in the formulation and evaluation of novel literature-based hypotheses.

  17. Commonsense knowledge extraction for Persian language: A combinatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Putting human commonsense knowledge into computers has always been a long standing dream of artificial intelligence (AI. The cost of several tens of millions of dollars and times have been covered so that the computers could know about “objects falling, not rising.”,” running is faster than walking. The large database was built, automated and semi-automated methods were introduced and volunteers’ efforts were utilized to achieve this, but an automated, high-throughput and low-noise method for commonsense collection still remains as the holy grail of AI. The aim of this study was to build commonsense knowledge ontology using three approaches namely Hearst method, machine translation and using structured resources. Using three Persian corpuse and Applying aforementioned methods, we could extract 7 different relations. 70000 assertions have been extracted. Finally, average accuracy of Hearst, MT and structured resource were 75%, 75% and 100% respectively.

  18. A Phenomenological Approach to Practical Knowledge in Psychoterapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nilsson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many professions involving relational work as an essential component – such as nurses, social workers and psychotherapists – are currently challenged by a growing demand on so-called “evidence-based” methods. In the debate, professional practioners from these fields have repeatedly voiced the complaint that there are crucial aspects of knowledge involved in their professions that do not fit into this paradigm. Their Professional abilities, they claim, include a kind of knowledge that might not be “scientific” or “evidence-based”, but is still essential to what they do. This article will discuss how this “practical knowledge” can be approached using resourses from Heidegger’s phenomenological appropriation of Aristotle. 

  19. A Task-Driven Approach on Agile Knowledge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jörn; Sauer, Joachim

    Constant and unimpeded communication is an essential ingredient when it comes to successful software development projects. While manageable if the team is within shouting distance, it poses a considerable challenge in global software development (GSD) projects. In this chapter we explore how a lightweight knowledge transfer process can be established between distributed development teams. The leitmotif of the transfer process is a hands-on approach that values actual cooperation on tasks over lecturing the learning team. It introduces a set of practices that take tasks as a central means to both drive the knowledge transfer and to integrate it with the ongoing development process. The practical relevance of the described practices was successfully experienced in a case study.

  20. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined by the...

  1. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  2. Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi

    2018-01-01

    We study the transition of the number of spirals (called parastichy in the theory of phyllotaxis) within a Voronoi tiling for Archimedean spiral lattices. The transition of local parastichy numbers within a tiling is regarded as a transition at the base site point in a continuous family of tilings. This gives a natural description of the quasiperiodic structure of the grain boundaries. It is proved that the number of tiles in the grain boundaries are denominators of rational approximations of the argument (called the divergence angle) of the generator. The local parastichy numbers are non-decreasing functions of the plastochron parameter. The bifurcation diagram of local parastichy numbers has a Farey tree structure. We also prove Richards’ formula of spiral phyllotaxis in the case of Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings, and show that, if the divergence angle is a quadratic irrational number, then the shapes of tiles in the grain boundaries are close to rectangles. If the divergence angle is linearly equivalent to the golden section, then the shape of tiles in the grain boundaries is close to square.

  3. Properties of spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1989-10-01

    The present thesis deals with the calculation and the study of the application possibilities of single and double spiral resonators. The main aim was the development and the construction of reliable and effective high-power spiral resonators for the UNILAC of the GSI in Darmstadt and the H - -injector for the storage ring HERA of DESY in Hamburg. After the presentation of the construction and the properties of spiral resonators and their description by oscillating-circuit models the theoretical foundations of the bunching are presented and some examples of a rebuncher and debuncher and their influence on the longitudinal particle dynamics are shown. After the description of the characteristic accelerator quantities by means of an oscillating-circuit model and the theory of an inhomogeneous λ/4 line it is shown, how the resonance frequency and the efficiency of single and double spiral resonators can be calculated from the geometrical quantities of the structure. In the following the dependence of the maximal reachable resonator voltage in dependence on the gap width and the surface of the drift tubes is studied. Furthermore the high-power resonators are presented, which were built for the different applications for the GSI in Darmstadt, DESY in Hamburg, and for the FOM Institute in Amsterdam. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. A knowledge discovery in databases approach for industrial microgrid planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Montero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    microgrid development could be considered a step forward towards more sustainable manufacturing processes if planning engineers are capable to design a power supply system, not only focused on historical demand data, but also on manufacturing and environmental data. The challenge is to develop a more...... sustainable and proactive microgrid which allows identifying, designing and developing energy efficiency strategies at supply, management and energy use levels. In this context, the expansion of Internet of Things and Knowledge Discovery in Databases techniques will drive changes in current microgrid planning...... processes. In this paper, technical literature is reviewed and this innovative approach to microgrid planning is introduced....

  5. A structural informatics approach to mine kinase knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, Natasja; Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, Rajiah A; Feyfant, Eric; Diller, David; Bikker, Jack; Humblet, Christine

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a combination of structural informatics approaches developed to mine data extracted from existing structure knowledge bases (Protein Data Bank and the GVK database) with a focus on kinase ATP-binding site data. In contrast to existing systems that retrieve and analyze protein structures, our techniques are centered on a database of ligand-bound geometries in relation to residues lining the binding site and transparent access to ligand-based SAR data. We illustrate the systems in the context of the Abelson kinase and related inhibitor structures. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lessons learned about art-based approaches for disseminating knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Anne; Makaroff, Kara L Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Beuthin, Rosanne; Molzahn, Anita; Shermak, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    To present a case example of using an arts-based approach and the development of an art exhibit to disseminate research findings from a narrative research study. Once a study has been completed, the final step of dissemination of findings is crucial. In this paper, we explore the benefits of bringing nursing research into public spaces using an arts-based approach. Findings from a qualitative narrative study exploring experiences of living with life-threatening illnesses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants living with cancer, chronic renal disease, or HIV/AIDS. Participants were invited to share a symbol representing their experience of living with life-threatening illness and the meaning it held for them. The exhibit conveyed experiences of how people story and re-story their lives when living with chronic kidney disease, cancer or HIV. Photographic images of symbolic representations of study participants' experiences and poetic narratives from their stories were exhibited in a public art gallery. The theoretical underpinning of arts-based approaches and the lessons learned in creating an art exhibit from research findings are explored. Creative art forms for research and disseminating knowledge offer new ways of understanding and knowing that are under-used in nursing. Arts-based approaches make visible patients' experiences that are often left unarticulated or hidden. Creative dissemination approaches such as art exhibits can promote insight and new ways of knowing that communicate nursing research to both public and professional audiences.

  7. Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge focuses on the cognitive approaches, methodologies, principles, and concepts involved in the communication of knowledge. The publication first elaborates on knowledge communication systems, basic issues, and tutorial dialogues. Concerns cover natural reasoning and tutorial dialogues, shift from local strategies to multiple mental models, domain knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, implicit versus explicit encoding of knowledge, knowledge communication, and practical and theoretic

  8. Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Putra, M. J.; Widodo, A.; Sopandi, W.

    2017-09-01

    The integrated approach refers to the stages of pupils’ psychological development. Unfortunately, the competences which are designed into the curriculum is not appropriate with the child development. This Manuscript presents PCK (pedagogical content knowledge) of teachers who teach science content utilizing an integrated approach. The data has been collected by using CoRe, PaP-eR, and interviews from six elementary teachers who teach science. The paper informs that high and stable teacher PCKs have an impact on how teachers present integrated teaching. Because it is influenced by the selection of important content that must be submitted to the students, the depth of the content, the reasons for choosing the teaching procedures and some other things. So for teachers to be able to integrate teaching, they should have a balanced PCK.

  9. Citation analysis: A social and dynamic approach to knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    other and thereby indicating kinds of relatedness and semantic distance. It is therefore important to view bibliometric techniques as a family of approaches to KO in order to illustrate their relative strengths and weaknesses. The subfield of bibliometrics concerned with citation analysis forms...... a distinct approach to KO which is characterized by its social, historical and dynamic nature, its close dependence on scholarly literature and its explicit kind of literary warrant. The two main methods, co-citation analysis and bibliographic coupling represent different things and thus neither can...... be considered superior for all purposes. The main difference between traditional knowledge organization systems (KOSs) and maps based on citation analysis is that the first group represents intellectual KOSs, whereas the second represents social KOSs. For this reason bibliometric maps cannot be expected ever...

  10. Assessment of anatomical knowledge: Approaches taken by higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Freemont, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Assessment serves the primary function of determining a student's competence in a subject. Several different assessment formats are available for assessing anatomical skills, knowledge and understanding and, as assessment can drive learning, a careful selection of assessments can help to engender the correct deep learning facility required of the safe clinical practitioner. The aim of this review was to survey the published literature to see whether higher education institutions are taking an andragogical approach to assessment. Five databases (EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge) were searched using standardized search terms with two limits applied (English language, and 2000 to the present). Among the 2,094 papers found, 32 were deemed suitable for this review. Current literature on assessment can be categorized into the following themes: assessment driven learning, types of assessments, frequency of assessments, and use of images in assessments. The consensus is to use a variety of methods, written and practical, to assess anatomical knowledge and skill in different domains. Institutions aim for different levels of Bloom's taxonomy for students at similar stages of their medical degree. Formative assessments are used widely, in differing formats, with mostly good effects on the final examination grade. In conclusion, a wide variety of assessments, each aimed at a different level of Bloom's taxonomy, are used by different institutions. Clin. Anat. 30:290-299, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. ABOUT ONE APPROACH OF TESTING GEOMETRICAL KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM BUILDING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lvov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to testing system building of procedural geometric knowledge, i.e. knowledge of basic computational formulas and skills to use them. This approach consists in constructing the mathematical models for each academic module in Geometry. The main constructing objects are the templates of tests which represent mathematical models of tests set in general terms. Template of similar tests class is represented by a geometric drawing, formula-correlations system binding the elements of the drawing, by templates of test conditions and template of response. Each such template is used both in generating algorithms of similar specific tests’ plurality and algorithms of automatic validation of responses’ correctness. The proposed method makes it possible to describe a relatively simple class of specific tests. An important feature of the system is the ability to automatically check not only the final answer, but the intermediate answer formulas. For the implementation of the testing system is necessary to use methods of computer algebra and algebraic programming technology.

  12. Managing knowledge business intelligence: A cognitive analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, Herison; Ta'a, Azman

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze integration of Knowledge Management (KM) and Business Intelligence (BI) in order to achieve competitive edge in context of intellectual capital. Methodology includes review of literatures and analyzes the interviews data from managers in corporate sector and models established by different authors. BI technologies have strong association with process of KM for attaining competitive advantage. KM have strong influence from human and social factors and turn them to the most valuable assets with efficient system run under BI tactics and technologies. However, the term of predictive analytics is based on the field of BI. Extracting tacit knowledge is a big challenge to be used as a new source for BI to use in analyzing. The advanced approach of the analytic methods that address the diversity of data corpus - structured and unstructured - required a cognitive approach to provide estimative results and to yield actionable descriptive, predictive and prescriptive results. This is a big challenge nowadays, and this paper aims to elaborate detail in this initial work.

  13. Origin choice and petal loss in the flower garden of spiral wave tip trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A; Wikswo, John P; Otani, Niels F

    2009-09-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in numerous biological and physical systems. These spiral waves can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves. The spatiotemporal behavior of spiral waves has been extensively quantified by tracking spiral wave tip trajectories. However, the precise methodology of identifying the spiral wave tip and its influence on the specific patterns of behavior remains a largely unexplored topic of research. Here we use a two-state variable FitzHugh-Nagumo model to simulate stationary and meandering spiral waves and examine the spatiotemporal representation of the system's state variables in both the real (i.e., physical) and state spaces. We show that mapping between these two spaces provides a method to demarcate the spiral wave tip as the center of rotation of the solution to the underlying nonlinear partial differential equations. This approach leads to the simplest tip trajectories by eliminating portions resulting from the rotational component of the spiral wave.

  14. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  15. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  16. Network-based approaches to climate knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budich, Reinhard; Nyberg, Per; Weigel, Tobias

    2011-11-01

    Climate Knowledge Discovery Workshop; Hamburg, Germany, 30 March to 1 April 2011 Do complex networks combined with semantic Web technologies offer the next generation of solutions in climate science? To address this question, a first Climate Knowledge Discovery (CKD) Workshop, hosted by the German Climate Computing Center (Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ)), brought together climate and computer scientists from major American and European laboratories, data centers, and universities, as well as representatives from industry, the broader academic community, and the semantic Web communities. The participants, representing six countries, were concerned with large-scale Earth system modeling and computational data analysis. The motivation for the meeting was the growing problem that climate scientists generate data faster than it can be interpreted and the need to prepare for further exponential data increases. Current analysis approaches are focused primarily on traditional methods, which are best suited for large-scale phenomena and coarse-resolution data sets. The workshop focused on the open discussion of ideas and technologies to provide the next generation of solutions to cope with the increasing data volumes in climate science.

  17. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  18. Semiotics and Knowledge Management (KM) : A theoretical and empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarbaini, Larissa; Jorna, Rene J.

    Knowledge Management (KM) concerns the study of knowledge in organizations. Knowledge sharing, use, storage, support, and knowledge creation are components of KM. The (short) history of KM shows that the theoretical foundations of KM require completion. In this article, a perspective on KM is

  19. Analysis of Knowledge Management Trend by Bibliometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu-Hao Tsai; Jiann-Min Yang

    2010-01-01

    The analysis is mainly concentrating on the knowledge management literatures productivity trend which subjects as "knowledge management" in SSCI database. The purpose what the analysis will propose is to summarize the trend information for knowledge management researchers since core knowledge will be concentrated in core categories. The result indicated that the literature productivity which topic as "knowledge management" is still increasing extremely and will demonstrat...

  20. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  1. Three phase spiral liver Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyanja, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perform rapid back-to-back spiral acquisitions is an important recent technical advantage of spiral CT. this allows imaging of the upper abdomen (liver) during peak arterial enhancement (arterial phase) and during peak hepatic parenchymal enhancement (portal venous phase). Breatheld spiral CT has completely replaced dynamic incremental CT for evaluation of the liver. in selected patients with hyper vascular metastasis (hepatoma, neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) a biphasic examination is performed with one spiral acquisition obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and a second acquisition during the portal venous phase

  2. APPLIED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL DESIGN FIRMS: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Donin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is the new strategic imperative of organizations. The ability to manage knowledge is a crucial part of any organizations operational processes. The creation and diffusion of knowledge have become ever more important factors in competitiveness. This paper investigates the Knowledge Management and flow information and in small design firms. It is divided into three main parts. The first part of this paper describes the importance of Knowledge Management for organizations are described together with responsibilities needed to ensure successful Knowledge Management implementations and the Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation conception. The second part approaches literature available about process and organizational structure and information flow related to Brazilian design firms. Finally, this paper presents a case study of small design office of Civil Engineering identifying organizational process, verifying the types of communication practices and identifying the types of dynamic process of The Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation, KM strategy and dynamic through Knowledge Transfer.

  3. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2008-05-01

    To pursue the investigation of a new territory of nuclei with extreme N/Z called ``terra incognita'' several projects, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under discussions worldwide. In Europe, two major new projects have been approved recently FAIRatGSI using the so-called ``in-flight'' method and SPIRAL2atGANIL, based on the ISOL method. Both projects were selected in the European Strategic Roadmap For research Infrastructures (ESFRI). The main goal of SPIRAL2 is clearly to extend our knowledge of the limit of existence and the structure of nuclei deeply in the medium and heavy mass region (A = 60 to 140) which is to day an almost unexplored continent. SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting driver LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities for exotic species in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, of the order of 106 to 1010 pps will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100 μA to 1 mA), heavier ions up to Ar at 14 MeV/n producing also proton rich exotic nuclei. In applied areas SPIRAL2 is considered as a powerful variable energy neutron source, a must to study the impact of nuclear fission and fusion on materials. The intensities of these unstable species are excellent opportunities for new tracers and diagnostics either for solid state, material or for radiobiological science and medicine. The ``Go'' decision has been taken in May 2005. The investments and personnel costs amount to 190 M€, for the construction period 2006-2012. Construction of the SPIRAL2 facility is shared by ten French laboratories and a network of international partners. Under the 7FP program of European Union

  4. Bridging the PSI Knowledge Gap: A Multi-Scale Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-08

    Plasma-surface interactions (PSI) pose an immense scientific hurdle in magnetic confinement fusion and our present understanding of PSI in confinement environments is highly inadequate; indeed, a recent Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee report found that 4 out of the 5 top five fusion knowledge gaps were related to PSI. The time is appropriate to develop a concentrated and synergistic science effort that would expand, exploit and integrate the wealth of laboratory ion-beam and plasma research, as well as exciting new computational tools, towards the goal of bridging the PSI knowledge gap. This effort would broadly advance plasma and material sciences, while providing critical knowledge towards progress in fusion PSI. This project involves the development of a Science Center focused on a new approach to PSI science; an approach that both exploits access to state-of-the-art PSI experiments and modeling, as well as confinement devices. The organizing principle is to develop synergistic experimental and modeling tools that treat the truly coupled multi-scale aspect of the PSI issues in confinement devices. This is motivated by the simple observation that while typical lab experiments and models allow independent manipulation of controlling variables, the confinement PSI environment is essentially self-determined with few outside controls. This means that processes that may be treated independently in laboratory experiments, because they involve vastly different physical and time scales, will now affect one another in the confinement environment. Also, lab experiments cannot simultaneously match all exposure conditions found in confinement devices typically forcing a linear extrapolation of lab results. At the same time programmatic limitations prevent confinement experiments alone from answering many key PSI questions. The resolution to this problem is to usefully exploit access to PSI science in lab devices, while retooling our thinking from a linear and de

  5. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  6. From Knowledge Theory to Management Practice: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minsoo; Holden, Tony; Schmidt, Ruth A.

    2001-01-01

    Critically contrasts the three main schools of thought on knowledge and assesses the resulting implications for knowledge management. Presents a conceptual model to integrate theoretical and practical themes to serve as a framework for developing a future research agenda for the development of knowledge management business tools and applications.…

  7. Providing Knowledge Recommendations: An Approach for Informal Electronic Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The use of Web 2.0 technologies for knowledge management is invading the corporate sphere. The Web 2.0 is the most adopted knowledge transfer tool within knowledge intensive firms and is starting to be used for mentoring. This paper presents IM-TAG, a Web 2.0 tool, based on semantic technologies, for informal mentoring. The tool offers…

  8. A Knowledge-Intensive Approach to Computer Vision Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink-Ketelaars, N.J.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the modelling of knowledge-intensive computer vision tasks. Knowledge-intensive tasks are tasks that require a high level of expert knowledge to be performed successfully. Such tasks are generally performed by a task expert. Task experts have a lot of experience in performing

  9. Comments on H. Arp 'The persistent problem of spiral galaxies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1987-04-01

    In his paper 'The persistent problem of Spiral Galaxies' H. Arp criticises the standard theory of spiral galaxies and demonstrates that introduction of plasma theory is necessary in order to understand the structure of spiral galaxies. In the present paper arguments are given in support of Arp's theory and suggestions are made how Arp's ideas should be developed. An important result of Arp's new approach is that there is no convincing argument for the belief that there is a 'missing mass'. This is important from a cosmological point of view. (author)

  10. Pediatrician's knowledge on the approach of functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mario C; Negrelle, Isadora Carolina Krueger; Webber, Karla Ulaf; Gosdal, Marjorie; Truppel, Sabine Krüger; Kusma, Solena Ziemer

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297) randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. The majority of the participants were females, the mean age was 44.1 years, the mean time of professional practice was 18.8 years; 56.9% were Board Certified by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Additional tests were ordered by 40.4%; including abdominal radiography (19.5%), barium enema (10.4%), laboratory tests (9.8%), abdominal ultrasound (6.7%), colonoscopy (2.4%), manometry and rectal biopsy (both 1.7%). The most common interventions included lactulose (26.6%), mineral oil (17.5%), polyethylene glycol (14.5%), fiber supplement (9.1%) and milk of magnesia (5.4%). Nutritional guidance (84.8%), fecal disimpaction (17.2%) and toilet training (19.5%) were also indicated. Our results show that pediatricians do not adhere to current recommendations for the management of childhood functional constipation, as unnecessary tests were ordered and the first-line treatment was not prescribed. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. Pediatrician's knowledge on the approach of functional constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario C. Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297 randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. Results: The majority of the participants were females, the mean age was 44.1 years, the mean time of professional practice was 18.8 years; 56.9% were Board Certified by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Additional tests were ordered by 40.4%; including abdominal radiography (19.5%, barium enema (10.4%, laboratory tests (9.8%, abdominal ultrasound (6.7%, colonoscopy (2.4%, manometry and rectal biopsy (both 1.7%. The most common interventions included lactulose (26.6%, mineral oil (17.5%, polyethylene glycol (14.5%, fiber supplement (9.1% and milk of magnesia (5.4%. Nutritional guidance (84.8%, fecal disimpaction (17.2% and toilet training (19.5% were also indicated. Conclusions: Our results show that pediatricians do not adhere to current recommendations for the management of childhood functional constipation, as unnecessary tests were ordered and the first-line treatment was not prescribed.

  12. A Practical Approach to Constructing a Knowledge Graph for Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyberattack forms are complex and varied, and the detection and prediction of dynamic types of attack are always challenging tasks. Research on knowledge graphs is becoming increasingly mature in many fields. At present, it is very significant that certain scholars have combined the concept of the knowledge graph with cybersecurity in order to construct a cybersecurity knowledge base. This paper presents a cybersecurity knowledge base and deduction rules based on a quintuple model. Using machine learning, we extract entities and build ontology to obtain a cybersecurity knowledge base. New rules are then deduced by calculating formulas and using the path-ranking algorithm. The Stanford named entity recognizer (NER is also used to train an extractor to extract useful information. Experimental results show that the Stanford NER provides many features and the useGazettes parameter may be used to train a recognizer in the cybersecurity domain in preparation for future work. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Knowledge graph, Knowledge deduction

  13. The perfect shape spiral stories

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This book uses the spiral shape as a key to a multitude of strange and seemingly disparate stories about art, nature, science, mathematics, and the human endeavour. In a way, the book is itself organized as a spiral, with almost disconnected chapters circling around and closing in on the common theme. A particular strength of the book is its extremely cross-disciplinary nature - everything is fun, and everything is connected! At the same time, the author puts great emphasis on mathematical and scientific correctness, in contrast, perhaps, with some earlier books on spirals. Subjects include the mathematical properties of spirals, sea shells, sun flowers, Greek architecture, air ships, the history of mathematics, spiral galaxies, the anatomy of the human hand, the art of prehistoric Europe, Alfred Hitchcock, and spider webs, to name a few.

  14. Approaching socio-technical issues in Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Islas Sedano, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the connection between technology, knowledge management and knowledge communication theory from a process perspective. Knowledge management and knowledge communication processes are examined through the iterations in creating project goals and objectives which connect the social...... context with a mobile phone technology.  The data comes from a Project Management course in which the students were asked to design and plan projects to situate SciMyst, a mobile phone game, in the social context around a museum in Helsinki.  The paper traces the evolution of students' project goals...

  15. Knowledge engineering in volcanology: Practical claims and general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichny, Cyril A.

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge engineering, being a branch of artificial intelligence, offers a variety of methods for elicitation and structuring of knowledge in a given domain. Only a few of them (ontologies and semantic nets, event/probability trees, Bayesian belief networks and event bushes) are known to volcanologists. Meanwhile, the tasks faced by volcanology and the solutions found so far favor a much wider application of knowledge engineering, especially tools for handling dynamic knowledge. This raises some fundamental logical and mathematical problems and requires an organizational effort, but may strongly improve panel discussions, enhance decision support, optimize physical modeling and support scientific collaboration.

  16. A QUALITY SPIRAL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRATIELA DANA BOCA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Management of technology is crucial for all of us. It involves dealing with technical issues across a broad spectrum of functional areas. Recent innovations in the form of total quality management, reengineering work process, flexible manufacturing system have one thing in common serving the customer well thought improved operational efficiency. For instant Total Quality Management advocates emphasize the importance of achieving greater quality and flexibility at lower cost and waste. Technology is forcing organizations to become more competitive at every instance there are innovations taking place. The rapid development of models or prototypes may largely reduce the development cost and the product development cycle. In addition, they can be used in test markets prior to the entry of the product in the final production and commercialization stage. Since it is based on technological changes or improvements, the development of such models or prototypes is usually conducted by technologist, who has no regard for the cost of such a development.

  17. Constructing three emotion knowledge tests from the invariant measurement approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Delgado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM. Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation. Methods Three EK tests—emotion vocabulary (EV, close emotional situations (CES and far emotional situations (FES—were constructed and tested with the RM in a community sample of 100 females and 100 males (age range: 18–65, both separately and conjointly. Results It was corroborated that data-RM fit was sufficient. Then, the effect of type of test and emotion on Rasch-modelled item difficulty was tested. Significant effects of emotion on EK item difficulty were found, but the only statistically significant difference was that between “happiness” and the remaining emotions; neither type of test, nor interaction effects on EK item difficulty were statistically significant. The testing of gender differences was carried out after corroborating that differential item functioning (DIF would not be a plausible alternative hypothesis for the results. No statistically significant sex-related differences were found out in EV, CES, FES, or total EK. However, the sign of d indicate that female participants were consistently better than male ones, a result that will be of interest for future meta-analyses. Discussion The three EK tests are ready to be used as components of a higher-level measurement process.

  18. A new integrated approach for the transfer of knowledge | Lazanas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using these findings, cognitive training can be designed so that novice engineers may gain the mental structures needed to convert electrical engineering information into usable knowledge. This could represent a new way for knowledge transfer in the 21st century. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.

  19. Application of knowledge-based approaches in software architecture : A systematic mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zengyang; Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris

    Context: Knowledge management technologies have been employed across software engineering activities for more than two decades. Knowledge-based approaches can be used to facilitate software architecting activities (e.g., architectural evaluation). However, there is no comprehensive understanding on

  20. Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ling Shih

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants‟ community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka‟s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

  1. Managing nuclear knowledge: A SCK-CEN concern: Status of a practical knowledge management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyssen, M.L.; Moons, F.; Borgermans, P.

    2004-01-01

    Preserving and enhancing the institutional memory has become a strategic concern for SCK-CEN. Managing the Knowledge Capital is a long term journey, starting from a strategic commitment and integrating various operational projects. Since 2002, several pilot projects in different areas of expertise have been conducted to set up nuclear knowledge repositories and to sustain interactive research communities. Beyond the establishment of a corporate knowledge sharing culture, dedicated web-based portals based on both well established and emerging open source internet technologies ensure the long term persistence of data and the continuous capture of knowledge by providing on-line tools and related QA procedures. (author)

  2. A Comparative Assessment of Knowledge Management Leadership Approaches within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP APPROACHES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP APPROACHES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering...KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP APPROACHES WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Tommy V. S. Marshall II, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  3. Hurricane Spiral Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Thomas A.; Schubert, Wayne H.

    1993-10-01

    The spiral bands that occur in tropical cyclones can be conveniently divided into two classes-outer bands and inner bands. Evidence is presented here that the outer bands form as the result of nonlinear effects during the breakdown of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) through barotropic instability. In this process a zonal strip of high potential vorticity (the ITCZ shear zone or monsoon trough) begins to distort in a varicose fashion, with the potential vorticity (PV) becoming pooled in local regions that are connected by filaments of high PV. As the pooled regions become more axisymmetric, the filaments become thinner and begin to wrap around the PV centers.It is argued that inner bands form in a different manner. As a tropical cyclone intensifies due to latent heat release, the PV field becomes nearly circular with the highest values of PV in the cyclone center. The radial gradient of PV provides a state on which PV waves (the generalization of Rossby waves) can propagate. The nonlinear breaking of PV waves then leads to an irreversible distortion of the PV contours and a downgradient flux of PV. The continuation of this proem tends to erode the high PV core of the tropical cyclone, to produce a surrounding surf zone, and hence to spread the PV horizontally. In a similar fashion, inner bands can also form by the merger of a vortex with a patch of relatively high PV air. As the merger proem occurs the patch of PV is quickly elongated and wrapped around the vortex. The resulting vortex is generally larger in horizontal extent and exhibits a spiral band of PV.When the formation of outer and inner bands is interpreted in the context of a normal-mode spectral model, they emerge as slow manifold phenomena; that is, they have both rotational and (balanced or slaved) gravitational mode aspects. In this sense, regarding them as simply gravity waves leads to an incomplete dynamical picture.

  4. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    enough to describe the multiple levels of the task as well as the interaction among these levels. There are some practical problems with the treatment ...used by Appelt, McDonald, and McKeown, the process is simplified by the uniform treatment of knowledge. This knowledge is, however, restricted to the... borra un archivo? UC: Para borrar el archivo de nombre filename del espacio de trabajo, se escribe ’rm filename’. User: How do I delete all the

  5. Condensed and Updated Version of the Systematic Approach Meteorological Knowledge Base Western North Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Lester

    1997-01-01

    The meteorological knowledge base for the Systematic and Integrated Approach to Tropical Cydone Track Forecasting proposed by Carr and Elsberry has evolved as additional research has been completed...

  6. Approaching multidimensional forms of knowledge through Personal Meaning Mapping in science integrating teaching outside the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bolling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    knowledge dimensions is important, especially in science teaching outside the classroom, where “hands-on” approaches and experiments are often part of teaching and require procedural knowledge, among other things. Therefore, this study investigates PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions...... and the subcategories of knowledge within these dimensions as well as metacognitive self-knowledge. However, as a method for identifying and activating procedural knowledge, it seems limited. Our analysis thus provides a novel understanding of the rigor of PMM for analysing students’ science knowledge, which...

  7. Nuclear Knowledge Management in Vietnam: Challenges and Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In Vietnam, nuclear knowledge in general, and in particular in relation to nuclear power remains weak, since training and human resource development in this area have not received adequate attention. In August 18, 2010 the Prime Minister issued the decision 1558 approving the scheme for “Training and development of human resources in the field of atomic energy”. Then, on 10/15/2015 The Prime Minister issued the decision 1756 approving a Plan for the training and retraining of state management personnel, research and development, and technical support to serve nuclear power development till 2020. To implement the training and development of human resources, the organization in the field of atomic energy has planned to conduct recruitment, training and development of human resources. Thus Vietnam has a policy and plan for the development of nuclear knowledge. However, knowledge management has yet to be thoroughly implemented. At Government level there are no specific policy decisions on knowledge management. Level implementation units have not implemented the scientific step, the switch serving the knowledge management. This is one of the main reasons why the development of human resources in the field of atomic energy has been slow. (author

  8. Knowledge Perspectives of New Product Development A Comparative Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias; Dossani, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) is about the ideation, formulation, and implementation of new and superior solutions in the market. Beyond the obvious need for organizations to innovate in order to compete, embedded in any NPD program are knowledge, technological expertise, and the social networks that convert these capabilities into offerings that create value at every level—for customers, industries, communities, and regions.    This volume provides an array of knowledge perspective in NPD across multiple levels of analysis and geographic regions, including Europe, the United States, China, Japan, and India, to explore the dynamics of NPD in today’s global environment.   Presenting case studies from such industries as ICT services, semiconductors, software development, bio-technology, higher education, and even safety for children’s toys, and drawing from a variety of theoretical perspectives, including technology and knowledge management, sociology, economic geography, and organizational behavior, ...

  9. Intermediation in Open Development: A Knowledge Stewardship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. A. Reilly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open Development (OD is a subset of ICT4D that studies the potential of IT-enabled openness to support social change among poor or marginalized populations. Early OD work examined the potential of IT-enabled openness to decentralize power and enable public engagement by disintermediating knowledge production and dissemination. However, in practice, intermediaries have emerged to facilitate open data and related knowledge production activities in development processes. We identify five models of intermediation in OD work: decentralized, arterial, ecosystem, bridging, and communities of practice and examine the implications of each for stewardship of open processes. We conclude that studying OD through these five forms of intermediation is a productive way of understanding whether and how different patterns of knowledge stewardship influence development outcomes. We also offer suggestions for future research that can improve our understanding of how to sustain openness, facilitate public engagement, and ensure that intermediation contributes to open development.

  10. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  11. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  12. Spiral inlets for steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  13. A Knowledge Engineering Approach to Develop Domain Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hongyan; Xu, Jianliang; Xiong, Jing; Wei, Moji

    2011-01-01

    Ontologies are one of the most popular and widespread means of knowledge representation and reuse. A few research groups have proposed a series of methodologies for developing their own standard ontologies. However, because this ontological construction concerns special fields, there is no standard method to build domain ontology. In this paper,…

  14. Methodology Is Content: Indigenous Approaches to Research and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2017-01-01

    There has been extensive work in the space of Indigenous epistemological approaches to research. Because Australian Indigenous peoples have been researched significantly, there are guidelines around the ethical and cultural conduct of this type of research. Via investigating the Academy's approach to research in general, we can illuminate the vast…

  15. Bridging Knowledge: A Collective Undergraduate Thesis Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Jason K.; Arun, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    While there are various approaches to gerontological and geriatrics (and social sciences) education globally, a component commonly included in undergraduate education is a final thesis project. In Turkey, the Department of Gerontology at Akdeniz University has undertaken a unique approach to thesis development that values and draws on accessing…

  16. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  17. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  18. Knowledge Base of Mathematics Teacher Educators: A Goals-Knowledge-Practice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovsky, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Critical analysis of the literature reveals that many questions about the knowledge and practice of mathematics teacher educators (MTEs) remain in need of further research: how do they know what to teach; how do they learn how to teach teachers; how do they prepare to teach their courses; how does the research on teacher education inform their…

  19. Transferring Codified Knowledge: Socio-Technical versus Top-Down Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Gustavo; Trivelato, Luiz F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse and evaluate the transfer process of codified knowledge (CK) performed under two different approaches: the "socio-technical" and the "top-down". It is argued that the socio-technical approach supports the transfer of CK better than the top-down approach. Design/methodology/approach: Case study methodology was…

  20. A Learning Organization approach for Knowledge Management at Jupiter Design.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Timothy John

    2006-01-01

    This report has been carried out by a student studying for the degree of a Masters in Business Administration at Nottingham University Business School. The focus of the report is to suggest a knowledge management framework for the client Jupiter Design Limited. Jupiter has experienced considerable success and growth over recent years, evolving from a relatively small but well respected design agency into one of the largest agencies operating outside of London. Due to an expanding clie...

  1. A knowledge-driven approach to biomedical document conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Tao; Borchert, Charles; Jiang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Biomedical document conceptualization is the process of clustering biomedical documents based on ontology-represented domain knowledge. The result of this process is the representation of the biomedical documents by a set of key concepts and their relationships. Most of clustering methods cluster documents based on invariant domain knowledge. The objective of this work is to develop an effective method to cluster biomedical documents based on various user-specified ontologies, so that users can exploit the concept structures of documents more effectively. We develop a flexible framework to allow users to specify the knowledge bases, in the form of ontologies. Based on the user-specified ontologies, we develop a key concept induction algorithm, which uses latent semantic analysis to identify key concepts and cluster documents. A corpus-related ontology generation algorithm is developed to generate the concept structures of documents. Based on two biomedical datasets, we evaluate the proposed method and five other clustering algorithms. The clustering results of the proposed method outperform the five other algorithms, in terms of key concept identification. With respect to the first biomedical dataset, our method has the F-measure values 0.7294 and 0.5294 based on the MeSH ontology and gene ontology (GO), respectively. With respect to the second biomedical dataset, our method has the F-measure values 0.6751 and 0.6746 based on the MeSH ontology and GO, respectively. Both results outperforms the five other algorithms in terms of F-measure. Based on the MeSH ontology and GO, the generated corpus-related ontologies show informative conceptual structures. The proposed method enables users to specify the domain knowledge to exploit the conceptual structures of biomedical document collections. In addition, the proposed method is able to extract the key concepts and cluster the documents with a relatively high precision. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Business Process Management – A Traditional Approach Versus a Knowledge Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.

  3. A Qualitative Approach to Examining Knowledge Sharing in Iran Tax Administration Reform Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shami Zanjanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine knowledge sharing infrastructure of "Iran Tax Administration Reform Program". The qualitative approach by using case study method was applied in this research. In order to meet the research goal, four infrastructural dimensions of knowledge sharing were studied: leadership & strategy, culture, structure, and information technology. To the authors’ knowledge, this was maybe the first paper which examined knowledge sharing infrastructure in programs environment

  4. Presenting Knowledge Management Implementation Model with Fuzzy Approach in Information Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of modern sciences and more competitive becoming environment in the technology era, knowledge management is being counted as one of the most important stable competitive advantages of technology oriented organizations. This matter is of higher importance in high technology organizations, especially those active in information technology field due to their unique identity. This way, knowledge management has been already shifted to one of the most important priorities of such organizations that in case of not identifying, applying, recording and creating that knowledge, the organization is inevitable to pay fortunesto revive the knowledge gone. The purpose of this research is presenting a comprehensive knowledge management implementation model in information technology industry. Therefore, the measures of the suggested research’s model were identified by studying identical researches and projects done in knowledge management and information technology sector and also through consultation with the experts. This way, a questionnaire was designed in two parts and distributed among experts in the understudied organizations. The research’s data were analyzed through T Test and Binomial Test through fuzzy approach due to the constraints presented by the Lickert scale. The research findings demonstrate that the stages of knowledge management implementation model in information technology sector include knowledge evaluation, knowledge leverage, knowledge planning, knowledge culture, knowledge strategies, knowledge management processes, suitable knowledge infrastructures, knowledge organization and knowledge presentation. There also exist actions in each stage that effect successful implementation of the mentioned stages.

  5. Regional HIV knowledge hubs: a new approach by the health sector to transform knowledge into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Riedner, Gabriele; Weis, Peter; Kloss, Kristina; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to introduce the knowledge hub (KH) as an initiative to facilitate transformation of knowledge into practice and to highlight the activity and limitations with this new policy. The study was conducted through a review of articles; expert views in this field were sought for further information. Regional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) KHs were developed by the World Health Organization and GTZ. A series of activities including capacity building, development of training models, technical assistance, and application of studies are provided through these hubs. However, financial limitations are the main obstacle in achieving these aims. This piece of work introduces these HIV hubs in order to help countries, particularly developing countries, provide the support needed to fight the progression of HIV.

  6. How Structure Shapes Dynamics: Knowledge Development in Wikipedia - A Network Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halatchliyski, Iassen; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base. PMID:25365319

  7. How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia--a network multilevel modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iassen Halatchliyski

    Full Text Available Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base.

  8. The challenges of knowledge sharing in practice a social approach

    CERN Document Server

    Widen-Wulff, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    Addresses the key skills that are required in organisations in the information intensive society. The book examines the power of information behaviour on the construction of different kinds of shared knowledge and social identity in a group. An introduction to the different dimensions of social capital that is structural and cognitive, and looks at the relational aspects of information behaviour in organisations. Experiences are analysed in two different case studies - in the financial and biotechnology industries - in order to gain additional insights in how the internal organisation environm

  9. Innovative Approaches to Knowledge Management in EDF Energy Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.; Robinson, P.; Roberts, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Organizational learning is a key discipline in the safe, sustainable operation of civil nuclear fleet. In order to have an effective organizational learning culture a free flow of information is required. To facilitate this free flow of information and ideas EDF Energy Nuclear Generation created the concept of the Organizational Learning Portal (OLP). The OLP was created to remove existing barriers to knowledge sharing and allow easy exchange of information and ideas. To transfer existing data from legacy systems onto the OLP required a considerable effort, to ensure that information and knowledge was preserved and available to recall easily for future use. The OLP, was designed using the latest ‘App’ design to promote accessibility, in line with contemporary information portals and applications sites to ensure a positive and intuitive user journey. A key operational use of the OLP is for accelerated learning, after significant events, e.g., reactor Trips or SCRAM. Additional functionality within the OLP allows implementation of video OPEX and cataloguing of information sources. The OLP was recognized in the 2015 Operational and Safety Assessment Readiness Team as a Best Practice. (author

  10. Fault detection and reliability, knowledge based and other approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.G.; Hindi, K.S.; Tzafestas, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings are split up into four major parts in order to reflect the most significant aspects of reliability and fault detection as viewed at present. The first part deals with knowledge-based systems and comprises eleven contributions from leading experts in the field. The emphasis here is primarily on the use of artificial intelligence, expert systems and other knowledge-based systems for fault detection and reliability. The second part is devoted to fault detection of technological systems and comprises thirteen contributions dealing with applications of fault detection techniques to various technological systems such as gas networks, electric power systems, nuclear reactors and assembly cells. The third part of the proceedings, which consists of seven contributions, treats robust, fault tolerant and intelligent controllers and covers methodological issues as well as several applications ranging from nuclear power plants to industrial robots to steel grinding. The fourth part treats fault tolerant digital techniques and comprises five contributions. Two papers, one on reactor noise analysis, the other on reactor control system design, are indexed separately. (author)

  11. An integrative algorithmic approach towards knowledge discovery by bioinformatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alako Tadontsop, F.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe different approaches aiding in the utilization of the exponentially growing amount of information available in the life sciences. Briefly, we address two issues in molecular biology, on sequence analysis, and on text mining. The former issue addresses the problem how to

  12. An integrative algorithmic approach towards knowledge discovery by bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Alako Tadontsop, F.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe different approaches aiding in the utilization of the exponentially growing amount of information available in the life sciences. Briefly, we address two issues in molecular biology, on sequence analysis, and on text mining. The former issue addresses the problem how to determine remote sequence homology especially when the sequence similarity is very low. For this a visualisation tool is introduced that combines sequence alignment, domain prediction and phylogeny. ...

  13. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  14. Spiraling down the river continuum: stream ecology and the U-shaped curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson R. Webster

    2007-01-01

    The spiraling concept provides an explicit approach to modeling the longitudinal linkages within a river continuum. I developed a spiraling-based model for particulate organic C dynamics in the Little Tennessee River to synthesize existing data and to illustrate our current understanding of ecosystem processes in river ecosystems. The Little Tennessee River is a medium...

  15. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  16. Nuclear safety based on nuclear knowledge - A Romanian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Popescu, D.

    2007-01-01

    research centers; The possibility of training stages within these units/centers. In this manner 'the source' of human resources working now and in the future in the nuclear field is easy accessible and the continuity is assured. In this context it must be mentioned that were developed university educational programmes for young people wishing to work in the nuclear field and also post graduating programmes addressed to improve knowledge in the nuclear field for the personnel which is already working in the nuclear field in the design, execution equipments, construction - assembling, exploitation and maintenance activities. We have to take into consideration the fact that the migration of qualified human resources and the average level of age of the personnel involved in the nuclear field are considerably high. These 2 factors are representing aspects with which are confronted all the actors in the nuclear field, at an international level, including Romania. For these reasons, the Romanian PNN defines the strategy through which the education process must take into account these problems starting early, from the high school level. Concluding, attracting and developing human resources at a national level , needed in al stages of promotion, design, construction and exploitation of the investments in the nuclear field remains a challenge for the nuclear community in general but also for the decision making factors at a governmental level, the industry and especially for the academic level. This challenge involves the existence of 4 strategic directions: A legislative package needed for the promotion and the development of nuclear field; A knowledge data base in the nuclear field; Qualified human resources, capable to work within different types of activities in the nuclear field; and The transfer of knowledge to future generations. (author)

  17. Interregional Knowledge Management Workshop on Life Cycle Management of Design Basis Information. Issues, Challenges, Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šula, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: • It is evident that the design basis area is from the point of view of knowledge sharing extremely complicated. • Time is changing and puts on us ever greater demands. • We have to analyze the near and remote surroundings and have to simplified the problem of knowledge sharing in that area. • I believe that it is graspable task for knowledge management and I will try to outline some possible context and approaches

  18. Self organising hypothesis networks: a new approach for representing and structuring SAR knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Thierry; Barber, Chris; Rosser, Edward; Vessey, Jonathan D; Webb, Samuel J; Werner, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Combining different sources of knowledge to build improved structure activity relationship models is not easy owing to the variety of knowledge formats and the absence of a common framework to interoperate between learning techniques. Most of the current approaches address this problem by using consensus models that operate at the prediction level. We explore the possibility to directly combine these sources at the knowledge level, with the aim to harvest potentially increased synergy at an earlier stage. Our goal is to design a general methodology to facilitate knowledge discovery and produce accurate and interpretable models. To combine models at the knowledge level, we propose to decouple the learning phase from the knowledge application phase using a pivot representation (lingua franca) based on the concept of hypothesis. A hypothesis is a simple and interpretable knowledge unit. Regardless of its origin, knowledge is broken down into a collection of hypotheses. These hypotheses are subsequently organised into hierarchical network. This unification permits to combine different sources of knowledge into a common formalised framework. The approach allows us to create a synergistic system between different forms of knowledge and new algorithms can be applied to leverage this unified model. This first article focuses on the general principle of the Self Organising Hypothesis Network (SOHN) approach in the context of binary classification problems along with an illustrative application to the prediction of mutagenicity. It is possible to represent knowledge in the unified form of a hypothesis network allowing interpretable predictions with performances comparable to mainstream machine learning techniques. This new approach offers the potential to combine knowledge from different sources into a common framework in which high level reasoning and meta-learning can be applied; these latter perspectives will be explored in future work.

  19. Self organising hypothesis networks: a new approach for representing and structuring SAR knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Hanser, Thierry; Barber, Chris; Rosser, Edward; Vessey, Jonathan D; Webb, Samuel J; Werner, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Background Combining different sources of knowledge to build improved structure activity relationship models is not easy owing to the variety of knowledge formats and the absence of a common framework to interoperate between learning techniques. Most of the current approaches address this problem by using consensus models that operate at the prediction level. We explore the possibility to directly combine these sources at the knowledge level, with the aim to harvest potentially increased syne...

  20. Strategic Management Model with Lens of Knowledge Management and Competitive Intelligence: A Review Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shujahat, Muhammad; Hussain, Saddam; Javed, Sammar; Muhammad, Imran Malik; Thursamy, Ramayah; Ali, Junaid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud First purpose of this study is to discuss the synergic and separate use of knowledge and\\ud intelligence, via knowledge management and competitive intelligence, in each stage of strategic\\ud management process. Second purpose is to discuss the implications of each stage of strategic\\ud management process for knowledge management and competitive intelligence and vice versa.\\ud Methodology/Design/Approach:\\ud A systematic literature review was performed within timeframe of 2000 to 2...

  1. Knowledge-based Approaches in Software Documentation: A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, W.; Liang, P.; Tang, A.; Van Vliet, H.; van Vliet, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Context Software documents are core artifacts produced and consumed in documentation activity in the software lifecycle. Meanwhile, knowledge-based approaches have been extensively used in software development for decades, however, the software engineering community lacks a comprehensive

  2. A Swarm Optimization approach for clinical knowledge mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, J Jabez; Nehemiah, H Khanna; Kannan, A

    2015-10-01

    Rule-based classification is a typical data mining task that is being used in several medical diagnosis and decision support systems. The rules stored in the rule base have an impact on classification efficiency. Rule sets that are extracted with data mining tools and techniques are optimized using heuristic or meta-heuristic approaches in order to improve the quality of the rule base. In this work, a meta-heuristic approach called Wind-driven Swarm Optimization (WSO) is used. The uniqueness of this work lies in the biological inspiration that underlies the algorithm. WSO uses Jval, a new metric, to evaluate the efficiency of a rule-based classifier. Rules are extracted from decision trees. WSO is used to obtain different permutations and combinations of rules whereby the optimal ruleset that satisfies the requirement of the developer is used for predicting the test data. The performance of various extensions of decision trees, namely, RIPPER, PART, FURIA and Decision Tables are analyzed. The efficiency of WSO is also compared with the traditional Particle Swarm Optimization. Experiments were carried out with six benchmark medical datasets. The traditional C4.5 algorithm yields 62.89% accuracy with 43 rules for liver disorders dataset where as WSO yields 64.60% with 19 rules. For Heart disease dataset, C4.5 is 68.64% accurate with 98 rules where as WSO is 77.8% accurate with 34 rules. The normalized standard deviation for accuracy of PSO and WSO are 0.5921 and 0.5846 respectively. WSO provides accurate and concise rulesets. PSO yields results similar to that of WSO but the novelty of WSO lies in its biological motivation and it is customization for rule base optimization. The trade-off between the prediction accuracy and the size of the rule base is optimized during the design and development of rule-based clinical decision support system. The efficiency of a decision support system relies on the content of the rule base and classification accuracy. Copyright

  3. An Object-Oriented Approach to Knowledge Representation in a Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, M.; Paton, R.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Rada, R.

    1994-01-01

    An object-oriented approach has been applied to the different stages involved in developing a knowledge base about insulin metabolism. At an early stage the separation of terminological and assertional knowledge was made. The terminological component was developed by medical experts and represented

  4. An Adaptive Approach to Managing Knowledge Development in a Project-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive approach to managing the development of students' knowledge in the comprehensive project-based learning (PBL) environment. Subject study is realized by two-stage PBL. It shapes adaptive knowledge management (KM) process and promotes the correct balance between personalized and collaborative learning. The…

  5. Countering and Exceeding "Capital": A "Funds of Knowledge" Approach to Re-Imagining Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipin, Lew; Sellar, Sam; Hattam, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the "funds of knowledge" approach (FoK) offers a socially just alternative to the logics of capital, by drawing on knowledge assets from students' family and community lifeworlds to build engaging and rigorous learning, supporting school-community interactions that build capacities. We explain how we applied…

  6. GANIL-SPIRAL1-SPIRAL2: Highlights and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2010-06-01

    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are presented. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100*A to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called*Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4 M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  7. Quasicrystallography on the spiral of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a spiral lattice is discussed. Some examples of known mineral structures, namely clino asbestos, halloysite and cylindrite, are then interpreted in terms of this structural principle. An example of a synthetic sulphide catalyst spiral structure having atomic dimensions is also described. All of these inorganic spiral structures are based on the sprial of Archimedes. The principles for a new type of crystallography, based on the Archimedian spiral, are then presented. 45 refs., 8 figs

  8. An Integrated Open Approach to Capturing Systematic Knowledge for Manufacturing Process Innovation Based on Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Process innovation plays a vital role in the manufacture realization of increasingly complex new products, especially in the context of sustainable development and cleaner production. Knowledge-based innovation design can inspire designers’ creative thinking; however, the existing scattered knowledge has not yet been properly captured and organized according to Computer-Aided Process Innovation (CAPI. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated approach to tackle this non-trivial issue. By analyzing the design process of CAPI and technical features of open innovation, a novel holistic paradigm of process innovation knowledge capture based on collective intelligence (PIKC-CI is constructed from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle. Then, a multi-source innovation knowledge fusion algorithm based on semantic elements reconfiguration is applied to form new public knowledge. To ensure the credibility and orderliness of innovation knowledge refinement, a collaborative editing strategy based on knowledge lock and knowledge–social trust degree is explored. Finally, a knowledge management system MPI-OKCS integrating the proposed techniques is implemented into the pre-built CAPI general platform, and a welding process innovation example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. It is expected that our work would lay the foundation for the future knowledge-inspired CAPI and smart process planning.

  9. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  10. Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  11. The Spiral Pattern During Development*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-07

    Aug 7, 1971 ... which are destined to become the limb areas bud out laterally. Fig. 8. The early cells, which are destined to develop into the upper and the lower limbs, after lateral budding has occurred. Fig. 11 demonstrates the human embryo of about 5 mm. CR length and age of about 32 days. The spiral pattern is.

  12. A study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, B.M.H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts have been made to look for possible correlations between integral properties of spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type. To investigate this problem, one needs the detailed distribution of both the gaseous and the stellar components for a well-defined sample of spiral galaxies. A sample of about 20 spiral galaxies was therefore defined; these galaxies were observed in the 21 cm neutral hydrogen line with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in three broad-band optical colours with the 48-inch Palomar Smidt Telescope. First, an atlas of the combined radio and optical observations of 16 nearby northern-hemisphere spiral galaxies is presented. Luminosity profiles are discussed and the scale lengths of the exponential disks and extrapolated central surface brightnesses are derived, as well as radial color distributions; azimuthal surface brightness distributions and rotation curves. Possible correlations with optical features are investigated. It is found that 20 to 50 per cent of the total mass is in the disk. (Auth.)

  13. A Systematic Knowledge Management Approach Using Object-Oriented Theory in Customer Complaint Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wusheng Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research into the effectiveness of customer complaint management has attracted researchers, yet there has been little discussion on customer complaint management in the context of systematic knowledge management approach particularly in the domain of hotel industry. This paper aims to address such gap through the application of object-oriented theory for which the notation of unified modelling language has been adopted for the representation of the concepts, objects, relationships and vocabularies in the domain. The paper used data from forty seven hotel management staff and academics in hospitalitymanagement to investigate lessons learned and best practices in customer complaint management and knowledge management. By providing insights into the potential of a knowledge management approach using object oriented theory, this study advances our understanding on how a knowledge management approach can systematically support the management of hotel customer complaints.

  14. KMsim: A Meta-modelling Approach and Environment for Creating Process-Oriented Knowledge Management Simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjewierden, Anjo Allert; Shostak, I.; Tsjernikova, Irina; de Hoog, Robert; Gómez Perez, A.; Benjamins, V.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to modelling process-oriented knowledge management (KM) and describes a simulation environment (called KMSIM) that embodies the approach. Since the beginning of modelling researchers have been looking for better and novel ways to model systems and to use

  15. Benefiting from Customer and Competitor Knowledge: A Market-Based Approach to Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Siu Loon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the organizational learning, market orientation and learning orientation concepts, highlight the importance of market knowledge to organizational learning and recommend ways in adopting a market-based approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The extant organizational learning…

  16. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  17. A New Collaborative Knowledge-Based Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Canada-Bago

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach for collaboration among sensors in Wireless Sensor Networks. These networks are composed of a large number of sensor nodes with constrained resources: limited computational capability, memory, power sources, etc. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the integration of Soft Computing technologies into Wireless Sensor Networks. However, little attention has been paid to integrating Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems into collaborative Wireless Sensor Networks. The objective of this work is to design a collaborative knowledge-based network, in which each sensor executes an adapted Fuzzy Rule-Based System, which presents significant advantages such as: experts can define interpretable knowledge with uncertainty and imprecision, collaborative knowledge can be separated from control or modeling knowledge and the collaborative approach may support neighbor sensor failures and communication errors. As a real-world application of this approach, we demonstrate a collaborative modeling system for pests, in which an alarm about the development of olive tree fly is inferred. The results show that knowledge-based sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications and that the behavior of a knowledge-based sensor may be modified by inferences and knowledge of neighbor sensors in order to obtain a more accurate and reliable output.

  18. Integrative Approach to Enhancing Linguists’ Background Knowledge in Culture and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Erkinovna Mukhametshina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the global cultural and educational space development, the humanity enjoys such ongoing processes as integration of knowledge, mutual influence and interaction of cultural traditions. Here the role of a translator/ interpreter as an ambassador of culture is growing; he/she is seen as a mediator between communicants belonging to different cultures with incompatible linguistic and conceptual pictures of the world. In this context, the translator's background knowledge in various spheres plays a special role. The search for effective ways of enhancing background knowledge in Culture and Art is an urgent problem of the professional education of a translator/ interpreter. The article deals with the formation of background knowledge of the future translators/ interpreters in Culture and Art in the context of integration of Culture Study and Linguistics courses. The authors show the role of the integrative approach in the process, introduce an original and already tested strategic approach to the formation of the background knowledge of future linguists, allowing to fruitfully integrate linguistic and cultural knowledge as well integrative competences in the university training of future translators/ interpreters. The original definition of the concept, the structure of background knowledge in Culture and Art is revealed, the dominants of background linguocultural knowledge are identified, contributing to comprehension of mentality, system of values and characteristics of the cultural world of the target country and language, ensuring the enculturation and socialization of the translator/ interpreter's personality.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  20. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  1. Is Student Knowledge of Anatomy Affected by a Problem-Based Learning Approach? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of anatomy is critical for students on many health science courses. It has been suggested that a problem-based approach to learning anatomy may result in deficits in foundation knowledge. The aim of this review is to compare traditional didactic methods with problem-based learning methods for obtaining anatomy knowledge. A Medline search was completed and studies needed to investigate the effects of a problem-based learning method compared with an alternate method ...

  2. A Web-Portal Based Approach for Knowledge Networks in Support of the Pathfinder Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    every eligible user. 4 WEB -PORTAL EXPERIMENTS AND DESGIN IN MSG-027 The objective of technical activity MSG-027 is the proof of feasibility to develop...A Web -Portal Based Approach for Knowledge Networks in Support of the Pathfinder Programme Dr. Andreas Tolk Engineering Management & Systems...knowledge needed for that need to be captured and managed. It also requires the development and presentation of a web portal that will make all

  3. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  4. Geometric Aspects and Testing of the Galactic Center Distance Determination from Spiral Arm Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, I. I.; Veselova, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the problem of determining the geometric parameters of a Galactic spiral arm from its segment by including the distance to the spiral pole, i.e., the distance to the Galactic center ( R 0). The question about the number of points belonging to one turn of a logarithmic spiral and defining this spiral as a geometric figure has been investigated numerically and analytically by assuming the direction to the spiral pole (to the Galactic center) to be known. Based on the results obtained, in an effort to test the new approach, we have constructed a simplified method of solving the problem that consists in finding the median of the values for each parameter from all possible triplets of objects in the spiral arm segment satisfying the condition for the angular distance between objects. Applying the method to the data on the spatial distribution of masers in the Perseus and Scutum arms (the catalogue by Reid et al. (2014)) has led to an estimate of R 0 = 8.8 ± 0.5 kpc. The parameters of five spiral arm segments have been determined from masers of the same catalogue. We have confirmed the difference between the spiral arms in pitch angle. The pitch angles of the arms revealed by masers are shown to generally correlate with R 0 in the sense that an increase in R 0 leads to a growth in the absolute values of the pitch angles.

  5. An approach to build a knowledge base for reactor diagnostic system using statistical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kohsaka, Atsuo

    1988-01-01

    In the development of a rule-based expert system, one of the key issues is how to acquire knowledge and to build a knowledge base. When the knowledge base of DISKET was built, which is an expert system for nuclear reactor accident diagnosis developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, several problems have been experienced. To write rules is a time-consuming task, and it was difficult to keep the objectivity and consistency of rules as the number of rules increased. Certainty factors must be determined often according to engineering judgement, i.e. empirically or intuitively. A systematic approach was attempted to cope with these difficulties and to build efficiently an objective knowledge base. The approach described in this paper is based on the concept that a prototype knowledge base, colloquially speaking an initial guess, should first be generated in a systematic way, then it is modified or improved by human experts for practical use. Factor analysis was used as the systematic way. DISKET system, the procedure of building a knowledge base, and the verification of the approach are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Nuclear Knowledge Creation and Transfer in Enriched Learning Environments: A Practical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Delgado, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Technology, the social nature of learning and the generational learning style are conforming new models of training that are changing the roles of the instructors, the channels of communication and the proper learning content of the knowledge to be transferred. New training methodologies are being using in the primary and secondary education and “Vintage” classroom learning does not meet the educational requirements of these methodologies; therefore, it’s necessary to incorporate them in the Knowledge Management processes used in the nuclear industry. This paper describes a practical approach of an enriched learning environment with the purpose of creating and transferring nuclear knowledge. (author

  7. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  8. Approaches of Knowledge Management System for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Y.; Yanagihara, S.; Kato, Y.; Tezuka, M.; Koda, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The decommissioning of a nuclear facility is a long term project, handling information beginning with design, construction and operation. Moreover, the decommissioning project is likely to be extended because of the lack of the waste disposal site. In this situation, as the transfer of knowledge to the next generation is a crucial issue, approaches of knowledge management (KM) are necessary. For this purpose, the total system of decommissioning knowledge management system (KMS) is proposed. In this system, we should arrange, organize and systematize the data and information of the plant design, maintenance history, trouble events, waste management records etc. The collected data, information and records should be organized by computer support systems. It becomes a base of the explicit knowledge. Moreover, measures of extracting tacit knowledge from retiring employees are necessary. The experience of the retirees should be documented as much as possible through effective questionnaire or interview process. In this way, various KM approaches become an integrated KMS as a whole. The system should be used for daily accumulation of knowledge thorough the planning, implementation and evaluation of decommissioning activities and it will contribute to the transfer of knowledge. (author

  9. Knowledge management as an approach to strengthen safety culture in nuclear organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karseka, T.S.; Yanev, Y.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Energy Dept.

    2013-04-15

    In the last 10 years knowledge management (KM) in nuclear organizations has emerged as a powerful strategy to deal with important and frequently critical issues of attrition, generation change and knowledge transfer. Applying KM practices in operating organizations, in technical support organizations and regulatory bodies has proven to be efficient and necessary for maintaining competence and skills for achieving high level of safety and operational performance. The IAEA defines KM as an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, acquiring, transforming, developing, disseminating, using, sharing, and preserving knowledge, relevant to achieving specified objectives. KM focuses on people and organizational culture to stimulate and nurture the sharing and use of knowledge; on processes or methods to find, create, capture and share knowledge; and on technology to store and assimilate knowledge and to make it readily accessible in a manner which will allow people to work together even if they are not located together. A main objective of this paper is to describe constructive actions which can sponsor knowledge sharing and solidarity in safety conscious attitude among all employees. All principles and approaches refer primarily to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operating organizations but are also applicable to other institutions involved into nuclear sector. (orig.)

  10. A Road Map for Knowledge Management Systems Design Using Axiomatic Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful design and implementation of knowledge management systems have been the main concern of many researchers. It has been reported that more than 50% of knowledge management systems have failed, therefore, it is required to seek for a new and comprehensive scientific approach to design and implement it. In the design and implementation of a knowledge management system, it is required to know ’what we want to achieve’ and ’how and by what processes we will achieve it’. A literature review conducted and axiomatic design theory selected for this purpose. For the first time, this paper develops a conceptual design of knowledge management systems by means of a hierarchical structure, composed of ’Functional Requirements’ (FRs, ’Design Parameters’ (DPs, and ’Process Variables’ (PVs. The intersection of several studies conducted in the field of knowledge management systems has been used to design the knowledge management model. It reveals that six essential bases of knowledge management are organizational culture, organizational structure, human resources, management and leadership, information technology, and the external environment of the organization; that are represented as top DPs in the structure of the model. These essential factors are decomposed to lower levels by means of zigzagging. The model implemented in Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Operation Corporation (TUSROC and the results were very promising. The most important result of this study is a roadmap to design successful and efficient knowledge management systems.

  11. Knowledge Management as an Approach to Learning and Instructing Sector University Students in Post-Soviet Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegzhanina, Irina S.; Chusovlyanova, Svetlana V.; Adolf, Vladimir A.; Bykadorova, Ekaterina S.; Belova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of the study depends on addressing to the issue of knowledge management in learning and instructing students of post-Soviet sector universities. In this regard, the article is intended to reveal the nature of knowledge management approach compared to the knowledge-based one predominated in Soviet education. The flagship approach of…

  12. LEVEL OF RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY- FROM A KNOWLEDGE BASED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, Ahmad Yusni; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discourses the problems associated with risk management practice in Nigeria construction projects with the use of knowledge-based approach, and proposes a methodology based on a one-fold arrangement which includes the modelling function of the risk management, its evaluation, comparative effectiveness, desired quality and the availability of a best practices model. One-fold approach is part of a research effort that is still in progress.  A major preliminary conclusion of this rese...

  13. Shared knowledge or shared affordances? Insights from an ecological dynamics approach to team coordination in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.

  14. Spiral model pilot project information model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was an evaluation of the Spiral Model (SM) development approach to allow NASA Marshall to develop an experience base of that software management methodology. A discussion is presented of the Information Model (IM) that was used as part of the SM methodology. A key concept of the SM is the establishment of an IM to be used by management to track the progress of a project. The IM is the set of metrics that is to be measured and reported throughout the life of the project. These metrics measure both the product and the process to ensure the quality of the final delivery item and to ensure the project met programmatic guidelines. The beauty of the SM, along with the IM, is the ability to measure not only the correctness of the specification and implementation of the requirements but to also obtain a measure of customer satisfaction.

  15. How is the Current Nano/Microscopic Knowledge Implemented in Model Approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments of experimental techniques have opened new opportunities and challenges for the modelling and simulation of clay materials, on various scales. In this communication, several aspects of the interaction between experimental and modelling approaches will be presented and dis-cussed. What levels of modelling are available depending on the target property and what experimental input is required? How can experimental information be used to validate models? What knowledge can modelling on different scale bring to the knowledge on the physical properties of clays? Finally, what can we do when experimental information is not available? Models implement the current nano/microscopic knowledge using experimental input, taking advantage of multi-scale approaches, and providing data or insights complementary to experiments. Future work will greatly benefit from the recent experimental developments, in particular for 3D-imaging on intermediate scales, and should also address other properties, e.g. mechanical or thermal properties. (authors)

  16. A SOCIO-COGNITIVE APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION THROUGH BLENDED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Kocaturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an educational research project that was undertaken by the School of Architecture, at the University of Liverpool funded by the Higher Education Academy in UK. The research explored technology driven shifts in architectural design studio education, identified their cognitive effects on design learning and developed an innovative blended learning approach that was implemented at a masters level digital design studio. The contribution of the research and the proposed approach to the existing knowledge and practice are twofold. Firstly, it offers a new pedagogical framework which integrates social, technical and cognitive dimensions of knowledge construction. And secondly, it offers a unique operational model through the integration of both mediational and instrumental use of digital media. The proposed model provides a useful basis for the effective mobilization of next generation learning technologies which can effectively respond to the learning challenges specific to architectural design knowledge and its means of creation.

  17. Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Roxanna N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

  18. The Effects of Prior-Knowledge and Online Learning Approaches on Students' Inquiry and Argumentation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Kai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of students' prior science knowledge and online learning approaches (social and individual) on their learning with regard to three topics: science concepts, inquiry, and argumentation. Two science teachers and 118 students from 4 eighth-grade science classes were invited to participate in this research. Students…

  19. Putative bacterial interactions from metagenomic knowledge with an integrative systems ecology approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bordron, P.; Latorre, M.; Cortés, M.; González, M.; Thiele, S.; Siegel, A.; Maass, A.; Eveillard, D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Following the trend of studies that investigate microbial ecosystems using different metagenomic techniques, we propose a new integrative systems ecology approach that aims to decipher functional roles within a consortium through the integration of genomic and metabolic knowledge at genome scale. For the sake of application, using public genomes of five bacterial strains involved in copper bioleaching: Acidiphilium cryptum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidan...

  20. Assessing the Dynamic Behavior of Online Q&A Knowledge Markets: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Sadjadi, Jafar; Bourouni, Atieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to propose a holistic dynamic model for understanding the behavior of a complex and internet-based kind of knowledge market by considering both social and economic interactions. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics (SD) model is formulated in this study to investigate the dynamic characteristics of…

  1. Characterizing and comparing innovation systems by different ‘modes’ of knowledge production: A proximity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, Sjoerd; Frenken, Koen; Nomaler, Önder; Ter Wal, Anne L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Though the concept of innovation systems has become influential in both academia and policymaking, an analytical approach to understanding innovation systems is still lacking. In particular, there is no analytical framework to measure `Mode 1? and `Mode 2? knowledge production. We propose a

  2. Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. Presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009,

  3. Influencing factors for condition-based maintenance in railway tracks using knowledge-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Hajizadeh, S.; Naeimi, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a condition-based maintenance decision method using
    knowledge-based approach for rail surface defects. A railway track may contain a considerable number of surface defects which influence track maintenance decisions. The proposed method is based on two sets of

  4. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

  5. Choosing the Right Solution Approach: The Crucial Role of Situational Knowledge in Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; de Jong, Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Novice problem solvers are rather sensitive to surface problem features, and they often resort to trial and error formula matching rather than identifying an appropriate solution approach. These observations have been interpreted to imply that novices structure their knowledge according to surface features rather than according to problem type…

  6. Sustainable Design Re-Examined: Integrated Approach to Knowledge Creation for Sustainable Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a systematic approach to the instructional framework to incorporate three aspects of sustainable design. It also aims to provide an instruction model for sustainable design stressing a collective effort to advance knowledge creation as a community. It develops a framework conjoining the concept of integrated process in…

  7. A Functional Approach to Evaluating Content Knowledge and Language Development in ESL Students' Science Classification Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingzi; Morgan, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Investigates use of a functional approach to discourse analysis--knowledge structure analysis, which focuses on meaning, form, and function simultaneously--to evaluate both writing development and content learning. Examined written texts in science, produced by English-as-a-Second-Language students with limited to intermediate English language…

  8. Making Pedagogy Tangible: Developing Skills and Knowledge Using a Team Teaching and Blended Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée; Jenkins, Louise E.

    2018-01-01

    In an era of accountability government and industry bodies are mandating that teacher education programs provide evidence of their impact. This paper provides an example of evidence-based practice, exploring how a team teaching and blended learning approach influenced the development of pre-service teachers (PSTs) competency skills and knowledge.…

  9. Is Student Knowledge of Anatomy Affected by a Problem-Based Learning Approach? A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of anatomy is critical for students on many health science courses. It has been suggested that a problem-based approach to learning anatomy may result in deficits in foundation knowledge. The aim of this review is to compare traditional didactic methods with problem-based learning methods for obtaining anatomy…

  10. SU-E-P-43: A Knowledge Based Approach to Guidelines for Software Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomons, G; Kelly, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the fall of 2012, a survey was distributed to medical physicists across Canada. The survey asked the respondents to comment on various aspects of software development and use in their clinic. The survey revealed that most centers employ locally produced (in-house) software of some kind. The respondents also indicated an interest in having software guidelines, but cautioned that the realities of cancer clinics include variations, that preclude a simple solution. Traditional guidelines typically involve periodically repeating a set of prescribed tests with defined tolerance limits. However, applying a similar formula to software is problematic since it assumes that the users have a perfect knowledge of how and when to apply the software and that if the software operates correctly under one set of conditions it will operate correctly under all conditions Methods: In the approach presented here the personnel involved with the software are included as an integral part of the system. Activities performed to improve the safety of the software are done with both software and people in mind. A learning oriented approach is taken, following the premise that the best approach to safety is increasing the understanding of those associated with the use or development of the software. Results: The software guidance document is organized by areas of knowledge related to use and development of software. The categories include: knowledge of the underlying algorithm and its limitations; knowledge of the operation of the software, such as input values, parameters, error messages, and interpretation of output; and knowledge of the environment for the software including both data and users. Conclusion: We propose a new approach to developing guidelines which is based on acquiring knowledge-rather than performing tests. The ultimate goal is to provide robust software guidelines which will be practical and effective

  11. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10 14 fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10 6 to 10 11 particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC 2 target with 3,4 He, 6,7 Li or 12 C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  12. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10{sup 14} fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 11} particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC{sub 2} target with {sup 3,4}He, {sup 6,7}Li or {sup 12}C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  13. Measuring nursing assistants' knowledge, skills and attitudes in a palliative approach: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacsony, Sara; Chang, Esther; Johnson, Amanda; Good, Anthony; Edenborough, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Nursing assistants are the largest aged care workforce providing care to older people in residential aged care facilities. Although studies have focused on their training and development needs when providing a palliative approach, a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate their knowledge, skills and attitudes is required. To examine what instruments have been used to evaluate nursing assistants' knowledge of, skills in and attitudes towards a palliative approach in residential aged care facilities, critically evaluate development processes, and discuss the strengths and limitations of existing instruments for this population. CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using key words. Selected articles were published in English in the period 2004-2014 and included instruments which evaluated nursing assistants and a palliative approach. Ten studies using seven instruments met the inclusion criteria. One of these instruments measured nursing assistants' level of comfort in providing end-of-life care. The six remaining instruments measured palliative care knowledge, palliative care practice, self-efficacy, knowledge and attitudes towards people with advanced dementia, beliefs and attitudes to death, dying, palliative and interdisciplinary care across the aged care workforce. Seven instruments have been used to evaluate nursing assistants' knowledge, skills and attitudes in a palliative approach. Instrument design and recommended psychometric processes for development limit specificity and usefulness of these instruments for nursing assistants' scope of practice. Adhering to recommended psychometric processes will increase the validity and reliability of an instrument tailored to this population and a palliative approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The rotation of spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1983-06-24

    There is accumulating evidence that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is nonluminous and is clumped, halo-like, around individual galaxies. The gravitational force of this dark matter is presumed to be responsible for the high rotational velocities of stars and gas in the disks of spiral galaxie. At present, the form of the dark matter is unknown. Possible candidates span a range in mass of 10(70), from non-zero-mass neutrinos to massive black holes.

  15. Globular star cluster systems around galaxies. II. The cases of spiral and dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjibaev, I.U.; Nuritdinov, S.N.; Ganiev, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Our compiled catalogue of globular cluster systems (GCS) which had studied in pervious part [1] is replenished now essentially as it are not sufficient the data to search for some empirical relationships between physical GCS parameters of the spiral and dwarf galaxies with a glance host galaxy characteristics. A number of empirical relationships for GCS of spiral and dwarf galaxies is first found. These results are differing essentially from analogous relationships for GCS of elliptical and lenticular galaxies which were found in [1]. It is also offered a possible new approach to the origin theory of the poor GCS which occupy a significant portion in our list of dwarf and spiral galaxies

  16. Cooperation and conflict in qualitative research: a dialectical approach to knowledge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enosh, Guy; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2010-01-01

    Our goal with this article is to present a dialectical approach to examining the interaction between researchers and research participants. A dialectical approach maintains that an apparent contradiction at one level might, in fact, be integrated as a synthesis of the two opposing poles at a higher level of conceptual analysis. We claim that a research approach advocating either pole might limit understanding of the complexity of the phenomenon in question. The interaction between researchers and research participants might be conceived of as creating a continuum ranging from cooperation to conflict. We adopt a dialectical perspective, and propose a whole spectrum of interactive styles between cooperation and conflict. Although some of these interactions might be perceived as a hindrance to knowledge production, we treat them as opportunities for the production of knowledge and the enhancement of interests of the study's target population.

  17. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Navarrete

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  18. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jairo A; Dartnell, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c) we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  19. Strategic approaches and assessment techniques-Potential for knowledge brokerage towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheate, William R.; Partidario, Maria Rosario

    2010-01-01

    The role of science in policy and decision-making has been an issue of intensive debate over the past decade. The concept of knowledge brokerage has been developing in this context contemplating issues of communication, interaction, sharing of knowledge, contribution to common understandings, as well as to effective and efficient action. For environmental and sustainability policy and decision-making the discussion has addressed more the essence of the issue rather than the techniques that can be used to enable knowledge brokerage. This paper aims to contribute to covering this apparent gap in current discussion by selecting and examining empirical cases from Portugal and the United Kingdom that can help to explore how certain environmental and sustainability assessment approaches can contribute, if well applied, to strengthen the science-policy link. The cases show that strategic assessment approaches and techniques have the potential to promote knowledge brokerage, but a conscious effort will be required to design in genuine opportunities to facilitate knowledge exchange and transfer as part of assessment processes.

  20. A Self-Complementary 1.2 to 40 GHz Spiral Antenna with Impedance Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazanek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a design of the Self- Complementary Spiral Antenna (SCSA which consists of a spiral antenna and a wideband impedance transformer. The spiral antenna and the transformer are designed separately due to computing demands. New knowledge about current distribution on the spiral antenna and influence of higher numbers of wavelength in circumference is presented. The novel transition between feeding and radiating antenna structure are optimized in the frequency range 1.2 to 40 GHz. The meaning of the transition in the paper includes the impedance as well as the geometry transforming of the structure. The antenna is suitable for wideband illuminating of a parabolic reflector due to relatively constant phase center and radiation pattern with frequency.

  1. New approach to generating insights for aging research based on literature mining and knowledge integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeondae; Natori, Yukikazu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of the elderly population in most countries worldwide is increasing dramatically. Therefore, social interest in the fields of health, longevity, and anti-aging has been increasing as well. However, the basic research results obtained from a reductionist approach in biology and a bioinformatic approach in genome science have limited usefulness for generating insights on future health, longevity, and anti-aging-related research on a case by case basis. We propose a new approach that uses our literature mining technique and bioinformatics, which lead to a better perspective on research trends by providing an expanded knowledge base to work from. We demonstrate that our approach provides useful information that deepens insights on future trends which differs from data obtained conventionally, and this methodology is already paving the way for a new field in aging-related research based on literature mining. One compelling example of this is how our new approach can be a useful tool in drug repositioning.

  2. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge...... within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for the knowledge management practices in a given organization....

  3. Students' knowledge of child health and development: effects on approaches to discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, J; Johnson, C F

    1984-03-01

    Unrealistic developmental and behavioral expectations of children, which are associated with child abuse, are related to a lack of knowledge about child development and child rearing. The Iowa Child Development Test (ICDT) was administered to college students to determine their knowledge of child health and development and effects on disciplinary approaches. The results indicated that college students had inadequate knowledge and those who most frequently chose harsh disciplinary methods in simulated child management situations were least knowledgeable. This finding is similar to that reported in an earlier study of high school seniors. College men knew less than college women about child development and health, and more frequently selected harsh punishment. Although noneducation and education majors did not differ with regard to level of knowledge on the ICDT, noneducation majors more frequently chose punish and abuse responses. The findings suggest a need to provide broad-based programs in child rearing education prior to parenthood to reduce the potentiating effects of inadequate knowledge of child health and development on the incidence of child abuse.

  4. The DESIR Facility at SPIRAL2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Beams from the low-energy branch of the separator spectrometer S3 and from SPIRAL1 will allow complementary studies of refrac- tory elements produced by means of fusion reactions as well as of light and intense exotic beams, respectively. Keywords. SPIRAL2; low-energy facility; nuclear physics; weak interaction; astro-.

  5. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  6. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  7. Omissions in managing knowledge in innovation processes or how to handle knowledge, humans and tasks : A semio-cognitive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cijsouw, R. S.; Jorna, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Charrel, PJ; Galarreta, D

    2007-01-01

    In organizations, innovation is a long-lasting process that is difficult to manage. Innovation is characterized by the use of new (combinations of) knowledge. Innovation, as knowledge creation, is also an activity of individuals. However, neither the individual nor knowledge is studied as

  8. Knowledge-based client-server approach to structural information retrieval: the Digital Anatomist Browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, J F; Eno, K; Sundsten, J W

    1993-06-01

    Structural information can be defined as data and knowledge about biological objects ranging in size from molecules to the whole body. A framework is described for organizing structural information around a well-defined set of terminology and semantic relationships, and for disseminating multimedia structural information by means of a wide-area information server that is accessible over the internet. A Macintosh-based client of this server, called the Digital Anatomist Browser, has been used to teach neuroanatomy for the last 2 years. The client-server approach provides each student unlimited access to a rapidly growing knowledge base of structural biology that, while immediately useful for anatomy teaching, has the potential to be an organizing framework for other kinds of medical knowledge as well.

  9. Third International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management: Challenges and Approaches. Programme and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    ). The conference will provide an opportunity to share experiences and lessons learned in the nuclear sector related to managing nuclear knowledge and to share practical approaches to KM that can be used at the organizational, national, and international levels to develop and maintain a strong nuclear knowledge base. Various issues related to specific human competencies, methodological or process knowledge and technology-related knowledge that are needed to support the safe and sustainable application of nuclear technology will be addressed. The conference will consist of both plenary and parallel sessions, blending highlevel, keynote sessions with more practical sessions. The event will feature exhibitions, forums and panels, as well as tutorials and workshops.

  10. Integrated environmental mapping and monitoring, a methodological approach to optimise knowledge gathering and sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Ødegård, Øyvind; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Berge, Jørgen

    2015-07-15

    New technology has led to new opportunities for a holistic environmental monitoring approach adjusted to purpose and object of interest. The proposed integrated environmental mapping and monitoring (IEMM) concept, presented in this paper, describes the different steps in such a system from mission of survey to selection of parameters, sensors, sensor platforms, data collection, data storage, analysis and to data interpretation for reliable decision making. The system is generic; it can be used by authorities, industry and academia and is useful for planning- and operational phases. In the planning process the systematic approach is also ideal to identify areas with gap of knowledge. The critical stages of the concept is discussed and exemplified by two case studies, one environmental mapping and one monitoring case. As an operational system, the IEMM concept can contribute to an optimised integrated environmental mapping and monitoring for knowledge generation as basis for decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving Knowledge Management in the Health Service: Re-Engineering Approach Towards Successful Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert

    Changes to business practices involve risks. There has always been an attempt to develop various concepts for successful restructuring of business processes to enable technology adoption. This is due to the fact that the success of any business depends as much on how it is structured, as well as its ability to adopt new technology. As a consequence, the great success stories of the global economy emanate from those organisations most capable of adopting new technology, which invariably includes information technology (IT). This chapter examines how business process re-engineering (BPR) can be used to improve knowledge management (KM) in health services by (i) assessing the effectiveness and usefulness of BPR; (ii) present a critical review of approaches to BPR; and (iii) describe a framework for using BPR for KM based on empirical research. The aim is to provide a sound strategic and tactical management approach for successful implementation of knowledge management systems (KMS) to improve health-care service project administration.

  12. Knowledge Bases, Talents and Contexts: On the Usefulness of the Creative Class Approach in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2009-01-01

    in the creative class share common locational preferences.We argue that the creative class draws on three different knowledge bases: synthetic, analytical, and symbolic, which have different implications for people’s residential locational preferences with respect to a people climate and a business climate......The geography of the creative class and its impact on regional development has been debated for some years. While the ideas of Richard Florida have permeated local and regional planning strategies in most parts of the Western world, critiques have been numerous. Florida’s 3T’s (technology, talent......, and tolerance) have been adopted without considering whether the theory fits into the settings of a specific urban and regional context. This article aims to contextualize and unpack the creative class approach by applying the knowledge-base approach and break down the rigid assumption that all people...

  13. Designing optimal transportation networks: a knowledge-based computer-aided multicriteria approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the applicability of using knowledge-based expert systems (KBES) approach to solve the single-mode (automobile), fixed-demand, discrete, multicriteria, equilibrium transportation-network-design problem. Previous works on this problem has found that mathematical programming method perform well on small networks with only one objective. Needed is a solution technique that can be used on large networks having multiple, conflicting criteria with different relative importance weights. The KBES approach developed in this dissertation represents a new way to solve network design problems. The development of an expert system involves three major tasks: knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and testing. For knowledge acquisition, a computer aided network design/evaluation model (UFOS) was developed to explore the design space. This study is limited to the problem of designing an optimal transportation network by adding and deleting capacity increments to/from any link in the network. Three weighted criteria were adopted for use in evaluating each design alternative: cost, average V/C ratio, and average travel time.

  14. Identification and Ranking of Critical Success Factors of Knowledge Management Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohaghar

    2014-02-01

    Based on the information accessible for the researchers, this is one of the first works which evaluates the key factors of successful knowledge management through fuzzy quality function deployment approach. It is expected that the proposed method would represent appropriate tools for enterprises which have decided to implement knowledge management because it prioritizes the critical success factors based on the knowledge management outcomes.

  15. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.

  16. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  17. Nursing and the new biology: towards a realist, anti-reductionist approach to nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    As a system of knowledge, nursing has utilized a range of subjects and reconstituted them to reflect the thinking and practice of health care. Often drawn to a holistic model, nursing finds it difficult to resist the reductionist tendencies in biological and medical thinking. In this paper I will propose a relational approach to knowledge that is able to address this issue. The paper argues that biology is not characterized by one stable theory but is often a contentious topic and employs philosophically diverse models in its scientific research. Biology need not be seen as a reductionist science, but reductionism is nonetheless an important current within biological thinking. These reductionist currents can undermine nursing knowledge in four main ways. Firstly, that the conclusions drawn from reductionism go far beyond their data based on an approach that prioritizes biological explanations and eliminates others. Secondly, that the methods employed by biologists are sometimes weak, and the limitations are insufficiently acknowledged. Thirdly, that the assumptions that drive the research agenda are problematic, and finally that uncritical application of these ideas can be potentially disastrous for nursing practice. These issues are explored through an examination of the problems reductionism poses for the issue of gender, mental health, and altruism. I then propose an approach based on critical realism that adopts an anti-reductionist philosophy that utilizes the conceptual tools of emergence and a relational ontology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Analisa Kekuatan Spiral Bevel Gear Dengan Variasi Sudut Spiral Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deta Rachmat Andika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan zaman,  teknologi roda gigi dituntut untuk mampu mentransmisikan daya yang besar dengan efisiensi yang besar pula. Pada jenis intersecting shaft gear, tipe roda gigi payung spiral (spiral bevel gear  merupakan perkembangan dari roda gigi payung bergigi lurus (straight bevel gear. Kelebihan dari spiral bevel gear antara  lain adalah kemampuan transmisi daya dan efisiensi yang lebih besar pada geometri yang sama serta tidak terlalu berisik. Akan tetapi spiral bevel gear juga mempunyai kelemahan jika dibandingkan dengan straight bevel gear. Selain proses manufaktur yang lebih rumit, profil lengkung gigi spiral ini membuat distribusi tegangan yang terjadi menjadi lebih rumit untuk dimodelkan dengan persamaan matematika. Salah satu pendekatan yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan metode elemen hingga. Penelitian diawali dengan membuat model dari straight bevel gear dan juga spiral bevel gear yang sudut spiralnya divariasikan 20, 35, dan 45 derajat. Model dibuat dengan dimensi yang sama baik diameter maupun jumlah gigi gear. Langkah selanjutnya yaitu perhitungan analitis pada straight bevel gear dimana hasilnya akan dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi statis. Setelah eror yang terjadi dibawah 15% maka dilakukan simulasi dinamis pada semua model yang telah dibuat yaitu straight bevel dan juga spira bevel gear. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah secara keseluruhan spiral bevel gear lebih kuat daripada straight bevel gear pada dimensi dan beban yang sama jika dilihat dari lebih kecilnya tegangan bending dan tegangan kontak maksimum yang terjadi. Tegangan terbesar terjadi pada jenis straight bevel gear baik pada tegangan bending maupun tegangan kontak sedangkan spiral bevel gear dengan variasi sudut Seiring spiral 35 mempunyai nilai tegangan terkecil. Prosntase selisih tegangan bending maksimum yang terjadi antara straight bevel gear dan spiral bevel gear dengan variasi sudut spiral 35 derajat  sebesar 44

  19. On Density Waves in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    The spiral structure of five ordinary spiral galaxies was studied using deep BVIK' surface photometry maps obtained at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. The detailed shape of the arms was analyzed in terms of the spiral density wave theory. Grand design spirals were found on the K' maps in all five galaxies although at least two would be classified as flocculent on the blue images. In several of the galaxies, bulges with weak oval distortion (~10%) were observed. Dust spirals also continue, in some cases, inside the ILR where the stellar arms terminate. This emphasizes the strong bias of morphological classifications of spiral galaxies based on blue image due to dust and young stars. The 2--armed spirals were systematically found to be wound tighter on I than on K' maps suggesting the existence of a density wave. Locations of the ILR and the 4/1 resonance were estimated based on the arm morphology and the amplitude ratio between the m = 2,4 Fourier components. The wavenumber of the stellar 2--armed pattern is increasing towards the ILR which could suggest that the density wave is associated to the long waved branch of the dispersion relation. A possible scenario is discussed.

  20. Spiral arms in thermally stratified protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Attila; Rosotti, Giovanni P.

    2018-02-01

    Spiral arms have been observed in nearly a dozen protoplanetary discs in near-infrared scattered light and recently also in the submillimetre continuum. While one of the most compelling explanations is that they are driven by planetary or stellar companions, in all but one cases such companions have not yet been detected and there is even ambiguity on whether the planet should be located inside or outside the spirals. Here, we use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to study the morphology of spiral density waves launched by embedded planets taking into account the vertical temperature gradient, a natural consequence of stellar irradiation. Our simulations show that the pitch angle of the spirals in thermally stratified discs is the lowest in the disc mid-plane and increases towards the disc surface. We combine the hydrodynamic simulations with 3D radiative transfer calculations to predict that the pitch angle of planetary spirals observed in the near-infrared is higher than in the submillimetre. We also find that in both cases the spirals converge towards the planet. This provides a new powerful observational method to determine if the perturbing planet is inside or outside the spirals, as well as map the thermal stratification of the disc.

  1. Curvature-driven bubbles or droplets on the spiral surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin; Hou, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Directional motion of droplets or bubbles can often be observed in nature and our daily life, and this phenomenon holds great potential in many engineering areas. The study shows that droplets or bubbles can be driven to migrate perpetually on some special substrates, such as the Archimedean spiral, the logarithmic spiral and a cantilever sheet in large deflection. It is found that a bubble approaches or deviates from the position with highest curvature of the substrate, when it is on the concave or convex side. This fact is helpful to explain the repelling water capability of Nepenthes alata. Based on the force and energy analysis, the mechanism of the bubble migration is well addressed. These findings pave a new way to accurately manipulate droplet or bubble movement, which bring inspirations to the design of microfluidic and water harvesting devices, as well as oil displacement and ore filtration.

  2. Distributed temperature sensing using a SPIRAL configuration ultrasonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2017-02-01

    Distributed temperature sensing has important applications in the long term monitoring of critical enclosures such as containment vessels, flue gas stacks, furnaces, underground storage tanks and buildings for fire risk. This paper presents novel techniques for such measurements, using wire in a spiral configuration and having special embodiments such a notch for obtaining wave reflections from desired locations. Transduction is performed using commercially available Piezo-electric crystal that is bonded to one end of the waveguide. Lower order axisymmetric guided ultrasonic modes were employed. Time of fight (TOF) differences between predefined reflectors located on the waveguides are used to infer temperature profile in a chamber with different temperatures. The L(0,1) wave mode (pulse echo approach) was generated/received in a spiral waveguide at different temperatures for this work. The ultrasonic measurements were compared with commercially available thermocouples.

  3. Spiral actin-polymerization waves can generate amoeboidal cell crawling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Kruse, K.

    2014-05-01

    Amoeboidal cell crawling on solid substrates is characterized by protrusions that seemingly appear randomly along the cell periphery and drive the cell forward. For many cell types, it is known that the protrusions result from polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, little is known about how the formation of protrusions is triggered and whether the appearance of subsequent protrusions is coordinated. Recently, the spontaneous formation of actin-polymerization waves was observed. These waves have been proposed to orchestrate the cytoskeletal dynamics during cell crawling. Here, we study the impact of cytoskeletal polymerization waves on cell migration using a phase-field approach. In addition to directionally moving cells, we find states reminiscent of amoeboidal cell crawling. In this framework, new protrusions are seen to emerge from a nucleation process, generating spiral actin waves in the cell interior. Nucleation of new spirals does not require noise, but occurs in a state that is apparently displaying spatio-temporal chaos.

  4. An Ensemble Approach to Knowledge-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based planning (KBP utilizes experienced planners’ knowledge embedded in prior plans to estimate optimal achievable dose volume histogram (DVH of new cases. In the regression-based KBP framework, previously planned patients’ anatomical features and DVHs are extracted, and prior knowledge is summarized as the regression coefficients that transform features to organ-at-risk DVH predictions. In our study, we find that in different settings, different regression methods work better. To improve the robustness of KBP models, we propose an ensemble method that combines the strengths of various linear regression models, including stepwise, lasso, elastic net, and ridge regression. In the ensemble approach, we first obtain individual model prediction metadata using in-training-set leave-one-out cross validation. A constrained optimization is subsequently performed to decide individual model weights. The metadata is also used to filter out impactful training set outliers. We evaluate our method on a fresh set of retrospectively retrieved anonymized prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT cases and head and neck IMRT cases. The proposed approach is more robust against small training set size, wrongly labeled cases, and dosimetric inferior plans, compared with other individual models. In summary, we believe the improved robustness makes the proposed method more suitable for clinical settings than individual models.

  5. Modeling Relationship between R&D Activities and Organization Knowledge Stock Using System Dynamics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohaghar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is identified as a critical factor for innovation. On the other side, knowledge creation takes place through investing on R&D activities and developing new products. Furthermore, not all types of R&D activities result in similar types of innovation. Indeed, investing on research activities result in radical innovation and investing on development activities concludein incremental innovation. Keeping a balance between these two kinds of innovation in products is critical to acquire competitive advantages. To investigate the dynamic-nature and complex relationship between knowledge creation and investing on R&D activities, presenting paper tried to study impacts of different investing policies on knowledge stockusing a systematic view. Hence, “system dynamics” which is an approach to study the complex system is used to model and simulate the presenting system. Beside, a case study was also presented to test applicable capability of the model. The simulation results showed that investing policies on R&D activities must be based on comparing the real performance and the goal performance.

  6. Supervised Learning and Knowledge-Based Approaches Applied to Biomedical Word Sense Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Rui; Matos, Sérgio

    2017-12-13

    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is an important step in biomedical text mining, which is responsible for assigning an unequivocal concept to an ambiguous term, improving the accuracy of biomedical information extraction systems. In this work we followed supervised and knowledge-based disambiguation approaches, with the best results obtained by supervised means. In the supervised method we used bag-of-words as local features, and word embeddings as global features. In the knowledge-based method we combined word embeddings, concept textual definitions extracted from the UMLS database, and concept association values calculated from the MeSH co-occurrence counts from MEDLINE articles. Also, in the knowledge-based method, we tested different word embedding averaging functions to calculate the surrounding context vectors, with the goal to give more importance to closest words of the ambiguous term. The MSH WSD dataset, the most common dataset used for evaluating biomedical concept disambiguation, was used to evaluate our methods. We obtained a top accuracy of 95.6 % by supervised means, while the best knowledge-based accuracy was 87.4 %. Our results show that word embedding models improved the disambiguation accuracy, proving to be a powerful resource in the WSD task.

  7. Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Francis

    Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

  8. Evaluating Effect of Knowledge Management Strategy on Human Resource Management Performance Using BSC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mansoori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research provided a model for evaluating the effect of knowledge management strategy on human resource management performance in higher education institutes and academic libraries. This research was a descriptive survey. According to the research literature and expert opinions, in human resource level, 38 indicators were produced for evaluating KM, then these indicators were classified in 10 total factors in terms of balanced scorecard approach. The results of evaluating knowledge management in Yazd academic libraries showed that, this strategy on customer perspectives, internal processes, learning and growth perspective had a good performance. But in terms of financial and Labor productivity indicators and training programs it did not have a good outcome for Yazd academic libraries.

  9. Knowledge management through the e-learning approach - a case study of online engineering courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichouni, Mohamed; Benchicou, Soraya; Nehari, Dris

    2013-06-01

    Though it is universally accepted that the face-to-face approach is the best way for education and training, however, with the advent of the information and communication technologies (mainly the World Wide Web) it became possible to enhance further the methods we are using to teach our students and to share the teaching material within a broaden engineering, technical and business communities. This paper is dedicated to making a review of the basic concepts of knowledge management and e-learning and to show how these two modern concepts can be integrated into engineering education to produce knowledge, disseminate it and share it within virtual interest groups and networks of engineering students, academic teachers and industrial engineers and technicians and business managers. A practical case study will be presented and discussed.

  10. A knowledge-based approach to identification and adaptation in dynamical systems control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B. J.; Wong, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques are applied to the problems of model form and parameter identification of large-scale dynamic systems. The object-oriented knowledge representation is discussed in the context of causal modeling and qualitative reasoning. Structured sets of rules are used for implementing qualitative component simulations, for catching qualitative discrepancies and quantitative bound violations, and for making reconfiguration and control decisions that affect the physical system. These decisions are executed by backward-chaining through a knowledge base of control action tasks. This approach was implemented for two examples: a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and a two-phase thermal testbed. Results of tests with both of these systems demonstrate that the software replicates some or most of the functionality of a human operator, thereby reducing the need for a human-in-the-loop in the lower levels of control of these complex systems.

  11. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  12. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  13. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  14. New approach to generating insights for aging research based on literature mining and knowledge integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeondae Kwon

    Full Text Available The proportion of the elderly population in most countries worldwide is increasing dramatically. Therefore, social interest in the fields of health, longevity, and anti-aging has been increasing as well. However, the basic research results obtained from a reductionist approach in biology and a bioinformatic approach in genome science have limited usefulness for generating insights on future health, longevity, and anti-aging-related research on a case by case basis. We propose a new approach that uses our literature mining technique and bioinformatics, which lead to a better perspective on research trends by providing an expanded knowledge base to work from. We demonstrate that our approach provides useful information that deepens insights on future trends which differs from data obtained conventionally, and this methodology is already paving the way for a new field in aging-related research based on literature mining. One compelling example of this is how our new approach can be a useful tool in drug repositioning.

  15. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  16. Marketing and semiotic approach on communication. Consequences on knowledge of target-audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borţun, D; Purcarea, VL

    2013-01-01

    Modern marketing puts the consumer and not the manufacturer in the center, the essence of the marketing approach being the conception, the projection and the making of the product, starting from the consumer towards the manufacturer; this resulting in the fact that the product’s marketing approach seems strikingly similar to the semiotic approach of the message. In the semiotic approach, the message is a construction of signs, which, by interacting with the receiver, produces the meaning. The transmitter (the message transmitter) becomes less important. The focus is centered to the „text" and the way this is „read", the sense being born when the „reader" negotiates the „text". The negotiation takes place when the „reader" filtrates the message through the sieve of his cultural loading. A „target public" is a group which is specific to a certain Cultural Loading, a loading which deals with linguistic, logical, psychological and symbolic structures, which get out to meet the message and „negotiates" with the structures similar to it. When we are thinking in terms of the semiotic approach, we are handling the cultural determinism of communication, using the concepts of Kuhn and Gonseth (paradigm and referential). They open a new path in the market research, in the market segmentation and knowledge of the „target audiences". PMID:23610591

  17. Marketing and semiotic approach on communication. Consequences on knowledge of target-audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borţun, D; Purcarea, V L

    2013-03-15

    Modern marketing puts the consumer and not the manufacturer in the center, the essence of the marketing approach being the conception, the projection and the making of the product, starting from the consumer towards the manufacturer; this resulting in the fact that the product's marketing approach seems strikingly similar to the semiotic approach of the message. In the semiotic approach, the message is a construction of signs, which, by interacting with the receiver, produces the meaning. The transmitter (the message transmitter) becomes less important. The focus is centered to the "text" and the way this is "read", the sense being born when the "reader" negotiates the "text". The negotiation takes place when the "reader" filtrates the message through the sieve of his cultural loading. A "target public" is a group which is specific to a certain Cultural Loading, a loading which deals with linguistic, logical, psychological and symbolic structures, which get out to meet the message and "negotiates" with the structures similar to it. When we are thinking in terms of the semiotic approach, we are handling the cultural determinism of communication, using the concepts of Kuhn and Gonseth (paradigm and referential). They open a new path in the market research, in the market segmentation and knowledge of the "target audiences".

  18. Tracing Technological Development Trajectories: A Genetic Knowledge Persistence-Based Main Path Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Park

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new method to identify main paths in a technological domain using patent citations. Previous approaches for using main path analysis have greatly improved our understanding of actual technological trajectories but nonetheless have some limitations. They have high potential to miss some dominant patents from the identified main paths; nonetheless, the high network complexity of their main paths makes qualitative tracing of trajectories problematic. The proposed method searches backward and forward paths from the high-persistence patents which are identified based on a standard genetic knowledge persistence algorithm. We tested the new method by applying it to the desalination and the solar photovoltaic domains and compared the results to output from the same domains using a prior method. The empirical results show that the proposed method can dramatically reduce network complexity without missing any dominantly important patents. The main paths identified by our approach for two test cases are almost 10x less complex than the main paths identified by the existing approach. The proposed approach identifies all dominantly important patents on the main paths, but the main paths identified by the existing approach miss about 20% of dominantly important patents.

  19. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  20. Cylindrical spirals in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Karpati, G; Robitaille, Y; Melmed, C

    1979-01-01

    Muscle biopsies from two patients revealed that numerous type 2 fibers contained large abnormal areas filled with cylindrical spirals. The cytochemical profile of these cylindrical spirals was sufficiently characteristic that they could be distinguished from tubular aggregates. Their electron microscopic appearance was unmistakable. Their origin and significance are uncertain. The diverse nature of the patients' conditions (cramps and malignancy, and an unusual form of spinocerebellar degeneration) indicate that these abnormal structures are not disease specific.

  1. Wavelet Scattering on the Pitch Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Lostanlen, Vincent; Mallat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We present a new representation of harmonic sounds that linearizes the dynamics of pitch and spectral envelope, while remaining stable to deformations in the time-frequency plane. It is an instance of the scattering transform, a generic operator which cascades wavelet convolutions and modulus nonlinearities. It is derived from the pitch spiral, in that convolutions are successively performed in time, log-frequency, and octave index. We give a closed-form approximation of spiral scattering coe...

  2. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  3. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L) J , as a function of (g – i) versus (i – J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  4. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A., E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx, E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  5. Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.

  6. Three-dimensional spiral CT for neurosurgical planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.M.; Bertalanffy, H.; Mayfrank, L.; Thron, A.; Guenther, R.W.; Gilsbach, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out 22 examinations to determine the value of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric CT (spiral CT) for planning neurosurgical procedures. All examinations were carried out on a of the first generation spiral CT. A tube model was used to investigate the influence of different parameter settings. Bolus injection of nonionic contrast medium was used when vessels or strongly enhancing tumours were to be delineated. 3D reconstructions were carried out using the integrated 3D software of the scanner. We found a table feed of 3 mm/s with a slice thickness of 2 mm and an increment of 1 mm to be suitable for most purposes. For larger regions of interest a table feed of 5 mm was the maximum which could be used without blurring of the 3D images. Particular advantages of 3D reconstructed spiral scanning were seen in the planning of approaches to the lower clivus, acquired or congenital bony abnormalities and when the relationship between vessels, tumour and bone was important. (orig.)

  7. Community-based participatory research: understanding a promising approach to addressing knowledge gaps in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffin, Catherine; Kenien, Cara; Ghesquiere, Angela; Dorime, Ashley; Villanueva, Carolina; Gardner, Daniel; Callahan, Jean; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Reid, M Carrington

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the need for effective and accessible healthcare for individuals with advanced chronic illness has drawn attention to the significant gaps in our knowledge of palliative medicine. To advance our understanding of this field, community-based participatory research (CBPR) is proposed as a tool for future research initiatives. This paper offers a rationale for how CBPR may be employed to address specific gaps in palliative care research. Several examples where this approach has been used previously are described, and potential obstacles to implementing this research method are delineated. Despite challenges to incorporating CBPR to palliative care research, this approach holds substantial potential to advance our current understanding of the field and promote sensitivity for future programs, practices and policies.

  8. PLM-based Approach for Design Verification and Validation using Manufacturing Process Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Toussaint

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Out of 100 hours of engineering work, only 20 are dedicated to real engineering and 80 are spent on what is considered as routine activities. Readjusting the ratio of innovative vs. routine work is a considerable challenge in the product lifecycle management (PLM strategy. Therefore, the main objective is to develop an approach in order to accelerate routine processes in engineering design. The proposed methodology called FabK consists of capturing manufacturing knowledge and its application towards the design verification and validation of new engineering designs. The approach is implemented into a Web-based PLM prototype and a Computer Aided Design system. A series of experiments from an industrial case study is introduced to provide significant results.

  9. An Approach towards Promoting Iranian Caregivers’ Knowledge on Early Childhood Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO, parents need to be informed about Early Childhood Development (ECD. Different methods of parents’ education include group-based, face-to-face, book, booklet, web-based, technology-based, and mobile learning using laptops, tablets, and cell phones. Paying attention to caregivers' attitudes is the first step to their education. The objectives of this study were to determine parental education requirements and the best approach towards promoting caregivers` knowledge about ECD, from the perspective of the Iranian main child caregivers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach with directional content analysis method was used. Participants were selected through purposive sampling. Thirty-one child-caregivers participated in 5 individual interviews and 5 focus group discussions (FGDs. Participants were parents and grandparents that had less than the 36-month child (grandchild, and kindergarten staffs. Four criteria namely: validity, transferability, reliability and verifiability were used to validate data. Results: According to the perspective of participants, two main themes were requirements for parent education (educators, educational content, time, place, and approach to educate child caregivers (mobile learning, group and face-to-face education, electronic learning, media, physical resources, totally 98 sub-themes. Finally the best approach to educate child caregivers was a multi-model approach includes group or face-to-face education with mobile learning. Conclusion: Participants suggested a multi-model approach based on traditional and modern technological methods, especially mobile learning (smartphone. They believed that the educational approach should be flexible and selectable, so caregivers can choose an appropriate individual method.

  10. A knowledge discovery approach to urban analysis: Beyoglu Preservation Area as a data mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Sokmenoglu Sohtorik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing our knowledge of the complexities of cities in order to empower ourselves to make more informed decisions has always been a challenge for urban research. Recent developments in large-scale computing, together with the new techniques and automated tools for data collection and analysis are opening up promising opportunities for addressing this problem. The main motivation that served as the driving force behind this research is how these developments may contribute to urban data analysis. On this basis, the thesis focuses on urban data analysis in order to search for findings that can enhance our knowledge of urban environments, using the generic process of knowledge discovery using data mining. A knowledge discovery process based on data mining is a fully automated or semi-automated process which involves the application of computational tools and techniques to explore the “previously unknown, and potentially useful information” (Witten & Frank, 2005 hidden in large and often complex and multi-dimensional databases. This information can be obtained in the form of correlations amongst variables, data groupings (classes and clusters or more complex hypotheses (probabilistic rules of co-occurrence, performance vectors of prediction models etc.. This research targets researchers and practitioners working in the field of urban studies who are interested in quantitative/ computational approaches to urban data analysis and specifically aims to engage the interest of architects, urban designers and planners who do not have a background in statistics or in using data mining methods in their work. Accordingly, the overall aim of the thesis is the development of a knowledge discovery approach to urban analysis; a domain-specific adaptation of the generic process of knowledge discovery using data mining enabling the analyst to discover ‘relational urban knowledge’. ‘Relational urban knowledge’ is a term employed in this thesis to refer

  11. An approach to build a knowledge base for reactor accident diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Fujii, M.; Fujiki, K.; Yokobayashi, M.; Kohsaka, A.; Aoyagi, T.; Hirota, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In the development of a rule based expert system, one of the key issues is how to acquire knowledge and to build knowledge base (KB). On building the KB of DISKET, which is an expert system for nuclear reactor accident diagnosis developed in JAERI, several problems have been experienced as follows. To write rules is a time consuming task, and it is difficult to keep the objectivity and consistency of rules as the number of rules increase. Further, certainty factors (CFs) must be often determined according to engineering judgment, i.e., empirically or intuitively. A systematic approach was attempted to handle these difficulties and to build an objective KB efficiently. The approach described in this paper is based on the concept that a prototype KB, colloquially speaking an initial guess, should first be generated in a systematic way and then is to be modified and/or improved by human experts for practical use. Statistical methods, principally Factor Analysis, were used as the systematic way to build a prototype KB for the DISKET using a PWR plant simulator data. The source information is a number of data obtained from the simulation of transients, such as the status of components and annunciator etc., and major process parameters like pressures, temperatures and so on

  12. Approach for ontological modeling of database schema for the generation of semantic knowledge on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Currently there is large quantity of content on web pages that is generated from relational databases. Conceptual domain models provide for the integration of heterogeneous content on semantic level. The use of ontology as conceptual model of a relational data sources makes them available to web agents and services and provides for the employment of ontological techniques for data access, navigation and reasoning. The achievement of interoperability between relational databases and ontologies enriches the web with semantic knowledge. The establishment of semantic database conceptual model based on ontology facilitates the development of data integration systems that use ontology as unified global view. Approach for generation of ontologically based conceptual model is presented. The ontology representing the database schema is obtained by matching schema elements to ontology concepts. Algorithm of the matching process is designed. Infrastructure for the inclusion of mediation between database and ontology for bridging legacy data with formal semantic meaning is presented. Implementation of the knowledge modeling approach on sample database is performed.

  13. Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives - A learning-centered participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J

    2017-06-15

    The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing Emergency Scenario through the Project Management Body of Knowledge Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Kalatpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : The sound planning is needed for effective implementation of an emergency exercise. The exercise planning is manifested in the scenario development process. Despite the frequent execution of exercises in the industries and the public domain, there is no uniform pattern for designing scenarios. The present paper aims at devising a new pattern based on the project management body of knowledge ( PMBOK approach. Methods: Ten principles of the PMBOK and their substructures were analyzed. The application processes were extracted in two parts the structural and executive parts. Then, these processes were translated into the its equivalent norms in the emerging scenario development process. Finally, a pattern was proposed for preparing an emergency scenario. Result: The proposed method was developed in a ten step process. Step by step implementation of these processes can help one to make an acceptable scenario. In comparison with the two most common international patterns for developing a scenario, the present method has some unique characteristics. Quality, Time, Cost and Interested Parties management are the mentioned properties. In general, the present method has some components that represent more details for users.. Conclusions : Using the project management body of knowledge approach one can develop a standard frame for developing an emergency scenario.

  15. Knowledge-enhancing Helix: An Approach for Developing Key Academic Skills at Universities. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Boeller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly e-literate society, new and media technologies are proliferating and traditional teaching approaches are challenged to meet new requirements. Other aspects such as teamwork and knowledge exchange are also becoming more important. Collaborative working methods are more dominant in the networked business environment. The vocational training at universities is therefore continuously facing with new challenges. The objective of this paper is to show how the implementation of a holistic teaching approach including the idea of blended learning can be an effective way to train students in collaborative and academic working skills, methodological expertise, information literacy, as well as making students aware of new developments in media literacy. This approach follows our proposed concept DIAMOND (Didactical Approach for Media Competence Development with a main focus on the implementation of the "knowledgeenhancing helix." This pedagogical concept was developed corresponding the requirements for "good online learning." The paper accordingly discusses the theoretical framework and presents a case study where the concept was implemented in practice.

  16. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  17. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  18. Feasibility of through-time spiral generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition for low latency accelerated real-time MRI of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Zhu, Yinghua; Lim, Yongwan; Toutios, Asterios; Ji, Yunhua; Lo, Wei-Ching; Seiberlich, Nicole; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Nayak, Krishna S

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of through-time spiral generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) for low-latency accelerated real-time MRI of speech. Through-time spiral GRAPPA (spiral GRAPPA), a fast linear reconstruction method, is applied to spiral (k-t) data acquired from an eight-channel custom upper-airway coil. Fully sampled data were retrospectively down-sampled to evaluate spiral GRAPPA at undersampling factors R = 2 to 6. Pseudo-golden-angle spiral acquisitions were used for prospective studies. Three subjects were imaged while performing a range of speech tasks that involved rapid articulator movements, including fluent speech and beat-boxing. Spiral GRAPPA was compared with view sharing, and a parallel imaging and compressed sensing (PI-CS) method. Spiral GRAPPA captured spatiotemporal dynamics of vocal tract articulators at undersampling factors ≤4. Spiral GRAPPA at 18 ms/frame and 2.4 mm 2 /pixel outperformed view sharing in depicting rapidly moving articulators. Spiral GRAPPA and PI-CS provided equivalent temporal fidelity. Reconstruction latency per frame was 14 ms for view sharing and 116 ms for spiral GRAPPA, using a single processor. Spiral GRAPPA kept up with the MRI data rate of 18ms/frame with eight processors. PI-CS required 17 minutes to reconstruct 5 seconds of dynamic data. Spiral GRAPPA enabled 4-fold accelerated real-time MRI of speech with a low reconstruction latency. This approach is applicable to wide range of speech RT-MRI experiments that benefit from real-time feedback while visualizing rapid articulator movement. Magn Reson Med 78:2275-2282, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Some INDRA experiments on SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cussol, D.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    A panel joining members of INDRA collaboration and physicists off collaboration was gathered to debate the question whether the INDRA detector, designed to study multifragmentation with beams of stable nuclei, could be used also in experiments with beams of exotic nuclei. Four experiments were discussed as well as the implied detector modifications. In the frame of experiments with SISSI the study of the multifragmentation as a function of N/Z of the system should answer questions related to the system stability as a function of N/Z and origin of the particles emitted during the collision. Among the experiments with SPIRAL to study de-excitation of hot nuclei the following topics were examined: nuclear stability as a function of N/Z, α-n competition, emission of neutron-rich particles as a function of N/Z, evolution of emission modes near the shell closure. The de-excitation of the resonant excited states through 2p decay will be studied in the following three channels: 1p-1p sequential decay, un-correlated simultaneous 2p emission and correlated simultaneous 2p emission ( 2 He emission). Such experiments were carried out on 6 Be, 12 O and 14 O. The only first two channels were observed so far. The 16 Ne could be a good candidate to observe the third channel. Finally sub-barrier Coulomb fusion experiments were also discussed. Concerning the modifications to be undertaken on INDRA detector two were obvious: a modification at the level of electronics to make possible time-of-flight measurements with silicon detectors and transformations of ionization chambers in Bragg chambers. Simulation studies are under way to test the pertinence and validity of the solution

  20. Design of a Dual-Mapping Learning Approach for Problem Solving and Knowledge Construction in Ill-Structured Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Spector, J. Michael; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been increasingly used as an important approach to learning especially in ill-structured domains. It is assumed that knowledge can be better consolidated and extended through problem-solving experience. However, many learners do not have the ability to separate general knowledge from specific cases, which inhibits successful…

  1. Improving Malawian teachers' mental health knowledge and attitudes: an integrated school mental health literacy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, S; Gilberds, H; Morgan, C; Greene, R; Hamwaka, K; Perkins, K

    2015-01-01

    Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called 'An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania', we culturally adapted a previously demonstrated effective Canadian school mental health curriculum resource (the Guide) for use in Malawi, the African Guide: Malawi version (AGMv), and evaluated its impact on enhancing mental health literacy for educators (teachers and youth club leaders) in 35 schools and 15 out-of-school youth clubs in the central region of Malawi. The pre- and post-test study designs were used to assess mental health literacy - knowledge and attitudes - of 218 educators before and immediately following completion of a 3-day training programme on the use of the AGMv. Results demonstrated a highly significant and substantial improvement in knowledge ( p  mental health literacy in study participants. There were no significant differences in outcomes related to sex or location. These positive results suggest that an approach that integrates mental health literacy into the existing school curriculum may be an effective, significant and sustainable method of enhancing mental health literacy for educators in Malawi. If these results are further found to be sustained over time, and demonstrated to be effective when extended to students, then this model may be a useful and widely applicable method for improving mental health literacy among both educators and students across Africa.

  2. The Spiral-in Method for Designing and Connecting Learning Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method that provides adaptive support to those engaged in learning activities. It proposes a way for acquiring content knowledge in a specific domain by using Learning Objects (LOs) and suggests a pattern for designing and connecting these LOs for the creation of a course...... given, LOs are created and connected in a linear structure, like a spiral. The LOs are grouped together into lessons attempting to satisfy short-term learning outcomes. The spiral has to be fully wrapped for the possession of the subject matter....

  3. ESIP's Earth Science Knowledge Graph (ESKG) Testbed Project: An Automatic Approach to Building Interdisciplinary Earth Science Knowledge Graphs to Improve Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Jiang, Y.; Burgess, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Big Earth observation data have been produced, archived and made available online, but discovering the right data in a manner that precisely and efficiently satisfies user needs presents a significant challenge to the Earth Science (ES) community. An emerging trend in information retrieval community is to utilize knowledge graphs to assist users in quickly finding desired information from across knowledge sources. This is particularly prevalent within the fields of social media and complex multimodal information processing to name but a few, however building a domain-specific knowledge graph is labour-intensive and hard to keep up-to-date. In this work, we update our progress on the Earth Science Knowledge Graph (ESKG) project; an ESIP-funded testbed project which provides an automatic approach to building a dynamic knowledge graph for ES to improve interdisciplinary data discovery by leveraging implicit, latent existing knowledge present within across several U.S Federal Agencies e.g. NASA, NOAA and USGS. ESKG strengthens ties between observations and user communities by: 1) developing a knowledge graph derived from various sources e.g. Web pages, Web Services, etc. via natural language processing and knowledge extraction techniques; 2) allowing users to traverse, explore, query, reason and navigate ES data via knowledge graph interaction. ESKG has the potential to revolutionize the way in which ES communities interact with ES data in the open world through the entity, spatial and temporal linkages and characteristics that make it up. This project enables the advancement of ESIP collaboration areas including both Discovery and Semantic Technologies by putting graph information right at our fingertips in an interactive, modern manner and reducing the efforts to constructing ontology. To demonstrate the ESKG concept, we will demonstrate use of our framework across NASA JPL's PO.DAAC, NOAA's Earth Observation Requirements Evaluation System (EORES) and various USGS

  4. Constructing and Refining Knowledge Bases: A Collaborative Apprenticeship Multistrategy Learning Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tecuci, Gheorghe

    2000-01-01

    This research has developed a theory, methodology and learning agent shell for development of knowledge bases and knowledge-based agents, by domain experts, with limited assistance from knowledge engineers...

  5. An Ontology-Based Approach for Knowledge Lifecycle Management within Aircraft Lifecycle Phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the aerospace domain, manufacturers and operators constantly seek to improve their products and processes. Increasingly, knowledge-based applications are developed to support or automate knowledge-intensive engineering tasks, saving time and money. However, engineering knowledge changes over

  6. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  7. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Knowledge Management Leadership Approaches within the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marshall, II, Tommy V

    2007-01-01

    .... This is achieved through effective knowledge management. KM involves processes to create, to store, and transfer knowledge to accomplish business objectives and to achieve a competitive advantage...

  9. Analytical Features: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Audio Feature Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachet François

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feature generation system designed to create audio features for supervised classification tasks. The main contribution to feature generation studies is the notion of analytical features (AFs, a construct designed to support the representation of knowledge about audio signal processing. We describe the most important aspects of AFs, in particular their dimensional type system, on which are based pattern-based random generators, heuristics, and rewriting rules. We show how AFs generalize or improve previous approaches used in feature generation. We report on several projects using AFs for difficult audio classification tasks, demonstrating their advantage over standard audio features. More generally, we propose analytical features as a paradigm to bring raw signals into the world of symbolic computation.

  10. A knowledge-driven approach to predicting technology adoption among Persons with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Timothy; McClean, Sally; Langdon, Patrick M; Shuai Zhang; Nugent, Chris; Cleland, Ian

    2014-01-01

    As the demographics of many countries shift towards an ageing population it is predicted that the prevalence of diseases affecting cognitive capabilities will continually increase. One approach to enabling individuals with cognitive decline to remain in their own homes is through the use of cognitive prosthetics such as reminding technology. However, the benefit of such technologies is intuitively predicated upon their successful adoption and subsequent use. Within this paper we present a knowledge-based feature set which may be utilized to predict technology adoption amongst Persons with Dementia (PwD). The chosen feature set is readily obtainable during a clinical visit, is based upon real data and grounded in established research. We present results demonstrating 86% accuracy in successfully predicting adopters/non-adopters amongst PwD.

  11. A Developmental and Process Approach to "Choice Categories": Imagination and "Tacit Knowledge".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria C D P

    2016-09-01

    A developmental process approach is proposed in order to contribute to reflect upon "choice categories" as the phenomena of human individuation (Mammen and Mironenko, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49:681-713, 2015; Mammen, 2016). Firstly we contrapose this perspective to the results referred by Krøjgaard (Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50(2), 264-276, 2016) regarding infant development. Subsequently, we discuss the role of imagination and the role of Polanyi's "tacit knowledge" as contributing to complement the concept of "choice categories". By this way we aim to highlight the heuristic value of focusing on the quality of the dynamics that guide developmental changes and its embeddedness in sociocultural milieu.

  12. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Smaldone, Arlene M; Davidson, Patricia R; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CD-KES: An Ontology Based Knowledge Education System for Patients with Chronic Diseases and Its Constructing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengkai; Gou, Ling; Wang, Yu; Shang, Yong; Tian, Yu; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-01-01

    Patients' participation plays a crucial role in the management of chronic diseases. Educating patients about their diseases allows patients to self-regulate their daily health conditions more reasonably and effectively. This study focuses on an informative way to develop daily education and guidance among patients. We provide a systematic approach to establish, process, and present the knowledge map of chronic diseases. An ontology technique is used to model clinical knowledge and rules. Rule-based inference service is constructed based on the RETE reasoning algorithm. Several considerations in semantic visualization and interaction are listed as recommendations. A prototype of Chronic Disease Knowledge Education System (CD-KES) based on this approach has been built for diabetes mellitus. With the prototype, comparative evaluations for system performances in knowledge querying and browsing are taken. The results shows the system can help patients to more easily understand medical knowledge and avoid potential negative consequences.

  14. An Ontology-supported Approach for Automatic Chaining of Web Services in Geospatial Knowledge Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, L.; Yue, P.; Yang, W.; Yu, G.

    2006-12-01

    Recent developments in geospatial semantic Web have shown promise for automatic discovery, access, and use of geospatial Web services to quickly and efficiently solve particular application problems. With the semantic Web technology, it is highly feasible to construct intelligent geospatial knowledge systems that can provide answers to many geospatial application questions. A key challenge in constructing such intelligent knowledge system is to automate the creation of a chain or process workflow that involves multiple services and highly diversified data and can generate the answer to a specific question of users. This presentation discusses an approach for automating composition of geospatial Web service chains by employing geospatial semantics described by geospatial ontologies. It shows how ontology-based geospatial semantics are used for enabling the automatic discovery, mediation, and chaining of geospatial Web services. OWL-S is used to represent the geospatial semantics of individual Web services and the type of the services it belongs to and the type of the data it can handle. The hierarchy and classification of service types are described in the service ontology. The hierarchy and classification of data types are presented in the data ontology. For answering users' geospatial questions, an Artificial Intelligent (AI) planning algorithm is used to construct the service chain by using the service and data logics expressed in the ontologies. The chain can be expressed as a graph with nodes representing services and connection weights representing degrees of semantic matching between nodes. The graph is a visual representation of logical geo-processing path for answering users' questions. The graph can be instantiated to a physical service workflow for execution to generate the answer to a user's question. A prototype system, which includes real world geospatial applications, is implemented to demonstrate the concept and approach.

  15. The study of the landscape: from a holistic approach to a social concept of knowledges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Badiali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three examples of the study and enhancement of the landscape in Italy are presented. The interdisciplinary approach to this topic is carried out not simply by juxtaposing disciplines, but by the integration of different ambits. In this way, disjunctive thought is substituted by a holistic approach that produces communication more appropriate to research. This offers the scientists a tool that is of paramount importance for their studies, and for ordinary citizens, a new way of considering the landscape. Example 1: Sustainable tourism and man–landscape relationships: Ecomuseum, Castello di Serravalle (Bologna. By studying the landscape of a hilly wine-producing area, it has been possible to observe the signs of reciprocal man–environment interactions that have characterized the area for over two millennia. For this reason, an Ecomuseum was founded, to provide an efficient tool for the enhancement of sustainable tourism, and also to popularize knowledge of local cultural heritage among the citizens. Example 2: Lago Bracciano near Montese (Modena: re-assessment of an Apennine area combining archeology, landscape and history. The landscape of areas containing historical settlements of local populations was reconstructed. This started with archeological and documentary data that had not yet been correlated, which was integrated with geological and geochemical data. In this way, a marginal tourism area has been improved by appraisal of its intrinsic cultural and historical values. Example 3: Geological elements and poetic trails in Frignano Park. This geological–literary itinerary starts from the assumption that there is a specific poetic and cultural value to the Modena Apennines that is linked to the morphological and geological features of this territory. Geology and literature become an accompaniment to a new pilgrimage of knowledge.

  16. RFID Tag Design Using Spiral Resonators and Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veysi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple generalized approach to design a compact chipless radio frequency identification tag. The proposed chipless tag encodes data into the spectral signature using a set of spiral resonators on both sides of substrate. Transmission amplitude component of the tag is used for data encoding. For miniaturization purpose, defected ground structure is used to reduce the circuit size by half compared to the conventional cascading technique. The proposed chipless tag operates between 4-6 GHz and produces 256 different binary strings through eight encoded bits. Measurement and simulation results verify the authenticity of this design.

  17. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  18. Tensions between Knowledge Transmission and Student-Focused Teaching Approaches to Assessment Purposes: Helping Students Improve through Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study surveyed 1064 Chinese school teachers' approaches to teaching and conceptions of assessment, and examined their inter-relationship using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Three approaches to teaching (i.e. Knowledge Transmission, Student-Focused, and Examination Preparation) and six conceptions of assessment…

  19. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Developing In-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Strategies for Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhurumuku, Elaosi; Chikochi, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that compared two approaches to developing in-service teachers' subject matter knowledge and strategies for teaching nature of science. A treatment post-test only quasi-experimental research design was used. One group of in-service teachers (n = 15) was taught using what is called a capsular approach. In…

  20. A New Approach to Nuclear Warhead Verification Using a Zero-Knowledge Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser,; Alexander, [Princeton University

    2012-05-16

    Warhead verification systems proposed to date fundamentally rely on the use of information barriers to prevent the release of classified design information. Measurements with information carriers significantly increase the complexity of inspection systems, make their certification and authentication difficult, and may reduce the overall confidence in the verifiability of future arms- control agreements. This talk presents a proof-of-concept of a new approach to nuclear warhead verification that minimizes the role of information barriers from the outset and envisions instead an inspection system that a priori avoids leakage of sensitive information using a so-called zero-knowledge protocol. The proposed inspection system is based on the template-matching approach and relies on active interrogation of a test object with 14-MeV neutrons. The viability of the method is examined with MCNP Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations modeling the experimental setup, an investigation of different diversion scenarios, and an analysis of the simulated data showing that it does not contain information about the properties of the inspected object.

  1. Graphite target for the spiral project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putaux, J.C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Ferro, A.; Foury, P.; Kotfila, L.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bertrand, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Loiselet, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A study of the thermal and physical properties of graphite targets for the SPIRAL project is presented. The main objective is to develop an optimized set-up both mechanically and thermally resistant, presenting good release properties (hot targets with thin slices). The results of irradiation tests concerning the mechanical and thermal resistance of the first prototype of SPIRAL target with conical geometry are presented. The micro-structural properties of the graphite target is also studied, in order to check that the release properties are not deteriorated by the irradiation. Finally, the results concerning the latest pilot target internally heated by an electrical current are shown. (author). 5 refs.

  2. Photometry and mass modeling of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent estimates of the relative contributions of dark and luminous matter to the mass of spiral galaxies are reviewed. In these studies, the galactic mass distribution is modeled on the basis of photometric and kinematic observational data. The accuracy of current photometry is discussed; the three-dimensional structure of spiral galaxies and the techniques used in bulge-disk decomposition are examined; and mass models incorporating rotation curves are presented. The disk mass/luminosity ratios in the red band (corrected for internal extinction) are found to range from 1.6 to 3.2, with no particular radius at which dark matter dominates. 20 references

  3. Knowledge-light adaptation approaches in case-based reasoning for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Sanja; Khussainova, Gulmira; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims at delivering a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour-surrounding area. It is a time-consuming trial-and-error process that requires the expertise of a group of medical experts including oncologists and medical physicists and can take from 2 to 3h to a few days. Our objective is to improve the performance of our previously built case-based reasoning (CBR) system for brain tumour radiotherapy treatment planning. In this system, a treatment plan for a new patient is retrieved from a case base containing patient cases treated in the past and their treatment plans. However, this system does not perform any adaptation, which is needed to account for any difference between the new and retrieved cases. Generally, the adaptation phase is considered to be intrinsically knowledge-intensive and domain-dependent. Therefore, an adaptation often requires a large amount of domain-specific knowledge, which can be difficult to acquire and often is not readily available. In this study, we investigate approaches to adaptation that do not require much domain knowledge, referred to as knowledge-light adaptation. We developed two adaptation approaches: adaptation based on machine-learning tools and adaptation-guided retrieval. They were used to adapt the beam number and beam angles suggested in the retrieved case. Two machine-learning tools, neural networks and naive Bayes classifier, were used in the adaptation to learn how the difference in attribute values between the retrieved and new cases affects the output of these two cases. The adaptation-guided retrieval takes into consideration not only the similarity between the new and retrieved cases, but also how to adapt the retrieved case. The research was carried out in collaboration with medical physicists at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK. All experiments were performed using real-world brain cancer

  4. Landscape changes, traditional ecological knowledge and future scenarios in the Alps: A holistic ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoni, Clara; Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Zatelli, Paolo; Ciolli, Marco

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, a dramatic landscape change has occurred in the European alpine region: open areas have been naturally recolonized by forests as traditional agricultural and forest activities were reduced and reorganized. Land use changes (LUC) are generally measured through GIS and photo interpretation techniques, but despite many studies focused on this phenomenon and its effects on biodiversity and on the environment in general, there is a lack of information about the transformation of the human-environment connection. The study of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), such as the ability to recognize wild plants used as medicine or food, can suggest how this connection evolved through time and generations. This work investigates the relationship between the natural forest cover expansion that influences the loss of open areas and the loss of TEK. Different data sources and approaches were used to address the topic in all its complexity: a mix of questionnaire investigations, historical maps, GIS techniques and modelling were used to analyse past land use changes and predict future scenarios. The study area, Trentino, Italy, is paradigmatic of the alpine situation, and the land use change in the region is well documented by different studies, which were reviewed and compared in this paper. Our findings suggest that open area loss can be used as a good proxy to highlight the present state and to produce future scenarios of Traditional Ecological Knowledge. This could increase awareness of the loss of TEK in other Alpine regions, where data on TEK are lacking, but where environmental trends are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A selective review of knowledge-based approaches to database design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azman Noah

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of real world knowledge or specialised knowledge has not been addressed by the majority of the systems reviewed. ODA has real world knowledge provided by using a thesaurus-type structure to represent generic models. Only NITDT includes the specialised knowledge in its knowledge base. NITDT classified its knowledge into application specific, domain specific and general knowledge. However the literature does not discuss in detail how this knowledge is applied during the design session. One of the key factors that distinguish computer-based expert systems from human experts is that the latter apply not only their specialised expertise to a problem but also their general knowledge of the world. NITDT is the only system reviewed here that holds any form of internal domain specific knowledge, which can be easily augmented, enriched and updated, as required. This knowledge allows the designer to be an active participant along with the user in the design process and significantly eases the user task. The inclusion of real world knowledge and specialised knowledge is an area that must be further addressed before intelligent tools are able to offer a realistic level of assistance to the human designers.

  6. Adaptation of the control system in view of SPIRAL integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecorche, E.

    1998-01-01

    As soon as the collaboration between the SPIRAL project and the Control Group has been defined, the first implementation of the SPIRAL control system started following various directions. Both the global hardware and software architectures has been specified and some practical works have been undertaken such as the Ethernet network installation or the first SPIRAL oriented software design and coding. (authors)

  7. The dynamics of the spiral galaxy M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the observations of the spiral galaxy M81 with the density-wave theory for tightly-wound spirals is presented. In particular, hydrogen-line observations are compared with the nonlinear density-wave theory for the gas with the aim of constructing a density-wave model for the spiral galaxy M81

  8. Geometric studies on variable radius spiral cone-beam scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yangbo; Zhu Jiehua; Wang Ge

    2004-01-01

    The goal is to perform geometric studies on cone-beam CT scanning along a three-dimensional (3D) spiral of variable radius. First, the background for variable radius spiral cone-beam scanning is given in the context of electron-beam CT/micro-CT. Then, necessary and sufficient conditions are proved for existence and uniqueness of PI lines inside the variable radius 3D spiral. These results are necessary steps toward exact cone-beam reconstruction from a 3D spiral scan of variable radius, adapting Katsevich's formula for the standard helical cone-beam scanning. It is shown in the paper that when the longitudinally projected planar spiral is not always convex toward the origin, the PI line may not be unique in the envelope defined by the tangents of the spiral. This situation can be avoided by using planar spirals whose curvatures are always positive. Using such a spiral, a longitudinally homogeneous region inside the corresponding 3D spiral is constructed in which any point is passed by one and only one PI line, provided the angle ω between planar spiral's tangent and radius is bounded by vertical bar ω-90 deg. vertical bar ≤ε for some positive ε≤32.48 deg. If the radius varies monotonically, this region is larger and one may allow ε≤51.85 deg. Examples for 3D spirals based on logarithmic and Archimedean spirals are given. The corresponding generalized Tam-Danielsson detection windows are also formulated

  9. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia

    1999-07-12

    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Sometimes, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present Spiraling Edge, a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that is filled by the final triangle.

  10. A nutrient’s downstream spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of a stream’s ability to remove nutrients provide insights on watershed integrity and stream habitat characteristics that are needed to help managers to restore stream ecosystem services. We used the Tracer Additon Spiraling Characterization Curve (TASCC) to mea...

  11. The Distribution of Mass in Spiral Galaxies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, Rob; Andersen, David; Bershady, Matthew; Verheijen, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. Mass modeling of any rotation curve can yield an alarming range of results - from entirely halo-dominated, centrally- concentrated dark distributions, to disk-dominated inner potentials with shallow, low density

  12. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    Correlations between optical surface brightness and the radio properties of spiral galaxies are investigated. It is found that galaxies with high surface brightness are more likely to be strong continuum radio sources and that galaxies with low surface brightness have high 21-cm line emission. (author)

  13. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  14. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  15. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  16. The Spiral Curriculum. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The Spiral Curriculum is predicated on cognitive theory advanced by Jerome Bruner (1960), who wrote, "We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development." In other words, even the most complex material, if properly structured and presented, can be understood by…

  17. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  18. A section of a spiral coal chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.N.; Gorodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A section of a spiral coal chute includes a housing with support brackets. It differs in that to decrease the amount of work necessary for assembly, each support bracket is made with a guide slot and equipped with a pull-out cantilever in the shape of a fork which covers the slot from the lateral sides.

  19. Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems High quality drinking water can be produced with membrane filtration processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Because the global demand for fresh clean water is increasing, these membrane technologies will increase in importance in the

  20. Modeling the Individual Within the Group: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Constructing knowledge with others is fundamental for all human activity, and many disciplines have sought to understand how the individual, other people, and the context, all influence collaborative knowledge construction, be it individual or group knowledge. The goal of this Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches is to present an analytical model of the relations of the individual to the group in situations of collaborative knowledge construction. The model is inspired by the work of Levinso...

  1. How to Form the Knowledge that Marketers Need? An Approach for Marketers to SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Ozmen, Emre S.; Atilla Oner, M; Khosrowshahi, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Traditionally, the formula for knowledge consists of belief and truth. The key challenge behind this is to understand how a marketer can benefit from this knowledge. Like the traditional Chinese saying, the reason a ship floats or sinks is the same, it is because of water. Similarly, the success or failure of a marketing campaign depends on knowledge. For a marketer, useful knowledge is the combination between the truth and the customer " s belief,

  2. A knowledge representation approach using fuzzy cognitive maps for better navigation support in an adaptive learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysafiadi, Konstantina; Virvou, Maria

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a knowledge representation approach of an adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system is presented. The domain knowledge should be represented in a more realistic way in order to allow the adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system to deliver the learning material to each individual learner dynamically taking into account her/his learning needs and her/his different learning pace. To succeed this, the domain knowledge representation has to depict the possible increase or decrease of the learner's knowledge. Considering that the domain concepts that constitute the learning material are not independent from each other, the knowledge representation approach has to allow the system to recognize either the domain concepts that are already partly or completely known for a learner, or the domain concepts that s/he has forgotten, taking into account the learner's knowledge level of the related concepts. In other words, the system should be informed about the knowledge dependencies that exist among the domain concepts of the learning material, as well as the strength on impact of each domain concept on others. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) seem to be an ideal way for representing graphically this kind of information. The suggested knowledge representation approach has been implemented in an e-learning adaptive system for teaching computer programming. The particular system was used by the students of a postgraduate program in the field of Informatics in the University of Piraeus and was compared with a corresponding system, in which the domain knowledge was represented using the most common used technique of network of concepts. The results of the evaluation were very encouraging.

  3. The Role of Knowledge in Participatory and Pluralistic Approaches to ESE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudsberg, Karin; Öhman, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate "in situ" the functions that knowledge has when used by students in argumentative discussions. The study is based on Dewey's pragmatic perspective of knowledge, which means that knowledge gets its meaning in the activity at hand. The analyses are conducted using Transactional Argumentation…

  4. Finding the right answer: an information retrieval approach supporting knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Ludermir, P.; Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Sona, D.; Dignum, F.; Dignum, V.; Koenig, S.; Kraus, S.; Singh, M.P.; Wooldridge, M.

    Knowledge Management can be defined as the effective strategies to get the right piece of knowledge to the right person in the right time. Having the main purpose of providing users with information items of their interest, recommender systems seem to be quite valuable for organizational knowledge

  5. Co-production of knowledge-action systems in urban sustainable governance: The KASA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Munoz-Erickson

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how knowledge-action-systems the networks of actors involved in the production, sharing and use of policy-relevant knowledge - work in the process of developing sustainable strategies for cities. I developed an interdisciplinary framework- the knowledge-action system analysis (KASA) framework ...

  6. Collaborative Learning Using a Project across Multiple Business Courses: A Cognitive Load and Knowledge Convergence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sandeep; Chandra, Aruna; Harper, Jeffrey S.; Sweetin, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Four business professors at a state university in the Midwestern United States launched a collaborative learning project grounded in cognitive learning theory and knowledge convergence theory with the objective of assessing student learning gains in cross-functional knowledge (CFK), course-related knowledge (CRK), and overall satisfaction with…

  7. Organizational Approaches to Managing Tacit Knowledge Loss of Legacy System Information Technology Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) employment shortages may be related to employee retirement or normal attrition. Within IT job shortages, tacit knowledge is lost when employees retire or leave organizations. Tacit knowledge is unwritten or unspoken knowledge that is not easily articulated, and exists only with the individuals who obtain the knowledge…

  8. Three-dimensional cephalometry: spiral multi-slice vs cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Gwen R J; Schutyser, Filip

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial imaging techniques are becoming increasingly popular and have opened new possibilities for orthodontic assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Recently, a new 3D cephalometric method based on spiral multi-slice (MS) computed tomography (CT) was developed and validated by our research group. This innovative 3D virtual approach is a bridge between conventional cephalometry and modern craniofacial imaging techniques and provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable quantitative 3D data. The aim of this article was to describe the advantages and the disadvantages of spiral MS-CT 3D cephalometry and to discuss the potential of cone-beam CT 3D cephalometry.

  9. Event extraction of bacteria biotopes: a knowledge-intensive NLP-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovic, Zorana; Golik, Wiktoria; Warnier, Pierre

    2012-06-26

    Bacteria biotopes cover a wide range of diverse habitats including animal and plant hosts, natural, medical and industrial environments. The high volume of publications in the microbiology domain provides a rich source of up-to-date information on bacteria biotopes. This information, as found in scientific articles, is expressed in natural language and is rarely available in a structured format, such as a database. This information is of great importance for fundamental research and microbiology applications (e.g., medicine, agronomy, food, bioenergy). The automatic extraction of this information from texts will provide a great benefit to the field. We present a new method for extracting relationships between bacteria and their locations using the Alvis framework. Recognition of bacteria and their locations was achieved using a pattern-based approach and domain lexical resources. For the detection of environment locations, we propose a new approach that combines lexical information and the syntactic-semantic analysis of corpus terms to overcome the incompleteness of lexical resources. Bacteria location relations extend over sentence borders, and we developed domain-specific rules for dealing with bacteria anaphors. We participated in the BioNLP 2011 Bacteria Biotope (BB) task with the Alvis system. Official evaluation results show that it achieves the best performance of participating systems. New developments since then have increased the F-score by 4.1 points. We have shown that the combination of semantic analysis and domain-adapted resources is both effective and efficient for event information extraction in the bacteria biotope domain. We plan to adapt the method to deal with a larger set of location types and a large-scale scientific article corpus to enable microbiologists to integrate and use the extracted knowledge in combination with experimental data.

  10. Transfer of knowledge to the next generation for safety assurance-present state and subjects of organizational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Recently, many organizational accidents have occurred in the electric power, railroad, airline, chemical, food and medical industries due to a lack of knowledge and technology indispensable for effective management. This raises the question of how important transfer of technology and knowledge management is in organizations. This paper clarified present state and related subjects of this problem in terms of human and organizational factors and introduced some advanced cases for the solution so as to find a way to practice the situation-dependent combined approach of existing organizational training and latest knowledge science. (T. Tanaka)

  11. The value of spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhi; Liu Zhang; Yang Chaoxiang; Lin Chengye; Zhang Li; Li Yuxiang; Ma Yunyan; Xiao Haisong; Lu Zhifeng; Wang Bo; Zhou Yunhong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To approach the value of spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in order to improve the correctness of the diagnosis. Methods: Analysis the cases' clinical manifestation and the CT images, who were diagnosed as obstructive jaundice by operation. All of cases had high-resolution computed tomograyhy scan. The thickness and the interval is 5mm, reconstructed the thickness and the interval to 1 mm and 1.5 mm, then send the images to the workstation and MRR were processed. Analysis the date with the pathology. Results: Spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction have 98% and 93% in the accuracy of location and characterization in the obstruction. Conclusion: The spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction is a good method to improve the accuracy of location and characterization in the obstructive jaundice. (authors)

  12. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  13. GANIL-SPIRAL2: A new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Sydney

    2011-05-01

    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are discussed in the present paper. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more than 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two orders of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100 μA to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called *Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  14. A spiral model of musical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBangert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model of how musicians make decisions about performing notated music. The model builds on psychological theories of decision-making and was developed from empirical studies of Western art music performance that aimed to identify intuitive and deliberate processes of decision-making, a distinction consistent with dual-process theories of cognition. The model proposes that the proportion of intuitive (Type 1 and deliberate (Type 2 decision-making processes changes with increasing expertise and conceptualises this change as movement along a continually narrowing upward spiral where the primary axis signifies principal decision-making type and the vertical axis marks level of expertise. The model is intended to have implications for the development of expertise as described in two main phases. The first is movement from a primarily intuitive approach in the early stages of learning towards greater deliberation as analytical techniques are applied during practice. The second phase occurs as deliberate decisions gradually become automatic (procedural, increasing the role of intuitive processes. As a performer examines more issues or reconsiders decisions, the spiral motion towards the deliberate side and back to the intuitive is repeated indefinitely. With increasing expertise, the spiral tightens to signify greater control over decision type selection. The model draws on existing theories, particularly Evans’ (2011 Intervention Model of dual-process theories, Cognitive Continuum Theory (Hammond et al., 1987; Hammond, 2007, and Baylor’s (2001 U-shaped model for the development of intuition by level of expertise. By theorising how musical decision-making operates over time and with increasing expertise, this model could be used as a framework for future research in music performance studies and performance science more generally.

  15. Putative bacterial interactions from metagenomic knowledge with an integrative systems ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordron, Philippe; Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, Maria-Paz; González, Mauricio; Thiele, Sven; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro; Eveillard, Damien

    2016-02-01

    Following the trend of studies that investigate microbial ecosystems using different metagenomic techniques, we propose a new integrative systems ecology approach that aims to decipher functional roles within a consortium through the integration of genomic and metabolic knowledge at genome scale. For the sake of application, using public genomes of five bacterial strains involved in copper bioleaching: Acidiphilium cryptum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, we first reconstructed a global metabolic network. Next, using a parsimony assumption, we deciphered sets of genes, called Sets from Genome Segments (SGS), that (1) are close on their respective genomes, (2) take an active part in metabolic pathways and (3) whose associated metabolic reactions are also closely connected within metabolic networks. Overall, this SGS paradigm depicts genomic functional units that emphasize respective roles of bacterial strains to catalyze metabolic pathways and environmental processes. Our analysis suggested that only few functional metabolic genes are horizontally transferred within the consortium and that no single bacterial strain can accomplish by itself the whole copper bioleaching. The use of SGS pinpoints a functional compartmentalization among the investigated species and exhibits putative bacterial interactions necessary for promoting these pathways. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Troublesome Knowledge: A New Approach to Quality Assurance in Mental Health Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidl, Donald M

    2018-01-01

    Background Quality assurance and quality enhancement processes in nursing education are vital to the establishment of a strong program. Existing quality assurance methods in nursing education such as professional self-regulation and external examination rely on provincial and national nursing associations for evaluation, putting minimal responsibility and accountability on internal program examiners. Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge provide a framework as outlined by Land that utilizes internal examiners from both student and faculty groups and represents an alternative to traditional quality assurance in nursing education. Purpose To identify troublesome mental health nursing content in a nursing curriculum by exploring students and faculty perspectives. Method A sequential mixed methods design that utilized surveys and focus groups to explore student and faculty perspectives on troublesome mental health nursing content. Results The project data were able to be organized into five main content themes that were identified as being troublesome: the spectrum of mental illness, therapeutic relationships and boundaries, praxis, professionalism in nursing, and brain chemistry and its management. Conclusion The findings from this project are unique to the program of review but show the potential of this new approach to quality assurance and program enhancement initiatives in nursing education.

  17. A knowledge engineering approach for improving secondary recovery in offshore reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Milton P.; Tovar, Felipe T.R.; Guerra, Fabio A. [Parana Institute of Technology (TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Artificial Intelligence Div.; Andrade, Cynthia; Baptista, Walmar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao

    2004-07-01

    Secondary recovery in offshore petroleum reservoirs by seawater injection is a technique traditionally applied in oil and gas industry. However, the injected water quality must be compatible with the reservoir characteristics in order to prevent corrosion, formation plugging and reservoir souring. So, the seawater must be treated before injection in the reservoirs and on-line monitoring equipment are employed to check the treatments efficacy. Nevertheless, the amount of data to analyze is quite big and involves many different experts, which make their evaluation and the establishment of correlations very difficult. For these cases, where it's crucial to detect the contaminants presence as soon as they occur to indicate corrective procedures, the application of knowledge engineering techniques and the development of expert systems are a good solution proposal. This paper presents the expert system InjeX (heuristic approach), developed for seawater injection treatment plants to maintain the water quality in offshore platforms. The description and the analysis of the problem, a proposed solution and some preliminary results are detailed and discussed along the paper. (author)

  18. Issues involved in a knowledge-based approach to procedure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Khartabil, L.F.; Miller, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Many knowledge-based systems (KBSs) have been built to assist human operators in managing nuclear power plant operating functions, such as monitoring, fault diagnosis, alarm filtering, and procedure management. For procedure management, KBSs have been built to display and track existing written procedures or to dynamically follow procedure execution by monitoring plant data and action execution and suggesting recovery steps. More recent works build KBSs able to synthesize procedures. This paper addresses and examines the main issues related to the implementation of on-line procedure synthesis using KBSs. A KBS for procedure synthesis can provide a more robust and effective procedural plan during accidents. Currently existing procedures for abnormal plant conditions, written as precompiled step sets based on the event and symptom approaches, are inherently not robust because anticipation of all potential plant states and associated plant responses is not possible. Thus, their failure recovery capability is limited to the precompiled set. Procedure synthesis has the potential to overcome these two problems because it does not require such precompilation of large sets of plant states and associated recovery procedures. Other benefits obtained from a complete procedure synthesis system are providing (a) a methodology for off-line procedure verification and (b) a methodology for the eventual automation of plant operations

  19. Critical processes of knowledge management: An approach toward the creation of customer value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cepeda-Carrion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute to the literature by identifying and analyzing possible combinations between critical knowledge management processes (absorptive capacity, knowledge transfer and knowledge application, which will result in the creation of superior customer value. The main research question this work addresses is: given that customers are demanding each day a greater value, how can organizations create more value to customers from their knowledge management processes and the combination of them? We propose that the combination of the three knowledge management processes builds a dynamic or higher-order capability that results in the creation of superior value for customers.

  20. New method of contour image processing based on the formalism of spiral light beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volostnikov, Vladimir G; Kishkin, S A; Kotova, S P [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    The possibility of applying the mathematical formalism of spiral light beams to the problems of contour image recognition is theoretically studied. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach are evaluated; the results of numerical modelling are presented. (optical image processing)

  1. The Spiral and the Lattice: Changes in Cognitive Learning Theory with Implications for Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasts recent views of learning and cognition with cognitive learning theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Maintains that Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum approach, still valuable, is not sufficient to explain cognitive development. Proposes a lattice-like cognitive development structure, inviting differing paths of exploration. (CFR)

  2. A knowledge-based approach for C-factor mapping in Spain using Landsat TM and GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe (former Folly), Anita; Bronsveld, M.C.; Clavaux, M

    1996-01-01

    The cover and management factor (C) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), is one of the most important parameters for assessing erosion. In this study it is shown how a knowledge-based approach can be used to optimize C-factor mapping in the Mediterranean region being characterized by unhom......The cover and management factor (C) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), is one of the most important parameters for assessing erosion. In this study it is shown how a knowledge-based approach can be used to optimize C-factor mapping in the Mediterranean region being characterized...

  3. An evidential approach to problem solving when a large number of knowledge systems is available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Some recent problems are no longer formulated in terms of imprecise facts, missing data or inadequate measuring devices. Instead, questions pertaining to knowledge and information itself arise and can be phrased independently of any particular area of knowledge. The problem considered in the present work is how to model a problem solver that is trying to find the answer to some query. The problem solver has access to a large number of knowledge systems that specialize in diverse features. In this context, feature means an indicator of what the possibilities for the answer are. The knowledge systems should not be accessed more than once, in order to have truly independent sources of information. Moreover, these systems are allowed to run in parallel. Since access might be expensive, it is necessary to construct a management policy for accessing these knowledge systems. To help in the access policy, some control knowledge systems are available. Control knowledge systems have knowledge about the performance parameters status of the knowledge systems. In order to carry out the double goal of estimating what units to access and to answer the given query, diverse pieces of evidence must be fused. The Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence is used to pool the knowledge bases.

  4. Genome wide prediction of protein function via a generic knowledge discovery approach based on evidence integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yinghui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The automation of many common molecular biology techniques has resulted in the accumulation of vast quantities of experimental data. One of the major challenges now facing researchers is how to process this data to yield useful information about a biological system (e.g. knowledge of genes and their products, and the biological roles of proteins, their molecular functions, localizations and interaction networks. We present a technique called Global Mapping of Unknown Proteins (GMUP which uses the Gene Ontology Index to relate diverse sources of experimental data by creation of an abstraction layer of evidence data. This abstraction layer is used as input to a neural network which, once trained, can be used to predict function from the evidence data of unannotated proteins. The method allows us to include almost any experimental data set related to protein function, which incorporates the Gene Ontology, to our evidence data in order to seek relationships between the different sets. Results We have demonstrated the capabilities of this method in two ways. We first collected various experimental datasets associated with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and applied the technique to a set of previously annotated open reading frames (ORFs. These ORFs were divided into training and test sets and were used to examine the accuracy of the predictions made by our method. Then we applied GMUP to previously un-annotated ORFs and made 1980, 836 and 1969 predictions corresponding to the GO Biological Process, Molecular Function and Cellular Component sub-categories respectively. We found that GMUP was particularly successful at predicting ORFs with functions associated with the ribonucleoprotein complex, protein metabolism and transportation. Conclusion This study presents a global and generic gene knowledge discovery approach based on evidence integration of various genome-scale data. It can be used to provide insight as to how certain

  5. Spiral analysis-improved clinical utility with center detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Qiping; Kurtis, Mónica M; Floyd, Alicia G; Smith, Whitney A; Pullman, Seth L

    2008-06-30

    Spiral analysis is a computerized method that measures human motor performance from handwritten Archimedean spirals. It quantifies normal motor activity, and detects early disease as well as dysfunction in patients with movement disorders. The clinical utility of spiral analysis is based on kinematic and dynamic indices derived from the original spiral trace, which must be detected and transformed into mathematical expressions with great precision. Accurately determining the center of the spiral and reducing spurious low frequency noise caused by center selection error is important to the analysis. Handwritten spirals do not all start at the same point, even when marked on paper, and drawing artifacts are not easily filtered without distortion of the spiral data and corruption of the performance indices. In this report, we describe a method for detecting the optimal spiral center and reducing the unwanted drawing artifacts. To demonstrate overall improvement to spiral analysis, we study the impact of the optimal spiral center detection in different frequency domains separately and find that it notably improves the clinical spiral measurement accuracy in low frequency domains.

  6. An approach to enrich online medical Problem-Based Learning with tacit healthcare knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yu-N; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2003-01-01

    Existing Problem-Based Learning (PBL) problems, though suitable in their own right for teaching purposes, are limited in their potential to evolve by themselves and to create new knowledge. Presently, they are based on textbook examples of past cases and/or cases that have been transcribed by a clinician. In this paper, we present (a) a tacit healthcare knowledge representation formalism called Healthcare Scenarios, (b) the relevance of healthcare scenarios in PBL in healthcare and medicine, (c) a novel PBL-Scenario-based tacit knowledge explication strategy and (d) an online PBL Problem Composer and Presenter (PBL-Online) to facilitate the acquisition and utilisation of expert-quality tacit healthcare knowledge to enrich online PBL. We employ a confluence of healthcare knowledge management tools and Internet technologies to bring tacit healthcare knowledge-enriched PBL to a global and yet more accessible level.

  7. Combining statistical learning with a knowledge-based approach: A case study in intensive care monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Morik, Katharina; Brockhausen, Peter; Joachims, Thorsten

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a case study in combining different methods for acquiring medical knowledge. Given a huge amount of noisy, high dimensional numerical time series data describing patients in intensive care, the support vector machine is used to learn when and how to change the dose of which drug. Given medical knowledge about and expertise in clinical decision making, a first-order logic knowledge base about effects of therapeutical interventions has been built. As a preprocessing mechanis...

  8. A collaborative knowledge management framework for supply chains: A UML-based model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Esteban Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most general cases, collaborative activities imply a distributed decision-making process which involves several supply chain nodes. In this paper, by means of a literature review, and by also considering the deficiencies of existing proposals, a collaborative knowledge management UML-based framework supported is proposed. In addition, this proposal synthesizes existing knowledge, and it not only fulfils, but enriches, each component with the modeller’s own knowledge.

  9. A knowledge system approach to the multinational company : conceptual grounding and implications for research

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Santos, José

    2009-01-01

    The role of knowledge, organizational learning, and innovation as levers of competitive advantage is now a commonly acknowledged insight in research in international management. However, while the agglomeration of insights of described as the “knowledge-based view” is a promising theoretical lens, insights are not organized into a unifying framework and there are significant holes in the understanding of how knowledge may be turned into a source of competitive advant...

  10. Changing knowledge perspective in a changing world: The Adriatic multidisciplinary TDS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Carniel, Sandro; Nativi, Stefano; Signell, Richard P.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Bonaldo, Davide; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    The use and exploitation of the marine environment in recent years has been increasingly high, therefore calling for the need of a better description, monitoring and understanding of its behavior. However, marine scientists and managers often spend too much time in accessing and reformatting data instead of focusing on discovering new knowledge from the processes observed and data acquired. There is therefore the need to make more efficient our approach to data mining, especially in a world where rapid climate change imposes rapid and quick choices. In this context, it is mandatory to explore ways and possibilities to make large amounts of distributed data usable in an efficient and easy way, an effort that requires standardized data protocols, web services and standards-based tools. Following the US-IOOS approach, which has been adopted in many oceanographic and meteorological sectors, we present a CNR experience in the direction of setting up a national Italian IOOS framework (at the moment confined at the Adriatic Sea environment), using the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). A TDS is a middleware designed to fill the gap between data providers and data users, and provides services allowing data users to find the data sets pertaining to their scientific needs, to access, visualize and use them in an easy way, without the need of downloading files to the local workspace. In order to achieve this results, it is necessary that the data providers make their data available in a standard form that the TDS understands, and with sufficient metadata so that the data can be read and searched for in a standard way. The TDS core is a NetCDF- Java Library implementing a Common Data Model (CDM), as developed by Unidata (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu), allowing the access to "array-based" scientific data. Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant NetCDF files can be read directly with no modification, while non-compliant files can

  11. Knowledge preservation of Atucha type reactor: Practical approaches and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppenstein, M.; Vetere, C.

    2004-01-01

    As Siemens, designer of the Atucha type HWRs, has transferred its nuclear activities to Framatome ANP, Argentina must undertake the knowledge preservation of this type of reactor, both if life extension is decided for the operating Atucha I NPP, and/or if ending the construction of Atucha II is decided. Another reason for undertaking a knowledge preservation program is aging and increasing retirement of personnel in the nuclear field, and the small number of young people in nuclear related disciplines at the universities. This situation motivated CNEA to implement a Knowledge Management system (KM), in order to capture and capitalize the tacit and explicit knowledge, to spread it and share it, making use of the technical and suitable tools through the organization. The strategy was based on recognizing the critical knowledge by means of a methodology incorporating the critical knowledge map technique. This map is a tool that uses the cognitive surfing in order to access to the organization heritage knowledge. Different techniques and methodologies are applied for identifying the critical knowledge domains. The result is a vigorous graphical tool with a certain formalism, able to describe knowledge in a hierarchical way in order to preserve it. It is used to analyze the criticality, and as an access portal to the knowledge patrimony, pointing out, according to each knowledge area, the people skills, publications, related documents and others. Experience obtained through the KM system development shows how training techniques are put into practice, in order not to interfere with normal plant operation, and how to initiate the KM processes in order to improve the criticity. (author)

  12. Place-Based Education for Environmental Behavior: A 'Funds of Knowledge' and Social Capital Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Austin R.; Selby, Samantha T.; Durham, William H.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that a new theoretical framework is needed within environmental education in the discussion of rural, underserved communities in Latin America. We argue that a community-resources approach, comprised of funds of knowledge and social capital, should be incorporated into contemporary research on place- and community-based…

  13. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  14. Novel nanofibrous spiral scaffolds for neural tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Junping; Yu, Xiaojun

    2008-12-01

    Due to several drawbacks associated with autografts and allografts, tissue-engineering approaches have been widely used to repair peripheral nerve injuries. Most of the traditional tissue-engineered scaffolds in use are either tubular (single or multi-lumen) or hydrogel-based cylindrical grafts, which provide limited surface area for cell attachment and regeneration. Here, we show a novel poly(lactide-co-glycotide) (PLGA) microsphere-based spiral scaffold design with a nanofibrous surface that has enhanced surface areas and possesses sufficient mechanical properties and porosities to support the nerve regeneration process. These scaffolds have an open architecture that goes evenly throughout the scaffolds hence leaving enough volume for media influx and deeper cell penetration into the scaffolds. The in vitro tests conducted using Schwann cells show that the nanofibrous spiral scaffolds promote higher cell attachment and proliferation when compared to contemporary tubular scaffolds or nanofiber-based tubular scaffolds. Also, the nanofiber coating on the surfaces enhances the surface area, mimics the extracellular matrix and provides unidirectional alignment of cells along its direction. Hence, we propose that these scaffolds could alleviate some drawbacks in current nerve grafts and could potentially be used in nerve regeneration.

  15. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge into Social Work Education: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Marcia; Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge from the rapidly growing field of neuroscience has important implications for our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, yet little of this knowledge has made its way into social work education. This article presents a model for integrating neuroscience into instruction on human development, the bio psychosocial…

  16. E-Learning as a Knowledge Management Approach for Intellectual Capital Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabat, Issa; Mahdi, Saad A.; Khoualdi, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the…

  17. The Relationship between Workplace Climate, Motivation and Learning Approaches for Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Gert; Noyens, Dorien; Gijbels, David; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Workplace learning is becoming a central tenet for a large proportion of today's employees. This seems especially true for so-called knowledge workers. Today, it remains unclear how differences in the quality of workplace learning are affected by differences in perception of the workplace environment and the motivation of knowledge workers to…

  18. Sharing What We Know about Living a Good Life: Indigenous Approaches to Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Olding, Michelle; Ziegler, Carolyn

    Knowledge Translation (KT), a core priority in Canadian health research, policy, and practice for the past decade, has a long and rich tradition within Indigenous communities. In Indigenous knowledge systems the processes of "knowing" and "doing" are often intertwined and indistinguishable. However, dominant KT models in health science do not typically recognize Indigenous knowledge conceptualizations, sharing systems, or protocols and will likely fall short in Indigenous contexts. There is a need to move towards KT theory and practice that embraces diverse understandings of knowledge and that recognizes, respects, and builds on pre-existing knowledge systems. This will not only result in better processes and outcomes for Indigenous communities, it will also provide rich learning for mainstream KT scholarship and practice. As professionals deeply engaged in KT work, health librarians are uniquely positioned to support the development and implementation of Indigenous KT. This article provides information that will enhance the ability of readers from diverse backgrounds to promote and support Indigenous KT efforts, including an introduction to Indigenous knowledge conceptualizations and knowledge systems; key contextual issues to consider in planning, implementing, or evaluating KT in Indigenous settings; and contemporary examples of Indigenous KT in action. The authors pose critical reflection questions throughout the article that encourage readers to connect the content with their own practices and underlying knowledge assumptions.

  19. Knowledge creation using artificial intelligence: a twin approach to improve breast screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Vikraman; Bali, Rajeev K; Arochena, Hisbel; Naguib, Rauf N G; Wallis, Matthew; Wheaton, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) is rapidly becoming established as a core organizational element within the healthcare industry to assist in the delivery of better patient care. KM is a cyclical process which typically starts with knowledge creation (KC), progresses to knowledge sharing, knowledge accessibility and eventually results in new KC (in the same or a related domain). KC plays a significant role in KM as it creates the necessary "seeds" for propagating many more knowledge cycles. This paper addresses the potential of KC in the context of the UK's National Health Service (NHS) breast screening service. KC can be automated to a greater extent by embedding processes within an artificial intelligence (AI) based environment. The UK breast screening service is concerned about non-attendance and this paper discusses issues pertaining to increasing attendance.

  20. Fast spiral-scan atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I A; Reza Moheimani, S O

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new scanning technique for fast atomic force microscopy. In this method, the sample is scanned in a spiral pattern instead of the well established raster pattern. A spiral scan can be produced by applying single frequency cosine and sine signals with slowly varying amplitudes to the x-axis and y-axis of an atomic force microscope (AFM) scanner respectively. The use of the single tone input signals allows the scanner to move at high speeds without exciting the mechanical resonance of the device and with relatively small control efforts. Experimental results obtained by implementing this technique on a commercial AFM indicate that high-quality images can be generated at scan frequencies well beyond the raster scans.

  1. Spiral optical designs for nonimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pablo; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Vilaplana, Juan; Buljan, Marina

    2011-10-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. In some demanding nonimaging applications, these restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for negative draft angles. Some of these spiral symmetry examples will be shown here, as well as their simulated results.

  2. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  3. Dark and visible matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.; Durham Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Exploiting relevant information from the profiles of rotation curves, we calculate the dark-to-luminous mass ratio within the disc size for a sample of 43 spiral galaxies. The values we find, while proving the ubiquitous presence of dark matter, vary with luminosity. Faint and bright galaxies are found to be respectively halo- and disc-dominated in the disc regions. The luminosity sequence turns out to be a dark-to-luminous sequence. (author)

  4. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  5. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  6. E-LEARNING AS A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa SHEHABAT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems. The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage. Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.

  7. E-LEARNING AS A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa SHEHABAT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems.The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage.Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.

  8. Knowledge management systems in support of an induction programme: An action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Raman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are in the knowledge business since they are involved in knowledge creation, dissemination and learning. However, not many higher education institutions get the most benefit out of managing their knowledge. Most of these institutions are so busy delivering knowledge that they fail to capture the best practices in their knowledge delivery. The induction programme for new lecturers is therefore very important to improve the quality of teaching. In teaching, lecturers might be the subject matter experts but could lack knowledge related to teaching, such as theories of teaching and learning, classroom organization and management, development of curriculum and course content, and professionalism. This paper examines if knowledge management systems (KMS can support the induction programmes for new lecturers in an academic setting at the Bina Nusantara University in Indonesia. Action research is used as the underlying methodology. Specifically, a 5-step canonical action research was used to conduct the study. Our findings post intervention suggests that most lecturers understand the importance of the induction programme and the lecturers have positive attitudes towards the implementation of KMS to support the induction programme.

  9. Spiral and Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in a Computer Science Project Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Arturo; Blanco, José Miguel; Domínguez, César; Sánchez, Ana; Heras, Jónathan; Usandizaga, Imanol

    2016-06-01

    Different learning methods such as project-based learning, spiral learning and peer assessment have been implemented in science disciplines with different outcomes. This paper presents a proposal for a project management course in the context of a computer science degree. Our proposal combines three well-known methods: project-based learning, spiral learning and peer assessment. Namely, the course is articulated during a semester through the structured (progressive and incremental) development of a sequence of four projects, whose duration, scope and difficulty of management increase as the student gains theoretical and instrumental knowledge related to planning, monitoring and controlling projects. Moreover, the proposal is complemented using peer assessment. The proposal has already been implemented and validated for the last 3 years in two different universities. In the first year, project-based learning and spiral learning methods were combined. Such a combination was also employed in the other 2 years; but additionally, students had the opportunity to assess projects developed by university partners and by students of the other university. A total of 154 students have participated in the study. We obtain a gain in the quality of the subsequently projects derived from the spiral project-based learning. Moreover, this gain is significantly bigger when peer assessment is introduced. In addition, high-performance students take advantage of peer assessment from the first moment, whereas the improvement in poor-performance students is delayed.

  10. Enhancing knowledge flow in a health care context: a mobile computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jonice; Souza, Diego Da Silva; de Lima, Patrícia Zudio; da Silveira, Pedro C; de Souza, Jano Moreira

    2014-11-26

    Advances in mobile computing and wireless communication have allowed people to interact and exchange knowledge almost anywhere. These technologies support Medicine 2.0, where the health knowledge flows among all involved people (eg, patients, caregivers, doctors, and patients' relatives). Our paper proposes a knowledge-sharing environment that takes advantage of mobile computing and contextual information to support knowledge sharing among participants within a health care community (ie, from patients to health professionals). This software environment enables knowledge exchange using peer-to-peer (P2P) mobile networks based on users' profiles, and it facilitates face-to-face interactions among people with similar health interests, needs, or goals. First, we reviewed and analyzed relevant scientific articles and software apps to determine the current state of knowledge flow within health care. Although no proposal was capable of addressing every aspect in the Medicine 2.0 paradigm, a list of requirements was compiled. Using this requirement list and our previous works, a knowledge-sharing environment was created integrating Mobile Exchange of Knowledge (MEK) and the Easy to Deploy Indoor Positioning System (EDIPS), and a twofold qualitative evaluation was performed. Second, we analyzed the efficiency and reliability of the knowledge that the integrated MEK-EDIPS tool provided to users according to their interest topics, and then performed a proof of concept with health professionals to determine the feasibility and usefulness of using this solution in a real-world scenario. . Using MEK, we reached 100% precision and 80% recall in the exchange of files within the peer-to-peer network. The mechanism that facilitated face-to-face interactions was evaluated by the difference between the location indicated by the EDIPS tool and the actual location of the people involved in the knowledge exchange. The average distance error was <6.28 m for an indoor environment. The

  11. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Approaches of Pre-Primary and Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ankita; Oswal, Kunal C; Sajnani, Dipti A; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    Background. School teachers have an internationally recognized potential role in school-based dental education and considerable importance has therefore been attributed to their dental knowledge. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of pre-primary and primary school teachers in the city of Mumbai. Methods. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the suburban regions of Mumbai using a self-administered questionnaire and involved 511 teachers. Results. Teachers demonstrated inappropriate or incomplete knowledge regarding children's oral health. Only 53.2% knew that an individual has two sets of dentition. Moreover, only 45.4% of the teachers knew that a primary dentition consists of 20 teeth. Only 56.9% of the teachers asked their children to clean their mouth after snacking during school hours. 45.0% of the teachers were unaware of fluoridated tooth pastes whilst 78.9% of them were unaware of school water fluoridation programmes. Also, 54.8% of the teachers never discussed the oral health of children with their parents during parents meet. Conclusions. The studied school teachers demonstrated incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral practices, and unfavourable approaches to children's oral health. There is a definite and immediate need for organized training of school teachers on basic oral health knowledge.

  12. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Approaches of Pre-Primary and Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Mota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. School teachers have an internationally recognized potential role in school-based dental education and considerable importance has therefore been attributed to their dental knowledge. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of pre-primary and primary school teachers in the city of Mumbai. Methods. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the suburban regions of Mumbai using a self-administered questionnaire and involved 511 teachers. Results. Teachers demonstrated inappropriate or incomplete knowledge regarding children’s oral health. Only 53.2% knew that an individual has two sets of dentition. Moreover, only 45.4% of the teachers knew that a primary dentition consists of 20 teeth. Only 56.9% of the teachers asked their children to clean their mouth after snacking during school hours. 45.0% of the teachers were unaware of fluoridated tooth pastes whilst 78.9% of them were unaware of school water fluoridation programmes. Also, 54.8% of the teachers never discussed the oral health of children with their parents during parents meet. Conclusions. The studied school teachers demonstrated incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral practices, and unfavourable approaches to children’s oral health. There is a definite and immediate need for organized training of school teachers on basic oral health knowledge.

  13. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  14. An Approach for Systematically Capturing Value-Added Knowledge as Applicable to Contracting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eller, Rachelle B; Moore, Sherry A; Impastato, Bonnie A

    2008-01-01

    Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), anticipates a substantial loss of contracting knowledge due to the retirement of senior leadership and contract specialists over the next 7 years...

  15. Modeling Relationship between R&D Activities and Organization Knowledge Stock Using System Dynamics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohaghar; Mohammad Mirkazemi Mood; Hossein Rahmany Youshanlouei

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is identified as a critical factor for innovation. On the other side, knowledge creation takes place through investing on R&D activities and developing new products. Furthermore, not all types of R&D activities result in similar types of innovation. Indeed, investing on research activities result in radical innovation and investing on development activities concludein incremental innovation. Keeping a balance between these two kinds of innovation in products is critical to acquire c...

  16. Tracing Knowledge Transfer from Universities to Industry: A Text Mining Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woltmann, Sabrina; Alkærsig, Lars

    2017-01-01

    that several websites contain very related and partly even traceable content from the university. The results show that university research is represented in the websites of industrial partners. We propose further improvements to enhance the results and potential areas for future implementation. This paper...... is the first step to enable the identification of common knowledge and knowledge transfer via text mining to increase its measurability....

  17. Teaching differential diagnosis in primary care using an inverted classroom approach: student satisfaction and gain in skills and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösner, Stefan; Pickert, Julia; Stibane, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Differential diagnosis is a crucial skill for primary care physicians. General practice plays an increasing important role in undergraduate medical education. Via general practice, students may be presented with an overview of the whole spectrum of differential diagnosis in regard to common symptoms encountered in primary care. This project evaluated the impact of a blended learning program (using the inverted classroom approach) on student satisfaction and development of skills and knowledge. An elective seminar in differential diagnosis in primary care, which utilized an inverted classroom design, was offered to students. Evaluation followed a mixed methods design: participants completed a pre- and post-test, a questionnaire, and a focus group discussion. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and answers were grouped according to different themes. Test results were analysed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Participants (n = 17) rated the course concept very positively. Especially the inverted classroom approach was appreciated by all students, as it allowed for more time during the seminar to concentrate on interactive and practice based learning. Students (n = 16) showed a post-test significant overall gain in skills and knowledge of 33%. This study showed a positive effect of the inverted classroom approach on students' satisfaction and skills and knowledge. Further research is necessary in order to explore the potentials of this approach, especially the impact on development of clinical skills.

  18. Embedding a Palliative Approach in Nursing Care Delivery: An Integrated Knowledge Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Richard; Porterfield, Pat; Roberts, Della; Lee, Joyce; Liang, Leah; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Pesut, Barb; Schalkwyk, Tilly; Stajduhar, Kelli; Tayler, Carolyn; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Thorne, Sally

    A palliative approach involves adapting and integrating principles and values from palliative care into the care of persons who have life-limiting conditions throughout their illness trajectories. The aim of this research was to determine what approaches to nursing care delivery support the integration of a palliative approach in hospital, residential, and home care settings. The findings substantiate the importance of embedding the values and tenets of a palliative approach into nursing care delivery, the roles that nurses have in working with interdisciplinary teams to integrate a palliative approach, and the need for practice supports to facilitate that embedding and integration.

  19. Ablation acceleration of macroparticle in spiral magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-05-01

    The rocket motion of macroparticles heated by energetic pulses in a spiral magnetic field was studied. The purpose of the present work is to study the ablation acceleration of a macroparticle in a spiral magnetic field with the help of the law of conservation of angular momentum. The basic equation of motion of ablatively accelerated projectile in a spiral magnetic field was derived. Any rocket which is ejecting fully ionized plasma in an intense magnetic field with rotational transform is able to have spin by the law of conservation of momentum. The effect of spiral magnetic field on macroparticle acceleration is discussed. The necessary mass ratio increase exponentially with respect to the field parameter. The spiral field should be employed with care to have only to stabilize the position of macroparticles. As conclusion, it can be said that the ablation acceleration of the projectile in a spiral field can give the accelerated body spin quite easily. (Kato, T.)

  20. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  1. Knowledge base and neural network approach for protein secondary structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulika S; Mazumdar, Himanshu S

    2014-11-21

    Protein structure prediction is of great relevance given the abundant genomic and proteomic data generated by the genome sequencing projects. Protein secondary structure prediction is addressed as a sub task in determining the protein tertiary structure and function. In this paper, a novel algorithm, KB-PROSSP-NN, which is a combination of knowledge base and modeling of the exceptions in the knowledge base using neural networks for protein secondary structure prediction (PSSP), is proposed. The knowledge base is derived from a proteomic sequence-structure database and consists of the statistics of association between the 5-residue words and corresponding secondary structure. The predicted results obtained using knowledge base are refined with a Backpropogation neural network algorithm. Neural net models the exceptions of the knowledge base. The Q3 accuracy of 90% and 82% is achieved on the RS126 and CB396 test sets respectively which suggest improvement over existing state of art methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: julio.soria-lara@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Transport Research Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  3. Managing visitor sites in Svalbard: from a precautionary approach towards knowledge-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Fangel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased tourism in the Arctic calls for more knowledge to meet management challenges. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the effects of human use on vegetation, fauna and cultural heritage in Svalbard, and it addresses the need for site-specific knowledge for improved management. This paper draws upon scientific studies, knowledge held by management authorities and local people, the Governor's database on visitors and visited sites and our own data from landing sites we visited. There is a certain level of basic knowledge available, allowing us to roughly grade the vulnerability of sites. However, there is a thorough lack of site-specific data related to the management of single locations or groups of similar locations. Future research needs to address specific on-site challenges in the management of visitor sites. Relevant management models and measures are discussed. We contend that a shift away from a blanket application of the precautionary principle and towards a more integrated, site-specific and evidence-based management plan will contribute to more trusted and reliable, and thereby acceptable among stakeholders, decisions in the management of growing tourism activity in Svalbard.

  4. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A; Kaberi, H; Ruiz, J; Zatsepin, A; Arashkevich, E; Giani, M; Karageorgis, A P; Prieto, L; Pantazi, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, D; Ribera d'Alcalà, M; Tornero, V; Vassilopoulou, V; Durrieu de Madron, X; Guieu, C; Puig, P; Zenetos, A; Andral, B; Angel, D; Altukhov, D; Ayata, S D; Aktan, Y; Balcıoğlu, E; Benedetti, F; Bouchoucha, M; Buia, M-C; Cadiou, J-F; Canals, M; Chakroun, M; Christou, E; Christidis, M G; Civitarese, G; Coatu, V; Corsini-Foka, M; Cozzi, S; Deidun, A; Dell'Aquila, A; Dogrammatzi, A; Dumitrache, C; Edelist, D; Ettahiri, O; Fonda-Umani, S; Gana, S; Galgani, F; Gasparini, S; Giannakourou, A; Gomoiu, M-T; Gubanova, A; Gücü, A-C; Gürses, Ö; Hanke, G; Hatzianestis, I; Herut, B; Hone, R; Huertas, E; Irisson, J-O; İşinibilir, M; Jimenez, J A; Kalogirou, S; Kapiris, K; Karamfilov, V; Kavadas, S; Keskin, Ç; Kideyş, A E; Kocak, M; Kondylatos, G; Kontogiannis, C; Kosyan, R; Koubbi, P; Kušpilić, G; La Ferla, R; Langone, L; Laroche, S; Lazar, L; Lefkaditou, E; Lemeshko, I E; Machias, A; Malej, A; Mazzocchi, M-G; Medinets, V; Mihalopoulos, N; Miserocchi, S; Moncheva, S; Mukhanov, V; Oaie, G; Oros, A; Öztürk, A A; Öztürk, B; Panayotova, M; Prospathopoulos, A; Radu, G; Raykov, V; Reglero, P; Reygondeau, G; Rougeron, N; Salihoglu, B; Sanchez-Vidal, A; Sannino, G; Santinelli, C; Secrieru, D; Shapiro, G; Simboura, N; Shiganova, T; Sprovieri, M; Stefanova, K; Streftaris, N; Tirelli, V; Tom, M; Topaloğlu, B; Topçu, N E; Tsagarakis, K; Tsangaris, C; Tserpes, G; Tuğrul, S; Uysal, Z; Vasile, D; Violaki, K; Xu, J; Yüksek, A; Papathanassiou, E

    2015-06-15

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional research themes targeting research topics that are requested to the achievement of GES. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly Nonlinear and Birefringent Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and design a spiral photonic crystal fiber with elliptical air holes for achieving high birefringence, large nonlinearity, and negative dispersion. The structure is designed using chalcogenide glass (As2S3 for different ellipticity ratios of air holes in the cladding and the effect on various properties is observed. The proposed structure has birefringence of the order 10−2, nonlinearity of 26739.42 W−1 m−1, and dispersion of −1136.69 at 0.85 μm. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the design and simulation of the structure. Due to high birefringence and negative dispersion, the proposed structure can be used for polarization control and dispersion compensation, respectively.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, V. V., E-mail: kiselev@imp.uran.ru; Raskovalov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of “precursors” and “tails” in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.

  7. Cochlea and other spiral forms in nature and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stanković, Predrag; Štrbac, Mile; Tomić, Irina; Ćetković, Mila

    2012-01-01

    The original appearance of the cochlea and the specific shape of a spiral are interesting for both the scientists and artists. Yet, a correlation between the cochlea and the spiral forms in nature and art has been very rarely mentioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between the cochlea and the other spiral objects in nature, as well as the artistic presentation of the spiral forms. We explored data related to many natural objects and examined 13,625 artworks created by 2049 artists. We also dissected 2 human cochleas and prepared histologic slices of a rat cochlea. The cochlea is a spiral, cone-shaped osseous structure that resembles certain other spiral forms in nature. It was noticed that parts of some plants are arranged in a spiral manner, often according to Fibonacci numbers. Certain animals, their parts, or their products also represent various types of spirals. Many of them, including the cochlea, belong to the logarithmic type. Nature created spiral forms in the living world to pack a larger number of structures in a limited space and also to improve their function. Because the cochlea and other spiral forms have a certain aesthetic value, many artists presented them in their works of art. There is a mathematical and geometric correlation between the cochlea and natural spiral objects, and the same functional reason for their formation. The artists' imagery added a new aspect to those domains. Obviously, the creativity of nature and Homo sapiens has no limits--like the infinite distal part of the spiral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Presenting an Approach for Conducting Knowledge Architecture within Large-Scale Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaee, Touraj; Habibi, Jafar; Mohaghar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge architecture (KA) establishes the basic groundwork for the successful implementation of a short-term or long-term knowledge management (KM) program. An example of KA is the design of a prototype before a new vehicle is manufactured. Due to a transformation to large-scale organizations, the traditional architecture of organizations is undergoing fundamental changes. This paper explores the main strengths and weaknesses in the field of KA within large-scale organizations and provides a suitable methodology and supervising framework to overcome specific limitations. This objective was achieved by applying and updating the concepts from the Zachman information architectural framework and the information architectural methodology of enterprise architecture planning (EAP). The proposed solution may be beneficial for architects in knowledge-related areas to successfully accomplish KM within large-scale organizations. The research method is descriptive; its validity is confirmed by performing a case study and polling the opinions of KA experts.

  9. Presenting an Approach for Conducting Knowledge Architecture within Large-Scale Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaee, Touraj; Habibi, Jafar; Mohaghar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge architecture (KA) establishes the basic groundwork for the successful implementation of a short-term or long-term knowledge management (KM) program. An example of KA is the design of a prototype before a new vehicle is manufactured. Due to a transformation to large-scale organizations, the traditional architecture of organizations is undergoing fundamental changes. This paper explores the main strengths and weaknesses in the field of KA within large-scale organizations and provides a suitable methodology and supervising framework to overcome specific limitations. This objective was achieved by applying and updating the concepts from the Zachman information architectural framework and the information architectural methodology of enterprise architecture planning (EAP). The proposed solution may be beneficial for architects in knowledge-related areas to successfully accomplish KM within large-scale organizations. The research method is descriptive; its validity is confirmed by performing a case study and polling the opinions of KA experts. PMID:25993414

  10. Testing a teaching appointment and geragogy-based approach to medication knowledge at discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sharon; Buck, Gail; Goldstein, Debora; Largaespada, Elena; Logan, Lauren; Stebbins, Diane; Halvorsen, Lisa; Kalman-Yearout, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Limited research is available on how best to provide discharge teaching for rehabilitation patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for providing education to increase patient knowledge about discharge medications. Using a convenience sample of patients and family members, a randomized, experimental study design was conducted to compare three methods for teaching about discharge medications (geragogy format plus scheduled time for teaching; geragogy format alone; standard teaching method). No differences were found in knowledge between the three teaching methods, but family members had significantly lower confidence levels before the teaching sessions than patients; patients' confidence levels increased after education (p = .002). Although the teaching method did not affect medication knowledge, family members (though not patients) experienced significant increases in confidence levels for administering discharge medications after the education.

  11. A consensus approach to maintain a knowledge based system in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBozec, C.; Zapletal, E.; Degoulet, P.; Jaulent, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The IDEM (Images and Diagnosis from Example in Medicine) software is a computerized environment able to store unambiguous descriptions of histopathologic images from pathologists. Medical imaging could benefit from such environments if they can easily and continuously be maintained. Within the IDEM environment, we developed a knowledge management module coupled with a consensus module to support knowledge acquisition and maintenance by the experts of the domain. Two pathologists, a senior and junior pathologist, reviewed fifty-three cases of breast pathology. Our findings indicate 1) that the IDEM knowledge management module allows experts to describe images by selecting terms and defining new ones if necessary, allowing the construction of a glossary for the domain and 2) that the consensus module, developed to store valid multi-experts cases, contributes also to validate new terms of the glossary and to refine semantic distance between terms. Such methodology could be applied to others highly evolving medical domains. PMID:11825210

  12. A Vertical Approach to Knowledge Management: Codification and Personalization in Software Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Karsten; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2011-01-01

    Software process improvement is a practical concern in software companies today and it has been addressed in research. Part of this research has applied a knowledge management perspective. Researchers point out that two different strategies exist where a mixture is difficult to maintain......: Personalization (focus on people and their collaboration) and codification (focus on documents and their accessibility). This paper addresses different knowledge management problems of a software company and how they can be alleviated. A prototype, which distinguishes between different organizational levels (e.......g., software managers and software developers) and applies different knowledge management strategies, was built. It consists of a wiki and an enterprise system. This article shows how each part of the system focuses on one of the strategies and describes the differences for tool support. This combination could...

  13. Impact of radioactivity on problematic environment, knowledge situation, and approaches toward radiation protection criteria identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2001-01-01

    The scraps of knowledge existing todays about the environmental radiation protection are based on the dose limits (10 and 1 mGy.h -1 ) that have been determined from literature relative to effects of acute exposure by external irradiation on individuals. But these standards come from a context far from environmental reality. Some research directions are coming out: to complete the radioecological knowledge of transfers, the biological accumulation in living organisms, to study the effects of this bioaccumulation in a multi pollution context with chronic low dose exposure; to identify the characteristics of these effects( low doses in chronic multi pollutions) at the ecosystem level. (N.C.)

  14. Passing Decisions in Football: Introducing an Empirical Approach to Estimating the Effects of Perceptual Information and Associative Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Silvan

    2018-01-01

    The importance of various information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports is debated. While some highlight the role of the perceptual information provided by the current game context, others point to the role of knowledge-based information that athletes have regarding their team environment. Recently, an integrative perspective considering the simultaneous involvement of both of these information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports has been presented. In a theoretical example concerning passing decisions, the simultaneous involvement of perceptual and knowledge-based information has been illustrated. However, no precast method of determining the contribution of these two information sources empirically has been provided. The aim of this article is to bridge this gap and present a statistical approach to estimating the effects of perceptual information and associative knowledge on passing decisions. To this end, a sample dataset of scenario-based passing decisions is analyzed. This article shows how the effects of perceivable team positionings and athletes' knowledge about their fellow team members on passing decisions can be estimated. Ways of transfering this approach to real-world situations and implications for future research using more representative designs are presented.

  15. Passing Decisions in Football: Introducing an Empirical Approach to Estimating the Effects of Perceptual Information and Associative Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Steiner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of various information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports is debated. While some highlight the role of the perceptual information provided by the current game context, others point to the role of knowledge-based information that athletes have regarding their team environment. Recently, an integrative perspective considering the simultaneous involvement of both of these information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports has been presented. In a theoretical example concerning passing decisions, the simultaneous involvement of perceptual and knowledge-based information has been illustrated. However, no precast method of determining the contribution of these two information sources empirically has been provided. The aim of this article is to bridge this gap and present a statistical approach to estimating the effects of perceptual information and associative knowledge on passing decisions. To this end, a sample dataset of scenario-based passing decisions is analyzed. This article shows how the effects of perceivable team positionings and athletes' knowledge about their fellow team members on passing decisions can be estimated. Ways of transfering this approach to real-world situations and implications for future research using more representative designs are presented.

  16. SPIRAL2 Week 2012 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, F.; Jacquemet, M.; Lewitowicz, M.; Bertrand, P.; Tuske, O.; Caruso, A.; Leyge, J.F.; Perrot, L.; Di Giacomo, M.; Ausset, P.; Moscatello, M.H.; Savalle, A.; Rannou, B.; Lambert, M.; Petit, E.; Hulin, X.; Barre-Boscher, N.; Tusseau-Nenez, S.; Tecchio, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the 5. edition of the SPIRAL2 Week is to present and discuss the current status of the SPIRAL2 project in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. The program of the meeting will include presentations on scientific and technical developments related to the baseline project, experiments and theory. The main topics to be discussed at the conference are: -) physics and detectors at SPIRAL2, -) driver accelerators, -) production of radioactive ion beams (RIB), -) safety, -) buildings and infrastructure, -) RIB facilities worldwide, and -) SPIRAL2 preparatory phase. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  17. Algorithms for computing efficient, electric-propulsion, spiralling trajectories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop techniques for rapidly designing many-revolution, electric-propulsion, spiralling trajectories, including the effects of shadowing, gravity harmonics, and...

  18. Self-regulated model of galactic spiral structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel; Khanna, Gaurav

    2002-01-01

    The presence of spiral structure in isolated galaxies is a problem that has only been partially explained by theoretical models. Because the rate and pattern of star formation in the disk must depend only on mechanisms internal to the disk, we may think of the spiral galaxy as a self-regulated system far from equilibrium. This paper uses this idea to look at a reaction-diffusion model for the formation of spiral structures in certain types of galaxies. In numerical runs of the model, spiral structure forms and persists over several revolutions of the disk, but eventually dies out.

  19. Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in Northwest and Central Nigeria.

  20. Topological Signatures in the Electronic Structure of Graphene Spirals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdoshenko, Stas.M.; Koskinen, Pekka; Sevincli, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    and graphene systems. Here, we introduce topologically distinct graphene forms - graphene spirals - and employ density-functional theory to investigate their geometric and electronic properties. We found that the spiral topology gives rise to an intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit splitting. Through a Hamiltonian...... constrained by space curvature, graphene spirals have topologically protected states due to time-reversal symmetry. In addition, we argue that the synthesis of such graphene spirals is feasible and can be achieved through advanced bottom-up experimental routes that we indicate in this work....

  1. Co-producing active lifestyles as whole-system-approach: theory, intervention and knowledge-to-action implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Abel, Thomas; Bergmann, Matthias; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Hunter, David; Jansen, Maria; King, Abby; Potvin, Louise

    2017-09-08

    Population health interventions tend to lack links to the emerging discourse on interactive knowledge production and exchange. This situation may limit both a better understanding of mechanisms that impact health lifestyles and the development of strategies for population level change. This paper introduces an integrated approach based on structure-agency theory in the context of 'social practice'. It investigates the mechanisms of co-production of active lifestyles by population groups, professionals, policymakers and researchers. It combines a whole system approach with an interactive knowledge-to-action strategy for developing and implementing active lifestyle interventions. A system model is outlined to describe and explain how social practices of selected groups co-produce active lifestyles. Four intervention models for promoting the co-production of active lifestyles through an interactive-knowledge-to-action approach are discussed. Examples from case studies of the German research network Capital4Health are used to illustrate, how intervention models might be operationalized in a real-world intervention. Five subprojects develop, implement and evaluate interventions across the life-course. Although subprojects differ with regard to settings and population groups involved, they all focus on the four key components of the system model. The paper contributes new strategies to address the intervention research challenge of sustainable change of inactive lifestyles. The interactive approach presented allows consideration of the specificities of settings and scientific contexts for manifold purposes. Further research remains needed on what a co-produced knowledge-to-action agenda would look like and what impact it might have for whole system change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluation of an Audio-Visual Novela to Improve Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge toward Dementia: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Unger, Jennifer B; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Mel

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration in cognitive ability that limits the capacity for independent living. Interventions are needed to target the medical, social, psychological, and knowledge needs of caregivers and patients. This study used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a dementia novela presented in an audio-visual format in improving dementia attitudes, beliefs and knowledge. Adults from Los Angeles (N = 42, 83% female, 90% Hispanic/Latino, mean age = 42.2 years, 41.5% with less than a high school education) viewed an audio-visual novela on dementia. Participants completed surveys immediately before and after viewing the material. The novela produced significant improvements in overall knowledge (t(41) = -9.79, p novela can be useful for improving attitudes and knowledge about dementia, but further work is needed to investigate the relation with health disparities in screening and treatment behaviors. Audio visual novelas are an innovative format for health education and change attitudes and knowledge about dementia.

  3. Changes in knowledge and attitudes of hospital environmental services staff: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brett G; White, Nicole; Farrington, Alison; Allen, Michelle; Page, Katie; Gardner, Anne; Halton, Kate; Riley, Thomas V; Gericke, Christian A; Paterson, David L; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2018-03-14

    The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study tested a multimodal cleaning intervention in Australian hospitals. This article reports findings from a pre/post questionnaire, embedded into the REACH study, that was administered prior to the implementation of the intervention and at the conclusion of the study. A cross-sectional questionnaire, nested within a stepped-wedge trial, was administered. The REACH intervention was a cleaning bundle comprising 5 interdependent components. The questionnaire explored the knowledge, reported practice, attitudes, roles, and perceived organizational support of environmental services staff members in the hospitals participating in the REACH study. Environmental services staff members in 11 participating hospitals completed 616 pre- and 307 post-test questionnaires (n = 923). Increases in knowledge and practice were seen between the pre-and post-test questionnaires. Minimal changes were observed in attitudes regarding the role of cleaning and in perceived organizational support. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report changes in knowledge, attitudes, and perceived organizational support in environmental services staff members, in the context of a large multicenter clinical trial. In this underexplored group of hospital workers, findings suggest that environmental services staff members have a high level of knowledge related to cleaning practices and understand the importance of their role. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Structure of Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge: Model Equivalence and Validity Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Mincic, Melissa; Graling, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A theory-based 2-factor structure of preschoolers' emotion knowledge (i.e., recognition of emotional expression and understanding of emotion-eliciting situations) was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Compared to 1- and 3-factor models, the 2-factor model showed a better fit to the data. The model was found to be…

  5. HIV/AIDS orphans as farmers: uncovering pest knowledge differences through an ethnobiological approach in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbémissi, R.C.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The erosion of local/indigenous firming knowledge in the face of HIV/AIDS deaths in Africa has been noted as a point of concerti in the literature and by organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. These concerns are about a break in the transmission of

  6. Story Constellations: A Narrative Approach to Contextualizing Teachers' Knowledge of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the roots of narrative research in the social sciences and education, then centers on "story constellations," a version of narrative inquiry that uncovers teachers' knowledge of school reform in context. A fluid form of investigation that unfolds in a three-dimensional inquiry space, story constellations consists of a flexible…

  7. Educational Approach to Maintain a Suitable Knowledge and Expertise in Nuclear Field: Case of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear knowledge management has become an increasingly important element of the nuclear sector in recent years, resulting from a number of challenges and trends. The development of any national nuclear energy programme is dependent on the successful development of the workforce, through a sustainable nuclear educational and training programme supported by government and industry. Morocco has continuously provided educational programmes in nuclear field at its universities since 1967. These academic programmes focused on nuclear sciences, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, etc., and were intended to undergraduate and postgraduate students. Nuclear techniques have known also an increased contribution to medicine, agriculture, industry and research in Morocco. Some educational and training programmes have been elaborated to develop human resources needed in different domains. University of Ibn Tofail, has launched, since september 2010, a national master’s programme in the field of nuclear sciences which aims to provide knowledge directly used in the various sectors using nuclear techniques and requiring radiation protection, nuclear safety and security including notions on nuclear knowledge management. For an effective management of nuclear knowledge, the educational didactic has been improved increasingly. Some new techniques, materiel and styles have been employed such as demonstrations, group exercises, e-learning, visio-conferences. (author

  8. An Agent-mediated Approach to Promote Knowledge Sharing Through Enterprise Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Splunter, S.; Sedighi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Broadening adoption of social network tools within the enterprise suggests a new and valuable source for insight into the social structure through organizations. While online social media tools are being evolved by enterprises in recent years, the social media are used much for knowledge sharing.

  9. Interaction Patterns in Web-based Knowledge Communities: Two-Mode Network Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenbroek, Wouter Bernardus; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; Fred, Ana; Dietz, Jan; Aveiro, David; Liu, Kecheng; Bernardino, Jorge; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The importance of web-based knowledge communities (WKCs) in the 'network society' is growing. This trend is seen in many disciplines, like education, government, finance and other profit- and non-profit organisations. There is a need for understanding the development of these online communities in

  10. Facilitating knowledge transfer in virtual teams through a social network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.; Rispens, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Due to geographical dispersion and high use of information technology in virtual settings, face-to-face communication and therefore transfer of knowledge is made more difficult in virtual teams. Virtual teams (VT) are characterized by geographical dispersion, use of IT for communication, members

  11. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  12. "Approaching the Sacred": Directionality in the Relation between Curriculum and Knowledge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Increasing pressure on all levels of educational provision, whether academic or overtly vocational, to be to "relevant" and "useful" prompts consideration of the relation between curriculum and pedagogy in terms of the internal structure of knowledge forms. Following Durkheim's distinction between "sacred" and…

  13. An approach to research on embodiment and forms of knowledge : methodological challenges for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard

    . The conclusion is that being interwoven with the interviewee is a virtue in itself that increases and sets certain limits to singular opportunities as the researcher and interviewee projects meaning onto each other in terms of pre-reflective perceptions, life-mode ethnocentrism and appropriate knowledge forms....

  14. Teachers’ Attitudes, Knowledge and Skills in Respect to the Language Awareness Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Lefever, Samúel; Rimšāne, Inta

    2018-01-01

    ’ attitudes, knowledge and skills and experiences of using language awareness activities in teaching. Based on teacher cognition as theoretical and methodological framework, we will present data from the teachers’ survey at the beginning of the project, the teachers’ interim survey and the focus group...

  15. Approaching Pedagogical Language Knowledge through Student Teachers: Assessment of Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…

  16. Placing "Knowledge" in Teacher Education in the English Further Education Sector: An Alternative Approach Based on Collaboration and Evidence-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sai Y.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on teacher education in the English further education sector, where the teaching of disciplinary and pedagogic knowledge is an issue. Using research findings, the paper advocates an approach based on collaboration and informed research to emphasize and integrate knowledge(s) in situated teaching contexts despite working in a…

  17. Virtual bronchoscopy based on spiral CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Haubner, Michael; Krapichler, Christian; Schuhmann, Dietrich; Seemann, Mark; Fuerst, H.; Reiser, Maximilian

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: To improve the diagnosis of pathologic modified airways, a visualization system has been developed and tested based on the techniques of digital image analysis, synthesis of spiral CT and the visualization by methods of virtual reality. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with pathologic modifications of the airways (tumors, obstructions) were examined with Spiral-CT. The three-dimensional shape of the airways and the lung tissue is defined by a semiautomatic volume growing method and a following geometric surface reconstruction. This is the basis of a multidimensional display system which visualizes volumes, surfaces and computation results simultaneously. To enable the intuitive and immersive inspection of the airways a virtual reality system, consisting of two graphic engines, a head mounted display system, data gloves and specialized software was integrated. Results: In 20 cases the extension of the pathologic modification of the airways could be visualized with the virtual bronchoscopy. The user interacts with and manipulates the 3D model of the airways in an intuitive and immersive way. In contrast to previously proposed virtual bronchoscopy systems the described method permits truly interactive navigation and detailed exploration of anatomic structures. The system enables a user oriented and fast inspection of the volumetric image data. Conclusion: To support radiological diagnosis with additional information in an easy to use and fast way a virtual bronchoscopy system was developed. It enables the immersive and intuitive interaction with 3D Spiral CTs by truly 3D navigation within the airway system. The complex anatomy of the central tracheobronchial system could be clearly visualized. Peripheral bronchi are displayed up to 5th degree.

  18. Production and post acceleration scheme for spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibet, D.

    2001-01-01

    SPIRAL, the R.I.B. facility of GANIL uses heavy ion beams to produce radioactive atoms inside a thick target. Atoms are ionised in a compact permanent magnet ECR ion source. The compact cyclotron CIME accelerates the radioactive ions in an energy range from 1.7 to 25 MeV/u. The cyclotron acts as a mass separator with resolving power of 2500. Plastic scintillator and silicon detectors are used to tune the machine at a very low intensity. An overview of the facility, stable beam tests results and the R and D program will be presented. (authors)

  19. Controls and automation in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothner, U.; Boulot, A.; Maherault, J.; Martial, L.

    1999-01-01

    The control and automation team of the R and D of Accelerator-Exotic Beam Department has had in the framework of SPIRAL collaboration the following tasks: 1. automation of the resonator high frequency equipment of the CIME cyclotron; 2. automation of the vacuum equipment, i.e. the low energy line (TBE), the CIME cyclotron, the low energy line (BE); 3. automation of load safety for power supply; 4. for each of these tasks a circuitry file based on the SCHEMA software has been worked out. The programs required in the automation of load safety for power supply (STEP5, PROTOOL, DESIGNER 4.1) were developed and implemented for PC

  20. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  1. Towards phronetic knowledge for strategic planning in corporate real estate management: A real options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, Maartje; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to provide insights about the potential of real option thinking for corporate real estate management (CREM) from the owner-user perspective. A promising approach to classifying and evaluating flexibility in real estate is the real options approach. Most

  2. Approach to building knowledge bases in information-measuring systems diagnostics of acute leukemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitaev, V. G.; Pronichev, A. N.; Polyakov, E. V.; Dmitrieva, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes an approach for the formation of the reference base of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow in information-measuring systems of acute leukemia diagnostics. The proposed approach has allowed to create a system, that is enable peer evaluation of blood cells needed for the training of recognition systems when carrying out microscopic studies.

  3. Land Degradation Monitoring in the Ordos Plateau of China Using an Expert Knowledge and BP-ANN-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojie Yue

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation monitoring is of vital importance to provide scientific information for promoting sustainable land utilization. This paper presents an expert knowledge and BP-ANN-based approach to detect and monitor land degradation in an effort to overcome the deficiencies of image classification and vegetation index-based approaches. The proposed approach consists of three generic steps: (1 extraction of knowledge on the relationship between land degradation degree and predisposing factors, which are NDVI and albedo, from domain experts; (2 establishment of a land degradation detecting model based on the BP-ANN algorithm; and (3 land degradation dynamic analysis. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the development of land degradation in the Ordos Plateau of China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. The results indicate that the proposed approach is reliable for monitoring land degradation, with an overall accuracy of 91.2%. From 1990–2010, a reverse trend of land degradation is observed in Ordos Plateau. Regions with relatively high land degradation dynamic were mostly located in the northeast of Ordos Plateau. Additionally, most of the regions have transferred from a hot spot of land degradation to a less changed area. It is suggested that land utilization optimization plays a key role for effective land degradation control. However, it should be highlighted that the goals of such strategies should aim at the main negative factors causing land degradation, and the land use type and its quantity must meet the demand of population and be reconciled with natural conditions. Results from this case study suggest that the expert knowledge and BP-ANN-based approach is effective in mapping land degradation.

  4. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... making, which I call ‘sound knowledge’. Sound knowledge is an approach to knowledge that takes the reflexive considerations of actors in policymaking processes as well as in research about what knowledge is into account. Seeing knowledge as sound makes connections between different ideas, concepts...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances...

  5. Research and development for the production of radioactive ions for SPIRAL; Recherche et developpement concernant la production d'ions radioactifs dans le cadre de SPIRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, C

    2007-12-15

    This thesis is related to the research and development program for the production of radioactive ion beams by the ISOL method for SPIRAL at GANIL. Two studies concerning improvements to the performance of SPIRAL target-source system have been made, using a statistical approach to the atoms-to-ions transformation. The first study concerns the transformation time between the production of the radioactive atoms of Ar{sup 35} inside a target and the extraction of the radioactive ions from the source with the TARGISOL set-up (target + ECR source). The goal was to determine the diffusion coefficients of the Ar for the carbon target. The results that are presented illustrate the difficulty of this work. The second study is the application of the statistical approach to the surface ionization source. It allowed one to define and to build a new MonoNaKe set-up for the production of 1{sup +} radioactive alkaline ions. Radioactive ions of K{sup 37,47}, Na{sup 25,26,27,28,30}, Li{sup 8,9} and Al{sup 28,29,30,31} were produced. For the production of the multicharged radioactive alkali ions, the MonoNaKe target/ion-source system was coupled to the ECR source of SPIRAL-1 without a mass separator (1{sup +}/N{sup +} direct method). A first radioactive ion beam of {sup 47}K{sup 5+} was extracted at the SIRa test bench. A surface ionization test source based on the same technical characteristics of MonoNaKe has been built. The goal of this system will be to define a prototype of source adapted to the constraints of SPIRAL-2 (ionization efficiency and lifetime). (author)

  6. Preventing Undesirable Effects of Mutual Trust and the Development of Skepticism in Virtual Groups by Applying the Knowledge and Information Awareness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Tanja; Kolodziej, Richard; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have proven the effectiveness of the knowledge and information awareness approach of Engelmann and colleagues for improving collaboration and collaborative problem-solving performance of spatially distributed group members. This approach informs group members about both their collaborators' knowledge structures and their…

  7. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide

  8. Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Armengol

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams.
    Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss

  9. Quality control in nerve conduction studies with coupled knowledge-based system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Y; Eisen, A; MacNeil, M; Beddoes, M P

    1992-02-01

    Contemporary equipment used for nerve conduction studies is usually capable of computerized measurement of latency, amplitude, duration, and area of nerve and muscle action potentials and resulting conduction velocities. Abnormalities can be due to technical error or disease. Identification of technical error is a major element of quality control in electromyography, and artificial intelligence could be useful for this purpose. We have developed a coupled knowledge-based prototype system (QUALICON) to assess the correctness of recording and stimulating characteristics in routine conduction studies. QUALICON extracts numeric features from CMAPs or SNAPs, which are translated into symbolic form to drive a Bayesian network. The network uses high-level knowledge to infer the quality of stimulating and recording electrode placement as well as polarity and stimulus strength making recommendations as to the likely technical error when abnormal potentials are detected. A preliminary assessment shows that QUALICON performs as well as manual assessment performed by professionals.

  10. A Holistic Approach to Knowledge Management and Social Learning: lessons learnt from military headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Warne

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research conducted by the Enterprise Social Learning Architecture (ESLA team of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation. The ESLA team is investigating collaborative social learning within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO. Social learning is tightly coupled to knowledge management. Three studies in three different settings have been conducted to date. The studies have provided multi-layered findings about social learning, and validated the use of ethnography for this purpose. Preliminary findings are discussed in this paper in terms of identified enablers and motivators for effective social learning and knowledge management. Although the paper deals with the defence environment, the findings can be generalised to other organisational settings, as the study deals with understanding the issues inherent in building sustainable and adaptive learning organisations.

  11. A FUTURE APPROACHES, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY – KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE DAVIDESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.

  12. Knowledge, Policy Making and Learning: An Evolutionary Approach to Achieve Policy Resilience in European Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dotti, Nicola Francesco

    2016-01-01

    How to build the local capacity to address grand societal challenges such as climate change, ageing and unemployment? While routine policy making is already challenging, addressing complex challenges also requires advanced knowledge, in terms of information on complex phenomena, models to interpret this information, and tools that can be implemented. However, cities have limited staff and few resources to carry out context-specific research to deal with complex issues. Focusing on the role of...

  13. Designing a Knowledge Management System for Distributed Activities: A Human Centered Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best describe...

  14. Evaluation of Knowledge of Emergency Healthcare Workers Regarding Approach to Emergency Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Tanr›verdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Emergency units constitute the most important part of all hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate practitioners’ and healthcare providers’ knowledge and experience regarding emergency first aid in a hospital with insufficient facilities. Methods: 17 physicians and 25 assistant staff working at our hospital were evaluated in terms of their knowledge about and experience in “emergency medicine and trauma” by a questionnaire and by observations. Results: The results of observations and questionnaire indicated that knowledge and experience among physicians were inadequate in terms of basic life support and advanced cardiac life support. This lack of knowledge was not associated with age, time of employment, faculty graduated and training on “emergency medicine” in the group of physicians (r=0.301 p>0.05, r=0.317 p>0.06, r=0.228 p>0.05, r=0.284 p>0.05, respectively and in the group of assistant staff (r=0.341 p>0.05, r=0.287 p>0.06, r=0.234 p>0.05, r=0.227 p>0.05, respectively. Conclusion: Considering that the most of the physicians are gathered in certain regions of our country and that there is a lack of emergency medicine specialists in underdeveloped regions, it has been concluded that physicians specialized in other areas and practitioners must attend emergency medicine trainings under the concept of “emergency medicine rotation”. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:103-5

  15. Behavioural Business Intelligence Framework Based on Online Buying Behaviour in Indian Context: A Knowledge Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Shrivastava; Dr. Ujwal Lanjewar

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral Business Intelligence focuses on the people, their behaviors, the environment and constraints that influence their behaviors. The aim of Behavioral Business Intelligence is to know what people do and why they do it. It is based on data and knowledge about people, their demographic and psychographic characteristics. This phenomenon gives the decision makers power in evaluating the success of their strategic decisions. There is a growing popularity of Internet as a medium of online b...

  16. A Study on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Management Systems Adoption: Models Comparison Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chun Yeh; Ming-Shu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Using Linear Structural Relation model (LISREL model) as analysis method and technology acceptance model and decomposed theory of planned behavior as research foundation, this study approachesmainly from the angle of behavioral intention to examine the influential factors of 421 employees adopting knowledge management systems and in the meantime to compare the two method models mentioned on the top. According to the research, there is no, in comparison with technology acceptance model anddeco...

  17. SUPERVISED CURRICULUM INTERNSHIP IN GEOGRAPHY AND PEDAGOGICAL MEDIATION: between knowledge and practices for a dialogical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Kennedy Silva dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The present article is the result of an inquiry which has for its object the pedagogical mediation in Geography, with reference to the supervised curriculum internship in Geography, obligatory component for teacher training in degree courses. We start from an analysis of reflective professional trajectory teaching, in research supported type "state of the art" or "state of knowledge" for bibliographical supports our interventions (FERREIRA, 2002). We seek authors such as (CORTELLA, 2008; FAZE...

  18. LINKING GLOBALISATION, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER – A NETWORK BASED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Elena CHIRIAC; Alexandru GHITIU-BRATESCU

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation is a complex process which has implications at multiple levels and around the world. The future world, regarded as a social network, has the potential to create added value for people, while the interconnections between businesses, strategies, countries and sustainability can be ensured through effective communication, collaboration and intercultural dialogue and partnerships. Within the global economy and culture, knowledge transfer is a key point for success and the creation o...

  19. Software Development for Auto-Generation of Interlocking Knowledge base using Artificial Intelligence Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yun Seok [Nanseoul University (Korea); Kim, JOng Sun [Kwangwoon University (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This paper proposes IIKBAG (Intelligent Interlocking Knowledge Base Generator) which can build automatically the interlocking knowledge base utilized as the real-time interlocking strategy of the electronic interlocking system in order to enhance it's reliability and expansion. The IIKBAG consists of the inference engine and the knowledge base. The former has an auto-learning function which searches all the train routes for the given station model based on heuristic search technique while dynamically searching the model, and then generates automatically the interlocking patterns obtained from the interlocking relations of signal facilities on the routes. The latter is designed as the structure which the real-time expert system embedded on IS (Interlocking System) can use directly in order to enhances the reliability and accuracy. The IIKBAG is implemented in C computer language for the purpose of the build and interface of the station structure database. And, a typical station model is simulated to prove the validity of the proposed IIKBAG. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND CONVERSION MODEL AND THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO COSTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contemporaneously, and with the successive paradigmatic revolutions inherent to management since the XVII century, we are witnessing a new era marked by the structural rupture in the way organizations are perceived. Market globalization, cemented by quick technological evolutions, associated with economic, cultural, political and social transformations characterize a reality where uncertainty is the only certainty for organizations and managers. Knowledge management has been interpreted by managers and academics as a viable alternative in a logic of creation and conversation of sustainable competitive advantages. However, there are several barriers to the implementation and development of knowledge management programs in organizations, with organizational culture being one of the most preponderant. In this sense, and in this article, we will analyze and compare The Knowledge Creation and Conversion Model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 and Quinn and Rohrbaugh's Competing Values Framework (1983, since both have convergent conceptual lines that can assist managers in different sectors to guide their organization in a perspective of productivity, quality and market competitiveness.

  1. Examining Change in Metacognitive Knowledge and Metacognitive Control During Motor Learning: What Can be Learned by Combining Methodological Approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Sangster Jokić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing recognition of the importance of understanding metacognitive behaviour as it occurs in everyday learning situations has prompted an expansion of the methodological approaches used to examine metacognition. This becomes especially pertinent when examining the process of metacognitive change, where 'on-line' observational approaches able to capture metacognitive performance as it occurs during socially-mediated learning are being increasingly applied. This study applied a mixed methods approach to examine children's metacognitive performance as it was exhibited during participation in an intervention program aimed at addressing motor performance difficulties. Participants in the study were ten 7-9 year old children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD, a condition characterized by poor motor coordination and difficulty acquiring motor-based tasks. All participants engaged in a 10-session program in which children were taught to use a problem-solving strategy for addressing motor performance difficulties. To examine children's metacognitive performance, sessions were video-taped and subsequently analysed using a quantitative observational coding method and an in-depth qualitative review of therapist-child interactions. This allowed for a fine-grained analysis of children's demonstration of metacognitive knowledge and control and how such performance evolved over the course of the program. Of particular interest was the finding that while children were often able to express task-specific knowledge, they failed to apply this knowledge during practice. Conversely, children were often able to demonstrate performance-based evidence for metacognitive control but were not able to make conscious reports of such skill following practice. This finding is consistent with models of metacognitive development which suggest that the emergence of performance-based metacognitive skills precede the ability for the conscious expression of

  2. PEDIATRIC NURSING MODELLING APPROACH ON MOTHER'S KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE ABILITY AND MATERNAL CONFIDENCE OF INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyanti Saleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first five years of age of a child is a critical time that will affect the child growth development process. Any untreated disorders may impair the process that subsequently influences quality of life of the child in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for a mother to optimize the growth development process. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of health education with modelling approach on mother's knowledge, practice ability and maternal confidence of infant (0-6 months growth and development. Method: A quasy eksperimental pre-post with control group design was used. The intervention given was health education with modelling approach related to lactation management and infant growth development stimulation. The research was conducted in Maros Regency wiht 81 samples (41 in the treatment group and 40 in the control group. Result: The wilcoxon test reveals that there was a signi fi cant difference between treatment and control group, accordingly, knowledge (p = 0.00, p = 0.01, practice ability (p = 0.00, p = 0,006 and maternal confidence (p = 0.03, p = 0.03. In addition, from mann whitney test, between the two group, the data obtained are: knowledge (p = 0,950, practice ability (p = 0.00 and maternal con fi dence (p = 0,061. Discussion: Health education with modelling approach conducting by nurse was effective in increasing knowledge, practice ability, maternal confidence breastfeeding and baby stimulation, which was in turn can optimize baby growth and development. That is why, community health nurses role should be increase by making community health nursing program as one of primary public health centre program.

  3. Information and psychomotor skills knowledge acquisition: A student-customer-centered and computer-supported approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.

  4. An approach to knowledge structuring for advanced phases of the Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) must employ on enlightened approach to its object structure, but basic issues in conceptual structuring remain to be resolved. Sirius outlines the necessary agenda and reports on progress toward solutions.

  5. Improving Malawian teachers' mental health knowledge and attitudes: an integrated school mental health literacy approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kutcher, S.; Gilberds, H.; Morgan, C.; Greene, R.; Hamwaka, K.; Perkins, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Methods. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called ?An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania?, we culturally adapted a previously demons...

  6. Initial training for trainers the spiral process or ''getting trained while training''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The initial training program for trainers is part of an overall gradual development towards full professionalism. Based on the two key words, responsibility and autonomy, the global aim is to provide assistance to new instructors so that they become full actors in their own training process and to prepare them to deal with all the different situations they may meet. The SPIRAL process lasts one full year and could be characterized in four words: alternation, support, individualization and project. From the first weeks in the process, the new trainers already deliver training instructions. The SPIRAL year terminates with the presentation to the project before an evaluation board. The evaluation takes into account the project and the on going assessment of acquisition of knowledge and skills

  7. 2D array based on fermat spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, O.; Martín, C. J.; Godoy, G.; Ullate, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    The main challenge faced by 3D ultrasonic imaging with 2D array transducer is the large number of elements required to achieve an acceptable level of quality in the images. Therefore, the optimization of the array layout to reduce the number of active elements in the aperture has been a research topic in the last years. Nowadays, CMUT array technology has made viable the production of 2D arrays with larger flexibility on elements size, shape and position. This is opening new options in 2D array design, allowing to revise as viable alternatives others layouts that had been studied in the past, like circular and Archimedes spiral layout. In this work the problem of designing an imaging system array with a diameter of 60 λ and a limited number of elements using the Fermat spiral layout has been studied. This study has been done for two different numbers of electronic channels (N = 128 and N = 256). As summary, a general discussion of the results and the most interesting cases are presented.

  8. Spiral-shaped reactor for water disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2016-04-20

    Chlorine-based processes are still widely used for water disinfection. The disinfection process for municipal water consumption is usually carried out in large tanks, specifically designed to verify several hydraulic and disinfection criteria. The hydrodynamic behavior of contact tanks of different shapes, each with an approximate total volume of 50,000 m3, was analyzed by solving turbulent momentum transport equations with a computational fluid dynamics code, namely ANSYS fluent. Numerical experiments of a tracer pulse were performed for each design to generate flow through curves and investigate species residence time distribution for different inlet flow rates, ranging from 3 to 12 m3 s−1. A new nature-inspired Conch tank design whose shape follows an Archimedean spiral was then developed. The spiral design is shown to strongly outperform the other tanks’ designs for all the selected plug flow criteria with an enhancement in efficiency, less short circuiting, and an order of magnitude improvement in mixing and dispersion. Moreover, following the intensification philosophy, after 50% reduction in its size, the new design retains its properties and still gives far better results than the classical shapes.

  9. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  10. Awareness of deficits in traumatic brain injury: a multidimensional approach to assessing metacognitive knowledge and online-awareness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of impaired awareness in brain injury draw a distinction between metacognitive knowledge of difficulties and online awareness of errors (emergent and anticipatory). We examined performance of 31 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) participants and 31 healthy controls using a three-strand approach to assessing awareness. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed with an awareness interview and discrepancy scores on three questionnaires--Patient Competency Rating Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Online Emergent Awareness was assessed using an online error-monitoring task while participants performed tasks of sustained attention. Online anticipatory awareness was examined using prediction performance on two cognitive tasks. Results indicated that the TBI Low Self-Awareness (SA) group and High SA group did not differ in terms of severity, chronicity or standard neuropsychological tasks but those with Low SA were more likely to exhibit disinhibition, interpersonal problems and more difficulties in total competency. Sustained attention abilities were associated with both types of online awareness (emergent and anticipatory). There was a strong relationship between online emergent and online anticipatory awareness. Metacognitive knowledge did not correlate with the other two measures. This study highlights the necessity in adopting a multidimensional approach to assessing the multifaceted phenomenon of awareness of deficits.

  11. Heterogeneous IT Knowledge of Students: the Didactic Approach how to meet it in the Interdisciplinary Course Program Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Wahl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Applied Sciences (UAS Technikum Wien, Intelligent Transport System is a highly interdisciplinary Bachelor's degree program. Its curriculum covers several mainly technical oriented disciplines. Especially the IT courses account for the high drop-out rate of the course program. Students come with different IT knowledge depending on the one hand on their previous school education and on the other hand depending on their personal interest in IT topics. Normally, for students, IT is not the number one reason for choosing this program. Nevertheless, IT is extremely important as it interacts with all other disciplines. Especially the heterogeneity of the IT knowledge made it necessary to rethink the way of teaching. The paper describes the new didactic approach of the IT courses in the course program Intelligent Transport Systems. The new approach faces the students' difficulties and tries to overcome the varying pre-knowledge of students. Furthermore, it tries to increase students' motivation by paying particular attention to the students' assumed interests.

  12. Can a multisensory teaching approach impart the necessary knowledge, skills, and confidence in final year medical students to manage epistaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, George; Biron, Vincent L; Campbell, Chase; Cote, David Wj; Ansari, Kal

    2013-10-09

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a multisensory teaching approach in imparting the knowledge, skills, and confidence to manage epistaxis in a cohort of fourth year medical students. One hundred and thirty four fourth year medical students were recruited into the study from Aug 2011 to February 2012 in four groups. Students listened to an audio presentation (PODcast) about epistaxis and viewed a video presentation on the technical skills (VODcast). Following this, students completed a 5-minute Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) to test knowledge accrued from the PODcast and VODcast. Next, students observed a 10-minute expert demonstration of the technical skills on a human cadaver and spent half an hour practicing these techniques on cadaver simulators with expert guidance. The students' confidence was assessed with Confidence Level Questionnaires (CLQs) before and after their laboratory session. The skill level of a subset of students was also assessed with a pre- and post-laboratory Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Eighty two percent of the participants achieved a score of at least 80% on the IRAT. The CLQ instrument was validated in the study. There was a statistically significant improvement between the pre- and post-laboratory CLQ scores (pteaching approach. This study provides further evidence that a multisensory teaching intervention effectively imparts the necessary knowledge, skill and confidence in fourth year medical students to manage epistaxis.

  13. A phenomenological theory for polarization flop in spiral multiferroic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven polarization flop in TbMnO3. The Néel wall-like magnetic structure in spiral multiferroics induces a space-dependent internal magnetic field which exerts a torque on spins to rotate bc-spiral to abspiral. The external magnetic field is argued ...

  14. A phenomenological theory for polarization flop in spiral multiferroic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a space-dependent internal magnetic field which exerts a torque on spins to rotate bc-spiral to ab- spiral. The external ... Fv; 75.85.+t. Electric control of magnetization and magnetic control of polarization have been long ... divergence of magnetization, an internal field is induced which has important physical. Figure 1. ab ...

  15. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models

  16. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  17. Up the Down Spiral with English: Guidelines, Project Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catholic Board of Education, Diocese of Cleveland, OH.

    This curriculum guide presents the philosophy, objectives, and processes which unify a student-centered English program based on Jerome Bruner's concept of the spiral curriculum. To illustrate the spiraling of the learning process (i.e., engagement, perception, interpretation, evaluation, and personal integration), the theme of "hero" is traced…

  18. The cold interstellar medium - An HI view of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Bender, R; Davies, RL

    1996-01-01

    An HI view of spiral galaxies is presented. In the first part the standard picture of isolated, normal spiral galaxies is briefly reviewed. In the second part attention is drawn to all those phenomena, such as tidal interactions, accretion and mergers, that depend on the galaxy environment and seem

  19. THE ROLE OF A FOUNDATIONALIST APPROACH TO MORAL KNOWLEDGE IN ETHICS MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABINA IRIMIE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic function that afoundationalist architecture of moral knowledge may have in managing ethics in an economiccontext. The role of studying values using a foundational structure is to make the values thatare basic for some members to become derivative for the rest of the members or at least to beconstantly considered as relevant criteria in decision-making processes. The Ethical Delphi isproposed as an efficient tool for homogenizing values that cannot otherwise be asserted. Hence,those values could not be formalized in standard tools for managing ethics.

  20. Strategic Management in the Knowledge Economy New Approaches and Business Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Leibold, Marius; Gibbert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Due to the dramatic shifts in the knowledge economy, this book provides a significant departure from traditional strategic management concepts and practice. Designed for both advanced students and business managers, it presents a unique combination of new strategic management theory, carefully selected strategic management articles by prominent scholars such as Gary Hamel, Michael Porter, Peter Senge, and real-world case studies. On top of this, the authors link powerful new benchmarks in strategic management thinking, including the concepts of Socio-Cultural Network Dynamics, Systemic Scoreca

  1. A Lifecycle Knowledge Management Approach to Support Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Booth, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: KM is a discipline that has a long tradition in nuclear. Nevertheless, the necessity for and the specifics of KM in decommissioning and environmental remediation have come into focus but quite recently. On one hand driven by major decommissioning programs like the NDA approach in UK or the phase-out decision in Germany, on the other hand as a request from decommissioning practitioners. In this paper we would like to emphasize the necessity to develop lifecycle wide KM approaches and specific tools for KM in decommissioning and environmental remediation. Additionally, KM approaches must be adapted to the phases of the facilities lifecycle. Especially decommissioning and environmental remediation require different KM systems to cope with a quickly changing environment. (author

  2. Topographic Beta Spiral and Onshore Intrusion of the Kuroshio Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Zhou; Huang, Rui Xin; Yin, Bao-shu; Feng, Xing-Ru; Chen, Hai-ying; Qi, Ji-Feng; Xu, Ling-jing; Shi, Yun-long; Cui, Xuan; Gao, Guan-Dong; Benthuysen, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    The Kuroshio intrusion plays a vitally important role in carrying nutrients to marginal seas. However, the key mechanism leading to the Kuroshio intrusion remains unclear. In this study we postulate a mechanism: when the Kuroshio runs onto steep topography northeast of Taiwan, the strong inertia gives rise to upwelling over topography, leading to a left-hand spiral in the stratified ocean. This is called the topographic beta spiral, which is a major player regulating the Kuroshio intrusion; this spiral can be inferred from hydrographic surveys. In the world oceans, the topographic beta spirals can be induced by upwelling generated by strong currents running onto steep topography. This is a vital mechanism regulating onshore intruding flow and the cross-shelf transport of energy and nutrients from the Kuroshio Current to the East China Sea. This topographic beta spiral reveals a long-term missing link between the oceanic general circulation theory and shelf dynamic theory.

  3. Spatial and mass distributions of molecular clouds and spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.; Valdes, F.; National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    The growth of molecular clouds resulting from cloud-cloud collisions and coalescence in the Galactic ring between 4 and 8 kpc are modeled, taking into account the presence of a spiral potential and the mutual cloud-cloud gravitational attraction. The mean lifetime of molecular clouds is determined to be about 200 million years. The clouds are present in both spiral arm and interarm regions, but a spiral pattern in their spatial distribution is clearly discernible, with the more massive clouds showing a stronger correlation with the spiral arms. As viewed from within the Galactic disk, however, it is very difficult to ascertain that the molecular cloud distribution in longitude-velocity space has a spiral pattern. 19 references

  4. Some statistical properties of spiral galaxies along the Hubble sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Jun-liang; Zhang, Fei-peng; Peng, Qiu-he

    A statistical study has been made for the variations along the Hubble sequence, os such parameters as the degree of tightness of winding of spiral arm λ, the pitch angle μ, the flatness of the disk H/ D25 and the thickness H along the Hubble sequence for 365 spiral galaxies published in A&Ap Supplement Series. The mean values of these quantities for the various Hubble types have been obtained for the first time. The results of the statistics show clearly 1) that the Hubble classification of spiral galaxies is one which has only a qualitative and statistical significance, and 2) that the dispersion relation in the density wave theory is valid for most spiral galaxies, i.e., the arms of most spiral galaxies satisfy the requirements of being tightly wound.

  5. The Effects of Spiral Taping Treatment on Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jae-Ok

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of spiral taping treatment on low back pain. Methods : 420 low back pain patients were treated with spiral taping or spiral taping plus herbal medicine, and no other treatments such as acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and chiropractic therapy were added. We evaluated the improvement by physical examination and pain. Results : 364 patients felt no pain or inconvenience of daily life and 43 patients showed improvement of pain or symptom after 1 month of treatment. 13 patients showed same pain with before treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest spiral taping treatments contribute to the improvement of low back pain. Further study is needed for the confirmation of this effect of spiral taping treatments on low back pain.

  6. An architecture for performance optimization in a collaborative knowledge-based approach for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeo-Martos, Manuel Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Jose Angel; Canada-Bago, Joaquin; Velasco, Juan Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, Intelligent Spaces (ISs) have received the attention of many Wireless Sensor Network researchers. Recently, several studies have been devoted to identify their common capacities and to set up ISs over these networks. However, little attention has been paid to integrating Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems into collaborative Wireless Sensor Networks for the purpose of implementing ISs. This work presents a distributed architecture proposal for collaborative Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems embedded in Wireless Sensor Networks, which has been designed to optimize the implementation of ISs. This architecture includes the following: (a) an optimized design for the inference engine; (b) a visual interface; (c) a module to reduce the redundancy and complexity of the knowledge bases; (d) a module to evaluate the accuracy of the new knowledge base; (e) a module to adapt the format of the rules to the structure used by the inference engine; and (f) a communications protocol. As a real-world application of this architecture and the proposed methodologies, we show an application to the problem of modeling two plagues of the olive tree: prays (olive moth, Prays oleae Bern.) and repilo (caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina). The results show that the architecture presented in this paper significantly decreases the consumption of resources (memory, CPU and battery) without a substantial decrease in the accuracy of the inferred values.

  7. An approach to medical knowledge sharing in a hospital information system using MCLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Akiko; Inoue, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kasahara, Shin; Maeda, Yukihiro; Umesato, Yoshimasa; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-01

    Clinicians often need access to electronic information resources that answer questions that occur in daily clinical practice. This information generally comes from publicly available resources. However, clinicians also need knowledge on institution-specific information (e.g., institution-specific guidelines, choice of drug, choice of laboratory test, information on adverse events, and advice from professional colleagues). This information needs to be available in real time. This study characterizes these needs in order to build a prototype hospital information system (HIS) that can help clinicians get timely answers to questions. We previously designed medical knowledge units called Medical Cells (MCs). We developed a portal server of MCs that can create and store medical information such as institution-specific information. We then developed a prototype HIS that embeds MCs as links (MCLink); these links are based on specific terms (e.g., drug, laboratory test, and disease). This prototype HIS presents clinicians with institution-specific information. The HIS clients (e.g., clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and laboratory technicians) can also create an MCLink in the HIS using the portal server in the hospital. The prototype HIS allowed efficient sharing and use of institution-specific information to clinicians at the point of care. This study included institution-specific information resources and advice from professional colleagues, both of which might have an important role in supporting good clinical decision making.

  8. Shark Conservation: An Educational Approach Based on Children’s Knowledge and Perceptions toward Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sau Ying; Lee, Yeung Chung; Ip, Brian Ho Yeung; Cheang, Chi Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Shark conservation has become a focus of current international conservation efforts. However, the misunderstanding of sharks and their negative public portrayal may hinder their conservation. More importantly, the consumption of shark fin, which is very common in Chinese cultures, poses a significant threat to sharks. Hong Kong has long been the world’s largest shark fin trading center. Shark conservation would become more sustainable if public understanding of this predatory fish and an appreciation of its ecological significance could be promoted. It is possible that the demand for fins could be effectively managed through long-term educational efforts targeted at younger generations. To provide essential baseline data for planning of these educational efforts, this project investigated the perceptions of 11 to 12 year-old primary school students in Hong Kong about sharks, and their understanding of ecological concepts and shark-related knowledge. The findings indicate that these students lack sufficient knowledge and possess misconceptions about sharks and their ecological significance in the marine ecosystem. The students’ conceptual understanding level is strongly correlated with their perceptions. Correlational analyses further demonstrated a positive association between formal education and perceptions toward shark conservation. The students who favoured shark fin consumption did so because of its tastiness, whereas concerns about shark population decline and the cruelty of shark hunting were the main reasons for not favoring shark fin consumption. This pilot study provides preliminary but important insights into primary school education regarding the conservation of sharks. PMID:27684706

  9. Shark Conservation: An Educational Approach Based on Children's Knowledge and Perceptions toward Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kwok Ho; Chan, Sau Ying; Lee, Yeung Chung; Ip, Brian Ho Yeung; Cheang, Chi Chiu

    Shark conservation has become a focus of current international conservation efforts. However, the misunderstanding of sharks and their negative public portrayal may hinder their conservation. More importantly, the consumption of shark fin, which is very common in Chinese cultures, poses a significant threat to sharks. Hong Kong has long been the world's largest shark fin trading center. Shark conservation would become more sustainable if public understanding of this predatory fish and an appreciation of its ecological significance could be promoted. It is possible that the demand for fins could be effectively managed through long-term educational efforts targeted at younger generations. To provide essential baseline data for planning of these educational efforts, this project investigated the perceptions of 11 to 12 year-old primary school students in Hong Kong about sharks, and their understanding of ecological concepts and shark-related knowledge. The findings indicate that these students lack sufficient knowledge and possess misconceptions about sharks and their ecological significance in the marine ecosystem. The students' conceptual understanding level is strongly correlated with their perceptions. Correlational analyses further demonstrated a positive association between formal education and perceptions toward shark conservation. The students who favoured shark fin consumption did so because of its tastiness, whereas concerns about shark population decline and the cruelty of shark hunting were the main reasons for not favoring shark fin consumption. This pilot study provides preliminary but important insights into primary school education regarding the conservation of sharks.

  10. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Ulrich E-mail: baum@idr.med.uni-erlangen.de; Greess, Holger; Lell, Michael; Noemayr, Anton; Lenz, Martin

    2000-03-01

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  11. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Ulrich; Greess, Holger; Lell, Michael; Noemayr, Anton; Lenz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  12. Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arashpour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.

  13. A modular approach for stimulating knowledge use in organizations to attain real sustainable innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ad Breukel; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2010-01-01

    The Fociss (Focussing Innovation for a Sustainable Strategy) approach is a structured method to define core business related issues within sustainable development that require main attention in a specific company. In theory, Fociss has the ability for all kinds of innovations, but the implementation

  14. Set Based PLM Implementation, a Modular Approach to PLM Process Knowledge, Management and Automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Sebastiaan Pieter; Ríos, J.; Bernard, A.; Bouras, A.; Foufou, S.

    2017-01-01

    In many cases PLM implementations are halted in the first phases of larger projects. On average, implementation projects take longer, cost more than planned and not all goals are achieved despite modern software implementation methods like Agile or Scrum. This paper proposes another approach, in

  15. A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiazzi, Alberto; Panagos, Panos; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B; Gardi, Ciro; Montanarella, Luca; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2016-03-01

    Because of the increasing pressures exerted on soil, below-ground life is under threat. Knowledge-based rankings of potential threats to different components of soil biodiversity were developed in order to assess the spatial distribution of threats on a European scale. A list of 13 potential threats to soil biodiversity was proposed to experts with different backgrounds in order to assess the potential for three major components of soil biodiversity: soil microorganisms, fauna, and biological functions. This approach allowed us to obtain knowledge-based rankings of threats. These classifications formed the basis for the development of indices through an additive aggregation model that, along with ad-hoc proxies for each pressure, allowed us to preliminarily assess the spatial patterns of potential threats. Intensive exploitation was identified as the highest pressure. In contrast, the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture was considered as the threat with least potential. The potential impact of climate change showed the highest uncertainty. Fourteen out of the 27 considered countries have more than 40% of their soils with moderate-high to high potential risk for all three components of soil biodiversity. Arable soils are the most exposed to pressures. Soils within the boreal biogeographic region showed the lowest risk potential. The majority of soils at risk are outside the boundaries of protected areas. First maps of risks to three components of soil biodiversity based on the current scientific knowledge were developed. Despite the intrinsic limits of knowledge-based assessments, a remarkable potential risk to soil biodiversity was observed. Guidelines to preliminarily identify and circumscribe soils potentially at risk are provided. This approach may be used in future research to assess threat at both local and global scale and identify areas of possible risk and, subsequently, design appropriate strategies for monitoring and protection of soil

  16. A Method to Automate Identification of Spiral Arms in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Christina K.; Mercer, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present our preliminary results in identifying the spiral arms of NGC 6946 using a nearest-neighbors analysis. NGC 6946 is grand design spiral galaxy with well-defined arms. The spiral arms were previously identified in an Hα image and traced out by Matonick, D. et al., ApJS, 113, 333, (1997) by visual inspection. We want to develop a computer algorithm that will identify the spiral arms automatically. Once the spiral arms have been found digitally, we can use this information to compare the spiral arms with the locations of compact objects such as supernova remnants and perform statistical tests, for example, to determine if the supernova remnants are associated with the spiral arms. We are using the publicly available program PyFITS, a development project of the Science Software Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) that is available for software download from STScI, to perform a computer-based image analysis. We have written python macros that interact with the already written image manipulation and display features of PyFITS to perform the image analysis and implement a nearest-neighbors algorithm to identify and link the centers of the high emission regions from the spiral arm regions. Our code currently identifies the centers of the high emission regions, but more work is needed to link up these sites and draw out the spiral arms. Future work includes improving the code to better identify spiral arms and converting the code to work on the Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Robitaille, T. P., et al. A&A 558, A33, 2013).

  17. Effective knowledge translation approaches and practices in Indigenous health research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Ninomiya, Melody E; Atkinson, Donna; Brascoupé, Simon; Firestone, Michelle; Robinson, Nicole; Reading, Jeff; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Maddox, Raglan; Smylie, Janet K

    2017-02-20

    Effective knowledge translation (KT) is critical to implementing program and policy changes that require shared understandings of knowledge systems, assumptions, and practices. Within mainstream research institutions and funding agencies, systemic and insidious inequities, privileges, and power relationships inhibit Indigenous peoples' control, input, and benefits over research. This systematic review will examine literature on KT initiatives in Indigenous health research to help identify wise and promising Indigenous KT practices and language in Canada and abroad. Indexed databases including Aboriginal Health Abstract Database, Bibliography of Native North Americans, CINAHL, Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database, Dissertation Abstracts, First Nations Periodical Index, Medline, National Indigenous Studies Portal, ProQuest Conference Papers Index, PsycInfo, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science will be searched. A comprehensive list of non-indexed and grey literature sources will also be searched. For inclusion, documents must be published in English; linked to Indigenous health and wellbeing; focused on Indigenous people; document KT goals, activities, and rationale; and include an evaluation of their KT strategy. Identified quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods' studies that meet the inclusion criteria will then be appraised using a quality appraisal tool for research with Indigenous people. Studies that score 6 or higher on the quality appraisal tool will be included for analysis. This unique systematic review involves robust Indigenous community engagement strategies throughout the life of the project, starting with the development of the review protocol. The review is being guided by senior Indigenous researchers who will purposefully include literature sources characterized by Indigenous authorship, community engagement, and representation; screen and appraise sources that meet Indigenous health research principles

  18. A Knowledge-based Evolution Algorithm approach to political districting problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chung-I.

    2011-01-01

    The political districting problem is to study how to partition a comparatively large zone into many minor electoral districts. In our previously works, we have mapped this political problem onto a q-state Potts model system by using statistical physics methods. The political constraints (such as contiguity, population equality, etc.) are transformed to an energy function with interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Several optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing method and genetic algorithm have been applied to this problem. In this report, we will show how to apply the Knowledge-based Evolution Algorithm (KEA) to the problem. Our test objects include two real cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the simulated cities. The results showed the KEA can reach the same minimum which has been found by using other methods in each test case.

  19. A Knowledge Discovery Approach to Diagnosing Intracranial Hematomas on Brain CT: Recognition, Measurement and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Chih; Xiao, Furen; Wong, Jau-Min; Chiang, I.-Jen

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain is preferred study on neurological emergencies. Physicians use CT to diagnose various types of intracranial hematomas, including epidural, subdural and intracerebral hematomas according to their locations and shapes. We propose a novel method that can automatically diagnose intracranial hematomas by combining machine vision and knowledge discovery techniques. The skull on the CT slice is located and the depth of each intracranial pixel is labeled. After normalization of the pixel intensities by their depth, the hyperdense area of intracranial hematoma is segmented with multi-resolution thresholding and region-growing. We then apply C4.5 algorithm to construct a decision tree using the features of the segmented hematoma and the diagnoses made by physicians. The algorithm was evaluated on 48 pathological images treated in a single institute. The two discovered rules closely resemble those used by human experts, and are able to make correct diagnoses in all cases.

  20. An Approach to Autonomous Science by Modeling Geological Knowledge in a Bayesian Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Akash; Fitch, Robert; Sukkarieh, Salah

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Science is a field of study which aims to extend the autonomy of exploration robots from low level functionality, such as on-board perception and obstacle avoidance, to science autonomy, which allows scientists to specify missions at task level. This will enable more remote and extreme environments such as deep ocean and other planets to be studied, leading to significant science discoveries. This paper presents an approach to extend the high level autonomy of robots by enabling th...

  1. A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE TRANSITION FROM A RESOURCE BASED TO A KNOWLEDGE-ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and the emergence of new technologies have changed the optics on the factors that are generating added value. The transition from a resource-dependent economy to one focused on tangible non-financial factors has progressed in a gradual manner and took place under the influence of globalization and of the internet boom. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical approach to this phenomenon from the perspective of the temporal evolution of enterprise resources.

  2. Electromagnetic, flow and thermal study of a miniature planar spiral transformer with planar, spiral windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mathematical modeling and numerical simulation results for a miniature, planar, spiral transformer (MPST fabricated in micro-electromechanical MEMS technology. When the MPST is magnetic nanofluid cored, magnetization body forces occur, entraining it into a complex flow. This particular MPST design is then compared with other competing solutions concerning the lumped (circuit parameters. Finally, the heat transfer problem is solved for different electromagnetic working conditions to assess the thermal loads inside the MPST.

  3. Drug discovery for hearing loss: Phenotypic screening of chemical compounds on primary cultures of the spiral ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlon, Donna S

    2017-06-01

    In the United States there are, at present, no drugs that are specifically FDA approved to treat hearing loss. Although several clinical trials are ongoing, including one testing D-methionine that is supported by the US Army, none of these trials directly address the effect of noise exposure on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. We recently published the first report of a systematic chemical compound screen using primary, mammalian spiral ganglion cultures in which we were able to detect a compound and others in its class that increased neurite elongation, a critical step in restoring cochlear synapses after noise induced hearing loss. Here we discuss the issues, both pro and con, that influenced the development of our approach. These considerations may be useful for future compound screens that target the same or other attributes of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A checklist approach to caring for women seeking pregnancy testing: effects on contraceptive knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica; Papic, Melissa; Baldauf, Erin; Updike, Glenn; Schwarz, E Bimla

    2015-02-01

    To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, [aOR 4.66 (1.76-12.35)], [corrected] have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, pcontraception and were more likely to report at 3-month follow-up a method of contraception more effective than the method they used prior to seeking pregnancy testing from the study clinic (aOR=2.02, 95% CI=1.03-3.96). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. [corrected]. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in the 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appears to increase use of

  5. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawrence

    Full Text Available The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2 area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN

  6. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  7. The Use of Poetry in a Spiral-Patterned Methodology for Research about Love in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Research about love in early childhood education and care is rare. Love is difficult topic to research and write about in scholarly contexts. In order to properly explore love in professional contexts, practitioner narratives on the topic were sought through individual, unstructured interviews. A spiral-patterned methodological approach was…

  8. Identification of Distillation Process Dynamics Comparing Process Knowledge and Black Box Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud H; Nielsen, C. S.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1990-01-01

    A distillation plant equipped with a heat pump separates a mixture of isopropanol and methanol. The mixture contains some water as impurity. The model development aims at dual composition control design, where top and bottom compositions should follow the setpoints, and disturbances should...... obtained in closed loop operation of the distillation plant. In the present work, the two approaches are compared in terms of how well the model fits, and predicts the data, the conditioning of the model parameter estimation, and convenience of usage....

  9. [Patients' knowledge and practices about unconsumed drugs disposal. An Approach to Ecopharmacovigilance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano-Prieto, Diego M; Orozco-Díaz, José G; Holguín-Hernández, Esperanza

    2016-02-01

    Objective To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices about remaining drugs (RD) and expired drugs (ED) disposal. Method Descriptive study in 392 patients at a hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Results Participants were 17 to 86 years old. 66.1% of them had RD, 31.4 % were nervous system drugs (according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification of WHO). 25.8 % of people dispose of RD in common waste (CW) and 64.0 % dispose of ED in CW. 17.4 % think RD, and 62.5 % think ED should be thrown away like CW. 4.9% of people think RD, and 6.6 % think ED should be thrown away in specialized places. 92.4 % people don't know about DRP nor 86.7 % about "Puntos Azules"; 94.6 % would like more information. 79.1 % think that throwing away drugs can affect health and, 88.8 %, the environment. Conclusions Most participants dispose of drugs inappropriately. They think that it is wrong and this can damage the environment and health. There is an interest in being informed. This reveals an area of possible work in awareness, information and education from pharmacovigilance about this subject for the benefit of the population.

  10. Knowledge Management and World Class Manufacturing: an initial approach based on a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Carvalho Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents the partial results of an ongoing research on the proposal of a methodology for the integration between Knowledge Management (KM and World Class Manufacturing (WCM. The initial investigation of theoretical and conceptual nature aimed at developing a comprehensive and current vision on KM, WCM, and how (or "whether" these constructs relate to one another. The primary sources for the literature review were Web of Science, Scopus, Emerald, Ebsco, SciELO and Spell, and the time frame was 2000 to 2016. The analysis of the selected papers showed that, although the initial WCM model evolved into a "new WCM" in the 2000s, the literature is still focused on the broad conceptual aspects and basic methods and tools, such as Total Quality Process, Total Productive Maintenance and Just-in-Time, conceived in the Toyota Production System, which shows the need for more studies focused on the current scenario of companies associated with the "new WCM" and its Methods and Tools. Only one article explicitly addressing the interaction between KM theories with WCM was found in the databases surveyed, thus reinforcing the lack of theoretical approximation of these constructs.

  11. Interpretive approaches of the educational communication in the society of knowledge. socio-critical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín DE LA HERRÁN GASCÓN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The concept of educational communication has shaken the contemporary period and has been affected by the technological explosion. This article aims to compare the lines of thinking critically about the problem generated by the mass media and new information technologies, whose insight seems determined by technological innovation. Through a review of the current fundamental traditional and current contributions representational and semiotic analysis, aesthetic and Gramsci, the article questions using a hermeneutic methodology the trend towards conflicting interpretations, overly instrumental and reductionist study of the problem. In parallel it is considered that the current informational, heir to a banking education model, holds the primacy in educational practices to use. In this context and for its inclusiveness, it is assumed the methodology of Paulo Freire's popular education as the most appropriate 'theory of educational communication’, directed to the generation of knowledge for social change.

  12. Knowledge translation: An interprofessional approach to integrating a pain consult team within an acute care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna

    2016-11-01

    Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.

  13. Learning Electrical Circuits: The Effects of the 4C-ID Instructional Approach in the Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional on learners’ knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two groups: an experimental group constituted three intact classes (n = 78; and a control group constituted two intact classes (n = 51. The experimental group was taught using a digital learning environment designed with the 4C-ID model principles while the control group learned the same contents through a conventional method. We assessed the students’ performance (knowledge-acquisition and transfer, the perceived cognitive load, and the instructional efficiency. Results indicated that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on a knowledge-acquisition test and in a learning transfer test. They also perceived a less cognitive load in the transfer test and the learning environment developed with the 4C-ID model proved to be more instructional efficient than the conventional method.

  14. The effects of question-generation training on metacognitive knowledge, self regulation and learning approaches in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano García, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A B G; Pichardo, M C; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Although much research has examined the impact of question generation on students' reading comprehension and learning from lectures, far less research has analysed its influence on how students learn and study science. The present study aims to bridge this knowledge gap. Using a quasi-experimental design, three complete ninth-grade science classes, with a total of 72 students, were randomly assigned to three conditions (groups): (G1) questioning-training by providing prompts; (G2) question-generation without any explicit instruction; and (G3) no question control. Participants' pre-test and post-test self-reported measures of metacognitive knowledge, self-regulation and learning approaches were collected and data analysed with multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance. (a) MANCOVA revealed a significant effect for group; (b) ANCOVAs showed the highest average gains for G1 and statistically significant between-group differences in the two components of metacognition: metacognitive knowledge and self-regulation; and (c) the direction of these differences seemed to vary in each of these components. Question-generation training influenced how students learned and studied, specifically their metacognition, and it had a medium to large effect size, which was somewhat related to the prompts used.

  15. SfM for Orthophoto to Generation: A Winning Approach for Cultural Heritage Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D detailed models derived from digital survey techniques have increasingly developed and focused in many field of application. The high detailed content and accuracy of such models make them so attractive and usable for large sets of purposes in Cultural Heritage. The present paper focuses on one of the main techniques used nowadays for Cultural Heritage survey and documentation: the image matching approach or Structure from Motion (SfM technique. According to the low cost nature and the rich content of derivable information, these techniques are extremely strategic in poor available resources sectors such as Cultural Heritage documentation. After an overview of the employed algorithms and used approaches of SfM computer vision based techniques, the paper is focused in a critical analysis of the strategy used by two common employed software: the commercial suite Agisoft Photoscan and the open source tool MicMac realized by IGN France. The experimental section is focused on the description of applied tests (from RPAS data to terrestrial acquisitions, purposed to compare different solutions in various featured study cases. Finally, the accuracy assessment of the achieved products is compared and analyzed according to the strategy employed by the studied software.

  16. Processing fine stainless-steel slag using spiral concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Eric R; Klima, Mark S

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of spiral concentration to process a fine (-1 mm) stainless-steel slag was evaluated. Specifically, testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing a high metal content stainless steel product and a low metal content aggregate product. This involved investigating a key operating variable for both five-and seven-turn spiral concentrators. The raw slag and spiral products were characterized to determine their respective size and metal distributions. Separation testing was carried out using the two full-scale spiral concentrators to evaluate the effects of feed solids concentration on spiral performance at solids feed rates ranging from 15 to 30 kg/min. The results indicated that under certain conditions, a high-quality metal fraction could be produced. For example, using the five-turn spiral, a product containing 95% metal was obtained at a low metal recovery. Both spirals were ineffective at concentrating the aggregate fraction. Overall, the feed solids concentration did not significantly affect the quality or recoveries of the products, particularly for feed solids concentrations less than 35% by weight. In order to improve the metal recoveries and to produce a low-metal aggregate material, reprocessing of the product streams and/or additional liberation of the raw slag would be required.

  17. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma : usefulness of two and three phase spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of each phases in two and three phase spiral CT in the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Two phase spiral CT images of 18 patients and three phase spiral CT images of 12 patients with pathologically-proven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively compared. Using a single spiral scan, images of early and delayed phases were obtained at 43 seconds and 2{approx}3minutes respectively initiating the after administration of 100-120cc of contrast material (2{approx}3cc/sec), Images of arterial, portal and delayed phases were also obtained at 25 and 60 seconds, and 3{approx}4minutes, respectively, by the use of a double spiral scan. CT scans were performed with 10mm collimation at 1:1 pitch table speed. Contrast between the tumor and adjacent pancreatic parenchyma were compared and graded and enhancement pattern of the tumor were analysed together. In 12 patients (66.7%), images of the early phase were superior to those of the delayed phase. images of the portal phase were superior to those of the arterial phase. Enhancement of tumor was seen in four patients;all tumors were less than 3cm in size. The early phase of two phase spiral CT is superior to the delayed phase and the portal phase of three phase spiral CT is superior to the arterial phase. Both arterial and portal phases are superior to the delayed phase.

  18. Spiral Antenna-Coupled Microbridge Structures for THz Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2017-12-01

    Bolometer sensor is a good candidate for THz imaging due to its compact system, low cost, and wideband operation. Based on infrared microbolometer structures, two kinds of antenna-coupled microbridge structures are proposed with different spiral antennas: spiral antenna on support layer and spiral antenna with extended legs. Aiming at applications in detection and imaging, simulations are carried out mainly for optimized absorption at 2.52 THz, which is the radiation frequency of far-infrared CO 2 lasers. The effects of rotation angle, line width, and spacing of the spiral antenna on THz wave absorption of microbridge structures are discussed. Spiral antenna, with extended legs, is a good solution for high absorption rate at low absorption frequency and can be used as electrode lead simultaneously for simplified manufacturing process. A spiral antenna-coupled microbridge structure with an absorption rate of more than 75% at 2.52 THz is achieved by optimizing the structure parameters. This research demonstrates the use of different spiral antennas for enhanced and tunable THz absorption of microbridge structures and provides an effective way to fabricate THz microbolometer detectors with great potential in the application of real-time THz imaging.

  19. Mapping knowledge investments in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: a new approach for assessing regulatory agency responses to environmental disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frickel, Scott; Campanella, Richard; Vincent, M. Bess

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of large-scale disasters, the public's dependency on federal and state agencies for information about public safety and environmental risk is acute. While formal rules and procedures are in place to guide policy decisions in environmental risk assessment of spatially concentrated hazards such as regulated waste sites or vacant city lots, standard procedures for risk assessment seem potentially less well-suited for urban-scale disaster zones where environmental hazards may be widely dispersed and widely varying. In this paper we offer a new approach for the social assessment of regulatory science in response to large-scale disaster, illustrating our methodology through a socio-spatial analysis of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hazard assessment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. We find that the agency's commitment of epistemic resources or 'knowledge investments' varied considerably across the flood-impacted portion of the city, concentrating in poorer and disproportionately African American neighborhoods previously known to be heavily contaminated. We address some of the study's social and policy implications, noting the multidimensionality and interactive nature of knowledge investments and the prospects for deepening and extending this approach through comparative research

  20. Detailed anatomy knowledge: first step to approach petroclival meningiomas through the petrous apex. Anatomy lab experience and surgical series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Roberto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Pacca, Paolo; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Garbossa, Diego; Ducati, Alessandro; Zenga, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Petroclival meningiomas are a challenge for neurosurgeons due to the complex anatomy of the region that is rich of vessels and nerves. A perfect and detailed knowledge of the anatomy is very demanding in neurosurgery, especially in skull base surgery. The authors describe the microsurgical anatomy to perform an anterior petrosectomy based on their anatomical and surgical experience and perform a literature review. The temporal bone is the most complex and fascinating bone of skull base. The apex is located in the angle between the greater wing of the sphenoid and the occipital bone. Removing the petrous apex exposes the clivus. The approach directed through the temporal bone in this anatomical area is referred to as an anterior petrosectomy. The area that must be drilled is the rhomboid fossa that is defined by the Kawase, premeatal, and postmeatal triangles. In Division of Neurosurgery - University of Turin, 130 patients, from August 2013 to September 2015, underwent surgical resection of intracranial meningiomas. In this group, we have operated 7 PCMs and 5 of these were approached performing an anterior petrosectomy with good results. In our conclusions, we feel that this surgery require an advanced knowledge of human anatomy and a specialized training in interpretation of radiological and microsurgical anatomy both in the dissection lab and in the operating room.