Sample records for spiral high-resolution coronary

  1. High-resolution variable-density 3D cones coronary MRA. (United States)

    Addy, Nii Okai; Ingle, R Reeve; Wu, Holden H; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G


    To improve the spatial/temporal resolution of whole-heart coronary MR angiography by developing a variable-density (VD) 3D cones acquisition suitable for image reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing techniques. A VD 3D cones trajectory design incorporates both radial and spiral trajectory undersampling techniques to achieve higher resolution. This design is used to generate a VD 3D cones trajectory with 0.8 mm/66 ms isotropic spatial/temporal resolution, using a similar number of readouts as our previous fully sampled cones trajectory (1.2 mm/100 ms). Scans of volunteers and patients are performed to evaluate the performance of the VD trajectory, using non-Cartesian L1 -ESPIRiT for high-resolution image reconstruction. With gridding reconstruction, the high-resolution scans experience an expected drop in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but with L1 -ESPIRiT, the apparent noise is substantially reduced. Compared with 1.2 mm images, in each volunteer, the L1 -ESPIRiT 0.8 mm images exhibit higher vessel sharpness values in the right and left anterior descending arteries. Coronary MR angiography with isotropic submillimeter spatial resolution and high temporal resolution can be performed with VD 3D cones to improve the depiction of coronary arteries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. High-resolution spiral computed tomography with multiplanar reformatting, 3D surface- and volume rendering: a non-destructive method to visualize ancient Egyptian mummification techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Roel J.; Poulus, Martin; Taconis, Wijbren; Stoker, Jaap


    Ancient Egyptians used mummification techniques to prevent their deceased from decay. This study evaluates the potential of computed tomography (CT) in determining these techniques in a non-destructive way. Twenty-five mummies were studied by using high-resolution spiral CT, 1 mm slice thickness for

  3. High-resolution coronary MR angiography for evaluation of patients with anomalous coronary arteries: visualization of the intramural segment

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    Biko, David M. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chung, Claudia; Chung, Taylor [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Hitt, David M. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kurio, Gregory [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiology, Oakland, CA (United States); Reinhartz, Olaf [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Oakland, CA (United States)


    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the contralateral coronary sinus is a rare coronary anomaly associated with sudden death. The inter-arterial course is most closely associated with sudden death, but it has been suggested that the presence of an intramural segment of a right anomalous coronary is associated with more symptoms and therefore may be an important criterion for intervention in these patients. To demonstrate that MR angiography can accurately determine the presence or absence of an intramural segment in an anomalous coronary artery. All studies of children who underwent MR angiography for the evaluation of an anomalous coronary artery were retrospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists in consensus. Criteria for an intramural anomalous coronary artery were the presence of a small or slit-like ostium and the relative smaller size of the proximal intramural portion of the coronary artery in relation to the more distal epicardial coronary artery. The anomalous coronary artery was classified as not intramural if these two findings were absent. These findings were correlated with operative reports confirming the presence or absence of an intramural segment. Twelve patients (86%) met MR angiography criteria for the presence of an intramural course. Only 2 patients (14%) met MR angiography criteria for a non-intramural course. When correlating with intraoperative findings, MR angiography was successful in distinguishing between intramural and non-intramural anomalous coronary arteries in all cases (P = 0.01). MR angiography may be able to reliably identify the intramural segment of an anomalous coronary artery in older children using the imaging criteria of a small or slit-like ostium and relative decrease in size of the proximal portion of the anomalous coronary artery compared to the distal portion of the anomalous coronary artery. Determining the presence of the intramural segment may help with surgical planning and may be an important

  4. Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band - High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations (United States)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Keen, Cecil S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark; Pease, Steven R.


    It is known that Great Lakes snow squall convection occurs in a variety of different modes depending on various factors such as air-water temperature contrast, boundary-layer wind shear, and geostrophic wind direction. An exceptional and often neglected source of data for mesoscale cloud studies is the ultrahigh resolution multispectral data produced by Landsat satellites. On October 19, 1972, a clearly defined spiral vortex was noted in a Landsat-1 image near the southern end of Lake Michigan during an exceptionally early cold air outbreak over a still very warm lake. In a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation mesoscale model with an initially uniform wind field, a definite analog to the observed vortex was generated. This suggests that intense surface heating can be a principal cause in the development of a low-level mesoscale vortex.

  5. High resolution heart rate variability analysis in patients with angina pectoris during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (United States)

    Mironov, V. A.; Mironova, T. F.; Kuvatov, V. A.; Nokhrina, O. Yu.; Kuvatova, E. V.


    The purpose of the study is approbation of the capabilities of high-resolution rhythmocardiography (RCG) for the determination of the actual cardiovascular status of operated patients with angina pectoris during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGS) for myocardial revascularization. The research was done by means of a KAP-RK-02-Mikor hardware-software complex with a monitor record and the time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV). Monitor records were made at each stage of CABGS in 123 patients. As a result, HRV manifested itself as a fairly adequate and promising method for the determination of the cardiovascular status during CABGS. In addition, the data of the HRV study during CABGS testify to the capability of RCG to determine the high risk of life-threatening cardioarrhythmias before and during operation, to different changes in sinoatrial heart node (SN) dysregulation, and contain the HRV symptoms of a high death risk before, during and after shunting. The loss of the peripheral autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic control in SN in the form of the autonomic cardioneuropathy syndrome is a predictor of the complications related to CABGS. The obtained data on RCG monitoring of HRV recording are suggestive of wide prospects of the high-resolution RCG method to be used in cardiac surgery as a whole. The actual multivariant dysregulations of SN pacemaker activity testify to its adequacy to the pathophysiology of each period of the cardiac operation, according to the initial ischemic damages and localization of cardiosurgical manipulations during CABGS.

  6. Clinical application of 16-slice spiral CT in reconstruction imaging of coronary artery for diagnosing coronary disense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xinbo; Zhu Xinjin; Zeng Huiliang; Chen Xueguang


    Objective: An evaluation of the reconstructed imaging of coronary arteries with 16-slice spiral CT in diagnosis of coronary disease. Methods: The reconstructed images of coronary arteries obtained on a 16-slice spiral CT scanner were reviewed in 60 cases, on which the following techniques were applied: retrospective ECG-gating, Segment method with 75% R-R interval, volume rendering technique (VRT), maximum intensity projection (MIP), mulfiplanar reconstruction (MPR), curved planar reconstruction (CPR) and CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE). Results: In all 60 cases, different stages of CHD were revealed in 21 cases; none abnormality was found in 33; and images were in poor quality in 2 cases, which was available for diagnosis. There were 4 stents planted in 4 cases: soft plaque suspected in lcase, patent in 2 and occlude in 1. Conclusion: The reconstructed imaging of coronary arteries with 16-slice spiral CT is superior modality in evaluation of severe coronary stenosis, plaques, and the pantency of the intra-luminal stents, which is an efficient and non-invasive imaging in diagnosis of early-stage CHD and screening in high risk population. (authors)

  7. Comparative study of paranasal sinus between 16-slice spiral CT coronary reforming imagines and scanning images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Ziqiao; Han Ping; Yu Jianming; Chen Yan; Shi Heshui; Liu Yonghua; Yu Qun; Wu Hongying


    Objective: To explore the effect of different scanning methods and different constructive arithmetic on displaying the anatomy of ostiomeatal complex (OMC). Methods: Fifty-six patients undergoing paranasal sinus CT were divided into normal group (34 cases) and inflammation group (22 cases). According to scanning methods, all the cases reconstructed with soft tissue arithmetic were divided into coronary reforming group and coronary scanning group. Among 56 cases, 18 normal cases and 16 inflammation cases were reconstructed using high resolution arithmetic simultaneously. The imaging quality of OMC was assessed with different scanning methods and different constructive arithmetic. Results: There are no significant difference between coronary reforming images and coronary scanning images in two groups. There are significant difference between high resolution arithmetic and soft tissue arithmetic in normal group, but not in inflammation group. Conclusions: The information of axial images and coronary reforming images with 16-slice CT is superior to coronary scanning images on displaying the anatomy of OMC. High resolution arithmetic is better in displaying the tiny structure of OMC than soft tissue arithmetic in normal group. (authors)

  8. MALDI SpiralTOF high-resolution mass spectrometry and Kendrick mass defect analysis applied to the characterization of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers. (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Nakamura, Sayaka; Sato, Hiroaki


    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers - usually referred to as EVA - are first class industrial polymers used for applications ranging from padding to photovoltaics as encapsulant for the silicon solar cells. Various techniques have been used for their characterization but the analysis of intact EVA chains using mass spectrometry (MS) has not been reported so far. Three copolymers containing 18, 25 and 40 wt% vinyl acetate (VA) have been characterized using an off-line coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spiral-time-of-flight (TOF) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The representativeness of those results for the entire samples has been checked using (13) C NMR spectroscopy. Lastly, Kendrick mass defect analysis has been proposed as an alternative and user-friendly data treatment method. The shortest chains isolated by SEC fractionation and mass-analyzed by HRMS have been thoroughly described in terms of end-groups (found to be hydrogens) and co-monomeric composition. The VA content was successfully derived from the peak assignments in MS spectra for the EVA 40 wt% and 25 wt% while it tended to be overestimated for the latest EVA 18 wt% (increasing poly(ethylene) character). Similar results have been found using a faster data treatment method relying on the Kendrick mass defect analysis of the MS data. EVA low molecular weight intact oligomers have been extensively characterized by MS for the first time and the structural features confidently extended to the full sample according to NMR data. The Kendrick mass analysis finally constituted an efficient method for a fast evaluation of their VA content with no need for manual assignment. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Advantages of multislice spiral computed tomography for evaluation of serious coronary complications after Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Ichikawa, Rie


    Novel multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) findings were identified in patients after Kawasaki disease that could not be detected by coronary angiography (CAG). Eighteen patients had suffered from serious coronary arterial lesions after Kawasaki disease (mean age 21.7 years, range 13-34 years). Seventeen patients had stenotic lesions, and all of them had coronary aneurysms. MSCT was performed using a Siemens SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector row) or a Toshiba Aquillion 16 (16-detector row). Findings of coronary calcification, stenotic lesion, and intimal hypertrophy in all coronary arteries were compared to those of CAG. Eleven of the 18 patients (61%) had novel findings detected by MSCT. Coronary calcifications were found in 11 of the 18 patients (61%). Five patients had concentric calcified aneurysms, four had eccentric calcified aneurysms, and two had mixed calcified aneurysms. Coronary stenotic lesions were present in 6 of the 18 patients (33%) with calcified aneurysms. Two patients had intimal hypertrophy (11%). One patient had intimal hypertrophy along the left main trunk with a giant calcified aneurysm along the left anterior descending artery. Two patients had severe stenoses just distal to giant calcified aneurysms that were regarded as false positive findings, and were identified as mild stenoses by CAG. MSCT offers advantages over CAG in the evaluation of calcified aneurysms and intimal hypertrophy, and is a potential diagnostic modality for coronary intervention in patients after Kawasaki disease. (author)

  10. The influence factors in image quality of multi-slice spiral CT coronary angiography (MSCTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Huiliang; Zhu Xinjin; Liang Jianhao; Zhong Yingze; Chen Xueguang; Ou Weiqian; Wen Haomao; Li Peiwen


    Objective: To evaluate the influence of heart rate on image quality of multi-slice spiral CT coronary angiography(MSCTA) and the optimization of image reconstruction windows. Methods: Retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT coronary angiography were performed in 67 cases. The cases were divided into four groups by heart rate, groupl with heart rate less than 60 beats per minute(bpm), group 2 with heart rate 61-70 bpm, group 3 with heart rate 71-80 bpm and group 4 with heart rate over 81 bpm. The impact of heart rate on image quality of MSCTA and the optimization of image reconstruction windows were evaluated. Results: 4 coronary (RCA,LM,LAD,LCX) segments were analyzed in each patients with regard to image quality. 86.7%(112/128) of the coronary segments were sufficient for analysis in patients with heart rate less than 60 bpm,62.5%(55/88) with 61-70 bpm,40%(8/20) with 71-80 bpm and 12.5%(2/16) with heart rate over 81 bpm, respectively. There were statistically significances between every coronary segments of group 1 and 2, group 3 and 4 (P<0.05). All coronary segments of group 1 were optimally visualized on the image reconstructed at 75% image reconstruction window of' cardiac cycle; 89.5% cases at 75% in group 2; for group 3.55% of coronary artery were best presented at 75% image reconstruction window, 45% of coronary artery at 45%; All coronary segments of group 4 were optimally visualized on the image reconstructed at 45% image reconstruction window. Conclusion: Image quality of MSCT coronary angiography is highly dependent on heart rate. Coronary artery is usually best shown at 75% image reconstruction window of cardiac cycle for those with heart rate less than 70 bpm. 30%-90% image reconstruction should be performed when heart rate is over 71 bpm. (authors)

  11. Self-gated golden angle spiral cine MRI for coronary endothelial function assessment. (United States)

    Bonanno, Gabriele; Hays, Allison G; Weiss, Robert G; Schär, Michael


    Depressed coronary endothelial function (CEF) is a marker for atherosclerotic disease, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events, and can be quantified non-invasively with ECG-triggered spiral cine MRI combined with isometric handgrip exercise (IHE). However, MRI-CEF measures can be hindered by faulty ECG-triggering, leading to prolonged breath-holds and degraded image quality. Here, a self-gated golden angle spiral method (SG-GA) is proposed to eliminate the need for ECG during cine MRI. SG-GA was tested against retrospectively ECG-gated golden angle spiral MRI (ECG-GA) and gold-standard ECG-triggered spiral cine MRI (ECG-STD) in 10 healthy volunteers. CEF data were obtained from cross-sectional images of the proximal right and left coronary arteries in a 3T scanner. Self-gating heart rates were compared to those from simultaneous ECG-gating. Coronary vessel sharpness and cross-sectional area (CSA) change with IHE were compared among the 3 methods. Self-gating precision, accuracy, and correlation-coefficient were 7.7 ± 0.5 ms, 9.1 ± 0.7 ms, and 0.93 ± 0.01, respectively (mean ± standard error). Vessel sharpness by SG-GA was equal or higher than ECG-STD (rest: 63.0 ± 1.7% vs. 61.3 ± 1.3%; exercise: 62.6 ± 1.3% vs. 56.7 ± 1.6%, P cine MRI method even when ECG is faulty or not available. Magn Reson Med 80:560-570, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Multi-slice spiral CT coronary angiography: influence of heart rate and reconstruction window on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dingbiao; Hua Yanqing; Wang Mingpeng; Zhang Guozhen; Wu Weilan; Hu Fei; Ge Xiaojun; Ding Qiyong


    Objective: To evaluate the influence of heart rate and reconstruction window on image quality of multi-slice spiral CT coronary angiography. Methods: Retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT coronary angiography were performed in 80 healthy cases. Results: Four coronary (RCA, LM, LAD, LCX) segments were analyzed in each patient with regard to image quality. 82.1% (46/56) of the coronary segments were sufficient for analysis in patients with heart rate ≤60 bpm, 63.4% (104/164) with 61-70 bpm, 41.2%(28/68) with 71-80 bpm, and 31.2%(10/32) with>80 bpm, respectively. The left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery, and the right coronary artery were best visualized when the reconstruction window was 60%-70%, 50%-60%, and 50%-70%, respectively. Conclusion: Image quality of MSCT coronary angiography is highly dependent on heart rate and reconstruction window

  13. Double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition for CT coronary angiography: Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Qin, J.; He, B.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, J.-J.; Hou, X.-L.; Yang, X.-B.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, Y.-D.


    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of double prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (double high-pitch mode) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA). Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients [40 women, 109 men; mean age 58.2 ± 9.2 years; sinus rhythm ≤70 beats/min (bpm) after pre-medication, body weight ≤100 kg] were enrolled for CTCA examinations using a dual-source CT system with 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm collimation, 0.28 s rotation time, and a pitch of 3.4. Double high-pitch mode was prospectively triggered first at 60% and later at 30% of the R–R interval within two cardiac cycles. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 4 = non-assessable). Results: From 2085 coronary artery segments, 86.4% (1802/2085) were rated as having a score of 1, 12.3% (257/2085) as score of 2, 1.2% (26/2085) as score of 3, and none were rated as “non-assessable”. The average image quality score was 1.15 ± 0.26 on a per-segment basis. The effective dose was calculated by multiplying the coefficient factor of 0.028 by the dose–length product (DLP); the mean effective dose was 3.5 ± 0.8 mSv (range 1.7–7.6 mSv). The total dosage of contrast medium was 78.7 ± 2.9 ml. Conclusion: Double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode provides good image quality with an average effective dose of less than 5 mSv in patients with a heart rate ≤70 bpm

  14. FADS gene polymorphisms confer the risk of coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population through the altered desaturase activities: based on high-resolution melting analysis.

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    Si-Wei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We explored the desaturase activities and the correlation of fatty acid desaturases (FADS gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with plasma fatty acid in coronary artery disease (CAD patients in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: Plasma fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in CAD patients (n = 505 and a control group (n = 510. Five SNPs in the FADS gene were genotyped with high-resolution melting (HRM methods. RESULTS: After adjustment, D6D activity, assessed as arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6/linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6, was higher in CAD patients (pT and rs174460 C>T were different between the two groups. The rs174537 T allele was associated with a lower risk of CAD [OR 0.743, 95% CI (0.624, 0.884, p = 0.001]. Carriers of the rs174460 C allele were associated with a higher risk of CAD [OR 1.357, 95% CI (1.106, 1.665, p = 0.003]. CONCLUSIONS: We firstly report that the rs174460 C allele is associated with a higher risk of CAD, and confirm that the rs174537 T allele is associated with a lower risk of CAD. Our results indicate that FADS gene polymorphisms are likely to influence plasma fatty acid concentrations and desaturase activities.

  15. Evaluation of computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with a high heart rate using 16-slice spiral computed tomography with 0.37-s gantry rotation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shi-Zheng; Hu, Xiu-Hua; Zhang, Qiao-Wei; Huang, Wen-Xin


    The aim of our study is to evaluate computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography in patients with a high heart rate using 16-slice spiral CT with 0.37-s gantry rotation time. We compare the image quality of patients whose heart rates were over 70 beats per minute (bpm) with that of patients whose heart rates were 70 bpm or less. Sixty patients with various heart rates underwent retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT (MSCT) coronary angiography. Two experienced observers who were blind to the heart rates of the patients evaluated all the MSCT coronary angiographic images and calculated the assessable segments. A total of 620 out of 891 (69.6%) segments were satisfactorily visualized. On average, 10.3 coronary artery segments per patient could be evaluated. In 36 patients whose heart rates were below 70 bpm [mean 62.2 bpm±5.32 (standard deviation, SD)], the number of assessable segments was 10.72±2.02 (SD). In the other 24 patients whose heart rates were above 70 bpm [mean 78.6 bpm±8.24 (SD)], the corresponding number was 9.75±1.74 (SD). No statistically significant difference was found in these two subgroups' t test, P>0.05. The new generation of 16-slice spiral CT with 0.37-s rotation time can satisfactorily evaluate the coronary arteries of patients with high heart rates (above 70 bpm, up to 102 bpm). (orig.)

  16. Noninvasive coronary artery imaging by multislice spiral computed tomography. A novel approach for a retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Inoue Fumio


    Although the excellent spatial resolution of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) enables the coronary arteries to be visualized, its limited temporal resolution results in poor image reproducibility because of cardiac motion artifact (CMA) and hence limits its widespread clinical use. A novel retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction method has been developed to minimize CMA. In 88 consecutive patients, the scan data were reconstructed using 2 retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction methods. Method 1: the end of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the peak of the P wave on ECG, which corresponded to the end of the slow filling phase during diastole immediately before atrial contraction. Method 2 (conventional method): relative retrospective gating with 50% referred to the R-R interval was performed so that the beginning of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the halfway point between the R-R intervals of the heart cycle. The quality of the coronary artery images was evaluated according to the presence or absence of CMA. The assessment was applied to the left main coronary artery (LMCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD, segments no.6, no.7, and no.8), the left circumflex artery (LCx, segments no.11 and no.13) and the right coronary artery (RCA, segments no.1, no.2 and no.3). The first diagonal artery (no.9-1), the obtuse marginal artery (no.12-1), the posterior descending artery (no.4-PD), the atrioventricular node branch (no.4-AV) and the first right ventricular branch (RV) were also evaluated. Of the 88 patients, 85 were eligible for image evaluation. Method 1 allowed visualization of the major coronary arteries without CMA in the majority of patients. The left coronary artery (LCA) system (segments no.5-7, no.11 and no.13) and the proximal portion of the RCA were visualized in more than 94% of patients. Artifact-free visualization of the distal portion of the LAD (segment no.8) and RCA (no.4

  17. Value of 64-slice spiral CT angiography for follow-up of young children with coronary artery aneurysms due to Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin; Liu Shichen; Du Zhongdong; Sun Guoqiang; Guo Huiling


    Objective: To assess the value and feasibility of 64-slice spiral CT in diagnosis of coronary artery aneurysm in the follow-up of young children with previous Kawasaki disease. Methods Twelve boys (mean age 5.1 years) for follow-up (ranged 1.1 to 5.1 years) with known Kawasaki disease and coronary artery aneurysms underwent coronary CT angiography using 64-slice spiral CT. The number, location, shape and size of each coronary artery, aneurysm were recorded and compared with those of echocardiography performed simutaneously. Results: A total of 30 coronary artery aneurysms were identified with mean diameter of (7.5±3.8) mm, and mean maximum length of (12.4±9.1)mm. 10 aneurysms were small in size,7 aneurysms were medium in size and 13 were giant aneurysms. Fourteen aneurysms were saccular, and the remaining 16 were fusiform. Among the aneurysms in left coronary artery, 7 of them were located in the main branch, 9 were located in the proximal segment of the anterior descending branch, 4 were located at the middle segment of the anterior descending branch, and 2 were located in the circumflex branch. Among the aneurysms in right coronary artery, 6 of them were located in the proximal segment, 9 were located in the middle segment, and 4 were located at the distal segment. Nine of the aneurysms involved 2 segments of the coronary arteries, and one involved 3 segments. Six stenotic segments were found. Calcification was found in 5 aneurysms and 3 of them had thrombosis. Echocardiography failed to detect 8 aneurysms of small size and located in the middle or distal segments of the coronary arterys. Conclusion: The 64-slice CT angiography proved valuable for monitoring young children with Kawasaki disease. (authors)

  18. Noninvasive coronary angiography: agreement of multi-slice spiral computed tomography and selective catheter angiography. (United States)

    Fine, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Christie B; Hall, Patrick A X; Delphia, Robert E; Attebery, Timothy W; Newton, F Carter


    Technology advances in multislice detector computed tomography (MSCT) cardiac scanning, specifically in the application of intravenous injected contrast coronary angiography with EKG gating have led to the availability of this procedure in every day outpatient cardiac medicine. The aim of this study is to test the head to head direct coronary angiography with MSCT coronary angiography in clinical situations where cardiac cath is traditionally utilized for management decisions. We limited our analysis to vessels felt to be 1.5 mm or greater in diameter, recognizing diagnostic accuracy and medical importance of smaller vessels is low. All 50 patients (52% men, 48% women age range 34-78) were studied because of the clinical suspicion of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Blinded experts in direct and in MSCT independently read the studies and resolved disparities by a subsequent discussion. Standard protocols for direct and for MSCT angiography were used including use of IV and oral beta blockade to keep the heart rate at or below 60 beats per minute. 392 vessels were evaluated. MSCT provided images of sufficient technical quality to permit diagnosis in 98% (49/50) of cases. MSCT was 96% accurate in identifying patients as having either no disease, single vessel disease, or multiple vessel disease. For all vessels, MSCT identification of stenotic lesions of >50% were as follows: sensitivity 87%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 80%, and negative predictive value 98%. Pearson correlation results between direct catheter and MSCT for absolute stenotic percentages were left main (0.92 p study.

  19. High Resolution Elevation Contours (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  20. Prospectively Electrocardiogram-Gated High-Pitch Spiral Acquisition Mode Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with High Heart Rates: Comparison with Retrospective Electrocardiogram-Gated Spiral Acquisition Mode

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    Sun, Kai; Ma, Rui; Wang, Li Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Baotou Central Hospital, Baotou (China); Li, Li Gang; Chen, Jiu Hong [CT BM Clinic Marketing, Siemens Healthcare, Beijing (China)


    To assess the image quality and effective radiation dose of prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (flash mode) of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with high heart rates (HRs) as compared with retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode. Two hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients (132 female, mean age: 55 {+-} 11 years) with mean HR > 65 beats per minute (bpm) were prospectively included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Collection was performed in group A CTCA using flash mode setting at 20-30% of the R-R interval, and retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode in group B. The image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), image quality scores, effective radiation dose and influencing factors on image quality between the two groups were assessed. There were no significant differences in image quality scores and proportions of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments between two groups (image quality scores: 1.064 {+-} 0.306 [group A] vs. 1.084 {+-} 0.327 [group B], p = 0.063; proportion of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments: segment-based analysis 1.52% (group A) vs. 1.74% (group B), p = 0.345; patient-based analysis 7.5% (group A) vs. 6.7% (group B), p = 0.812). The estimated radiation dose was 1.0 {+-} 0.16 mSv in group A and 7.1 {+-} 1.05 mSv in group B (p = 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with HRs > 65 bpm without cardiac arrhythmia, the prospectively high-pitch spiral-acquisition mode with image-acquired timing set at 20-30% of the R-R interval provides a similar image quality and low rate of non-diagnostic coronary segments to the retrospectively ECG-gated low-pitch spiral acquisition mode, with significant reduction of radiation exposure.

  1. Value of 3D-Volume Rendering in the Assessment of Coronary Arteries with Retrospectively Ecg-Gated Multislice Spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Wildberger, J.E.; Dedden, K.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Sinha, A.M.; Hoffmann, R.; Stanzel, S.


    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value and measurement precision of 3D volume rendering technique (3D-VRT) from retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT (MSCT) data sets for imaging of the coronary arteries. Material and Methods: In 35 patients, retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT of the heart using a four detector row MSCT scanner with a standardized examination protocol was performed as well as quantitative X-ray coronary angiography (QCA). The MSCT data was assessed on segmental basis using 3D-VRT exclusively. The coronary artery diameters were measured at the origin of each main coronary branch and 1 cm, 3 cm and 5 cm distally. The minimum, maximum and mean diameters were determined from MSCT angiography and compared to QCA. Results: A total of 353 of 525 (67.2%) coronary artery segments were assessable by MSCT angiography. The proximal segments were more often assessable when compared to the distal segments. Stenoses were detected with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 92.8%. According to the Bland-Altman method the mean differences between QCA and MSCT ranged from 0.55 to 1.07 mm with limits of agreement from 2.2 mm to 2.7 mm. Conclusion: When compared to QCA, the ability of 3D-VRT to quantitatively assess coronary artery diameters and coronary artery stenoses is insufficient for clinical purposes

  2. High-resolution echocardiography (United States)

    Nathan, R.


    High resolution computer aided ultrasound system provides two-and three-dimensional images of beating heart from many angles. System provides means for determining whether small blood vessels around the heart are blocked or if heart wall is moving normally without interference of dead and noncontracting muscle tissue.

  3. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)), e-mail:; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie (Dept. of Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States))


    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years +- 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 +- 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 +- 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 +- 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  4. High resolution data acquisition (United States)

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.


    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  5. High resolution (transformers. (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio


    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  6. High Resolution Spectral Analysis (United States)


    liable methods for high resolution spectral analysis of multivariable processes, as well as to distance measures for quantitative assessment of...called "modern nonlinear spectral analysis methods " [27]. An alternative way to reconstruct /„(#), based on Tn, is the periodogram/correlogram f{6...eie). A homotopy method was proposed in [8, 9] leading to a differential equation for A(T) in a homotopy variable r. If the statistics are consistent

  7. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.


    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  8. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique. Comparison with angiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kato, Masahiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Surugadai Hospital] [and others


    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses {>=}50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. (author)

  9. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.


    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  10. Sixty-four slice spiral CT angiography does not predict the functional relevance of coronary artery stenoses in patients with stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, Marcus; Hack, Nicolas; Hahn, Klaus; Tiling, Reinhold; Jakobs, Tobias; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian; Ziegler, Franz von; Knez, Andreas; Koenig, Andreas; Klauss, Volker


    The aim of this study was to evaluate spiral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography using 64-slice technique in the detection of functionally relevant coronary artery stenoses (CAS). Thirty-eight patients (62±11 years, 28 men) with stable angina (26 with suspected and 12 with known coronary artery disease) were investigated using 64-slice MDCT angiography and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (gated SPECT); a subgroup of 30 patients had additional invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Stenoses with luminal narrowing of ≥50% were defined as ''significant'' in MDCT angiography and ICA. MDCT angiography was compared with gated SPECT and the combination of gated SPECT plus ICA with respect to the detection of functionally relevant CAS. The sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values of MDCT angiography in detecting reversible perfusion defects on gated SPECT were 63%, 80%, 94% and 32%, respectively, in vessel-based analysis and 71%, 62%, 72% and 60%, respectively, in patient-based analysis. If only reversible perfusion defects on gated SPECT with CAS ≥50% on ICA were considered, the sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values were, respectively, 85%, 79%, 98% and 33% for vessel-based analysis and 85%, 59%, 83% and 61% for patient-based analysis. Sixty-four slice MDCT angiography failed to predict the functional relevance of CAS, but had a high negative predictive value in the exclusion of functionally relevant CAS in symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  11. Noninvasive detection of coronary abnormalities in pediatric patients with Kawassaki disease using multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yang; Guo Wenli; Yue Yong; Chen Liying; Guo Qiyong; Yu Xianyi; Wang Hong


    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and value of detecting coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). Methods: Thirty-four pediatric patients underwent 16-slice or 64-slice CT coronary, angiography. 18 patients were also examined with 2 dimension echocardiography (2DE). In all cases, visibility of coronary artery segment was recorded. The diameter of the LCA, RCA were measured in MSCTA and compared with 2DE. Correlation coefficient of dimension and coincidence rate of two methods were calculated. Results: Coronary artery lesions were found in 14 patients (22 branches) of the 34 cases with KD on MSCT. Six cases were dialated, 3 cases were dialated with aneurysms, 2 cases had aneurysms without dialation. Coronary artery stenosis in 1 eases, calcification in 2 cases. Three cases had multiple aneurysms with the presence of alternate stenosis that made the artery a bead-like appearance. CC of LM and RCA were 0.85, 0.91, respectively (P>0.05). Three coronary artery aneurysm in the distal RCA was missed by 2DE. MSCT could not detect slight or moderate mitral regurgitation in 2 patients and artery wall thickening in 5 patients. Conclusion: MSCT would be an effective complementary or alternative method for CDEC to evaluate coronary artery lesions non-invasively in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease. (authors)

  12. Radiation dose considerations by intra-individual Monte Carlo simulations in dual source spiral coronary computed tomography angiography with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation and adaptive pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Matthias S.; Kuettner, Axel; Lell, Michael M.; Wuest, Wolfgang; Scharf, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Deak, Paul; Kalender, Willi A. [University of Erlangen, Department of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Keller, Andrea K.; Haeberle, Lothar [University of Erlangen, Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan; Seltmann, Martin [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)


    To evaluate radiation dose levels in patients undergoing spiral coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) on a dual-source system in clinical routine. Coronary CTA was performed for 56 patients with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation (TCM) and heart-rate (HR) dependent pitch adaptation. Individual Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed for dose assessment. Retrospective simulations with constant tube current (CTC) served as reference. Lung tissue was segmented and used for organ and effective dose (ED) calculation. Estimates for mean relative ED was 7.1 {+-} 2.1 mSv/100 mAs for TCM and 12.5 {+-} 5.3 mSv/100 mAs for CTC (P < 0.001). Relative dose reduction at low HR ({<=}60 bpm) was highest (49 {+-} 5%) compared to intermediate (60-70 bpm, 33 {+-} 12%) and high HR (>70 bpm, 29 {+-} 12%). However lowest ED is achieved at high HR (5.2 {+-} 1.5 mSv/100 mAs), compared with intermediate (6.7 {+-} 1.6 mSv/100 mAs) and low (8.3 {+-} 2.1 mSv/100 mAs) HR when automated pitch adaptation is applied. Radiation dose savings up to 52% are achievable by TCM at low and regular HR. However lowest ED is attained at high HR by pitch adaptation despite inferior radiation dose reduction by TCM. circle Monte Carlo simulations allow for individual radiation dose calculations. (orig.)

  13. Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy



    The field of High resolution Spectroscopy has been considerably extended and even redefined in some areas. Combining the knowledge of spectroscopy laser technology chemical computation and experiments Handbook of High resolution Spectroscopy provides a comprehensive survey of the whole field as it presents itself today with emphasis on the recent developments. This essential handbook for advanced research students graduate students and researchers takes a systematic approach through the rang...

  14. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.


    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  15. Logarithmic Spiral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anti-clockwise direction and we get a right-handed spiral. (Figure 2). We know that the derivative of eX is also eX. Various properties of logarithmic spiral depend on this property of eX. Properties of Logarithmic Spiral. 1. The most important property of a logarithmic spiral is that r (i.e. the distance from the origin) increases.

  16. Reducing radiation dose in 64-row spiral CT coronary angiography: study based on individualized scan dosage protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Deqiang; Zhao Jing; Peng Nan; Hua Haiqin; Li Chao; Guo Ying; Shen Yun


    Objective: To investigate the methods of reducing radiation dose in CT coronary angiography through optimizing individualized scan dosage protocol. Methods: Two hundred patients (group A) underwent coronary CTA examination which was performed with fixed 120 kV and variable mA according to their BMI. The mA was set as 150-300 mA (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), 300-500 mA (18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 ), and 500-800 mA (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ). When all examinations were finished, a linear regression was employed to analyze the correlation between mA and BMI, body surface (Suf), image noise (SD) respectively. The results of the analysis were used to formulate a regression equation, which was further used to establish a table list for quick search on how much mA that individualized coronary CTA scan would need. Another 200 patients (group B) enrolled for the individualized scan were scanned under new protocol that previous study established. The tube voltage was 100 and 120 kV. The tube current was variable according to the data in the table list. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-wallis H test were used for statistics. Results: Regression equation between mA and BMI, Suf, SD was: mA =17.984 × BMI + 169.149 × Suf-2.282 × SD-361.039. The SD (group A: 32.08 ± 5.80, group B: 28.60±4.47), dose index volume (CTDI vol ) [group A: (41.97 ± 11.37) mGy, group B: (33.18±10.07) mGy], effective dose(ED) [group A: (10.91 ±3.07) mSy, group B: (8.83 ±2.72)mSv] had significant differences between the two groups (F=43.45, 63.71, 49.07 respectively, P<0.01 for all). The SD and ED results obtained in group B were better than those in group A. Conclusion: Better performances were obtained when BMI combined Suf was used as a new individualized protocol than when BMI was used only, which means good image quality and lower radiation dosage in coronary CTA examination. (authors)

  17. Influence of heart rate on image quality of 64-slice spiral computed coronary angiography and optimization on reconstruction of phase window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xuemao; Lan Yong; Li Wei; Long Wansheng; Zhang Chaotong; Zhong Xiangyang; Yi Lan


    Objective: To evaluate the influence of heart rate on the image quality of 64-slice spiral computed coronary angiography (MSCTCA) and optimize the image reconstruction window. Methods: According to the heart rate, 86 patients were classified into 5 groups: group A, the heart rate ≤60 beat per minute(BMP); group B,61-70BMP, group C,71-80BMP, and group D>80BMP. The image quality of MSCTCA was scored 5 grades from 1-5 according to heart motion artifact. The influences of heart rate and reconstruction phase on the image quality of MSCTCA were evaluated. Results: Average heart rate was 64.4 ±10.1BMP. Diagnostic image quality (score>3) was attained in 277 of 344 segments at the best reconstruction interval. There was a significant corxelation between average heart rate and image quality, but there was no difference between relative delay (%) reconstruction and absolute delay (ms) reconstruction on the image quality. Conclusion: Reducing average heart rate is beneficial for improving the image quality. (authors)

  18. High resolution digital delay timer (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.


    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  19. Developments in high resolution radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, H.J.


    Critical aspects in the design of metal-ceramic X-ray tubes for high resolution radiography are presented. The performance of an X-ray system in which the focalspot can be varied from 0.5mm to 0.05mm is discussed as well as number of studies, which includes an assessment of the value of electronic image enhancement

  20. High resolution X ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.


    This paper is devoted to a detailed discussion of the physical processes which are responsible for the emission spectra of H-like and He-like ion of high Z impurities in low density plasmas. The application of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to the diagnostic of tokamak plasmas is also discussed and examples of the results obtained are presented

  1. High-resolution plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, M.C.


    In this chapter, the authors consider the topic of high-resolution plasma spectrometry (HRPS). Several different experimental approaches to HRPS are reviewed, and the benefits derived from increased spectral resolution are discussed. Results from the scientific literature are presented, but no attempt is made to provide an encyclopedic review. The discussion is limited to plasma emission spectrometry and, in particular, to inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

  2. Spiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan


    From the tiny twisted biological molecules to the gargantuan curling arms of many galaxies, the physical world contains a startling repetition of spiral patterns. Today, researchers have a keen interest in identifying, measuring, and defining these patterns in scientific terms. Spirals play an important role in the growth processes of many biological forms and organisms. Also, through time, humans have imitated spiral motifs in their art forms, and invented new and unusual spirals which have no counterparts in the natural world. Therefore, one goal of this multiauthored book is to stress the c

  3. High Resolution Orientation Distribution Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Gade-Nielsen, Nicolai Fog; Høstergaard, Martin


    A new method for reconstructing a High Resolution Orientation Distribution Function (HRODF) from X-ray diffraction data is presented. It is shown that the method is capable of accommodating very localized features, e.g. sharp peaks from recrystallized grains on a background of a texture component...... from the deformed material. The underlying mathematical formalism supports all crystallographic space groups and reduces the problem to solving a (large) set of linear equations. An implementation on multi-core CPUs and Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) is discussed along with an example on simulated...

  4. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin


    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  5. High resolution digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, J.


    A digital radiography system includes an x-ray source for projecting a beam of x-rays toward and through an object to be examined onto the input face of an image intensifier tube. A multi-hole collimator is disposed between the object and the image intensifier tube for producing a two-dimensional array of spaced pencil beams, and these pencil beams are raster scanned relative to the object being examined and across the input face of the image intensifier tube through small distances corresponding generally to the distance between the holes in the collimator. The succession of images which are produced on the output face of the image intensifier tube during the scanning of the pencil beams are scanned by a video camera whose output signals are digitized and stored as partial images, and the partial images are thereafter interleaved with one another to provide a composite comparatively high resolution image of the object being examined

  6. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System (United States)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.


    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  7. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  8. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  10. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode. (United States)

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas


    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  11. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara


    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models

  12. High Resolution TPM Cosmological Simulations (United States)

    Xu, Guohong


    studied several variations of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) type. The standard CDM model, although with many known problems, is treated to compare with the previous simulations. The low density models with and without a cosmological constant are of special interest because they give better fit to the large scale structure and much observational evidence implies that Omega_0 < 1.. With our high resolution simulations, we are specially interested to study the structure of the objects from different cosmological models. The slopes of the dark halo density profiles from different models are only slightly different from each other, with a broad distribution within each model. All the models can successfully produce flat rotation curves for dark halos. We find the biggest difference in the cluster structure among various models is the predicted X-ray core radius. The standard CDM model predicts bigger X-ray core radius than the low density models, but all the models predicts smaller core radius than that from X-ray observations. We find the low density models can produce significant substructures in X-ray clusters to be in agreement with observations, while the X-ray clusters in the standard CDM model are known to have abundant substructures.

  13. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  14. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout (United States)

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.


    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  15. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  16. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  17. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  18. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL


    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  19. The spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibace, Roger; Kharlamov, Nikita


    ’s work with Bernard Kaplan on symbol formation is a primer on this idea. This paper examines the idea of spirality and develops the notion of dynamic coexistence that can clarify the issue of directionality of development; that is, what is the general trajectory or ground plan that development assumes....... Directionality is discussed in terms of the organism-in-environment unfolding over time as the unit of developmental analysis. Thinking on this issue has proceeded from the nature–nurture debates, to recognition of the interaction of external and internal processes, to transactions between the organism...

  20. Spiral tectonics (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad


    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  1. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.


    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  2. High resolution autoionization spectra in atomic uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisner, J.A.; Solarz, R.W.; Carlson, L.R.; May, C.A.; Johnson, S.A.


    High resolution (less than or equal to .5 cm/sup -1/) autoionization spectra of atomic uranium has been observed from newly identified odd parity levels between 32,660 and 34,165 cm/sup -1/. Photoionization cross sections are presented.

  3. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.


    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  4. Classification of high resolution satellite images


    Karlsson, Anders


    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  5. High resolution analysis of interphase chromosome domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A. E.; Jaunin, F.; Fakan, S.; Aten, J. A.


    Chromosome territories need to be well defined at high resolution before functional aspects of chromosome organization in interphase can be explored. To visualize chromosomes by electron microscopy (EM), the DNA of Chinese hamster fibroblasts was labeled in vivo with thymidine analogue BrdU. Labeled

  6. Accuracy of multidetector spiral computed tomography in detecting significant coronary stenosis in patient populations with differing pre-test probabilities of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontone, G.; Andreini, D.; Quaglia, C.; Ballerini, G.; Nobili, E.; Pepi, M.


    Aim: To investigate the clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with a low versus a high pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: A cohort of 120 patients with suspected CAD, scheduled for conventional coronary angiography, underwent MDCT. Using the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines, the population was divided into two groups: patients with a low (group 1) and a high (group 2) likelihood of CAD. Results: Analysis of all segments showed a high feasibility (92%), and a patient based-model showed excellent sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV; both 100%) and acceptable specificity and positive predictive values (PPV; 86 and 90%, respectively), with an accuracy of 94%. Using MDCT in patients with lower pre-test likelihoods of CAD, according to the ACC/AHA guidelines, the accuracy remained high (93%); conversely, in patient groups with a high prevalence of CAD, a non-significant reduction in accuracy (85%) occurred using MDCT. Particularly, MDCT can be used effectively to exclude a diagnosis of CAD because of its high sensitivity and NPV (100%), but shows a significant reduction in specificity (58%). This reduction was due to an increase in the false-positive:true-negative ratio because of the higher percentage of calcified plaque (a relative but non-significant increase in false positives), and the high prevalence of CAD (significant reduction in true negatives). No differences were found between MDCT and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) concerning the number of vessels narrowed. Conclusion: Because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity in patients with a low pre-test likelihood of CAD, MDCT could be helpful in clinical decision-making in this population

  7. Prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition coronary computed tomography angiography for assessment of biodegradable vascular scaffold expansion: Comparison with optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Alfonso, Maria Grazia [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Mattesini, Alessio, E-mail: [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Meucci, Francesco [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Acquafresca, Manlio [Radiology Unit 4, Radiology Department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy)


    BVS polymeric struts are transparent to the light so that the vessel wall contour can be easily visualized using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Therefore OCT represents a unique tool for both the evaluation of the resorption process and for the assessment of acute BVS mechanical failure. Similarly, the metal-free struts allow unrestricted coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), thus this non invasive method might become the gold standard for a non invasive assessment of BVS. In this case we show the ability of CCTA, performed with a low X-Ray dose, to provide a good evaluation of scaffold expansion. The quantitative measurements were in agreement with those obtained with OCT.

  8. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D


    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  9. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.


    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  10. Granulometric maps from high resolution satellite images:


    Chopin, Franck; Mering, Catherine


    A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every ...

  11. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana


    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  12. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio


    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  13. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut


    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  14. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.


    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  15. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.


    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  16. High resolution emission spectra of TL materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilaithong, T.; Wanwilairat, S.; Rhodes, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Messarius, T


    High resolution emission spectra of several TL materials that are commonly used in dosimetry, were measured using a low cost fibre optic spectrometer containing a 2048 pixel CCD array. The spectra were taken from 177 to 890 nm with a wavelength resolution of 1.3 nm. This allowed for line width discrimination and the resolution of transitions that have not been seen so far. For rare earth doped materials like CaF{sub 2}:Tm (TLD-300) and CaF{sub 2}:Dy (TLD-200) the spectral lines were compared to the energy levels measured by Dieke and Crosswhite leading to the identification of most of the transition lines. (author)

  17. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.


    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  18. High resolution interferometry of cool stars (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.


    A description is given of results obtained in a program of infrared high resolution spectroscopy of cool stars. The nature of infrared stellar spectra is considered along with questions regarding astrophysics and stellar infrared spectroscopy. An abundance analysis for alpha Ori (Betelgeuse) is conducted. The C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is examined and attention is given to the O-16/O-18 and O-16/O-17 abundance ratios. M stars and SiO vibration-rotation bands are discussed and questions regarding the characteristics of the molecular hydrogen quadrupole vibration-rotation lines are explored.

  19. Single shot high resolution digital holography. (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby


    We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise.

  20. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli


    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  1. Application of high-resolution CT imaging data to lung cancer drug development: measuring progress: workshop IX. (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Fenton, Laurie; Aldige, Carolyn R


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and a major public health challenge across the entire world. Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the lung is a rapidly improving medical imaging technique. Spiral CT has been reported to not only improve the early detection of lung cancer in screening high-risk tobacco-exposed populations but also to assist in the clinical assessment of new agents for therapy in lung cancer. The Prevent Cancer Foundation has sponsored a series of workshops to accelerate progress in using quantitative imaging to advance lung cancer research progress, of which this report summarizes the Ninth Workshop. The defining strategy of this forum to support innovation in quantitative research for early lung cancer management was to enable software validations by assembling collections of high-quality images for which long-term clinical follow-up is known. An additional approach was to define a process for high-quality and economical national implementation of lung cancer screening. Representatives from the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the Lung Cancer Alliance, and other organizations outlined their efforts in this regard. A major opportunity exists to advance the dialogue on the use of quantitative imaging tools to cross-fertilize and accelerate image-processing research across lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of high-resolution CT imaging provides a window into a much earlier stage of COPD as well as coronary artery disease, both being tobacco-induced diseases. Progress in this area was reviewed and opportunities for enhanced collaborative progress defined. Key sessions reviewed emerging developments with imaging technology and the infrastructure to support the storage and distribution of these high-content modalities. Cooperation among diverse collaborators is essential to enable the rapid organic evolution of this field, so that

  2. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek


    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  3. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.


    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  4. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael


    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Marc C


    Linear collider (LC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements are expected to be a few nanometers[1]. It is important to show that the related tolerances can be achieved, with an electron beam if possible. Using recently developed component stabilization technology, very high-resolution beam position monitors (BPM's), and the ultra-low emittance beam at the KEK ATF, we plan to demonstrate the required stabilization. Our first step is to develop high-resolution RF cavity beam position monitors, using either C or X band frequencies. A C-band cavity BPM with a resolution of 25 nm has been reported in tests at FFTB [2]. By correcting for the effects of non-axial trajectories and using both position and angle BPM movers, we expect to be able to demonstrate a resolution of 2 to 3 nm over a dynamic range of {+-} 20 {micro}m. We report on the progress of the tests here.

  6. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel


    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  7. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Joel


    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  8. The Spiral of Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galpin, Charlotte; Trenz, Hans-Jörg


    Media scholars have increasingly examined the effects of a negativity bias that applies to political news. In the ‘spiral of cynicism’, journalist preferences for negative news correspond to public demands for sensational news. We argue that this spiral of cynicism in EU news results in a ‘spiral...

  9. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.


    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  10. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.


    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide


    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering


    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  13. High-resolution reconstruction for terahertz imaging. (United States)

    Xu, Li-Min; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liu, Jia


    We present a high-resolution (HR) reconstruction model and algorithms for terahertz imaging, taking advantage of super-resolution methodology and algorithms. The algorithms used include projection onto a convex sets approach, iterative backprojection approach, Lucy-Richardson iteration, and 2D wavelet decomposition reconstruction. Using the first two HR reconstruction methods, we successfully obtain HR terahertz images with improved definition and lower noise from four low-resolution (LR) 22×24 terahertz images taken from our homemade THz-TDS system at the same experimental conditions with 1.0 mm pixel. Using the last two HR reconstruction methods, we transform one relatively LR terahertz image to a HR terahertz image with decreased noise. This indicates potential application of HR reconstruction methods in terahertz imaging with pulsed and continuous wave terahertz sources.

  14. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)


    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  15. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi


    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  16. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  17. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.


    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  18. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone


    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  19. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner


    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  20. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.


    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  1. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms (United States)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold


    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  2. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  3. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung


    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  4. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.


    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  5. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos


    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  6. High resolution CT findings of pseudoalveolar sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Eun; Park, Jun Gyun; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Sang Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo [Sungkunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Koun Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyae Young [National Cancer Centar, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the specific high-resolution CT features of sarcoidosis in which the observed pattern is predominantly pseudoalveolar. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 15 cases in which chest radiography demonstrated pseudoalveolar consolidation. In all 15, sarcoidosis was pathologically proven. The distribution and characterization of the following CT features was meticulously scrutinized: distribution and characterization of pseudoalveolar lesions, air-bronchograms, micronodules, thickening of bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septa, lung distortion, ground-glass opacities and combined hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Follow-up CT scans were available in three cases after corticosteroid administration. Between one and 12 (mean, 5.6) pseudoalveolar lesions appeared as dense homogeneous or inhomogeneous opacities 1-4.5 cm in diameter and with an irregular margin located either at the lung periphery adjacent to the pleural surface or along the bronchovascular bundles, with mainly bilateral distribution (n=14, 93%). An air-bronchogram was observed in ten cases. Micronodules were observed at the periphery of the lesion or surrounding lung, which along with a thickened bronchovascular bundle was a consistent feature in all cases. Additional CT features included hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=14, 93%), thickened interlobular septa (n=12, 80%), and ground-glass opacity (n=10, 67%). Lung distortion was noted in only one case (7%). After steroid administration pseudoalveolar lesions decreased in number and size in all three cases in which follow-up CT was available. The consistent HRCT features of pseudoalveolar sarcoidosis are bilateral multifocal dense homogenous or inhomogenous opacity and an irregular margin located either at the lung periphery adjacent to the pleural surface or along the bronchovascular bundles. Micronodules are present at the periphery of the lesion or surrounding lung. The features are reversible administration.

  7. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja


    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher


    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  9. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu


    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  10. Necessity for High Accuracy Rotation Curves in Spiral Galaxies


    Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien; Carignan, Claude; Amram, Philippe


    In the last 20 years, rotation curves derived from H I kinematics obtained on radio synthesis instruments were used to probe the dark matter distribution in spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies. It is shown, with the aid of the Sd galaxy NGC 5585, that high resolution 2--D H II kinematics is necessary to determine accurately the mass distribution of spirals. New CFHT Fabry--Perot Hff observations are combined with low resolution Westerbork H I data to study its mass distribution. Using the com...

  11. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.


    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  12. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.


    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  13. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.


    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  14. Multivessel myocardial bridging in a patient with spiral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


    Fritz, Timothy; Abdallah, Wissam; McNamara, Richard


    Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, usually confined to the left anterior descending (LAD), and correlates to the hypertrophic septum. We present a patient with unique spiral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and compression of all three coronary arteries corresponding to this hypertrophy pattern.

  15. Spiral finned crucible pot (United States)

    Soemowidagdo, Arianto Leman; Tiwan, Widarto, Ardian, Aan


    Innovation on a crucible furnace to increase its efficiency in aluminum melting has been done. The innovation was a spiral finned crucible pot. The inclination of the spiral finned was vary of 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees. The spiral finned effects was determined from the performance test result. A crucible pot without fin was also tested as a control. The crucible pot was examined at the same process condition. The crucible pot with the inclined fin of 10 degrees gives an optimum performance. It gives effective heating rate so that more efficient in LPG consumption. Therefore it saves energy in the aluminum melting process.

  16. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.


    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  17. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration


    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  18. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan


    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  19. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS (United States)

    de Groote, R. P.; Lynch, K. M.; Wilkins, S. G.


    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  20. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.


    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  1. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  2. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  3. High-resolution CT findings in Swyer-James syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate. the high-resolution CT features of Swyer-James syndrome with special attention to the airway lesions and to determine the clinical utility of high-resolution CT compared with that of chest radiography. In seven patients with Swyer-James syndrome, we retrospectively reviewed chest radiographs obtained during inspiration and expiration and high-resolution CT scans obtained in inspiration. The high-resolution CT appearance was evaluated and compared with that of chest radiography. On both chest radiographs and high-resolution CT, the affected lung volume was relatively diminished in four patients and normal in three patients. In all seven patients, chest radiographs showed hyperlucency of the lung which was unilateral in four and bilateral in three patients. Unilateral small hilum was seen in six patients and bronchiectasis was demonstrated in one patient on chest radiographs. The hyper lucent lung volume was not diminished on expiratory radiographs in all seven patients. In all patients, high-resolution CT demonstrated low attenuation regions of the lung either bilaterally(n=5) or unilaterally(n=2). Pulmonary vessels were markedly decreased in size and number in the lung parenchyma with low attenuation. Six patients had bronchiectasis on high-resolution CT, which were cylindrical or varicose in five and cystic in one. Bronchiolectasis was observed in three patients on high-resolution CT. The high-resolution CT findings are characteristic of Swyer-James syndrome. High-resolution CT is more sensitive than chest radiography in detecting regions of low attenuation and bronchiectasis and may be useful for the diagnosis of Swyer-James syndrome. Our results suggest that bronchiectasis is a frequently associated airway lesion of Swyer-James syndrome and bronchiolectasis may be associated in some cases

  4. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Brown, R.H.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M.; Zeerhouni, E.A.


    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 μm and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 μm through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.) [de

  5. An improved IHS fusion for high resolution remote sensing images (United States)

    Hu, Youjian; Zhang, Xiaohua


    Image fusion plays an important role in improving high resolution remote sensing images, as many Earth observation satellites provide both high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images. To date, many image fusion techniques have been developed. Existing traditional image fusion techniques such as the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) transform, wavelet transform and principal components analysis(PCA) methods may not be optimal for fusing the new generation commercial high-resolution satellite images such as IKONOS and Quick Bird. However, the available algorithms can hardly meet a satisfactory fusion requirement for high resolution remote sensing images. Among the existing fusion algorithms, the IHS technique is the most widely used one technique. But the color distortion of this technique is often obvious, especially when high resolution multispectral images are fused with its panchromatic images. This study presents a new fusion approach that integrates both IHS and histogram match techniques to reduce the color distortion of high resolution remote sensing fusion results. Different high resolution remote sensing images have been fused with this new approach. The result proves that the concept of the proposed improved IHS is promising, and it does significantly improve the fusion quality compared to conventional IHS transform fusion techniques.

  6. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Staal, Marc


    Biofilms develop in heterogeneous patterns at a µm scale up to a cm scale, and patterns become more pronounced when biofilms develop under complex hydrodynamic flow regimes. Spatially heterogeneous biofilms are especially known in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create an intermembrane space and improve water mixing. Spacers create inhomogeneous water flow patterns resulting in zones favouring biofilm growth, possibly leading to biofouling thus hampering water production. Oxygen sensing planar optodes were used to visualize variations in oxygen decrease rates (ODR). ODR is an indication of biofilm activity. In this study, ODR images of multiple repetitive spacer areas in a membrane fouling simulator were averaged to produce high resolution, low noise ODR images. Averaging 40 individual spacer areas improved the ODR distribution image significantly and allowed comparison of biofilm patterning over a spacer structure at different positions in an RO filter. This method clearly showed that most active biofilm accumulated on and in direct vicinity of the spacer. The averaging method was also used to calculate the deviation of ODR patterning from individual spacer areas to the average ODR pattern, proposing a new approach to determine biofilm spatial heterogeneity. This study showed that the averaging method can be applied and that the improved, averaged ODR images can be used as an analytical, in-situ, non-destructive method to assess and quantify the effect of membrane installation operational parameters or different spacer geometries on biofilm development in spiral wound membrane systems characterized by complex hydrodynamic conditions.

  7. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)


    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  8. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman


    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  9. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale


    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  10. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  11. High Resolution, Range/Range-Rate Imager Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to develop a design for a small, lightweight, high resolution, in x, y, and z Doppler imager to assist in the guidance, navigation and control...

  12. Step-Stare Image Gathering for High-Resolution Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lavigne, Valerie; Ricard, Benoit


    Built around two infrared cameras and a high-speed opto-mechanical pointing mechanism, the Infrared Eye attempts to mimic the human eye by superimposing a high-resolution narrow field of view (first camera...

  13. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  14. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.


    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  15. Very high resolution satellite data: New challenges in image analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    or other natural landscapes. Having very high resolution digital data over a landscape will however create new challenges in the field of atmospheric correction, ground registration, image processing and finally the image interpretation itself. Even...

  16. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  17. High resolution emission tomography; Tomographie d`emission haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valda Ochoa, A.; Valentin, L. [Groupe I.P.B., Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    We have developed an original high resolution tomograph for in-vivo small animal imaging. A first prototype is under evaluation. Initial results of its characterisation are presented. (authors) 3 figs.

  18. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach. (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian


    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.



    see that Approaches 1 and 2 are comparable in terms of costs if the equipment costs for hydraulic tomography are not accounted for. Equipment costs ...FINAL REPORT Cost -Effective and High-Resolution Subsurface Characterization Using Hydraulic Tomography ESTCP Project ER-201212 AUGUST...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-12-C-0024 COST -EFFECTIVE AND HIGH-RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eckardt


    Full Text Available The design of high-resolution systems is always a consideration of many parameters. Technological parameter of the imaging system, e.g. diameter of the imaging system, mass and power, as well as storage and data transfer, have an direct impact on spacecraft size and design. The paper describes the essential design parameters for the description of high-resolution systems.

  1. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... to, for example, atmospheric research, combustion and gasification. Some high-temperature, high-resolution IR/UV absorption/transmission measurements gases (e.g. CO2, SO2, SO3 and phenol) are presented....

  2. High Resolution UV Spectroscopy for Solar System Exploration (United States)

    Ajello, J. M.; Kanik, I.; James, G.; Liu, X.; Ciocca, M.; Noren, C.; Shemansky, D.


    A new generation of high resolution UV imaging spacecraft (Polar, Galileo, HST) are studying the airglow and aurora of the Earth and the jovian planets. To keep pace with these technological improvements we have developed a laboratory program to provide electron collision cross sections of the major molecular planetary gasses. Molecular spectra under optically thin conditions have been measured with a high resolution UV spectrometer in tandem with an electron impact collision chamber. The results of various studies are reported in this paper.

  3. Achieving Optimal High Resolution In Galvanometric Scanning Systems (United States)

    Montagu, Jean I.


    This paper discusses methods of achieving the optimum in high resolution galvanometric scanning. When scanning systems have problems of repeatability, jitter, and wobble, the difficulties are often caused by inadequate mirror design, bonding, and/or alignment and the dynamic forces engendered by the driving torque. These issues are examined, and integral metal mirror mounts are compared with the conventional composite mirrors bonded to metal mounts. Galvanometer bearing suspension and drive electronics and how they relate to optimal high resolution are also addressed.

  4. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony


    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  5. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.


    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (solutions for rectification of the problem.

  6. The spinning ball spiral (United States)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe


    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  7. Quarkyonic Chiral Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Kojo; Hidaka, Y.; Pisarski, R.; McLerran, L.


    We argue the properties of confining dense quark matter, 'quarkyonic' matter, from the viewpoint of both bulk properties and excitation modes. After a brief review of confining aspects, the chiral breaking/restoration will be discussed. We argue that the strong infrared correlations induce the chiral spiral, i.e., the spatial modulation of the chiral condensate which breaks the chiral symmetry locally but restore it globally. The effective dimensional reduction takes place, allowing us to analyzing the system as 2D model in which several exact results can be explicitly derived. We also discuss the excitation spectra, both mesonic and baryonic ones, on the chiral spiral. (author)

  8. Reproducibility of coronary plaque detection and characterization using low radiation dose coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease (ReSCAN study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian Altern; Marwan, Mohamed; Bøtker, Hans Erik


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the interscan, interobserver and intraobserver agreement for coronary plaque detection, and characterization using low radiation dose high-pitch spiral acquisition coronary CT angiography (CTA). Two experienced observers independently evaluated coronary CT...... high-pitch coronary CTA permits detection of any or calcified plaques with high interscan, interobserver, intraobserver agreement. However, variability for the detection of non-calcified plaque is substantial....

  9. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.


    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  10. Dynamic study of the larynx with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Yeon; Choi, Chang Ho; Yoon, Chi Soon; Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Nam, Sang Hwa; Kim, Kun Il; Kim, Byung Soo; Wang, Soo Guen


    It is essential to know the functional and morphologic changes of the larynx in the evaluation of laryngeal lesions. Conventional CT which has relatively long examination time is not suitable for this aim. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the capability of spiral CT in the dynamic study of the larynx and to know whether this new technique can replace conventional laryngography or not. Five healthy volunteers and 20 patients with laryngeal lesions underwent spiral dynamic CT scans with 3-dimensional reconstruction of the mucosal surface. A series of spiral CT scans were done while the volunteers performed various laryngeal positions to obtain the functional and morphologic information. The maneuvers used were: quite breathing, 'E' phonation, Valsalva maneuver, modified Valsalva maneuver, and a new method of our own, 'modified breath holding' technique. The patients were scanned when in quite breathing. Additional scans were obtained by using the 'modified breath holding' technique. The dynamic study with spiral CT could provide high resolutional images which nicely depicted the mobility of vocal cords and the mucosal changes of the laryngeal cavity in both healthy volunteer and patient groups. In patient group, the new 'modified breath holding' technique was easier and more reproducible than other maneuvers. Spiral CT allows a dynamic study of the larynx and can be a new alternative of laryngography

  11. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads


    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined by the...

  12. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S


    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  13. Spiraling into Transformative Learning (United States)

    Cranton, Patricia


    This article explores how technical and vocational learning may spiral into transformative learning. Transformative learning theory is reviewed and the learning tasks of critical theory are used to integrate various approaches to transformative learning. With this as a foundation, the article explores how transformative learning can be fostered in…

  14. Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi


    We study the transition of the number of spirals (called parastichy in the theory of phyllotaxis) within a Voronoi tiling for Archimedean spiral lattices. The transition of local parastichy numbers within a tiling is regarded as a transition at the base site point in a continuous family of tilings. This gives a natural description of the quasiperiodic structure of the grain boundaries. It is proved that the number of tiles in the grain boundaries are denominators of rational approximations of the argument (called the divergence angle) of the generator. The local parastichy numbers are non-decreasing functions of the plastochron parameter. The bifurcation diagram of local parastichy numbers has a Farey tree structure. We also prove Richards’ formula of spiral phyllotaxis in the case of Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings, and show that, if the divergence angle is a quadratic irrational number, then the shapes of tiles in the grain boundaries are close to rectangles. If the divergence angle is linearly equivalent to the golden section, then the shape of tiles in the grain boundaries is close to square.

  15. Properties of spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.


    The present thesis deals with the calculation and the study of the application possibilities of single and double spiral resonators. The main aim was the development and the construction of reliable and effective high-power spiral resonators for the UNILAC of the GSI in Darmstadt and the H - -injector for the storage ring HERA of DESY in Hamburg. After the presentation of the construction and the properties of spiral resonators and their description by oscillating-circuit models the theoretical foundations of the bunching are presented and some examples of a rebuncher and debuncher and their influence on the longitudinal particle dynamics are shown. After the description of the characteristic accelerator quantities by means of an oscillating-circuit model and the theory of an inhomogeneous λ/4 line it is shown, how the resonance frequency and the efficiency of single and double spiral resonators can be calculated from the geometrical quantities of the structure. In the following the dependence of the maximal reachable resonator voltage in dependence on the gap width and the surface of the drift tubes is studied. Furthermore the high-power resonators are presented, which were built for the different applications for the GSI in Darmstadt, DESY in Hamburg, and for the FOM Institute in Amsterdam. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Soft Tissue Foreign Body: Utility of High Resolution Ultrasonography (United States)

    Reddy, Harish; Ibrahim, Jebin; Haritha, CH; Shah, Rushit Sandeep


    Introduction Minor percentage of wooden foreign bodies is radio-opaque. High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUSG) though existing is sparsely used as a primary imaging modality for diagnosis and localization of retained foreign body. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUSG) in diagnoses and localization of retained foreign body. Materials and Methods A prospective study with registered 46 patients with history of foreign body injury which were initially imaged with conventional radiography was enrolled. Later patients were subjected for high resolution USG of the diseased part with a linear transducer. Surface marking was done for all subjects to assist the surgical exploration. Ultrasound findings were correlated with surgical exploration and histopathological findings. Results Out of 46 patients, forty one showed foreign body with foreign body inflammatory reaction in the form of abscess and/or granulation tissue on high resolution ultrasonography. No foreign body was detected in five patients but they showed focal hypoechogenicity which represented abscess and/or haematoma. On surgical exploration, two out of 41 patients did not reveal foreign body where as rest were found to have foreign body with foreign body inflammatory reaction. Sensitivity and negative predictive value of the current study is 100%. Conclusion High resolution USG is not only an efficient modality in diagnosing and localizing the foreign body in soft tissue, but can also be utilized for guiding the foreign body removal. PMID:28892999

  17. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals (United States)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)


    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  18. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan


    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  19. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin


    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both......High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  1. O-space with high resolution readouts outperforms radial imaging. (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo; Kopanoglu, Emre; Peters, Dana C; Constable, R Todd; Galiana, Gigi


    While O-Space imaging is well known to accelerate image acquisition beyond traditional Cartesian sampling, its advantages compared to undersampled radial imaging, the linear trajectory most akin to O-Space imaging, have not been detailed. In addition, previous studies have focused on ultrafast imaging with very high acceleration factors and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this work is to directly compare O-Space and radial imaging in their potential to deliver highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts, as needed for diagnostic applications. We report that the greatest advantages to O-Space imaging are observed with extended data acquisition readouts. A sampling strategy that uses high resolution readouts is presented and applied to compare the potential of radial and O-Space sequences to generate high resolution images at high undersampling factors. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to investigate whether use of extended readout windows in O-Space imaging would increase k-space sampling and improve image quality, compared to radial imaging. Experimental O-Space images acquired with high resolution readouts show fewer artifacts and greater sharpness than radial imaging with equivalent scan parameters. Radial images taken with longer readouts show stronger undersampling artifacts, which can cause small or subtle image features to disappear. These features are preserved in a comparable O-Space image. High resolution O-Space imaging yields highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts. The additional nonlinear gradient field improves image quality beyond conventional radial imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning


    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menna


    Full Text Available The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  4. Spiral CT for cervical lymph node enlargement. Early clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.J.; Keske, U.; Schedel, J.; Hosten, N.; Felix, R.


    Spiral CT was performed before treatment in 35 patients with suspected cervical lymph node enlargement. By coronary and sagittal reconstruction it is possible to utilise the M/Q quotient which has become accepted as the result of sonographic and MRI examinations. It is now possible to obtain high diagnostic accuracy (97%) for distinguishing between reactive change from metastatic infiltration of lymph nodes (>8 mm) by using CT. Using spiral CT with 5 mm table movement, three patients diagnosed as stage N1 by axial CT were shown to be N2b. This represents a highly sensitive and highly specific method of lymph node diagnosis. Further diagnostic improvement derives from the ability to relate the lymph nodes to surrounding tissues. Spiral CT is also suitable for defining other space occupying lesions, e.g., the exact extent of retropharyngeal abscesses, abnormalities of the salivary glands or laryngocoeles. (orig.)

  5. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.


    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  6. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  7. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  8. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve analysis as an affordable diagnostic mutation scanning tool in a South African cohort. ... Genetic screening for D/BMD in South Africa currently includes multiple ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for exonic deletions and duplications and linkage ...

  9. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data over southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... High resolution airborne magnetic data of parts of the southern Benue Trough were digitally processed and analyzed in order to estimate the depth of magnetic sources and to map the distribution and orientation of subsurface structural features.

  10. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sample environment of very low temperatures and high magnetic fields using a 7 Tesla cryogen-free superconducting magnet with a VTI having a temperature range of 1.5–. 320 K. The special sample environment and high resolution make this neutron powder diffractometer a very powerful facility for studying magnetic ...

  11. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether - based Formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimzon, I.K.; Trier, X; Frömel, T.; Helmus, R.; Knepper, T.P.; de Voogt, P.

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid of

  12. Dye laser light for high-resolution classical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, K.K.


    The test run with the bubble chamber HOLEBC in October 1981 offered the opportunity of checking the usefulness of de-speckled dye laser light for illumination purposes in high-resolution classical dark field photography of small bubble chambers. (orig./HSI)

  13. High resolution gas chromatography in dedicated petrochemical and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, R. De


    Turn key systems dedicated and designed for a special application in petrochemical as well as environmental analysis are used already for many years. However, the use of high resolution gas chromatography columns in this type of equipment is only performed recently. In petrochemistry, examples of this type of systems are analyzers for light hydrocarbons, inerts and oxygenates in petrochemical streams and natural gas. In environmental monitoring analyzers for hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons in air or waste water and surface water are of importance. The use of capillary gas chromatography columns in this kind of application is resulting, when compared with packed columns, in improved separation power, a higher speed of analysis and in most cases a lower detection limit. Because of the high separation power of capillary columns, when compared with packed columns, the amount of columns needed to obtain a certain separation is less and so the analysis is simplified, becoming more reliable. For environmental analysis the use of high resolution columns in combination with thermal desorption could trap techniques in the analysis of volatile organic compound (VOC) in air results in information on ppb or even ppt level pollution of hydrocarbon and halogenated hydrocarbons. For the analysis of VOC's in water purge and trap techniques are used in combination with high resolution gas chromatography. Applications and results obtained with above mentioned equipment will be discussed. Special attention will be given to the incorporation of high resolution chromatography in this type of equipment

  14. High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Jones, P.D.; Briffa, K.R.


    Palaeoclimatology • high-resolution • last millennium • tree rings • dendroclimatology • chronology • uncertainty • corals • ice-cores • speleothems • documentary evidence • instrumental records • varves • borehole temperature • marine sediments • composite plus scaling • CPS • climate field...

  15. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the ...

  16. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm


    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  17. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.; Van De Giesen, Nick C.


    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  18. Comparison of High Resolution Negative Electron Beam Resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Schøler, Mikkel; Shi, Peixiong


    Four high resolution negative electron beam resists are compared: TEBN-1 from Tokuyama Corp. Japan, ma-N 2401XP and mr-L 6000AXP from microresist technology GmbH Germany, and SU-8 2000 series from MicroChem Corp., USA. Narrow linewidth high density patterns are defined by 100 kV electron beam...

  19. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH ARTICLE. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital oral clefts in south .... developmental delays, autism and multiple congenital anom- alies. In these studies, the diagnostic yield was much higher than that of standard GTG-banded karyotyping (de Vries.

  20. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima


    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  1. On high-resolution manoeuvres control via trajectory optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research is on a realization of control approach in line with the trajectory optimization for the purpose of dealing with overactuated spacecraft in the process of the high-resolution manoeuvres. The idea behind the research is to realize closed control loops to cope with the rotational angles and the corresponding angular ...

  2. High resolution numerical weather prediction over the Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the Florida State University Global Spectral Model (FSUGSM), in association with a high-resolution nested regional spectral model (FSUNRSM), is used for short-range weather forecasts over the Indian domain. Three-day forecasts for each day of August 1998 were performed using different versions of the ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  4. High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer. N. Kameswara Rao, S. Sriram, K. Jayakumar & F. Gabriel. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034, India. Abstract. The optical design and performance of the recently commis- sioned fiber fed echelle spectrometer of 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu ...

  5. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang


    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  6. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The instrument provides sample environment of very low temperatures and high magnetic fields using a 7 Tesla cryogen-free superconducting magnet with a VTI having a temperature range of 1.5–320 K. The special sample environment and high resolution make this neutron powder diffractometer a very powerful facility for ...

  7. High resolution reflection seismic mapping of shallow coal seams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngadi, SB


    Full Text Available Subsidence and collapse of unmapped shallow coal mine workings poses a risk to the public and hampers the development of valuable property. A high-resolution reflection seismic survey was conducted to determine whether it is possible to map...

  8. Tamarisk Mapping and Monitoring Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery (United States)

    Jason W. San Souci; John T. Doyle


    QuickBird high resolution multispectral satellite imagery (60 cm GSD, 4 spectral bands) and calibrated products from DigitalGlobe’s AgroWatch program were used as inputs to Visual Learning System’s Feature Analyst automated feature extraction software to map localized occurrences of pervasive and aggressive Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), an invasive...

  9. High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. An efficient high resolution spectrometer has been a long standing need at Vainu Bappu. Observatory (that could cover a large region of the spectrum extending from 4000 Å to. 1 µm in one exposure) for stellar spectroscopic programmes. The obvious choice that emerged is an echelle grating based ...

  10. High resolution PIXE using different orders of reflection (United States)

    Török, I.


    A Soller-type X-ray crystal spectrometer on an ion beam of the ATOMKI 5 MV Van de Graaff generator was used to perform high resolution PIXE measurements. The measurement of the dolomitization grade of natural limestones served as a case study for several methods on how to optimize such an analysis.

  11. Pattern of interstitial lung disease detected by high resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the recommended imaging technique in the diagnosis, assessment and followup of these diseases. Objectives: To describe the pattern of HRCT ... This is important in narrowing the differential diagnosis as well as for pre-biopsy planning. The diagnosis of ILD requires a ...

  12. Data Evaluation Procedure for High-resolution Neutron Diffraction Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strunz, Pavel; Lukáš, Petr; Neov, Dimitar


    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 99-106 ISSN 1023-8166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : high-resolution neutron diffraction * profile analysis * modeling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.


    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  14. Track prediction of very severe cyclone 'Nargis' using high resolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, a detailed diagnostic analysis of the system 'Nargis' is carried out initially to investigate the features associated with this unusual movement and subsequently the real time forecast of VSCS 'Nargis' using high resolution advanced version weather research forecasting (WRF) model is presented.

  15. High resolution numerical weather prediction over the Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with the high resolution physical initialization within the FSUNRSM along with explicit speci- fication of soil temperatures. Section 5 describes the data, experimental setup and results obtained using the multimodel/multianalysis superensem- ble method, and a detailed summary, conclu- sions and scope for future work are ...

  16. On high-resolution manoeuvres control via trajectory optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The outcomes are realized through the variations of the orbital parameters, including the inclination, the eccentricity, the angular momentum, the semi-major axis and so on, in the high-resolution manoeuvres. It aims to get the system under control to guarantee the performance of the three-dimensional rotational angles ...

  17. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir


    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Application of high resolution SNP arrays in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    and/or palate phenotypes. Tan et al. (2013) identified a de novo 2.3 Mb microdeletion of 1q32.2 involving the Van der Woude Syndrome locus using a high resolution single nucleotide poly-morphism (SNP) array. In our study, we used the CytoScanTM HD array platform provided by the Affymetrix Corporation to analyze 33 ...

  19. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel


    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  20. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data over southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Hilbert transform of magnetic data reported the existence of two main ... digital high resolution data over the existing data in which most of the .... Transform (FFT). The enhancement routines per- formed in this work include, reduction to pole (RTP), reduction to equator (RTE), first and second ver- tical derivatives (1VD ...

  1. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.L.


    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references

  2. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  3. High-resolution mask inspection in advanced fab (United States)

    Maelzer, Stephanie; Poock, Andre; Reese, Bryan; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Mirzaagha, Farzin; Cox, Stephen; Lang, Michael


    High resolution mask inspection in advanced wafer fabs is a necessity. Initial and progressive mask defect problem still remains an industry wide mask reliability issue. Defect incidences and its criticality vary significantly among the type of masks, technology node and layer, fab environment and mask usage. A usage and layer based qualification strategy for masks in production need to be adopted in wafer fabs. With the help of a high-resolution direct reticle inspection, early detection of critical and also non-critical defects at high capture rates is possible. A high-resolution inspection that is capable of providing necessary sensitivity to critical emerging defects (near edge) is very important in advanced nodes. At the same time, a way to disposition (make a go / no-go decision) on these defective masks is also very important. As the impact of these defects will depend on not only their size, but also on their transmission and MEEF, various defect types and characteristics have to be considered. In this technical report the adoption of such a high-resolution mask inspection system in wafer fab production is presented and discussed. Data on this work will include inspection results from advanced masks, layer and product based inspection pixel assignment, defect disposition and overall wafer fab strategies in day-to-day production towards mask inspection.

  4. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    through a high-resolution seismic reflection study along six profiles, covering the central part of the. Sohagpur basin. The study reveals (1) ~1000 m thick, gently dipping Barakar Formation, (2) thick coal seams at a depth of 350–550 m, and (3) NNW–SSE to NW–SE striking steeply dipping normal faults defining rift geometry.

  5. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)


    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  6. Accelerated high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the brain At 7 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangel, G.


    With the announcement of the first series of magnetic resonance (MR) scanners with a field strength of 7 Tesla (T) intended for clinical practice, the development of high-performance sequences for higher field strengths has gained importance. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the brain currently offers the unique ability to spatially resolve the distribution of multiple metabolites simultaneously. Its big diagnostic potential could be applied to many clinical protocols, for example the assessment of tumour treatment or progress of Multiple Sclerosis. Moving to ultra-high fields like 7 T has the main benefits of increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improved spectral quality, but brings its own challenges due to stronger field inhomogeneities. Necessary for a robust, flexible and useful MRSI sequence in the brain are high resolutions, shortened measurement times, the possibility for 3D-MRSI and the suppression of spectral contamination by trans-cranial lipids. This thesis addresses these limitations and proposes Hadamard spectroscopic imaging (HSI) as solution for multi-slice MRSI, the application of generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) and spiral trajectories for measurement acceleration, non-selective inversion recovery (IR) lipid-suppression as well as combinations of these methods. Further, the optimisation of water suppression for 7 T systems and the acquisition of ultra-high resolution (UHR)-MRSI are discussed. In order to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of these approaches, MRSI measurement results of a glioma patient are presented. The discussion of the obtained results in the context of the state-of-art in 7 T MRSI in the brain, possible future applications as well as potential further improvements of the MRSI sequences conclude this thesis. (author) [de

  7. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.


    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  8. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Christopher M., E-mail: [School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Nicholson, James M. [College of Biology and Medicine, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lambert, Stanley J. [School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Chantalat, Laurent [Structural Biology, Galderma R& D, 635 Routes des Lucioles, BP 87F-06902 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX (France); Reynolds, Colin D. [School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Baldwin, John P. [College of Biology and Medicine, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)


    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R{sub work} value of 18.7% and an R{sub free} of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6{sub 5}, the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle.

  9. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.


    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R work value of 18.7% and an R free of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6 5 , the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle

  10. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John


    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  11. High resolution speckle tracking dobutamine stress echocardiography reveals heterogeneous responses in different myocardial layers: implication for viability assessments. (United States)

    Rösner, Assami; How, Ole Jakob; Aarsaether, Erling; Stenberg, Thor Allan; Andreasen, Thomas; Kondratiev, Timofei V; Larsen, Terje S; Myrmel, Truls


    Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) can be used to quantify wall strain in 3 dimensions and thus has the potential to improve the identification of hypokinetic but viable myocardium on dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). However, if different myocardial layers respond heterogeneously, STE-DSE will have to be standardized according to strain dimension and the positioning of the region of interest. Therefore, the aim of this study was to create a high-resolution model for ejection time (ET) strain and tissue flow in 4 myocardial layers at rest, during hypoperfusion, and during dobutamine challenge to assess the ability of STE-DSE to detect deformation and functional improvement in various layers of the myocardium. In 10 open chest pigs, the left anterior descending coronary artery was constricted to a constant stenosis, resulting in 35% initial flow reduction. Fluorescent microspheres were used to measure tissue flow. High-resolution echocardiography was performed epicardially to calculate ET strain in 4 myocardial layers in the radial, longitudinal, and circumferential directions using speckle-tracking software. Images were obtained at rest, during left anterior descending coronary artery constriction (hypoperfusion), and during a subsequent dobutamine stress period. Dobutamine stress at constant coronary stenosis increased flow in all layers. ET strain increased predominantly in the midmyocardial layers in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, whereas subendocardial strain did not improve in either direction. Dobutamine stress influences ET strain differently in the various axes and layers of the myocardium and only partially in correspondence to tissue flow. Longitudinal and circumferential functional reserve opens the potential for the specific detection of midsubendocardial viable tissue by high-resolution STE. Copyright 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three phase spiral liver Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyanja, T.A.


    The ability to perform rapid back-to-back spiral acquisitions is an important recent technical advantage of spiral CT. this allows imaging of the upper abdomen (liver) during peak arterial enhancement (arterial phase) and during peak hepatic parenchymal enhancement (portal venous phase). Breatheld spiral CT has completely replaced dynamic incremental CT for evaluation of the liver. in selected patients with hyper vascular metastasis (hepatoma, neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) a biphasic examination is performed with one spiral acquisition obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and a second acquisition during the portal venous phase

  13. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.


    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  14. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.


    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120 0 C to +160 0 C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author)

  15. Automatic Matching of High Resolution Satellite Images Based on RFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JI Shunping


    Full Text Available A matching method for high resolution satellite images based on RFM is presented.Firstly,the RFM parameters are used to predict the initial parallax of corresponding points and the prediction accuracy is analyzed.Secondly,the approximate epipolar equation is constructed based on projection tracking and its accuracy is analyzed.Thirdly,approximate 1D image matching is executed on pyramid images and least square matching on base images.At last RANSAC is imbedded to eliminate mis-matching points and matching results are obtained.Test results verified the method more robust and with higher matching rate,compared to 2D gray correlation method and the popular SIFT matching method,and the method preferably solved the question of high resolution satellite image matching with different stereo model,different time and large rotation images.

  16. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo


    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile-deformed ......With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  17. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.


    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  18. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.


    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  19. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others


    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  20. The subtropical nutrient spiral (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.


    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  1. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of solid hydrogen


    Chan, Man-Chor; Okumura, Mitchio; Gabrys, Charles M.; Xu, Li-Wei; Rehfuss, Brent D.; Oka, Takeshi


    A rich spectrum composed of hundreds of sharp features (HWHM ~< 20 MHz) has been observed in the fundamental Q branch of solid H2, representing the first case of solid phase linear spectroscopy in which the high-resolution capabilities of laser spectroscopy have been fully exploited. These features are interpreted as splittings of o-H2 pairs based on the work by Hardy, Berlinsky, and Harris.

  2. Detectors for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.


    Tomography is the technique of producing a photographic image of an opaque specimen by transmitting a beam of x-rays or gamma rays through the specimen onto an adjacent photographic film. The image results from variations in thickness, density, and chemical composition, of the specimen. This technique is used to study the metabolism of the human brain. This article examines the design of equipment used for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography. 27 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  3. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.


    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...

  4. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations (United States)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.


    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  5. Creating the High-Resolution Settlement Layer - lessons learned (United States)

    Gros, A.


    Facebook publishes the High-resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL: in collaboration with Columbia University's CIESIN institute and the World Bank. So far, data for 13 countries have been published over the past nine months. HRSL data for Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, The Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda are available for download. We will present a status update and report on lessons learned.

  6. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Jaffe, Adam


    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  7. Automatic Matching of High Resolution Satellite Images Based on RFM


    JI Shunping; YUAN Xiuxiao


    A matching method for high resolution satellite images based on RFM is presented.Firstly,the RFM parameters are used to predict the initial parallax of corresponding points and the prediction accuracy is analyzed.Secondly,the approximate epipolar equation is constructed based on projection tracking and its accuracy is analyzed.Thirdly,approximate 1D image matching is executed on pyramid images and least square matching on base images.At last RANSAC is imbedded to eliminate mis-matching points...

  8. High Resolution Imaging Ground Penetrating Radar Design and Simulation


    Saunders II, Charles Phillip


    This paper describes the design and simulation of a microwave band, high resolution imaging ground penetrating radar. A conceptual explanation is given on the mechanics of wave-based imaging, followed by the governing radar equations. The performance specifications for the imaging system are given as inputs to the radar equations, which output the full system specifications. Those specifications are entered into a MATLAB simulation, and the simulation results are discussed with respect to bot...

  9. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungenschmid, D. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Buchberger, W. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Schoen, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Schoepf, R. [Radiologic Inst., Landeck (Austria); Mihatsch, T. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Birbamer, G. [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Wicke, K. [Inst. of Computed Tomography, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria)


    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  10. High-resolution vibrational neutron spectra of collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.; Miller, A.; Robertson, S.T.; Middendorf, H.D.


    High-resolution vibrational spectra of oriented D 2 O-exchanged collagen fibres at 20 and 110 K have been measured using the pulsed-neutron spectrometer TFXA at ISIS. Numerous bands between 20 and 3800 cm -1 show a level of fine structure approaching that of optical spectra. The principal features of the spectra observed are discussed in the context of recent work on collagen and related triple-helical polypeptides, and some tentative assignments are made. (orig.)

  11. High resolution scintillation hodoscope using a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditta, J.; Sillou, D.; Michalowicz, A.; Azaiez, H.; Kuroda, K.


    Using a position sensitive photomultiplier we have realized and tested a prototype of high resolution scintillation hodoscope. A space resolution of approximately 1 mm (FWHM) has been obtained by a single block of NE102A scintillator, 10 mm thick, with 10 GeV/c π - particles. An off-line analysis based on the moment method has confirmed the fact that suitable cuts in the second-order moments provides a powerful criterion for improving the image quality

  12. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  13. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias


    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...... conditions. Here, we provide background information on proteomics by mass-spectrometry and describe the practice of a comprehensive yeast proteome analysis....

  14. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory


    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  15. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris


    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  16. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.


    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Toward high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of microscopic liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Mark C.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Chen, Ying; Reardon, Patrick N.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Khbeis, Michael; Irish, Duane; Mueller, Karl T.


    A longstanding limitation of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is the requirement for samples to have macroscopic dimensions. Commercial probes, for example, are designed for volumes of at least 5 mL, in spite of decades of work directed toward the goal of miniaturization. Progress in miniaturizing inductive detectors has been limited by a perceived need to meet two technical requirements: (1) minimal separation between the sample and the detector, which is essential for sensitivity, and (2) near-perfect magnetic-field homogeneity at the sample, which is typically needed for spectral resolution. The first of these requirements is real, but the second can be relaxed, as we demonstrate here. By using pulse sequences that yield high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous field, we eliminate the need for near-perfect field homogeneity and the accompanying requirement for susceptibility matching of microfabricated detector components. With this requirement removed, typical imperfections in microfabricated components can be tolerated, and detector dimensions can be matched to those of the sample, even for samples of volume << 5 uL. Pulse sequences that are robust to field inhomogeneity thus enable small-volume detection with optimal sensitivity. We illustrate the potential of this approach to miniaturization by presenting spectra acquired with a flat-wire detector that can easily be scaled to subnanoliter volumes. In particular, we report high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of an alanine sample of volume 500 pL.

  18. The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.; Boulay, G.H. du; Phelps, P.D.; Pullicino, P.


    The high resolution CT scanning system introduced by EMI in 1978 has added a new dimension to computerised tomography in otology. The apparatus used for this study was an EMI CT 5005 body scanner adapted for head and neck scanning and incorporating a high resolution facility. The latter has proved most advantageous in areas of relatively high differential absorption, so that its application to the demonstration of abnormalities in the petrous temporal bone, and in particular middle ear disease, has been very rewarding. Traumatic ossicular disruptions may now be demonstrated and the high contrast of CT often shows them better than conventional hypocycloidal tomography. The stapes is also better visualised and congenital abnormalities of its superstructure have been recorded. These studies have been achieved with a very acceptable level of radiation to the eye, lens and cornea and the technique is clearly a rival to conventional pluridirectional tomography in the assessment of the petrous temporal bone. With further design improvements high resolution CT could completely replace existing techniques. (orig.) [de

  19. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1. (United States)

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J


    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (United States)

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Conrad, Olaf; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Linder, H. Peter; Kessler, Michael


    High-resolution information on climatic conditions is essential to many applications in environmental and ecological sciences. Here we present the CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas) data of downscaled model output temperature and precipitation estimates of the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The temperature algorithm is based on statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperatures. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors including wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, with a subsequent bias correction. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We compare the data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with other standard gridded products and station data from the Global Historical Climate Network. We compare the performance of the new climatologies in species distribution modelling and show that we can increase the accuracy of species range predictions. We further show that CHELSA climatological data has a similar accuracy as other products for temperature, but that its predictions of precipitation patterns are better.

  1. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L.; Johkoh, Takeshi


    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  2. Limitations of four-slice multirow detector computed tomography in the detection of coronary stenosis. (United States)

    Martuscelli, Eugenio; Razzini, Cinzia; D'Eliseo, Alessia; Marchei, Massimo; Pisani, Eliana; Romeo, Francesco


    Our aim was to compare 4-slice spiral computed tomography with conventional coronary angiography in the detection of significant (> 50%) coronary stenosis. Sixty-two patients (41 males, 21 females, mean age 60 +/- 8 years) with suspected coronary artery disease were submitted to coronary angiography and then to multislice spiral computed tomography (GE Light Speed 4 slice) performed 12 +/- 5 days later. We excluded 25% of the patients from analysis because of a heart rate > 70 b/min or because of frequent ectopic beats. We also excluded from analysis 23% of all the angiographic segments judged not evaluable at multislice spiral computed tomography. Within these limits, the sensitivity was 65%, the specificity 98%, the positive predictive value 88%, and the negative predictive value 92%. By considering the intrinsic limitations such as its low temporal and spatial resolution, 4-slice spiral computed tomography has a limited applicability and has to be used with caution in the evaluation of native coronary arteries.

  3. Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Kengo; Lin, Chia Hui [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hosokawa, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sakurai, Yuya, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues, and its radius becomes as large as 200 au toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk, soon becoming unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phases. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2–27, whose circumstellar disk has grand-design spiral arms. We find good agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand-design spiral arms around Elias 2–27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. If such spiral arms commonly exist in young circumstellar disks, it implies that young circumstellar disks are considerably massive and gravitational instability is the key process of angular momentum transport.

  4. The perfect shape spiral stories

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Øyvind


    This book uses the spiral shape as a key to a multitude of strange and seemingly disparate stories about art, nature, science, mathematics, and the human endeavour. In a way, the book is itself organized as a spiral, with almost disconnected chapters circling around and closing in on the common theme. A particular strength of the book is its extremely cross-disciplinary nature - everything is fun, and everything is connected! At the same time, the author puts great emphasis on mathematical and scientific correctness, in contrast, perhaps, with some earlier books on spirals. Subjects include the mathematical properties of spirals, sea shells, sun flowers, Greek architecture, air ships, the history of mathematics, spiral galaxies, the anatomy of the human hand, the art of prehistoric Europe, Alfred Hitchcock, and spider webs, to name a few.

  5. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2 (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.


    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.


    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  8. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Pavel


    Roč. 29, č. 34 (2017), 1-18, č. článku 343002. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8E15B010; GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic-force microscopy * scanning tunneling microscope * on-surface synthesis * single- molecule * AFM * STM * high resolution * molecule s * surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  9. Design of Data Acquisition System for High Resolution Powder Diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhouxiang; Sun Kai; Liu Yuntao; Chen Dongfeng; Gan Shaojian


    The holistic design and hardware components of data acquisition system for high resolution powder diffractometer based on China Advanced Research Reactor (Carr) were introduced. The structures and features of each unit circuit were described in detail. The circuit was debugged using input signal and the performance was tested. The results satisfy the requirements of pre-design. The whole system including detector, preamplifier, main amplifier, discriminator, counter and computer fulfill the process of signal acquiring, amplifying, shaping, discriminating, counting and storing. Besides, the data acquisition system with up to 65 channels has been successfully manufactured. (authors)

  10. High-Resolution Differential Thermography of Semiconductor Edifices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Marie Sastine


    Full Text Available We develop a cost-effective, high-resolution, and noninvasive imaging technique for thermal mapping of semiconductor edifices in integrated circuits. Initial implementation was done using a power-stabilized optical feedback laser system that detects changes in the optical beam-induced current when the package temperature of the device is increased. The linear change in detected current can be translated to a thermal gradient, which can reveal semiconductor “hotspots”—localized sites with anomalous thermal activity. These locales are possible fault sites or areas susceptible to defects, which are the best jump-off points for failure analysis.

  11. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej


    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  12. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.


    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  13. The high resolution X-ray microscope, XM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Johnson, L.E.; Bates, W.; Lucero, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Denbeaux, G.


    We give an overview of the activities at the high-resolution x-ray microscope XM-1 at the Advanced Light Source, including both scientific programs and instrumental enhancements. The instrument is being actively used in many fields including biology, environmental and material sciences. A new high efficiency condenser zone plate and precision computer control of the microscope allow users to obtain many hundreds of images in a day. Further developments at XM-1 include a cryogenic sample stage for sample preservation and plans for the implementation of a cryo-tilt stage to capture stereoscopic information

  14. Computing with high-resolution upwind schemes for hyperbolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, S.R.; Osher, S.; California Univ., Los Angeles)


    Computational aspects of modern high-resolution upwind finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are examined. An operational unification is demonstrated for constructing a wide class of flux-difference-split and flux-split schemes based on the design principles underlying total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. Consideration is also given to TVD scheme design by preprocessing, the extension of preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to general control volumes, the removal of expansion shocks and glitches, relaxation methods for implicit TVD schemes, and a new family of high-accuracy TVD schemes. 21 references

  15. High resolution X-ray spectrum of AM Her (United States)

    Girish, V.; Rana, V. R.; Singh, K. P.


    We present the analysis of archival Chandra high resolution X-ray spectra of AM Her. Emission lines from several hydrogen-like ions, helium-like ions, Fe-L shell transitions and Fe-K fluorescent are identified. Using the resonance, intercombination and forbidden lines of the few prominent helium-like ions, we infer a density greater than 2 × 10 12 cm -3 and a temperature of ˜2 MK for the oxygen and neon line emitting regions in the accretion column of AM Her.

  16. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting


    Dunker, Tim; Hauglin, Harald; Rønningen, Ole Petter


    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic...

  17. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  18. High resolution time-of-flight electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.


    A new electronics system for time-of-flight measurements has been developed to meet the performance requirements of the Mark II Detector for operation at the PEP Storage Ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This system incorporated high resolution time measurements with the capability to correct systemic errors from the scintillator and photomultiplier tubes. The correction technique involves making three measurements on each photomultiplier signal every storage ring beam interaction. Two timing measurements are made relative to the beam interaction time with different discriminator threshold level settings. The charge integral of each photomultiplier pulse is also recorded

  19. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.


    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R and D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented

  20. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.


    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  1. Evaluation of high-resolution CT after tympanoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, Y.; Tanaka, F.; Okuno, Y.


    This paper reports on the condition of the middle ear cavity following tympanoplasty which is always of great interest to radiologists and otosurgeons. This study consisted of 21 patients who had various types of tympanoplasty (types I-IV) for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma by using high-resolution CT (HRCT). HRCT following tympanoplasty was a valuable method for assessing the middle ear aeration and the state of ossicular reconstruction, including stapes prosthesis, although in some cases of soft-tissue mass in the middle ear it was necessary to correlate with clinical findings in order to differentiate between granulation and recurrence

  2. High-Resolution Resonance Photoemission Study of CeNi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, A.; Kadono, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Imada, S.; Kasai, S.; Suga, S.; Araki, S.; Onuki, Y.


    We have performed the high-resolution Ce 3d - 4f resonance photoemission study of a considerably hybridized CeNi with the Kondo temperature of ∼ 150 K. The tail of the Kondo-resonance peak is predominantly observed in the bulk Ce 4f photoemission spectra, where its spin-orbit partner is suppressed compared with the so far reported surface-sensitive Ce 4d-4f resonance spectrum. Our results show that the bulk 4f electronic states are essentially understood by the single impurity Anderson model. (author)

  3. High-resolution CT of experimental pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, B.B.; Mueller, N.L.; Mayo, J.R.; Okazawa, M.; Wiggs, B.J.R.; Pare, P.D.


    This paper evaluates further the mechanisms responsible for the distribution of extravascular lung water (EVLW) in pulmonary edema. Fourteen isolated dog lobes were inflated with oxygen at transpulmonary pressures of 6 and 15 cm H 2 O. Edema was induced by the infusion of normal saline solution into the lobar pulmonary artery. Two volumes of saline solution were used: 50% and 150% of initial wet lobar weight. 1.5-mm high-resolution CT scans were obtained at 10-mm intervals before and after each of the two stages of pulmonary edema. Visual assessment and CT densitometry were performed

  4. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan


    to control the solution flow at the tip. Through addition of reference and counter electrodes, the pipette system becomes a microscopic electrochemical cell, which can then be used with high precision to determine the electrochemical characteristics of the microstructural region of interest. The capability...... of the technique could be further enhanced by adding new features such as high resolution video visualization systems, fretting/tribo-corroson attachments, and also by integrating it with stress corrosion testing, corrosion investigation of concrete for a few to name with. The corrosion group in MPT, Technical...

  5. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.


    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  6. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.


    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  7. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel


    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  8. High resolution study of magnetic ordering at absolute zero. (United States)

    Lee, M; Husmann, A; Rosenbaum, T F; Aeppli, G


    High resolution pressure measurements in the zero-temperature limit provide a unique opportunity to study the behavior of strongly interacting, itinerant electrons with coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom. Approaching the precision that has become the hallmark of experiments on classical critical phenomena, we characterize the quantum critical behavior of the model, elemental antiferromagnet chromium, lightly doped with vanadium. We resolve the sharp doubling of the Hall coefficient at the quantum critical point and trace the dominating effects of quantum fluctuations up to surprisingly high temperatures.

  9. Quantum-Implementable Selective Reconstruction of High-Resolution Images (United States)

    Perus, Mitja; Bischof, Horst; Caulfield, H. John; Kiong Loo, Chu


    This paper, written for interdisciplinary audience, presents computational image reconstruction implementable by quantum optics. The input-triggered selection of a high-resolution image among many stored ones, and its reconstruction if the input is occluded or noisy, has been successfully simulated. The original algorithm, based on the Hopfield associative neural net, was transformed in order to enable its quantum-wave implementation based on holography. The main limitations of the classical Hopfield net are much reduced with the simulated new quantum-optical implementation.

  10. Diesel characterization by high-resolution mass spectrometry - gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich, C.A


    High-resolution mass spectrometry-gas chromatography is combined with the HC22 method in order to obtain detailed information about the chemical composition of diesel and the distribution of different compound types in terms of its final boiling temperature from a single analysis. The total time elapsed from sample injection and signal processing to obtain final results is 90 minutes. This fact makes this methodology a new and very important tool for the decision making process concerning the most suitable final boiling temperature and the type of treatment of the product in order to obtain diesel that fulfills the international standards. The consistency and repeatability of the experimental results are demonstrated

  11. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.


    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  12. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  13. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy in light antiprotonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, G L; Augsburger, M A; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Elble, M; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M


    At the LEAR facility, CERN, antiprotonic L alpha transitions in light elements have been investigated with a focussing crystal spectrometer. The high resolution of the experiment allowed for the first time to resolve in pH/pH the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ state from the close-lying states 2/sup 3/P/sub 2/, 2/sup 1/P/sub 1/, and 2/sup 3/P /sub 1/. In pD the corresponding transitions were found to be more than an order of magnitude broader. To a large extent the results for pH support the meson exchange model. (15 refs).

  14. Hurricane Spiral Bands. (United States)

    Guinn, Thomas A.; Schubert, Wayne H.


    The spiral bands that occur in tropical cyclones can be conveniently divided into two classes-outer bands and inner bands. Evidence is presented here that the outer bands form as the result of nonlinear effects during the breakdown of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) through barotropic instability. In this process a zonal strip of high potential vorticity (the ITCZ shear zone or monsoon trough) begins to distort in a varicose fashion, with the potential vorticity (PV) becoming pooled in local regions that are connected by filaments of high PV. As the pooled regions become more axisymmetric, the filaments become thinner and begin to wrap around the PV centers.It is argued that inner bands form in a different manner. As a tropical cyclone intensifies due to latent heat release, the PV field becomes nearly circular with the highest values of PV in the cyclone center. The radial gradient of PV provides a state on which PV waves (the generalization of Rossby waves) can propagate. The nonlinear breaking of PV waves then leads to an irreversible distortion of the PV contours and a downgradient flux of PV. The continuation of this proem tends to erode the high PV core of the tropical cyclone, to produce a surrounding surf zone, and hence to spread the PV horizontally. In a similar fashion, inner bands can also form by the merger of a vortex with a patch of relatively high PV air. As the merger proem occurs the patch of PV is quickly elongated and wrapped around the vortex. The resulting vortex is generally larger in horizontal extent and exhibits a spiral band of PV.When the formation of outer and inner bands is interpreted in the context of a normal-mode spectral model, they emerge as slow manifold phenomena; that is, they have both rotational and (balanced or slaved) gravitational mode aspects. In this sense, regarding them as simply gravity waves leads to an incomplete dynamical picture.

  15. High resolution flow field prediction for tail rotor aeroacoustics (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.

    The prediction of tail rotor noise due to the impingement of the main rotor wake poses a significant challenge to current analysis methods in rotorcraft aeroacoustics. This paper describes the development of a new treatment of the tail rotor aerodynamic environment that permits highly accurate resolution of the incident flow field with modest computational effort relative to alternative models. The new approach incorporates an advanced full-span free wake model of the main rotor in a scheme which reconstructs high-resolution flow solutions from preliminary, computationally inexpensive simulations with coarse resolution. The heart of the approach is a novel method for using local velocity correction terms to capture the steep velocity gradients characteristic of the vortex-dominated incident flow. Sample calculations have been undertaken to examine the principal types of interactions between the tail rotor and the main rotor wake and to examine the performance of the new method. The results of these sample problems confirm the success of this approach in capturing the high-resolution flows necessary for analysis of rotor-wake/rotor interactions with dramatically reduced computational cost. Computations of radiated sound are also carried out that explore the role of various portions of the main rotor wake in generating tail rotor noise.

  16. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)


    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  17. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Song, K.S.; Lim, T.H.; Im, J.G.; Seo, J.B.


    The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography was obtained in 25 patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). Diagnosis was based on biopsy (n = 9), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8), or sputum cytology and clinical findings (n = 8). The clinical history of taking squalene was confirmed in all patients. The CT findings were classified into three patterns: diffuse ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. Distribution of the abnormalities, duration of taking squalene, predisposing factors for aspiration, and route of administration were analyzed. Ten patients showed diffuse ground-glass opacity pattern. Seven of 10 patients had predisposing conditions such as unconsciousness, pharyngeal dysmotility, or motor disturbances, and 6 patients had a recent history of taking large amount of squalene through nasal route. Seven patients who had consolidation pattern had a history of taking squalene for several months and did not have any predisposing factor. All of the 5 patients who had a pattern of interstitial abnormalities had a history of taking squalene longer than 1 year and showed segmental distribution of interstitial thickening with interposing ground-glass opacities. Three patients simultaneously had two different patterns at different lobes of the lung. The HRCT findings of lipoid pneumonia are ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. These HRCT findings with appropriate inquiries could be useful for diagnosis of exogeneous lipoid pneumonia. (orig.)

  18. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor (United States)

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti


    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  19. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei


    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  20. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.


    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  1. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared) (United States)


    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  2. Multilayer, high resolution, ion-bombardment-tolerant electron resist system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.D.; Buhrman, R.A.


    A multilayer, high resolution electron resist system, which withstands ion bombardment, has been developed. This system consists of four layers which are, from top to bottom: AZ1350B, a thin metal interlayer, PMMA, and a copolymer of PMMA. The bottom two layers define the actual pattern dimensions. Two independent developers have been chosen for these two layers in order to obtain controllably undercut resist profiles ideal for liftoff applications, while maintaining high resolution in the upper PMMA layer. The top two layers of the four-level system serve to provide a protective metal coating which prevents crosslinking of the underlying polymer layer. This allows processing involving ion bombardment, such as ion milling or reactive ion etching. Without this protective metal layer, difficulty is often encountered in liftoff processing after ion bombardment, due to the presence of a thin crosslinked polymer layer which resists solvent penetration. This resist system has been used in conjunction with reactive ion beam oxidation to fabricate high quality, small area, niobium--lead alloy tunnel junctions in an edge geometry. Using a standard Cambridge EBMF-2 microfabricator, junctions with linewidths as small as 0.25 μm have been produced. With the edge geometry, this corresponds to junction areas smaller than 4 x 10 -10 cm 2

  3. Hyperresolution: an hyperspectral and high resolution imager for Earth observation (United States)

    De Vidi, R.; Chiarantini, L.; Bini, A.


    Hyperspectral space imagery is an emerging technology that supports many scientific, civil, security and defence operational applications. The main advantage of this remote sensing technique is that it allows the so-called Feature Extraction: in fact the spectral signature allows the recognition of the materials composing the scene. Hyperspectral Products and their applications have been investigated in the past years by Galileo Avionica to direct the instrument characteristics design. Sample products have been identified in the civil / environment monitoring fields (such as coastal monitoring, vegetation, hot spot and urban classification) and in defense / security applications: their performances have been verified by means of airborne flight campaigns. The Hyperspectral and High Resolution Imager is a space-borne instrument that implement a pushbroom technique to get strip spectral images over the Hyperspectral VNIR and SWIR bands, with a ground sample distance at nadir of 20m in a 20 km wide ground swath, with 200 spectral channels, realizing an average spectral resolution of 10nm. The High Resolution Panchromatic Channel insists in the same swath to allow for multiresolution data fusion of hyperspectral imagery.

  4. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery (United States)

    Royal, K.


    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  5. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.


    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  6. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-R. Wu


    Full Text Available We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  7. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka


    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  8. High Resolution Cluster Pressure Profile Measurements with MUSTANG and Bolocam (United States)

    Romero, Charles; Mason, Brian S.; Sayers, Jack; Young, Alexander; Dicker, Simon; Mroczkowski, Tony; Reese, Erik D.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Devlin, Mark J.; Korngut, Phillip


    Accurate high-resolution intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles will help further constrain cosmological parameters as well as baryonic physics in the cores of clusters of galaxies. MUSTANG, a 90 GHz bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is among the highest resolution (9' FWHM) instruments at 90 GHz, and is among the best instruments to observe the ICM given its sensitivity. We present results from a sub-sample of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova with Hubble (CLASH) clusters of galaxies observed with both MUSTANG and Bolocam. Bolocam, a 150 GHz bolometer array on the CSO with 58' FWHM, and MUSTANG data probe different, and highly complementary, angular (size) scales. We jointly fit spherical electron pressure profiles to the two datasets and find that the addition of the high resolution MUSTANG data can considerably improve constraints on the pressure profiles. A major asset of our fitting algorithm is the ability to uniquely fit for contaminants such as point sources, and thus allowing us to determine the signal from the underlying ICM. We compare our best fit profiles to X-ray determined pressure profiles (provided by ACCEPT), where we find good agreement. Finally we investigate the implications of our results and describe ongoing work to extend this analysis to the full set of CLASH clusters viewable by the GBT, and to obtain even better results with the MUSTANG-1.5 camera

  9. High resolution neutron diffractometer HRND at research reactor CMRR (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xie, C.; Sun, G.; Liu, L.; Pang, B.; Li, J.; Huang, C.; Liu, Y.; Gong, J.


    The high resolution neutron diffractometer HRND is located at the 20 MW China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR), which is a neutron powder diffractometer especially dedicated to crystal and magnetic structure studies for polycrystalline powder samples. A vertical focusing Ge (511) monochromator produce a monochromatic neutron beam with a wavelength of 1.885 Å at a fixed take-off angle of 120o. An array of 64 equidistant 3He filled proportional counters can acquire diffraction patterns with a large-scale diffraction angle range over 160o. As all the Soller slit collimators of HRND have a collimation angle of 10' and the monochromator has an average mosaicity of 0.359o, HRND obtains a best resolution of about 1.6\\textperthousand based on experiments, which makes the resolution of HRND can compete with the mainstream-level high resolution neutron powder diffractometers in the world. Equipped with a cryostat and a furnace, HRND allows structural characterization in an extremely broad temperature range. The details of the configuration and performance of the instrument are reported along with its specifications and performance assessments in the present paper.

  10. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D.


    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  11. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, M.


    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  12. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.


    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  13. Gemini high-resolution optical spectrograph conceptual design (United States)

    Szeto, Kei; McConnachie, Alan; Anthony, André; Bohlender, David; Crampton, David; Desaulniers, Pierre; Dunn, Jennifer; Hardy, Tim; Hill, Alexis; Monin, Dmitry; Pazder, John; Schwab, Christian; Spano, Paola; Starkenburg, Else; Thibault, Simon; Walker, Gordon; Venn, Kim; Zhang, Hu


    A multiplexed moderate resolution (R = 34,000) and a single object high resolution (R = 90,000) spectroscopic facility for the entire 340 - 950nm wavelength region has been designed for Gemini. The result is a high throughput, versatile instrument that will enable precision spectroscopy for decades to come. The extended wavelength coverage for these relatively high spectral resolutions is achieved by use of an Echelle grating with VPH cross-dispersers and for the R = 90,000 mode utilization of an image slicer. The design incorporates a fast, efficient, reliable system for acquiring targets over the7 arcmin field of Gemini. This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study instrument group of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics has been commissioned by the Gemini Observatory as one of the three competing organizations to conduct a conceptual design study for a new Gemini High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOS). This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study.

  14. High resolution coherence analysis between planetary and climate oscillations (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola


    This study investigates the existence of a multi-frequency spectral coherence between planetary and global surface temperature oscillations by using advanced techniques of coherence analysis and statistical significance tests. The performance of the standard Matlab mscohere algorithms is compared versus high resolution coherence analysis methodologies such as the canonical correlation analysis. The Matlab mscohere function highlights large coherence peaks at 20 and 60-year periods although, due to the shortness of the global surface temperature record (1850-2014), the statistical significance of the result depends on the specific window function adopted for pre-processing the data. In fact, window functions disrupt the low frequency component of the spectrum. On the contrary, using the canonical correlation analysis at least five coherent frequencies at the 95% significance level are found at the following periods: 6.6, 7.4, 14, 20 and 60 years. Thus, high resolution coherence analysis confirms that the climate system can be partially modulated by astronomical forces of gravitational, electromagnetic and solar origin. A possible chain of the physical causes explaining this coherence is briefly discussed.

  15. Multiscale wavelet filter for high resolution radioisotopic images (United States)

    Pousse, A.; Dornier, C.; Fagot, L.; Parmentier, M.; Kastler, B.


    Radioisotopic Investigations are very useful for functional diagnosis, but available gamma cameras have poor spatial resolution. Development of new PSPMT based high-resolution detectors brings new interests to this medical imaging technique. However, the Poissonian nature of emitted photon flux and low count images due to low doses administered to the patients and to collimation, lead to images with granular aspect. This noisy appearance is particularly inconvenient when looking for cold nodules as in thyroid examinations. Low-pass filters, which reduce noise, are not well suited for detecting small cold nodules. An adapted translation invariant wavelet filter is designed which takes into account the poissonian feature of noise and preserves small sized structures. The filter was tested by Monte Carlo simulations, phantom and clinical thyroid scintigraphies. Cold spherical nodules as small as 4 mm in diameter are easily detected on filtered images acquired with IRIS (ARIES) high-resolution gamma ray imaging probe. Presentation of filtered images at different scales offering enhanced visual quality and lowered noise, simultaneously with original image, allows more comfortable analysis and improves scintigraphic diagnosis ability.

  16. An original acquisition chain for the TOHR High Resolution Tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinot, Laurent


    The framework of this work is part of a new approach of emission tomography adapted to small animals. The principle of our tomographic system TOHR (French acronym for High Resolution Tomograph) is based on the use of large solid angle and high resolution focusing collimators each mounted in front of a detection module of high efficiency. With a first-generation acquisition chain we were able to characterize TOHR, however, to take fully advantage of the TOHR possibilities, a completely new acquisition scheme had to be designed. This system, being the main topic of this work, makes use of temporal information. The detection of a particle that entered the detector is translated into temporal logical signals. These signals pass into a time coding circuitry and the coded results are transferred in a digital processor. According to the initial terms of delivery, the developed acquisition chain steers the detection of events dependent on the deposited energy and time of arrival. The latter is done by coincidence measurements. All elements are mounted on a special board included into a PC unit and a dedicated program controls the whole system. First experiments showed up the interest of the new acquisition unit for other application in physics or medical imaging

  17. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de; Marchiori, Edson; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares


    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  18. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016). (United States)

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo


    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Association between the mean CT value on a scout view and the dependent mA selection method in coronary artery imaging on 64-row multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jianhua; Li Tao; Mi Fengtang; Li Na; Cui Ying; Dai Ruping; Li Jianying


    Objective: To characterize the association between the mean CT value on a scout view and the dependent mA selection method, and to evaluate the clinical value of a mA selection method based on scout view mean CT value in obtaining individualized scan protocol and consistent image quality for patient population on 64-row MSCT CT coronary angiography (CTCA). Methods: One hundred patients (group A) underwent CTCA consecutively using standard protocol with a fixed mA. The mean CT value of a fixed ROI (region of interest) from the scout AP view and the CTCA image noise (standard deviation on the root of ascending aorta) were measured. The correlation between CT values and noise was studied to establish a formula and a list to determine the required mA for obtaining a consistent CTCA image noise based on the measured SV CT value. Another 100 patients (group B) were scanned using the same parameters as group A except the mA and the CT value was also measured. The mA was determined by the list established previously. The CTCA image quality (IQ) as well as the image noise (IN) and the effective dose (ED) from the two groups were statistically analyzed using t-test. The CT findings for the 32 patients in the group B were also compared with the selective coronary angiography (SCA) results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of CTCA for detection of significant stenosis were obtained. Results: The formula between the required mA and the CT value was: XmA=FmA x [(K 1 x CTscout + C 1 )/INa] 2 . The CTCA images in B group had statistically higher IN (27.66±2.57, 22.22±4.17, t=11.33, P=0.000), but no statistical difference between IQ scores for the two groups (3.29±0.66, 3.37±0.67, t=0.009, P=0.990), and ED [(8.72±2.51) versus (12.53±0.90) mSv] was 30% lower for the B group (P<0.01). For the 32 patients in the B group who had SCA, the CTCA sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative

  20. High resolution remote sensing of water surface patterns (United States)

    Woodget, A.; Visser, F.; Maddock, I.; Carbonneau, P.


    The assessment of in-stream habitat availability within fluvial environments in the UK traditionally includes the mapping of patterns which appear on the surface of the water, known as 'surface flow types' (SFTs). The UK's River Habitat Survey identifies ten key SFTs, including categories such as rippled flow, upwelling, broken standing waves and smooth flow. SFTs result from the interaction between the underlying channel morphology, water depth and velocity and reflect the local flow hydraulics. It has been shown that SFTs can be both biologically and hydraulically distinct. SFT mapping is usually conducted from the river banks where estimates of spatial coverage are made by eye. This approach is affected by user subjectivity and inaccuracies in the spatial extent of mapped units. Remote sensing and specifically the recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) may now offer an alternative approach for SFT mapping, with the capability for rapid and repeatable collection of very high resolution imagery from low altitudes, under bespoke flight conditions. This PhD research is aimed at investigating the mapping of SFTs using high resolution optical imagery (less than 10cm) collected from a helicopter-based UAS flown at low altitudes (less than 100m). This paper presents the initial findings from a series of structured experiments on the River Arrow, a small lowland river in Warwickshire, UK. These experiments investigate the potential for mapping SFTs from still and video imagery of different spatial resolutions collected at different flying altitudes and from different viewing angles (i.e. vertical and oblique). Imagery is processed using 3D mosaicking software to create orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM). The types of image analysis which are tested include a simple, manual visual assessment undertaken in a GIS environment, based on the high resolution optical imagery. In addition, an object-based image analysis approach which makes use of the

  1. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave


    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with


    Lafraia, Fernanda M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Kalluf, Julia R; Patti, Marco G


    High resolution manometry is the current technology used to the study of esophageal motility and is replacing conventional manometry in important centers for esophageal motility with parameters used on esophageal motility, following the Chicago Classification. This classification unifies high resolution manometry interpretation and classifies esophageal disorders. This review shows, in a pictorial presentation, the new parameters established by the Chicago Classification, version 3.0, aimed to allow an easy comprehension and interpretation of high resolution manometry. Esophageal manometries performed by the authors were reviewed to select illustrative tracings representing Chicago Classification parameters. The parameters are: Esophagogastric Morphology, that classifies this junction according to its physiology and anatomy; Integrated Relaxation Pressure, that measures the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; Distal Contractile Integral, that evaluates the contraction vigor of each wave; and, Distal Latency, that measures the peristalsis velocity from the beginning of the swallow to the epiphrenic ampulla. Clinical applications of these new concepts is still under evaluation. Mostrar, de forma pictórica, os novos parâmetros compilados na versão 3.0 da Classificação de Chicago, buscando facilitar a compreensão e interpretação da manometria de alta resolução. Foram revistas as manometrias da casuística dos autores e selecionados os traçados representativos dos parâmetros da Classificação de Chicago. Entre os parâmetros apresentados foram considerados a Morfologia da Transição Gastroesofágica, que classifica o segmento de acordo com sua fisiologia e anatomia; a Integral da Pressão de Relaxamento, que mede o relaxamento do esfíncter esofagiano inferior; a Integral Contrátil Distal, que avalia o vigor contrátil da onda peristáltica; e, a Latência Distal, que mede o tempo da peristalse, desde o início da deglutição até a ampola epifr

  3. Pyrethroids, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide in sediments by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Woudneh, Million B; Oros, Daniel R


    A new method for determination of pyrethroids, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was developed for aquatic sediments. The method detection limits for pyrethroids (15 compounds), pyrethrins, and PBO ranged from 0.16 to 1.50 ng/g sediment, which was suitable for detecting these chemicals at environmentally relevant concentrations (low ng/L range) that are toxicologically significant to benthic organisms. Recovery of the analytes from a low level spiked sediment ranged from 89.7% to 135%. Resmethrin showed the lowest recovery at 23.5% and pyrethrins showed the highest recovery at 154%. To confirm the utility of this new method for environmental applications, sediment samples collected from five tributaries of the San Francisco Bay, California were analyzed. Individual pyrethroids were detected in concentrations of up to 17.6 ng/g, while PBO was detected in all sediment samples in concentrations of 0.010-0.215 ng/g. Pyrethrins were not found in the sediment samples.

  4. Do high-resolution convection-permitting experiments on Europe need to be driven by high resolution global runs? (United States)

    Berthou, Segolene; Chan, Steven; Kendon, Elizabeth; Roberts, Malcolm; Lee, Robert; Vanniere, Benoit


    Challenges of getting appropriate climate-change scenarios over Europe both come from having a good representation of the synoptic systems reaching Europe and having a good-enough representation of local and orographic processes in Europe. Therefore we perform both the evaluation of the driving global model and its dynamical downscaling with a 2.2km regional model on the present day period, in the perspective of using this configuration in a future climate scenario. 20-year long atmosphere-only simulations with the Unified Model of the Met Office were run at different global resolutions (130km, 60km and 25km) and the highest resolution was chosen to give the boundaries of a European-wide convection permitting simulation with a 2.2km resolution. The synoptic situation of the different global resolutions are comparable in terms of latitudinal distribution of the jets and weather regimes but there is consistent improvement in the frequency of storms reaching Europe at 25km resolution. High resolution global runs therefore mainly show added value in the high-frequency synoptic drivers. Compared to high resolution precipitation datasets, the 25km resolution is showing good representation of winter precipitation distribution, although with too many days of moderate precipitation in Western Europe. It shows a dry bias in summer, consistent with a mean jet too north.

  5. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia


    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  6. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine


    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  7. Spiral inlets for steam turbines (United States)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan


    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  8. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen


    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1μrad over a dynamic range of approximately +/-20μm

  9. High-resolution sonography in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbiati, L.; De Pra, L.; Rizzatto, G.; Derchi, L.E.


    Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by the compression on the median nerve under the transverse carpal ligament, has multiple causes and clinical presentations. One hundred eighteen patients with carpal tunnel sydrome underwent high-resolution US which demonstrated unpalpable cystic masses in 25 patients (lobulated stalked synovial cysts in 19 and retrotendinous cysts in six, all confirmed at surgery), and diffuse thickening and decreased echogenicity of the tendon sheaths in 87 patients, suggesting tenosynovitis (confirmed at surgery in 64). In six patients simple encasement of muscle bellies in the carpal tunnel was shown. US can delineate the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome, suggest the need for surgery, and aid the surgeon in locating the lesion to be removed

  10. High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks (United States)

    Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.


    In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.

  11. Development of high resolution camera for observations of superconducting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Iwashita


    Full Text Available A system for inspecting the inner surface of superconducting rf cavities is developed in order to study the relation between the achievable field gradient and the defects in the inner surface. The inspection system consists of a high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera and a special illumination system built in a cylinder that has a diameter of 50 mm. The camera cylinder can be inserted into the L-band 9 cell superconducting cavity. The system provides a resolution of about 7.5  μm/pixel. Thus far, there have been good correlations between locations identified by thermometry measurements and positions of defects found by this system. The heights or depths of the defects can also be estimated by measuring wall gradients using the reflection angle relation between the camera position and the strip illumination position. This paper presents a detailed description of the system and the data obtained from it.

  12. Paracoccidioidomycosis: High-resolution computed tomography-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valiante, Paulo Marcos, E-mail: [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mano, Claudia Mauro, E-mail: [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia, E-mail: [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Petropolis Faculty of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L., E-mail: [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares, E-mail: [Faculty of Medicine of Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Capone, Domenico, E-mail: [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Methods: The study included 23 adult patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analyzed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions by consensus. An experienced lung pathologist reviewed all pathological specimens. The HRCT findings were correlated with histopathologic data. Results: The predominant HRCT findings included areas of ground-glass opacities, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, airspace consolidation, cavitation, and fibrosis. The main pathological features consisted of alveolar and interlobular septal inflammatory infiltration, granulomas, alveolar exudate, cavitation secondary to necrosis, and fibrosis. Conclusion: Paracoccidioidomycosis can present different tomography patterns, which can involve both the interstitium and the airspace. These abnormalities can be pathologically correlated with inflammatory infiltration, granulomatous reaction, and fibrosis.

  13. Automated electrostatic probe device of high resolution and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleiferis, S. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion-Patras 26504 (Greece); LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble INP, 53, Avenue des Martyrs 38026 (France); Svarnas, P., E-mail: [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion-Patras 26504 (Greece)


    In this work, an automated apparatus for driving single electrostatic probes and acquiring the plasma-related data has been designed and fabricated. The voltage range of the present system is ±110 V with an adjustable voltage step as low as 3 mV. Voltage and current measurements are carried out with high resolution and high accuracy circuits, both based on 16 bit analog-to-digital converters. The code embedded in a micro-controller, schedules the operation of the device and transfers the experimental data to a personal computer. The modular design of the system makes possible its modification and thus increases its adaptability to different plasma setups. Finally, the reliable operation of the entire device is confirmed by tests in Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Azzaoui


    Full Text Available Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden’s J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.


    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  16. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA


    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  17. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglbauer, R.; Schurawitzki, H.; Eichler, I.; Goetz, M.


    High resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in 24 children (median age 57.9 months) suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). In 23 patients (one examination unacceptable because of motion artifacts) the most frequent finding was bronchial wall thickening, shown in 21 patients (91%), followed by bronchiectasis in 15 patients (65%). Less frequent findings were mucus plugging and patchy consolidations, which could be demonstrated in 11 patients each (48%). Findings were classified using a CT scoring system and including only irreversible pulmonary changes; a statistically significant correlation with lung function tests could be established. HRCT to date seems to be the most valuable method to determine extent and severity of lung involvement in children with CF and should therefore be routinely used for the staging of this disease. (orig.)

  18. Feasibility tests of a high resolution sampling radial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.


    The design concept and results of feasibility tests for a vertex detector intended for use in the TPC-PEP4/9 experiment are presented. The detector is based on a slow radial drift in dimethyl ether. High resolution localization of the avalanches at the sense wire is accomplished with nearby pickup wires and the utilization of waveform sampling electronics. The avalanche angular coordinate measurements, combined with knowledge of the electric field distribution and drift velocity permit reconstruction of the trajectory using essentially all track information. Measurements with a test chamber constructed to study characteristics of avalanche localization indicate that the recoverable track information in one centimeter of dimethyl ether at 1.5 atm is equivalent to 30 measurements of 40 μm accuracy. (orig.)

  19. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report highlights the capabilities and procedure for high-resolution characterization of UMo fuels in PNNL. Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) fuel processing steps, from casting to forming final fuel, directly affect the microstructure of the fuel, which in turn dictates the in-reactor performance of the fuel under irradiation. In order to understand the influence of processing on UMo microstructure, microstructure characterization techniques are necessary. Higher-resolution characterization techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are needed to interrogate the details of the microstructure. The findings from TEM and APT are also directly beneficial for developing predictive multiscale modeling tools that can predict the microstructure as a function of process parameters. This report provides background on focused-ion-beam–based TEM and APT sample preparation, TEM and APT analysis procedures, and the unique information achievable through such advanced characterization capabilities for UMo fuels, from a fuel fabrication capability viewpoint.

  20. THz holography in reflection using a high resolution microbolometer array. (United States)

    Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin


    We demonstrate a digital holographic setup for Terahertz imaging of surfaces in reflection. The set-up is based on a high-power continuous wave (CW) THz laser and a high-resolution (640 × 480 pixel) bolometer detector array. Wave propagation to non-parallel planes is used to reconstruct the object surface that is rotated relative to the detector plane. In addition we implement synthetic aperture methods for resolution enhancement and compare Fourier transform phase retrieval to phase stepping methods. A lateral resolution of 200 μm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.4 rad corresponding to a depth resolution of 6 μm are estimated from reconstructed images of two specially prepared test targets, respectively. We highlight the use of digital THz holography for surface profilometry as well as its potential for video-rate imaging.

  1. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren


    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  2. Results from the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jui, C. C. H.


    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment operated two fluorescence detector sites in the western Utah desert between 1997 and 2006. The HiRes results on the cosmic ray spectrum are consistent with the GZK Suppression predicted at 10 19.8 eV and observe an ankle structure at 10 18.5 eV. These spectral features are consistent with a proton-dominated composition for cosmic rays at the highest energies. The HiRes composition studies of both the mean and the variance of the shower maximum depth (X max ) also give results that are completely consistent with a predominately protonic composition, and inconsistent with heavy nuclei such as iron. We also report on the result of anisotropy studies.

  3. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar (United States)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.


    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One of the primary objectives is to collect experimental data to improve the predictive capability of wind plant computational models to represent the response of the turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. The present work summarizes the experimental setup and illustrates several wake measurement example cases. The cases focus on demonstrating the impact of the atmospheric conditions on the wake shape and position, and exhibit a sample of the data that has been made public through the Department of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  4. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Kenneth C. [Baltimore VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Williams, Eric H. [Dellon Institute for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, Towson, MD (United States); Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  5. Heel pad thickness: determination by high-resolution ultrasonography. (United States)

    Gooding, G A; Stress, R M; Graf, P M; Grunfeld, C


    Heel pad thickness classically is increased in acromegaly and can also be noted in long-term Dilantin therapy. A high-resolution 10-MHz dedicated superficial small parts real-time scanner was used to evaluate heel pad thickness without the use of radiation and without the magnification inherent in the standard procedure, a lateral radiograph of the foot. Fifty-four patients were studied, and it was determined in 10 controls that heel pad thickness averaged 16.6 mm. In 38 diabetics without ulcers of the feet, the heel pad was 17.8 mm. A single treated acromegalic had a heel pad thickness of 21 mm. Ultrasonography offers an effective alternative to radiography in the measurement of heel pad thickness.

  6. Two simple image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy (United States)

    Tala, M.; Vanzi, L.; Avila, G.; Guirao, C.; Pecchioli, E.; Zapata, A.; Pieralli, F.


    We present the design, manufacturing, test and performance of two image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy. Based on the classical Bowen-Walraven concept, our slicers allow to make two slices of the image of the input fibre. We introduce the idea of a second fibre that can be cropped in half to reach the same width of the science target fibre and that can be used for simultaneous wavelength reference. The slicers presented are mirror and prism based, respectively. Both devices work within expectation, showing differences mainly in their efficiency. The prism based slicer is the solution that was adopted for the FIDEOS spectrograph, an instrument built by the AIUC for the ESO 1m telescope of La Silla. Test spectra obtained with this instrument are included as examples of a real application of the device.

  7. High-resolution optical telescope for ultraviolet /UV/ radiation field (United States)

    Karayan, W. W.


    Design techniques are discussed for all-reflecting optics from first-order system considerations and applications currently utilized in the field of astronomical optics. The solution of the Dall-Karkham design problem is described, showing the advantage of inexpensive construction as compared with higher order surfaces. The design process reported here is a F/5 collecting system which quickly mates directly with the spectrometer; it is capable of achieving desired high resolution and sensitivity requirements. The theoretical limit of aberration tolerances is achieved with less than 1/8 of a wavelength at final focus (OPD). The design of spectrometer for ultra-violet (UV) radiation and its mechanism is included in this study.

  8. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of clusters of Group V elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-sheng; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.


    High resolution HeI (580 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of As 2 , As 4 , and P 4 were obtained with a newly-built high temperature molecular beam source. Vibrational structure was resolved in the photoelectron spectra of the three cluster species. The Jahn-Teller effect is discussed for the 2 E and 2 T 2 states of P 4 + and As 4 + . As a result of the Jahn-Teller effect, the 2 E state splits into two bands, and the 2 T 2 state splits into three bands, in combination with the spin-orbit effect. It was observed that the ν 2 normal vibrational mode was involved in the vibronic interaction of the 2 E state, while both the ν 2 and ν 3 modes were active in the 2 T 2 state. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The Pleiades System High Resolution Optical Satellite and its Performances (United States)

    Boussarie, E.

    France is setting up a cooperative program with Italy as main partner, including other european cooperative countries, in order to develop a dual use system. This means that it intends to be used by civilian users, and by military ones, as well. It will deliver optical images (part of the system developed under french responsibility), and radar images (part of the system developed under italian responsibility). This paper aims at describing the optical satellite inside the overall system. The Pléiades optical high resolution system is based upon the use of a satellite featuring a set of newly european developed technologies. This paper reports the status of the satellite development. It describes the newly developed technologies, explains the system sizing philosophy, and describes the performances status.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Li


    Full Text Available Over-parameterization and over-correction are two of the major problems in the rational function model (RFM. A new approach of optimized RFM (ORFM is proposed in this paper. By synthesizing stepwise selection, orthogonal distance regression, and residual systematic error correction model, the proposed ORFM can solve the ill-posed problem and over-correction problem caused by constant term. The least square, orthogonal distance, and the ORFM are evaluated with control and check grids generated from satellite observation Terre (SPOT-5 high-resolution satellite data. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed ORFM, with 37 essential RFM parameters, is more accurate than the other two methods, which contain 78 parameters, in cross-track and along-track plane. Moreover, the over-parameterization and over-correction problems have been efficiently alleviated by the proposed ORFM, so the stability of the estimated RFM parameters and its accuracy have been significantly improved.

  11. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications. (United States)

    Li, F H


    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given.

  12. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  13. Fast iterative segmentation of high resolution medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, T.J.


    Various applications in positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) require segmentation of 20 to 60 high resolution images of size 256x256 pixels in 3-9 seconds per image. This places particular constraints on the design of image segmentation algorithms. This paper examines the trade-offs in segmenting images based on fitting a density function to the pixel intensities using curve-fitting versus the maximum likelihood method. A quantized data representation is proposed and the EM algorithm for fitting a finite mixture density function to the quantized representation for an image is derived. A Monte Carlo evaluation of mean estimation error and classification error showed that the resulting quantized EM algorithm dramatically reduces the required computation time without loss of accuracy

  14. High-resolution observations of the solar granulation (United States)

    Topka, K. P.; Title, A. M.


    Digitally-enhanced high-resolution images from space and ground observatories have yielded data on the solar granulation which show it to be a more complex combination of phenomena than previously suspected. These new data have been used to detect large-scale horizontal flows over the solar surface through direct measurements of granule proper motions. The results thus obtained may have important implications for the heating of the solar chromosphere and corona. The observed intensity pattern on the surface of the sun is noted to be due not only to granulation, but the superposition of different types of waves as well. All such phenomena are modified in the presence of magnetic fields, becoming smaller and of reduced contrast.

  15. Statistical properties from high resolution proton resonance reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.


    High resolution proton resonance measurements are of great value in the study of statistical and non-statistical effects involving compound nuclear resonances. First, these measurements provide valuable information on both global and local properties of widths and spacings. This information is a valuable supplement to that obtained from neutron experiments. Second, as Mahaux and Weidenmueller summarize: Isobaric analog resonances provide the best understood examples of doorway states. They are thus well suited for an experimental check of the theory. Third, the measurement of channel spin interference effects provide the most sensitive test yet for certain aspects of statistical theories, as well as providing examples of new types of intermediate structure. Examples are discussed

  16. High-Resolution Data for a Low-Resolution World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Brendan Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In the past 15 years, the upper section of Cañon de Valle has been severely altered by wildfires and subsequent runoff events. Loss of root structures on high-angle slopes results in debris flow and sediment accumulation in the narrow canyon bottom. The original intent of the study described here was to better understand the changes occurring in watershed soil elevations over the course of several post-fire years. An elevation dataset from 5 years post-Cerro Grande fire was compared to high-resolution LiDAR data from 14 years post-Cerro Grande fire (also 3 years post-Las Conchas fire). The following analysis was motivated by a problematic comparison of these datasets of unlike resolution, and therefore focuses on what the data reveals of itself. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects vegetation can have on remote sensing data that intends to read ground surface elevation.

  17. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G


    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  18. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC,


    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  19. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI) (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  20. DMD based digital speckle illumination for high resolution imaging (United States)

    Shinde, Anant; Mishra, Ayush; Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Murukeshan, V. M.


    Spatially non-uniform illumination patterns have shown significant potential to improve the imaging. Recent developments in the patterned illumination microscopy have demonstrated that the use of an optical speckle as an illumination pattern significantly improves the imaging resolution at the same time reducing the computational overheads. We present a DMD based method for generation of digital speckle pattern. The generated digital speckle and uniform white light illumination are used as two illuminations to acquire images. The image reconstruction algorithm for blind structured illumination microscopy is used to get the high resolution image. Our approach does not require any calibration step or stringent control of the illumination, and dramatically simplifies the experimental set-up.

  1. Automated high-resolution NMR with a sample changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.G.; Johnson, R.D.; Philson, S.B.; Strouse, J.; McEnroe, F.J.


    Within the past two years, it has become possible to obtain high-resolution NMR spectra using automated commercial instrumentation. Software control of all spectrometer functions has reduced most of the tedious manual operations to typing a few computer commands or even making selections from a menu. Addition of an automatic sample changer is the next natural step in improving efficiency and sample throughput; it has a significant (and even unexpected) impact on how NMR laboratories are run and how it is taught. Such an instrument makes even sophisticated experiments routine, so that people with no previous exposure to NMR can run these experiments after a training session of an hour or less. This A/C Interface examines the impact of such instrumentation on both the academic and the industrial laboratory

  2. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm


    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eschmann


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the investigations made at Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing (IZFP where different rotary wing micro UAS have been used to scan infrastructures including bridges and monuments at high resolutions for remote damage assessment and monitoring purposes. The aerial pictures taken at high speed and frequency have then been stitched together to obtain full 2D and 3D building reconstructions at a resolution allowing damages and cracking to be observed still in the millimeter range. With these ultra hi-res building reconstruction models a specific data base could be created for each object in order to provide extensive information for long term evaluation and life cycle management. The UAS also have been equipped with sensors for damage size estimation, which combined with an image processing software developed to allow automatic cracking pattern recognition could be used for further analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for automated extraction of building boundary from high resolution imagery is proposed. The proposed approach uses both geometric and spectral properties of a building to detect and locate buildings accurately. It consists of automatic generation of high quality point cloud from the imagery, building detection from point cloud, classification of building roof and generation of building outline. Point cloud is generated from the imagery automatically using semi-global image matching technology. Buildings are detected from the differential surface generated from the point cloud. Further classification of building roof is performed in order to generate accurate building outline. Finally classified building roof is converted into vector format. Numerous tests have been done on images in different locations and results are presented in the paper.

  5. A high resolution gridded ionization chamber for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, E.R.


    This paper describes some techniques used in the design of high resolution gridded ionisation chambers for measurements of absolute activity of radionuclides. Details of the geometry of the system and its electrodes are presented; their shape and the spacing between the grid wire was studied with the help of an electrolytic tank. The experimental spectra obtained with an Am 241 source using Ar + 10% methane as a flow gas show a total resolution of 39,07 KeV in very good agreement with the best results available in the literature. An application of the methods developed was used in the design ans construction of a proportional counter provided with three sequential grids disposed in such a way that the pulses from the first stage had their amplitude multiplied by the two further stages. Multiplication factors of the order of 10 sup(3) were obtained but higher values are expected. (author)

  6. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.


    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  7. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods in array signal processing which achieve accurate signal reconstruction from limited observations resulting in high-resolution imaging. The focus is on underwater acoustic applications and sonar signal processing both in active (transmit and receive...... in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering......) and passive (only receive) mode. The study addresses the limitations of existing methods and shows that, in many cases, the proposed methods overcome these limitations and outperform traditional methods for acoustic imaging. The project comprises two parts; The first part deals with computational methods...

  8. Realization of matching conditions for high-resolution spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Berg, G.P.A.; Bacher, A.D.; Foster, C.C.; Hara, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawabata, T.; Noro, T.; Sakaguchi, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Shinada, T.; Stephenson, E.J.; Ueno, H.; Yosoi, M.


    For precise measurements of nuclear-reaction spectra using a beam from an accelerator, a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer is a powerful tool. The full capability of a magnetic spectrometer, however, can be achieved only if the characteristics of the beam coming from the accelerator are matched to those required by the spectrometer by properly adjusting the beam line conditions. The matching methods, lateral dispersion matching, focus matching and also the kinematic correction compensate the spectrum line-broadening effects caused by the beam momentum spread and reaction kinematics. In addition, angular dispersion matching should be performed if good resolution of the scattering angle is important. Diagnostic methods developed to realize these matching conditions for the spectrometers K600 at IUCF and Grand Raiden at RCNP are presented

  9. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)


    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  10. Realization of matching conditions for high-resolution spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, H; Berg, G P A; Bacher, A D; Foster, C C; Hara, K; Hatanaka, K; Kawabata, T; Noro, T; Sakaguchi, H; Shimbara, Y; Shinada, T; Stephenson, E J; Ueno, H; Yosoi, M


    For precise measurements of nuclear-reaction spectra using a beam from an accelerator, a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer is a powerful tool. The full capability of a magnetic spectrometer, however, can be achieved only if the characteristics of the beam coming from the accelerator are matched to those required by the spectrometer by properly adjusting the beam line conditions. The matching methods, lateral dispersion matching, focus matching and also the kinematic correction compensate the spectrum line-broadening effects caused by the beam momentum spread and reaction kinematics. In addition, angular dispersion matching should be performed if good resolution of the scattering angle is important. Diagnostic methods developed to realize these matching conditions for the spectrometers K600 at IUCF and Grand Raiden at RCNP are presented.

  11. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection (United States)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.


    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doménech, J. L.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Molecular Physics Department, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Drouin, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Cernicharo, J., E-mail: [Molecular Astrophysics Group, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl{sup +}, has been recently identified in space from Herschel 's spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimeter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration–rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, IR observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers, as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule.

  13. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.


    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  14. High-resolution 3-T MR neurography of peroneal neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Shrey K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Williams, Eric H. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dellon Institute for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)


    The common peroneal nerve (CPN), a major terminal branch of the sciatic nerve, can be subject to a variety of pathologies, which may affect the nerve at any level from the lumbar plexus to its distal branches. Although the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy is traditionally based on a patient's clinical findings and electrodiagnostic tests, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is gaining an increasing role in the definition of the type, site, and extent of peripheral nerve disorders. Current high-field MR scanners enable high-resolution and excellent soft-tissue contrast imaging of peripheral nerves. In the lower extremities, MR neurography has been employed in the demonstration of the anatomy and pathology of the CPN, as well as in the detection of associated secondary muscle denervation changes. This article reviews the normal appearance of the CPN as well as typical pathologies and abnormal findings at 3.0-T MR neurography of the lower extremity. (orig.)

  15. High resolution reversible color images on photonic crystal substrates. (United States)

    Kang, Pilgyu; Ogunbo, Samuel O; Erickson, David


    When light is incident on a crystalline structure with appropriate periodicity, some colors will be preferentially reflected (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Meade, R. D.; Winn, J. N. Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1995; p ix, 137 pp). These photonic crystals and the structural color they generate represent an interesting method for creating reflective displays and drawing devices, since they can achieve a continuous color response and do not require back lighting (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Villeneuve, P. R.; Fan, S. H. Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light. Nature 1997, 386, 143-149; Graham-Rowe, D. Tunable structural colour. Nat. Photonics 2009, 3, 551-553.; Arsenault, A. C.; Puzzo, D. P.; Manners, I.; Ozin, G. A. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays. Nat. Photonics 2007, 1, 468-472; Walish, J. J.; Kang, Y.; Mickiewicz, R. A.; Thomas, E. L. Bioinspired Electrochemically Tunable Block Copolymer Full Color Pixels. Adv. Mater.2009, 21, 3078). Here we demonstrate a technique for creating erasable, high-resolution, color images using otherwise transparent inks on self-assembled photonic crystal substrates (Fudouzi, H.; Xia, Y. N. Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers. Langmuir 2003, 19, 9653-9660). Using inkjet printing, we show the ability to infuse fine droplets of silicone oils into the crystal, locally swelling it and changing the reflected color (Sirringhaus, H.; Kawase, T.; Friend, R. H.; Shimoda, T.; Inbasekaran, M.; Wu, W.; Woo, E. P. High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits. Science 2000, 290, 2123-2126). Multicolor images with resolutions as high as 200 μm are obtained from oils of different molecular weights with the lighter oils being able to penetrate deeper, yielding larger red shifts. Erasing of images is done simply by adding a low vapor pressure oil which dissolves the image, returning the substrate to its original state.

  16. Fabricating High Resolution Mirrors for Hand X-Ray Astronomy (United States)

    Speegle, Chet O.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    We describe the fabrication process for producing high-resolution conical mirrors for hard x-ray astronomy. When flown aboard stratospheric balloons, these high-resolution reflective mirrors focus hard x-rays (10-70 keV) emitted from cosmic sources such as supernovae, neutron stars, and quasars onto imaging focal plane detectors. Focused hard x-ray images allow scientists to determine the elemental compositions, temperatures, magnetic fields, velocities, and gravitational fields of these celestial bodies. The fabrication process involves generating super-polished mandrels, mandrel metrology, mirror shell nickel electroforming, and mirror testing. Each mandrel is a cylinder consisting of two conical segments; each segment is approximately 305-mm long. Through precision grinding these mandrels before super polishing, we have achieved 30 arc seconds, half power diameter replicated mirrors. During a May 2001 high atmosphere balloon flight, these mirrors focused high energy x-rays from three different celestial sources. However, we seek to improve the angular resolutions of future mirror shells by a factor of two. To achieve this goal, we have begun single point diamond turning the mandrels before super polishing. This has allowed greater precision tolerances on mandrel surface roughness and axial figure errors before super polishing. Surface roughnesses before polishing have been reduced from approximately 60 nm to approximately 15 nm. The peak to valley axial figure profile errors have been reduced from approximately 1.0 micrometers to approximately 0.4 micrometers. We are currently in Phase 2 of the HERO (high energy replicated optics) program which entails the production of sixteen 6-m-focal-length mirror modules, each containing a nested array of 15 mirror shells of diameters ranging from 50-mm to 94-mm. This flight is slated for the fall of 2003.

  17. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system. (United States)

    Salmon, Edward D; Shaw, Sidney L; Waters, Jennifer C; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Maddox, Paul S; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry


    This chapter describes the development of a high-resolution, multimode digital imaging system based on a wide-field epifluorescent and transmitted light microscope, and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The three main parts of this imaging system are Nikon FXA microscope, Hamamatsu C4880 cooled CCD camera, and MetaMorph digital imaging system. This chapter presents various design criteria for the instrument and describes the major features of the microscope components-the cooled CCD camera and the MetaMorph digital imaging system. The Nikon FXA upright microscope can produce high resolution images for both epifluorescent and transmitted light illumination without switching the objective or moving the specimen. The functional aspects of the microscope set-up can be considered in terms of the imaging optics, the epi-illumination optics, the transillumination optics, the focus control, and the vibration isolation table. This instrument is somewhat specialized for microtubule and mitosis studies, and it is also applicable to a variety of problems in cellular imaging, including tracking proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in live cells. The instrument is also valuable for correlating the assembly dynamics of individual cytoplasmic microtubules (labeled by conjugating X-rhodamine to tubulin) with the dynamics of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (labeled with DiOC6) and the dynamics of the cell cortex (by differential interference contrast) in migrating vertebrate epithelial cells. This imaging system also plays an important role in the analysis of mitotic mutants in the powerful yeast genetic system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh


    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s −1  averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min −1 . The average surface roughness, S a , achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica. (paper)

  19. High resolution microphotonic needle for endoscopic imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Mohanty, Aseema; Roberts, Samantha P.; Barbosa, Felippe; Lipson, Michal


    GRIN (Graded index) lens have revolutionized micro endoscopy enabling deep tissue imaging with high resolution. The challenges of traditional GRIN lenses are their large size (when compared with the field of view) and their limited resolution. This is because of the relatively weak NA in standard graded index lenses. Here we introduce a novel micro-needle platform for endoscopy with much higher resolution than traditional GRIN lenses and a FOV that corresponds to the whole cross section of the needle. The platform is based on polymeric (SU-8) waveguide integrated with a microlens micro fabricated on a silicon substrate using a unique molding process. Due to the high index of refraction of the material the NA of the needle is much higher than traditional GRIN lenses. We tested the probe in a fluorescent dye solution (19.6 µM Alexa Flour 647 solution) and measured a numerical aperture of 0.25, focal length of about 175 µm and minimal spot size of about 1.6 µm. We show that the platform can image a sample with the field of view corresponding to the cross sectional area of the waveguide (80x100 µm2). The waveguide size can in principle be modified to vary size of the imaging field of view. This demonstration, combined with our previous work demonstrating our ability to implant the high NA needle in a live animal, shows that the proposed system can be used for deep tissue imaging with very high resolution and high field of view.

  20. High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs (United States)

    Schar, C.; Ban, N.; Arteaga, A.; Charpilloz, C.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Leutwyler, D.; Lüthi, D.; Piaget, N.; Ruedisuehli, S.; Schlemmer, L.; Schulthess, T. C.; Wernli, H.


    Currently large efforts are underway to refine the horizontal resolution of global and regional climate models to O(1 km), with the intent to represent convective clouds explicitly rather than using semi-empirical parameterizations. This refinement will move the governing equations closer to first principles and is expected to reduce the uncertainties of climate models. High resolution is particularly attractive in order to better represent critical cloud feedback processes (e.g. related to global climate sensitivity and extratropical summer convection) and extreme events (such as heavy precipitation events, floods, and hurricanes). The presentation will be illustrated using decade-long simulations at 2 km horizontal grid spacing, some of these covering the European continent on a computational mesh with 1536x1536x60 grid points. To accomplish such simulations, use is made of emerging heterogeneous supercomputing architectures, using a version of the COSMO limited-area weather and climate model that is able to run entirely on GPUs. Results show that kilometer-scale resolution dramatically improves the simulation of precipitation in terms of the diurnal cycle and short-term extremes. The modeling framework is used to address changes of precipitation scaling with climate change. It is argued that already today, modern supercomputers would in principle enable global atmospheric convection-resolving climate simulations, provided appropriately refactored codes were available, and provided solutions were found to cope with the rapidly growing output volume. A discussion will be provided of key challenges affecting the design of future high-resolution climate models. It is suggested that km-scale RCMs should be exploited to pioneer this terrain, at a time when GCMs are not yet available at such resolutions. Areas of interest include the development of new parameterization schemes adequate for km-scale resolution, the exploration of new validation methodologies and data

  1. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)


    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  2. Nuclear Spiral Shocks and Induced Gas Inflows in Weak Oval Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong-Tae [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail:, E-mail: [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)


    Nuclear spirals are ubiquitous in galaxy centers. They exist not only in strong barred galaxies but also in galaxies without noticeable bars. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like and oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies as well as to drive supersonic turbulence at small radii.

  3. Strengthening IAEA safeguards using high-resolution commercial satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui


    Full text: In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol to improve its ability to detect the undeclared production of fissile material. This new strengthened safeguards system has opened the door for the IAEA to use of all types of information, including the potential use of commercial satellite imagery. We have therefore been investigating the feasibility of strengthening IAEA safeguards using commercial satellite imagery. Based on our analysis on a number of one-meter resolution IKONOS satellite images of military nuclear production facilities at nuclear states including Russia, China, India, Pakistan and Israel, we found that the new high-resolution commercial satellite imagery would play a new and valuable role in strengthening IAEA safeguards. Since 1999, images with a resolution of one meter have been available commercially from Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite. One-meter images from other companies are expected to enter the market soon. Although still an order of magnitude less capable than military imaging satellites, the capabilities of these new high-resolution commercial satellites are good enough to detect and identify the major visible characteristics of nuclear production facilities and sites. Unlike the classified spy satellite photos limited to few countries, the commercial satellite imagery is commercially available to anyone who wants to purchase it. Therefore, the new commercial satellite open a new chance that each state, international organizations, and non-governmental groups could use the commercial images to play a more proactive role in monitoring the nuclear activities in related countries and verifying the compliance of non-proliferation agreements. This could help galvanize support for intensified efforts to slow the pace of nuclear proliferation. To produce fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) for weapons, a country would operate dedicated plutonium-production reactors and the

  4. Three-dimensional computed display of otosurgical operation sites by spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, O. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany); Sartor, K. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany); Forsting, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany); Reisser, C. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We studied the usefulness of spiral CT for preoperative information on the individual anatomy of the temporal bone in a computed three-dimensional (3D) display. In 87 patients with various otological diseases, 3D reconstructions were performed based on spiral high-resolution CT (HR-CT) by volume-rendering on an independent workstation. The positions of the ossicles, facial nerve, labyrinth and vestibular aqueduct relative to reference points were comprehensively demonstrated by thresholding or interactive segmentation. Spiral CT enables 3D display of otosurgical operation sites in a shorter scan time than conventional CT. 3D reconstructions improve the surgeon`s understanding of individual anatomy and thus help in surgical planning. This is particularly important for surgery of temporal bone tumours, middle ear deformities, cochlear implants and saccotomy. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  5. Three-dimensional computed display of otosurgical operation sites by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, O.; Sartor, K.; Forsting, M.; Reisser, C.


    We studied the usefulness of spiral CT for preoperative information on the individual anatomy of the temporal bone in a computed three-dimensional (3D) display. In 87 patients with various otological diseases, 3D reconstructions were performed based on spiral high-resolution CT (HR-CT) by volume-rendering on an independent workstation. The positions of the ossicles, facial nerve, labyrinth and vestibular aqueduct relative to reference points were comprehensively demonstrated by thresholding or interactive segmentation. Spiral CT enables 3D display of otosurgical operation sites in a shorter scan time than conventional CT. 3D reconstructions improve the surgeon's understanding of individual anatomy and thus help in surgical planning. This is particularly important for surgery of temporal bone tumours, middle ear deformities, cochlear implants and saccotomy. (orig.). With 6 figs

  6. The value of spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhi; Liu Zhang; Yang Chaoxiang; Lin Chengye; Zhang Li; Li Yuxiang; Ma Yunyan; Xiao Haisong; Lu Zhifeng; Wang Bo; Zhou Yunhong


    Objective: To approach the value of spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in order to improve the correctness of the diagnosis. Methods: Analysis the cases' clinical manifestation and the CT images, who were diagnosed as obstructive jaundice by operation. All of cases had high-resolution computed tomograyhy scan. The thickness and the interval is 5mm, reconstructed the thickness and the interval to 1 mm and 1.5 mm, then send the images to the workstation and MRR were processed. Analysis the date with the pathology. Results: Spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction have 98% and 93% in the accuracy of location and characterization in the obstruction. Conclusion: The spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction is a good method to improve the accuracy of location and characterization in the obstructive jaundice. (authors)

  7. Computed tomography with multidetectors in the diagnosis of coronary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombo, Bernardo; Carvajal, Codos A; Tafur, Monica; Gomez, Rafael


    Coronary angiography that uses multislice spiral computed tomography is a noninvasive technique for the detection of coronary stenosis that has had significant improvements in recent years. The introduction of 16 and 64 row scanners, the development of synchronized scanning electrocardiogram and better reconstruction techniques permit higher spatial and temporal resolution that allows better identification of coronary plaques and significant obstructive coronary lesions. In the next years Multislice spiral computed tomography will continue maturing and it will become a useful non invasive diagnostic imaging tool for the diagnosis of coronary disease and will be integrated to the cardiologic management protocols. Our next review will be focused on the basic and technical aspects of the scanner, diagnostic performance and clinical applications of this new technology

  8. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging (United States)

    Feng, Wanjie

    For most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical systems, the contamination of primary fields on secondary fields ultimately limits the capability of the controlled-source EM methods. Null coupling techniques were proposed to solve this problem. However, the small orientation errors in the null coupling systems greatly restrict the applications of these systems. Another problem encountered by most EM systems is the surface interference and geologic noise, which sometimes make the geophysical survey impossible to carry out. In order to solve these problems, the alternating target antenna coupling (ATAC) method was introduced, which greatly removed the influence of the primary field and reduced the surface interference. But this system has limitations on the maximum transmitter moment that can be used. The differential target antenna coupling (DTAC) method was proposed to allow much larger transmitter moments and at the same time maintain the advantages of the ATAC method. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical DTAC calculations were derived mathematically using Born and Wolf's complex magnetic vector. 1D layered and 2D blocked earth models were used to demonstrate that the DTAC method has no responses for 1D and 2D structures. Analytical studies of the plate model influenced by conductive and resistive backgrounds were presented to explain the physical phenomenology behind the DTAC method, which is the magnetic fields of the subsurface targets are required to be frequency dependent. Then, the advantages of the DTAC method, e.g., high-resolution, reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to surface interference, were analyzed using surface and subsurface numerical examples in the EMGIMA software. Next, the theoretical advantages, such as high resolution and insensitive to surface interference, were verified by designing and developing a low-power (moment of 50 Am 2) vertical-array DTAC system and testing it on controlled targets and scaled target coils. At last, a

  9. High resolution multi-scalar drought indices for Iberia (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia


    The Iberian Peninsula has been recurrently affected by drought episodes and by adverse associated effects (Gouveia et al., 2009), ranging from severe water shortages to losses of hydroelectricity production, increasing risk of forest fires, forest decline and triggering processes of land degradation and desertification. Moreover, Iberia corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change and is nowadays considered a hot spot of climate change with high probability for the increase of extreme events (Giorgi and Lionello, 2008). The spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales was analyzed using spatially distributed time series of multi-scalar drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This new climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature fields with the advantage of combining a multi-scalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. Moreover, reanalysis data and the higher resolution hindcasted databases obtained from them are valuable surrogates of the sparse observations and widely used for in-depth characterizations of the present-day climate. Accordingly, this work aims to enhance the knowledge on high resolution drought patterns in Iberian Peninsula, taking advantage of high-resolution (10km) regional MM5 simulations of the recent past (1959-2007) over Iberia. It should be stressed that these high resolution meteorological fields (e.g. temperature, precipitation) have been validated for various purposes (Jerez et al., 2013). A detailed characterization of droughts since the 1960s using the 10 km resolution hidncasted simulation was performed with the aim to explore the conditions favoring drought onset, duration and ending, as well as the subsequent short, medium and long-term impacts affecting the environment and the

  10. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  11. Segmentation Based Fuzzy Classification of High Resolution Images (United States)

    Rao, Mukund; Rao, Suryaprakash; Masser, Ian; Kasturirangan, K.

    images, we build a much needed bridge between the methodology domains of GIS and Image Analysis. The idea of having an integrated 'geographical information processing' environment is becoming much more realistic now that 'GIS' objects can be used for analysing an image and vice versa, new 'GIS' objects can be directly generated without ignoring the rich information environment of geographical concepts, relations and scales. In the above scenario, the main aim of this project is to assess whether object-oriented classification techniques would be more suitable for remote sensing images - specifically in the context of high resolution images. The paper basically examines potentials of classification techniques - especially segmentation based methods that is based on an object-semantics and that uses not only the spectral information but also the spatial characteristics; studies the integration of segmentation and fuzzy-classification to derive user-oriented information from the high resolution images and evaluates how such segmentation based classification compares with the more common pixel- based statistical technique. Segmentation based fuzzy classification is applied to high resolution images from IRS and for 1m images from satellites - especially to extract urban information.

  12. The high resolution mapping of the Venice Lagoon tidal network (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Kruss, Aleksandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Trincardi, Fabio


    One of the biggest challenges of the direct observation of the ocean is to achieve a high resolution mapping of its seafloor morphology and benthic habitats. So far, sonars have mapped just 0.05% of the ocean floor with less than ten-meter resolution. The recent efforts of the scientific community have been devoted towards the mapping of both Deep Ocean and very shallow coastal areas. Coastal and transitional environments in particular undergo strong morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure. Nowadays, only about 5% of the seafloor of these environments † have been mapped: the shallowness of these environments has prevented the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present results and case studies of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea with a surface of about 550 km2 and with an average depth of about 1 m. In the last century, the morphological and ecological properties of the lagoon changed dramatically: the surface of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon are deepening with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. Moreover, major engineering interventions are currently ongoing at the inlets (MOSE project). These changes at the inlets could affect substantially the lagoon environment. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice, ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to collect high resolution (0.5 m) bathymetry of key study areas such as the tidal inlets and channels. Following a broad

  13. Error and Uncertainty in High-resolution Quantitative Sediment Budgets (United States)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.; Yackulic, C. B.


    Sediment budgets are a fundamental tool in fluvial geomorphology. The power of the sediment budget is in the explicit coupling of sediment flux and sediment storage through the Exner equation for bed sediment conservation. Thus, sediment budgets may be calculated either from the divergence of the sediment flux or from measurements of morphologic change. Until recently, sediment budgets were typically calculated using just one of these methods, and often with sparse data. Recent advances in measurement methods for sediment transport have made it possible to measure sediment flux at much higher temporal resolution, while advanced methods for high-resolution topographic and bathymetric mapping have made it possible to measure morphologic change with much greater spatial resolution. Thus, it is now possible to measure all terms of a sediment budget and more thoroughly evaluate uncertainties in measurement methods and sampling strategies. However, measurements of sediment flux and morphologic change involve different types of uncertainty that are encountered over different time and space scales. Three major factors contribute uncertainty to sediment budgets computed from measurements of sediment flux. These are measurement error, the accumulation of error over time, and physical processes that cause systematic bias. In the absence of bias, uncertainty is proportional to measurement error and the ratio of fluxes at the two measurement stations. For example, if the ratio between measured sediment fluxes is more than 0.8, measurement uncertainty must be less than 10 percent in order to calculate a meaningful sediment budget. Systematic bias in measurements of flux can introduce much larger uncertainty. The uncertainties in sediment budgets computed from morphologic measurements fall into three similar categories. These are measurement error, the spatial and temporal propagation of error, and physical processes that cause bias when measurements are interpolated or

  14. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation

  15. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.


    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  16. Managing the explosion of high resolution topography in the geosciences (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Phan, Minh; Gross, Benjamin


    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds that come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM and UAS-based laser scanning, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The U.S. National Science Foundation funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 225 datasets and 15,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected high-resolution topographic data. OT has developed a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community

  17. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited) (United States)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.


    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  18. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)


    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  19. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri


    Full Text Available Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed by Pandolfino et al, includes contraction patterns and peristalsis integrity based on integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4. It can be discriminating the achalasia from non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical findings in non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders based on the most recent Chicago classification. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 963 patients that had been referred to manometry department of Gastrointestinal and Liver Research Center, Firozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April, 2012 to April, 2015. They had upper GI disorder (Dysphasia, non-cardiac chest pain, regurgitation, heartburn, vomiting and asthma and weight loss. Data were collected from clinical examinations as well as patient questionnaires. Manometry, water-perfused, was done for all patients. Manometry criteria of the patients who had integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4 ≤ 15 mmHg were studied. Results: Our finding showed that the non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders (58% was more common than the achalasia (18.2%. Heartburn (68.5%, regurgitation (65.4% and non-cardiac chest pain (60.6% were the most common clinical symptoms. Although, vomiting (91.7% and weight loss (63% were the most common symptoms in referring patients but did not discriminate this disorders from each other’s. Borderline motor function (67.2% was the most common, absent peristalsis (97% and the hyper

  20. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong


    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  1. A High Resolution TDI CCD Camera forMicrosatellite (HRCM) (United States)

    Hao, Yuncai; Zheng, You; Dong, Ying; Li, Tao; Yu, Shijie

    In resent years it is a important development direction in the commercial remote sensing field to obtain (1-5)m high ground resolution from space using microsatellite. Thanks to progress of new technologies, new materials and new detectors it is possible to develop 1m ground resolution space imaging system with weight less than 20kg. Based on many years works on optical system design a project of very high resolution TDI CCD camera using in space was proposed by the authors of this paper. The performance parameters and optical lay-out of the HRCM was presented. A compact optical design and results analysis for the system was given in the paper also. and small fold mirror to take a line field of view usable for TDI CCD and short outer size. The length along the largest size direction is about 1/4 of the focal length. And two 4096X96(grades) line TDI CCD will be used as the focal plane detector. The special optical parts are fixed near before the final image for getting the ground pixel resolution higher than the Nyquist resolution of the detector using the sub-pixel technique which will be explained in the paper. In the system optical SiC will be used as the mirror material, the C-C composite material will be used as the material of the mechanical structure framework. The circle frame of the primary and secondary mirrors will use one time turning on a machine tool in order to assuring concentric request for alignment of the system. In general the HRCM have the performance parameters with 2.5m focal length, 20 FOV, 1/11relative aperture, (0.4-0.8) micrometer spectral range, 10 micron pixel size of TDI CCD, weight less than 20kg, 1m ground pixel resolution at flying orbit 500km high. Design and analysis of the HRCM put up in the paper indicate that HRCM have many advantages to use it in space. Keywords High resolution TDI CCD Sub-pixel imaging Light-weighted optical system SiC mirror

  2. ASIC-enabled High Resolution Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (United States)

    Skendzic, Sandra

    Fiber optics has become the preferred technology in communication systems because of what it has to offer: high data transmission rates, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and lightweight, flexible cables. An optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) provides a convenient method of locating and diagnosing faults (e.g. break in a fiber) along a fiber that can obstruct crucial optical pathways. Both the ability to resolve the precise location of the fault and distinguish between two discrete, closely spaced faults are figures of merit. This thesis presents an implementation of a high resolution OTDR through the use of a compact and programmable ASIC (application specific integrated circuit). The integration of many essential OTDR functions on a single chip is advantageous over existing commercial instruments because it enables small, lightweight packaging, and offers low power and cost efficiency. Furthermore, its compactness presents the option of placing multiple ASICs in parallel, which can conceivably ease the characterization of densely populated fiber optic networks. The OTDR ASIC consists of a tunable clock, pattern generator, precise timer, electrical receiver, and signal sampling circuit. During OTDR operation, the chip generates narrow electrical pulse, which can then be converted to optical format when coupled with an external laser diode driver. The ASIC also works with an external photodetector to measure the timing and amplitude of optical reflections in a fiber. It has a 1 cm sampling resolution, which allows for a 2 cm spatial resolution. While this OTDR ASIC has been previously demonstrated for multimode fiber fault diagnostics, this thesis focuses on extending its functionality to single mode fiber. To validate this novel approach to OTDR, this thesis is divided into five chapters: (1) introduction, (2) implementation, (3), performance of ASIC-based OTDR, (4) exploration in optical pre-amplification with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and

  3. Spiral and Rotor Patterns Produced by Fairy Ring Fungi (United States)

    Karst, N.; Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.


    Soil fungi fill many essential ecological and biogeochemical roles, e.g. decomposing litter, redistributing nutrients, and promoting biodiversity. Fairy ring fungi offer a rare glimpse into the otherwise opaque spatiotemporal dynamics of soil fungal growth, because subsurface mycelial patterns can be inferred from observations at the soil's surface. These observations can be made directly when the fungi send up fruiting bodies (e.g., mushrooms and toadstools), or indirectly via the effect the fungi have on neighboring organisms. Grasses in particular often temporarily thrive on the nutrients liberated by the fungus, creating bands of rich, dark green turf at the edge of the fungal mat. To date, only annular (the "ring" in fairy ring) and arc patterns have been described in the literature. We report observations of novel spiral and rotor pattern formation in fairy ring fungi, as seen in publically available high-resolution aerial imagery of 22 sites across the continental United States. To explain these new behaviors, we first demonstrate that a well-known model describing fairy ring formation is equivalent to the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion model, which is known to support a wide range of dynamical behaviors, including annular traveling waves, rotors, spirals, and stable spatial patterns including spots and stripes. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulation are then used to define the region of parameter space that supports spiral and rotor formation. We find that this region is adjacent to one within which typical fairy rings develop. Model results suggest simple experimental procedures that could potentially induce traditional ring structures to exhibit rotor or spiral dynamics. Intriguingly, the Gray-Scott model predicts that these same procedures could be used to solicit even richer patterns, including spots and stripes, which have not yet been identified in the field.

  4. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether (United States)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.


    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  5. INTRIGOSS: A new Library of High Resolution Synthetic Spectra (United States)

    Franchini, Mariagrazia; Morossi, Carlo; Di Marcancantonio, Paolo; Chavez, Miguel; GES-Builders


    INTRIGOSS (INaf Trieste Grid Of Synthetic Spectra) is a new High Resolution (HiRes) synthetic spectral library designed for studying F, G, and K stars. The library is based on atmosphere models computed with specified individual element abundances via ATLAS12 code. Normalized SPectra (NSP) and surface Flux SPectra (FSP), in the 4800-5400 Å wavelength range, were computed by means of the SPECTRUM code. The synthetic spectra are computed with an atomic and bi-atomic molecular line list including "bona fide" Predicted Lines (PLs) built by tuning loggf to reproduce very high SNR Solar spectrum and the UVES-U580 spectra of five cool giants extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The astrophysical gf-values were then assessed by using more than 2000 stars with homogenous and accurate atmosphere parameters and detailed chemical composition from GES. The validity and greater accuracy of INTRIGOSS NSPs and FSPs with respect to other available spectral libraries is discussed. INTRIGOSS will be available on the web and will be a valuable tool for both stellar atmospheric parameters and stellar population studies.

  6. High Resolution 3d Reconstructions of Rocks and Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg E.


    Full Text Available Ten micrometers resolution 3D representations of different media, were obtained with a laboratory computer microtomograph developed from an electron microprobe column. From the original electron microprobe, only minor modifications have been required, indeed several of the utilities of the microprobe have been used to ensure high resolution radiography (2 micrometers. The impact of the electron beam focused onto a thin film is used to form a pointX-ray source and the radiographic image of the sample is acquired on a CCD camera. A specimen rotation mechanism allows multiple radiograph acquisition and reconstruction of the X-ray attenuation 3D cartography. Since X-ray attenuation is directly related to density and atomic number, the microscanner provides 3D cartographs of the different phases present in the sample. System performances have been evaluated on various samples, mainly rocks and composites. Comparison with scanning electron micrographs was used when possible to validate the reconstructions. Results are mostly qualitative but already show the potential of the technique in describing 3D connectivity and topology of pore networks or 3D orientation of fibres in composites.

  7. High-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennycook, S.J.; Jesson, D.E.


    The high-resolution imaging of crystalline materials in the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is reviewed with particular emphasis on the conditions under which an incoherent image can be obtained. It is shown that a high-angle annular detector can be used to break the coherence of the imaging process, in the transverse plane through the geometry of the detector, or in three dimensions if multiphonon diffuse scattering is detected. In the latter case, each atom can be treated as a highly independent source of high-angle scattering. The most effective fast electron states are therefore tightly bound s-type Bloch states. Furthermore, they add constructively for each incident angle in the coherent STEM probe, so that s states are responsible for practically the entire image contrast. Dynamical effects are largely removed, and almost perfect incoherent imaging is achieved. s states are relatively insensitive to neighboring strings, so that incoherent imaging is maintained for superlattice and interfaces, and supercell calculations are unnecessary. With an optimum probe profile, the incoherent image represents a direct image of the crystal projection, with compositional sensitivity built in through the strong dependence of the scattering cross sections on atomic number Z

  8. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.


    Condition were determined under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids are dissolved completely by fusion with KF and Ba-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion. Radium is precipitated with barium by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute HCl solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of DTPA and the Ra and Ba sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid to produce very small crystals. The precipitate is mounted on 0.1-μm membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution, almost as good as with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates, is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97%. One solid sample can be prepared for counting in less than 2 hours. Methods are discussed for ensuring reliability of the results. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and recoil products is discussed

  9. High resolution shear wave reflection surveying for hydrogeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.J.; Clark, J.C.


    The high resolution S-wave method has been developed to be a powerful tool in mapping subsurface lithology and in conducting groundwater investigations. The research has demonstrated that the resolution obtainable using S-waves in a Coastal Plain environment is more than double than that obtained using conventional reflection, which already offers a higher resolution than any other surface method. Where the mapping of thin clay layers functioning as aquitards or thin sand layers functioning as aquifers are critical to the understanding of groundwater flow, S-wave reflections offer unparalleled possibilities for nondestructive exploration. The field experiment at Cooke Crossroads, South Carolina enabled the detection and mapping of beds in the thickness range of one to three feet. The S-wave reflection technique, in combination with conventional P-wave reflection, has potential to directly detect confined and unconfined aquifers. This is a breakthrough technology that still requires additional research before it can be applied on a commercial basis. Aquifer systems were interpreted from the test data at Cooke Crossroads consistent with theoretical model. Additional research is need in assessing the theoretical response of P- and S-waves to subsurface interfaces within unconsolidated sediments of varying moisture content and lithology. More theoretical modeling and in situ testing are needed to bring our knowledge of these phenomena to the level that oil and gas researchers have done for fluids in sandstones

  10. A high resolution PVDF (peizoelectric) film respiration sensor (United States)

    Nakano, Katsuya; Fujita, Kento; Misaki, Shinya; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Johnston, Robert; Misaki, Yukinori


    Sensors used today for contact measurement of a subject's breathing work by measuring the inductance change in some film, piezoelectric or pyro-electric, used in the sensor. However, their use can increase stress and burden for patients because of the close proximity to the body that the sensors must be to operate. They must be applied directly to the patient's body by tape or adhesive paste. To address this problem and reduce subject stress and burden, it was decided to research development of a high resolution breathing sensor that could still function even while placed over the patient's clothes. This was achieved by developing a new PVDF piezoelectric film based sensor with an innovative configuration. Through the use of some simple amplification circuitry and processing the output signal, the high sensitivity breathing sensor developed was determined to be able to accurately measure a person's breathing. Also, due to the high sensitivity of the sensor, heart rate was also detectable revealing the possibility for simultaneous measurement of both breathing and heart rate.

  11. High resolution CMOS capacitance-frequency converter for biosensor applications (United States)

    Ghoor, I. S.; Land, K.; Joubert, T.-H.


    This paper presents the design of a low-complexity, linear and sub-pF CMOS capacitance-frequency converter for reading out a capacitive bacterial bio/sensors with the endeavour of creating a universal bio/sensor readout module. Therefore the priority design objectives are a high resolution as well as an extensive dynamic range. The circuit is based on a method which outputs a digital frequency signal directly from a differential capacitance by the accumulation of charges produced by repetitive charge integration and charge preservation1. A prototype has been designed for manufacture in the 0.35 μm, 3.3V ams CMOS technology. At a 1MHz clock speed, the most pertinent results obtained for the designed converter are: (i) power consumption of 1.37mW; (ii) a resolution of at least 5 fF for sensitive capacitive transduction; and (iii) an input dynamic range of at least 43.5 dB from a measurable capacitance value range of 5 - 750 fF (iv) and a Pearson's coefficient of linearity of 0.99.

  12. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.


    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5μm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼6000 Angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution bringing it down to ∼1200 Angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  13. Labyrinthine otosclerosis studied by high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki


    Labyrinthine lesions of 10 patients (20 ears) with surgically confirmed otosclerosis were investigated by means of high-resolution CT (HRCT). All ears were scaned in horizontal plane and a slice thickness of 2.0 mm was used to avoid the excessive loss of sharpness by partial volume averaging. HRCTs of 14 normal ears and 18 ears with otitis media were analyzed as controls. (1) Three patients (6 ears) demonstrated lucent zones around the cochleae. In one of 3 cases the zone extended to involve the vestibule and the semicircular canals. (2) The definitive lucent zone was not observed in the control scans. (3) The clinical data of the 3 patients whose HRCTs demonstrated the lucent zones were compared with the other 7 patients with clinical otosclerosis. Three patients showed no distinctive features regarding to age, sex, Schwartze sign and the operative findings. (4) Average bone conduction loss was significantly greater in ears with lucent zones than those without the lucent zones. Serial audiograms revealed progressive hearing impairment in 3 ears of 2 patients with the definitive lucent zone. The present report confirmed that foci of demineralization (otospongiotic lesion) in the labyrinthine capsule were imaged by the HRCT as lucent areas. HRCT provides a reproducible and reliable mean of diagnosis for the labyrinthine otosclerosis. (author)

  14. High-resolution finite-difference algorithms for conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towers, J.D.


    A new class of Total Variation Decreasing (TVD) schemes for 2-dimensional scalar conservation laws is constructed using either flux-limited or slope-limited numerical fluxes. The schemes are proven to have formal second-order accuracy in regions where neither u/sub x/ nor y/sub y/ vanishes. A new class of high-resolution large-time-step TVD schemes is constructed by adding flux-limited correction terms to the first-order accurate large-time-step version of the Engquist-Osher scheme. The use of the transport-collapse operator in place of the exact solution operator for the construction of difference schemes is studied. The production of spurious extrema by difference schemes is studied. A simple condition guaranteeing the nonproduction of spurious extrema is derived. A sufficient class of entropy inequalities for a conservation law with a flux having a single inflection point is presented. Finite-difference schemes satisfying a discrete version of each entropy inequality are only first-order accurate

  15. Microwave structure of quiescent solar filaments at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, D.E.


    High resolution very low altitude maps of a quiescent filament at three frequencies are presented. The spatial resolution (approx. 15'' at 1.45 GHz, approx. 6'' at 4.9 GHz, and approx. 2'' at 15 GHz) is several times better than previously attained. At each frequency, the filament appears as a depression in the quiet Sun background. The depression is measurably wider and longer in extent than the corresponding H alpha filament at 1.45 GHz and 4.9 GHz, indicating that the depression is due in large part to a deficit in coronal density associated with the filament channel. In contrast, the shape of the radio depression at 15 CHz closely matches that of the H alpha filament. In addition, the 15 GHz map shows enhanced emission along both sides of the radio depression. A similar enhancement is seen in an observation of a second filament 4 days later, which suggests that the enhancement is a general feature of filaments. Possible causes of the enhanced emission are explored

  16. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of β Pictoris b (United States)

    Nunez, Luis; Konopacky, Quinn; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.


    We present reduction and analysis of high-resolution, spatially separated spectroscopy of the exoplanet β Pictoris b (β Pic b). Our data was taken with NIRSPAO, a near-infrared echelle spectrograph coupled with adaptive optics (AO), on the Keck II 10-meter telescope. Astrometry was previously used to characterize the star-planet system’s orbital properties, and a single radial velocity (RV) measurement via spectroscopy supplemented the astrometric measurements. However, additional and more precise RV measurements of the planet are needed to constrain the individual mass of the planet, true eccentricity, and time of periastron passage. Using cross-correlation with model spectra, our goal is to detect the planet signal in NIRSPAO data and thereby expand the number of RV measurements. With this new RV, we can constrain planetary mass and improve the precision of the planet's orbital properties. This result will assist in constraining the time and likelihood of a Hill-sphere transit of β Pic b.

  17. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity. (United States)

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo; Brazão, João; Graça, António; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula


    Wine authenticity methods are in increasing demand mainly in Denomination of Origin designations. The DNA-based methodologies are a reliable means of tracking food/wine varietal composition. The main aim of this work was the study of High Resolution Melting (HRM) application as a screening method for must and wine authenticity. Three sample types (leaf, must and wine) were used to validate the three developed HRM assays (Vv1-705bp; Vv2-375bp; and Vv3-119bp). The Vv1 HRM assay was only successful when applied to leaf and must samples. The Vv2 HRM assay successfully amplified all sample types, allowing genotype discrimination based on melting temperature values. The smallest amplicon, Vv3, produced a coincident melting curve shape in all sample types (leaf and wine) with corresponding genotypes. This study presents sensitive, rapid and efficient HRM assays applied for the first time to wine samples suitable for wine authenticity purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding gastric forces calculated from high-resolution pill tracking. (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Tripathi, Anubhav; Schlageter, Vincent; Kucera, Pavel; Mathiowitz, Edith


    Although other methods exist for monitoring gastrointestinal motility and contractility, this study exclusively provides direct and quantitative measurements of the forces experienced by an orally ingested pill. We report motive forces and torques calculated from real-time, in vivo measurements of the movement of a magnetic pill in the stomachs of fasted and fed humans. Three-dimensional net force and two-dimensional net torque vectors as a function of time data during gastric residence are evaluated using instantaneous translational and rotational position data. Additionally, the net force calculations described can be applied to high-resolution pill tracking acquired by any modality. The fraction of time pills experience ranges of forces and torques are analyzed and correlate with the physiological phases of gastric digestion. We also report the maximum forces and torques experienced in vivo by pills as a quantitative measure of the amount of force pills experience during the muscular contractions leading to gastric emptying. Results calculated from human data are compared with small and large animal models with a translational research focus. The reported magnitude and direction of gastric forces experienced by pills in healthy stomachs serves as a baseline for comparison with pathophysiological states. Of clinical significance, the directionality associated with force vector data may be useful in determining the muscle groups associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility. Additionally, the quantitative comparison between human and animal models improves insight into comparative gastric contractility that will aid rational pill design and provide a quantitative framework for interpreting gastroretentive oral formulation test results.

  19. Artificial terraced field extraction based on high resolution DEMs (United States)

    Na, Jiaming; Yang, Xin; Xiong, Liyang; Tang, Guoan


    With the increase of human activities, artificial landforms become one of the main terrain features with special geographical and hydrological value. Terraced field, as the most important artificial landscapes of the loess plateau, plays an important role in conserving soil and water. With the development of digital terrain analysis (DTA), there is a current and future need in developing a robust, repeatable and cost-effective research methodology for terraced fields. In this paper, a novel method using bidirectional DEM shaded relief is proposed for terraced field identification based on high resolution DEM, taking Zhifanggou watershed, Shannxi province as the study area. Firstly, 1m DEM is obtained by low altitude aerial photogrammetry using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and 0.1m DOM is also obtained as the test data. Then, the positive and negative terrain segmentation is done to acquire the area of terraced field. Finally, a bidirectional DEM shaded relief is simulated to extract the ridges of each terraced field stages. The method in this paper can get not only polygon feature of the terraced field areas but also line feature of terraced field ridges. The accuracy is 89.7% compared with the artificial interpretation result from DOM. And additional experiment shows that this method has a strong robustness as well as high accuracy.

  20. New design studies for TRIUMF's ARIEL High Resolution Separator (United States)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.


    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10-5. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  1. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob


    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  2. High-resolution lattice-spacing comparator using SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami


    A novel lattice spacing measurement using a high-resolution self-reference d-spacing comparator has been described. Self selection of monochromatic synchrotron x-rays by a monolithic double channel-cut-crystal monochromator (MDCM) comprising silicon 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 reflections may lead to a stable, highly-collimated and narrow bandwidth beam. Also if utilizing 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 Bragg planes of a silicon sample, the interval between two associated Bragg peaks for the X-rays with wavelength of 0.13438 nm can be extremely small, so that the diffraction angle can be determined with high precision and the traveling time from one peak to the other can be marvelously reduced by the order of at least three compared to the established classical methods such as the Bond method. Thus this so-called self-reference comparator method can dramatically save measurement time and provide an absolute measurement on the basis of the x-ray wavelength of the MDCM, therefore a lattice spacing measurement with uncertainty of 10 -8 , for the 1mm 2 area on a silicon crystal within measurement time of a few ten seconds and has been achieved. (author)

  3. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James


    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  4. High resolution production water footprints of the United States (United States)

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.


    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  5. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.


    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  6. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto


    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2π solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  7. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion


    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  8. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.


    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  9. High-resolution Doppler model of the human gait (United States)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan L.; Greneker, Eugene F., III; Marshall, William S.


    A high resolution Doppler model of the walking human was developed for analyzing the continuous wave (CW) radar gait signature. Data for twenty subjects were collected simultaneously using an infrared motion capture system along with a two channel 10.525 GHz CW radar. The motion capture system recorded three-dimensional coordinates of infrared markers placed on the body. These body marker coordinates were used as inputs to create the theoretical Doppler output using a model constructed in MATLAB. The outputs of the model are the simulated Doppler signals due to each of the major limbs and the thorax. An estimated radar cross section for each part of the body was assigned using the Lund & Browder chart of estimated body surface area. The resultant Doppler model was then compared with the actual recorded Doppler gait signature in the frequency domain using the spectrogram. Comparison of the two sets of data has revealed several identifiable biomechanical features in the radar gait signature due to leg and body motion. The result of the research shows that a wealth of information can be unlocked from the radar gait signature, which may be useful in security and biometric applications.

  10. Quantitative evolutionary dynamics using high-resolution lineage tracking. (United States)

    Levy, Sasha F; Blundell, Jamie R; Venkataram, Sandeep; Petrov, Dmitri A; Fisher, Daniel S; Sherlock, Gavin


    Evolution of large asexual cell populations underlies ∼30% of deaths worldwide, including those caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and cancer. However, the dynamics underlying these evolutionary processes remain poorly understood because they involve many competing beneficial lineages, most of which never rise above extremely low frequencies in the population. To observe these normally hidden evolutionary dynamics, we constructed a sequencing-based ultra high-resolution lineage tracking system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allowed us to monitor the relative frequencies of ∼500,000 lineages simultaneously. In contrast to some expectations, we found that the spectrum of fitness effects of beneficial mutations is neither exponential nor monotonic. Early adaptation is a predictable consequence of this spectrum and is strikingly reproducible, but the initial small-effect mutations are soon outcompeted by rarer large-effect mutations that result in variability between replicates. These results suggest that early evolutionary dynamics may be deterministic for a period of time before stochastic effects become important.

  11. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.


    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed

  12. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Burguera

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS. This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region.

  13. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Korenberg


    Full Text Available In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS and the global positioning system (GPS are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  14. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.


    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  15. Detecting geomorphic processes and change with high resolution topographic data (United States)

    Mudd, Simon; Hurst, Martin; Grieve, Stuart; Clubb, Fiona; Milodowski, David; Attal, Mikael


    The first global topographic dataset was released in 1996, with 1 km grid spacing. It is astonishing that in only 20 years we now have access to tens of thousands of square kilometres of LiDAR data at point densities greater than 5 points per square meter. This data represents a treasure trove of information that our geomorphic predecessors could only dream of. But what are we to do with this data? Here we explore the potential of high resolution topographic data to dig deeper into geomorphic processes across a wider range of landscapes and using much larger spatial coverage than previously possible. We show how this data can be used to constrain sediment flux relationships using relief and hillslope length, and how this data can be used to detect landscape transience. We show how the nonlinear sediment flux law, proposed for upland, soil mantled landscapes by Roering et al. (1999) is consistent with a number of topographic tests. This flux law allows us to predict how landscapes will respond to tectonic forcing, and we show how these predictions can be used to detect erosion rate perturbations across a range of tectonic settings.

  16. CHIRON – A new high resolution spectrometer for CTIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy G.W.


    Full Text Available Small telescopes can play an important role in the search for exoplanets because they offer an opportunity for high cadence observations that are not possible with large aperture telescopes. However, there is a shortage of high resolution spectrometers for precision Doppler planet searches. We report on an innovative design for CHIRON, an inexpensive spectrometer that we are building for the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO in Chile. The resolution will be R >80.000, the spectral format spanning 410 to 880 nm. The total throughput of the telescope and spectrometer will be better than 12%, comparable with the efficiency of state-of-the-art spectrometers. The design is driven by the requirements for precision Doppler searches for exoplanets using an iodine cell. The optical layout is a classical echelle with 140 mm beam size. The bench-mounted spectrometer will be fibre-fed followed by an image slicer. An apochromatic refractor is used as the camera. Image quality and throughput of the design are excellent over the full spectral range. Extensive use of commercially available components and avoidance of complicated custom optics are key for quick and resource-efficient implementation.

  17. Symptomatic isolated middle cerebral artery dissection: High resolution MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, Jung Hee; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho; Hwang, Seung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    To perform high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) and determine clinical features of patients with acute symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) dissection. Thirteen patients with acute symptomatic MCA dissection underwent HRMRI within 3 days after initial clinical onset. They also underwent routine brain MR imaging. HRMRI examinations included time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA), T2-weighted, T1-weighted, proton-density-weighted, and three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences. Conventional angiography and MRA were used as reference standard to establish the diagnosis of MCA dissection. The angiographic findings and HRMRI findings such as intimal flap, double lumen, and intramural hematoma were analyzed in this study. All patients presented cerebral ischemia (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score = 4, range = 0-18). String sign was seen on MRA in seven patients. However, double lumen was seen in all patients on HRMRI by intimal flap. High signal lesion on MPRAGE sequences around the dissection lumen due to intramural hematoma was seen in three patients. HRMRI can be used to easily detect the wall structure of MCA such as the intimal flap and double lumen in patients with acute symptomatic MCA dissection. MPRAGE can detect hemorrhage in false lumen of MCA dissection.

  18. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure ... (United States)

    There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast™ program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC–TOF/molecular feature data (match score ≥ 90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along wi

  19. Validation of High-resolution Climate Simulations over Northern Europe. (United States)

    Muna, R. A.


    Two AMIP2-type (Gates 1992) experiments have been performed with climate versions of ARPEGE/IFS model examine for North Atlantic North Europe, and Norwegian region and analyzed the effect of increasing resolution on the simulated biases. The ECMWF reanalysis or ERA-15 has been used to validate the simulations. Each of the simulations is an integration of the period 1979 to 1996. The global simulations used observed monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST) as lower boundary condition. All aspects but the horizontal resolutions are similar in the two simulations. The first simulation has a uniform horizontal resolution of T63L. The second one has a variable resolution (T106Lc3) with the highest resolution in the Norwegian Sea. Both simulations have 31 vertical layers in the same locations. For each simulation the results were divided into two seasons: winter (DJF) and summer (JJA). The parameters investigated were mean sea level pressure, geopotential and temperature at 850 hPa and 500 hPa. To find out the causes of temperature bias during summer, latent and sensible heat flux, total cloud cover and total precipitation were analyzed. The high-resolution simulation exhibits more or less realistic climate over Nordic, Artic and European region. The overall performance of the simulations shows improvements of generally all fields investigated with increasing resolution over the target area both in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA).

  20. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.


    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  1. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis. (United States)

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J


    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COSMIC: somatic cancer genetics at high-resolution. (United States)

    Forbes, Simon A; Beare, David; Boutselakis, Harry; Bamford, Sally; Bindal, Nidhi; Tate, John; Cole, Charlotte G; Ward, Sari; Dawson, Elisabeth; Ponting, Laura; Stefancsik, Raymund; Harsha, Bhavana; Kok, Chai Yin; Jia, Mingming; Jubb, Harry; Sondka, Zbyslaw; Thompson, Sam; De, Tisham; Campbell, Peter J


    COSMIC, the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer ( is a high-resolution resource for exploring targets and trends in the genetics of human cancer. Currently the broadest database of mutations in cancer, the information in COSMIC is curated by expert scientists, primarily by scrutinizing large numbers of scientific publications. Over 4 million coding mutations are described in v78 (September 2016), combining genome-wide sequencing results from 28 366 tumours with complete manual curation of 23 489 individual publications focused on 186 key genes and 286 key fusion pairs across all cancers. Molecular profiling of large tumour numbers has also allowed the annotation of more than 13 million non-coding mutations, 18 029 gene fusions, 187 429 genome rearrangements, 1 271 436 abnormal copy number segments, 9 175 462 abnormal expression variants and 7 879 142 differentially methylated CpG dinucleotides. COSMIC now details the genetics of drug resistance, novel somatic gene mutations which allow a tumour to evade therapeutic cancer drugs. Focusing initially on highly characterized drugs and genes, COSMIC v78 contains wide resistance mutation profiles across 20 drugs, detailing the recurrence of 301 unique resistance alleles across 1934 drug-resistant tumours. All information from the COSMIC database is available freely on the COSMIC website. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Molecular Rotary Motor (United States)

    Domingos, Sergio R.; Cnossen, Arjen; Perez, Cristobal; Buma, Wybren Jan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Schnell, Melanie


    To develop synthetic molecular motors and machinery that can mimic their biological counterparts has become a stimulating quest in modern synthetic chemistry. Gas phase studies of these simpler synthetic model systems provide the necessary isolated conditions that facilitate the elucidation of their structural intricacies. We report the first high-resolution rotational study of a synthetic molecular rotary motor based on chiral overcrowded alkenes using chirp-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants were determined based on a fit using more than two hundred rotational transitions spanning 5≤J≤21 in the 2-4 GHz frequency range. Despite the lack of polar groups, the rotor's asymmetry produces strong a- and b-type rotational transitions arising from a single predominant conformer. Evidence for fragmentation of the rotor allows for unambiguous identification of the isolated rotor components. The experimental spectroscopic parameters of the rotor are compared and discussed against current high-level ab initio and density functional theory methods. Vicario et al. Chem. Commun., 5910-5912 (2005) Brown et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79, 053103 (2008)

  4. Optimized generation of high resolution breast anthropomorphic software phantoms (United States)

    Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.


    Purpose: The authors present an efficient method for generating anthropomorphic software breast phantoms with high spatial resolution. Employing the same region growing principles as in their previous algorithm for breast anatomy simulation, the present method has been optimized for computational complexity to allow for fast generation of the large number of phantoms required in virtual clinical trials of breast imaging. Methods: The new breast anatomy simulation method performs a direct calculation of the Cooper’s ligaments (i.e., the borders between simulated adipose compartments). The calculation corresponds to quadratic decision boundaries of a maximum a posteriori classifier. The method is multiscale due to the use of octree-based recursive partitioning of the phantom volume. The method also provides user-control of the thickness of the simulated Cooper’s ligaments and skin. Results: Using the proposed method, the authors have generated phantoms with voxel size in the range of (25–1000 μm)3/voxel. The power regression of the simulation time as a function of the reciprocal voxel size yielded a log-log slope of 1.95 (compared to a slope of 4.53 of our previous region growing algorithm). Conclusions: A new algorithm for computer simulation of breast anatomy has been proposed that allows for fast generation of high resolution anthropomorphic software phantoms. PMID:22482649

  5. Quantification of upland thermokarst features with high resolution remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belshe, E F; Schuur, E A G; Grosse, G


    Climate-induced changes to permafrost are altering high latitude landscapes in ways that could increase the vulnerability of the vast soil carbon pools of the region. Permafrost thaw is temporally dynamic and spatially heterogeneous because, in addition to the thickening of the active layer, localized thermokarst features form when ice-rich permafrost thaws and the ground subsides. Thermokarst produces a diversity of landforms and alters the physical environment in dynamic ways. To estimate potential changes to the carbon cycle it is imperative to quantify the size and distribution of thermokarst landforms. By performing a supervised classification on a high resolution IKONOS image, we detected and mapped small, irregular thermokarst features occurring within an upland watershed in discontinuous permafrost of Interior Alaska. We found that 12% of the Eight Mile Lake (EML) watershed has undergone thermokarst, predominantly in valleys where tussock tundra resides. About 35% of the 3.7 km 2 tussock tundra class has likely transitioned to thermokarst. These landscape level changes created by permafrost thaw at EML have important implications for ecosystem carbon cycling because thermokarst features are forming in carbon-rich areas and are altering the hydrology in ways that increase seasonal thawing of the soil. (letter)

  6. High Resolution Studies of Electron Attachment to Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.; Ruf, M.-W.; Hotop, H.; Fabrikant, I. I.


    In this paper, we survey recent progress in studies of anion formation via (dissociative) electron attachment (DEA) to simple molecules, as measured with the laser photoelectron attachment (LPA) method at high resolution. The limiting (E→0) threshold behavior of the cross sections is elucidated for s-wave and p-wave attachment. Cusps at onsets for vibrational excitation (VE), due to interaction of the DEA channnel with the VE channel, are clearly detected, and vibrational Feshbach resonances just below vibrational onsets are observed for molecules with sufficiently strong long-range attraction between the electron and the molecule. From the LPA anion yields, absolute DEA cross sections (energy range typically E = 0.001-2 eV) are determined with reference to rate coefficients for thermal electron attachment at the appropriate gas temperature (normally T G = 300 K). The experimental data are compared with theoretical cross sections, calculated within the framework of an R-matrix or an Effective Range theory approach.

  7. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A


    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  8. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe (United States)

    Kraft, Toni


    measurement precision (i.e. earthquake location), while considering this extremely complex boundary condition. To solve this problem I have developed a high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe. The model is based on land-use data derived from satellite imagery by the EU-project CORINE in a resolution of 100x100m. The the CORINE data consists of several land-use classes, which, besides others, contain: industrial areas, mines, urban fabric, agricultural areas, permanent corps, forests and open spaces. Additionally, open GIS data for highways, and major and minor roads and railway lines were included from the OpenStreetMap project ( This data was divided into three classes that represent good, intermediate and bad ambient conditions of the corresponding land-use class based on expert judgment. To account for noise propagation away from its source a smoothing operator was applied to individual land-use noise-fields. Finally, the noise-fields were stacked to obtain an European map of ambient noise conditions. A calibration of this map with data of existing seismic stations Europe allowed me to estimate the expected noise level in actual ground motion units for the three ambient noise condition classes of the map. The result is a high-resolution ambient seismic noise map, that allows the network designer to make educated predictions on the expected noise level for arbitrary location in Europe. The ambient noise model was successfully tested in several network optimization projects in Switzerland and surrounding countries and will hopefully be a valuable contribution to improving the data quality of microseismic monitoring networks in Europe.

  9. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020 (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Joosten, Hans; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga


    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has currently been recognized in international policy - since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes e.g. for the East African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Zambia. Furthermore, we

  10. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020 (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga; Joosten, Hans


    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has only recently been recognized in international policy - only since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes for East Africa (including the Horn of Africa, the African Great Lakes region and

  11. The potential of high resolution ultrasonic in-situ methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of geomechanical assessment of final repository underground openings the knowledge of geophysical rock parameters are of importance. Ultrasonic methods proved to be good geophysical tools to provide appropriate high resolution parameters for the characterisation of rock. In this context the detection and characterisation of rock heterogeneities at different scales, including the Excavation Damaged/disturbed Zone (EDZ/EdZ) features, play an important role. Especially, kinematic and dynamic parameters derived from ultrasonic measurements can be linked very close to rock mechanic investigations and interpretations. BGR uses high resolution ultrasonic methods, starting with emitted frequencies of about 1 kHz (seismic) and going up to about 100 kHz. The method development is going on and appropriate research and investigations are performed since many years at different European radioactive waste disposal related underground research laboratories in different potential host rocks. The most frequented are: Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland (Opalinus Clay, OPA), Underground Research Laboratory Meuse/Haute- Marne, France (Callovo-Oxfordian, COX), Underground Research Facility Mol, Belgium (Boom Clay, BC), Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden (granites), Rock Laboratory Grimsel, Switzerland (granites) and Asse salt mine, Germany (rock salt). The methods can be grouped into borehole based methods and noninvasive methods like refraction and reflection methods, which are performed in general from the drift wall. Additionally, as a combination of these both methods a sort of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is applied. The best qualified method, or a combination of methods, have to be chosen according to the scientific questions and the local site conditions. The degree of spatial resolution of zones of interest or any kind of anomaly depends strongly on the distance of these objects to the ultrasonic

  12. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science. (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Hagberg, Aric; Bettencourt, Luis; Chute, Ryan; Rodriguez, Marko A; Balakireva, Lyudmila


    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantages of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science. Over the course of 2007 and 2008, we collected nearly 1 billion user interactions recorded by the scholarly web portals of some of the most significant publishers, aggregators and institutional consortia. The resulting reference data set covers a significant part of world-wide use of scholarly web portals in 2006, and provides a balanced coverage of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. A journal clickstream model, i.e. a first-order Markov chain, was extracted from the sequences of user interactions in the logs. The clickstream model was validated by comparing it to the Getty Research Institute's Architecture and Art Thesaurus. The resulting model was visualized as a journal network that outlines the relationships between various scientific domains and clarifies the connection of the social sciences and humanities to the natural sciences. Maps of science resulting from large-scale clickstream data provide a detailed, contemporary view of scientific activity and correct the underrepresentation of the social sciences and humanities that is commonly found in citation data.

  13. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.


    The determination of radium-226 by alpha spectrometry has been investigated critically to determine experimental conditions under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids such as soils, ores, and tailings from uranium mills are dissolved completely by fusion with potassium fluoride in the presence of barium-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion with simultaneous volatilization of all silica and fluoride. Radium is precipitated with barium already present in the sample by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and the radium and barium sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid. The precipitate is mounted on a membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution of the subsequent alpha spectra is much better than has been achieved previously from barium sulfate, and is almost as good as is obtainable with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates. The resolution is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97% and accuracy is generally as good as the counting statistics obtained will permit. Grossly inaccurate results can be obtained under certain conditions when barium-133 tracer is used to determine the chemical yield of radium-226. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and by recoil products of the radium isotopes being counted is demonstrated, amd methods for virtual elimination of both problems are discussed

  14. High-resolution mechanical imaging of the kidney. (United States)

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fischer, Thomas; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf


    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of in vivo high-resolution mechanical imaging of the asymptomatic human kidney. Hereby nine volunteers were examined at three different physiological states of urinary bladder filling (a normal state, urinary urgency, and immediately after urinary relief). Mechanical imaging was performed of the in vivo kidney using three-dimensional multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography combined with multifrequency dual elastovisco inversion. Other than in classical elastography, where the storage and loss shear moduli are evaluated, we analyzed the magnitude |G(⁎)| and the phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave field data corresponding to 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60Hz and a resolution of 2.5mm cubic voxel size. Mechanical parameter maps were derived with a spatial resolution superior to that in previous work. The group-averaged values of |G(⁎)| were 2.67±0.52kPa in the renal medulla, 1.64±0.17kPa in the cortex, and 1.17±0.21kPa in the hilus. The phase angle φ (in radians) was 0.89±0.12 in the medulla, 0.83±0.09 in the cortex, and 0.72±0.06 in the hilus. All regional differences were significant (Pkidney. |G(⁎)| and φ provide novel information on the viscoelastic properties of the kidney, which is potentially useful for the detection of renal lesions or fibrosis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Preparation of very small point sources for high resolution radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, F.N.


    The need for very small point sources of high specific activity 192 Ir, 169 Yb, 170 Tm, and 60 Co in non-destructive testing has motivated the development of techniques for the fabrication of these sources. To prepare 192 Ir point sources for use in examination of tube sheet welds in LMFBR heat exchangers, 191 Ir enriched to greater than 90 percent was melted in a helium blanketed arc to form spheres as small as 0.38 mm in diameter. Methods were developed to form the roughly spherical shaped arc product into nearly symmetrical spheres that could be used for high resolution radiography. Similar methods were used for spherical shaped sources of 169 Yb and 170 Tm. The oxides were arc melted to form rough spheres followed by grinding to precise dimensions, neutron irradiation of the spheres at a flux of 2 to 3 x 10 15 nv, and use of enriched 168 Yb to provide the maximum specific activity. Cobalt-60 with a specific activity of greater than 1100 Ci/g was prepared by processing 59 Co that had been neutron irradiated to nearly complete burnup of the 59 Co target to produce 60 Co, 61 Ni, and 62 Ni. Ion exchange methods were used to separate the cobalt from the nickel. The cobalt was reduced to metal by plating either onto aluminum foil which was dissolved away from the cobalt plate, or by plating onto mercury to prepare amalgam that could be easily formed into a pellet of cobalt with exclusion of the mercury. Both methods are discussed

  16. Distributed Modeling with Parflow using High Resolution LIDAR Data (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.


    Urban landscapes provide a challenging domain for the application of distributed surface-subsurface hydrologic models. Engineered water infrastructure and altered topography influence surface and subsurface flow paths, yet these effects are difficult to quantify. In this work, a parallel, distributed watershed model (ParFlow) is used to simulate urban watersheds using spatial data at the meter and sub-meter scale. An approach using GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is presented that incorporates these data to construct inputs for the ParFlow simulation. LIDAR topography provides the basis for the fully coupled overland flow simulation. Methods to address real discontinuities in the urban land-surface for use with the grid-based kinematic wave approximation used in ParFlow are presented. The spatial distribution of impervious surface is delineated accurately from high-resolution land cover data; hydrogeological properties are specified from literature values. An application is presented for part of the Dead Run subwatershed of the Gwynns Falls in Baltimore County, MD. The domain is approximately 3 square kilometers, and includes a highly impacted urban stream, a major freeway, and heterogeneous urban development represented at a 10-m horizontal resolution and 1-m vertical resolution. This resolution captures urban features such as building footprints and highways at an appropriate scale. The Dead Run domain provides an effective test case for ParFlow application at the fine scale in an urban environment. Preliminary model runs employ a homogeneous subsurface domain with no-flow boundaries. Initial results reflect the highly articulated topography of the road network and the combined influence of surface runoff from impervious surfaces and subsurface flux toward the channel network. Subsequent model runs will include comparisons of the coupled surface-subsurface response of alternative versions of the Dead Run domain with and without impervious


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging modality used for the assessment of infratentorial neoplasms. Although Computed Tomography (CT provides better demonstration of small or subtle calcifications within tumors. OBJECTIVES Study is done to assess the potential of MRI in characterisation of different tumors in posterior fossa by evaluating various unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced sequences and to compare high resolution FSE MRI sequences with routine FSE MRI sequences in diagnosing posterior fossa brain tumors. Also correlate findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients were diagnosed by CT brain as having posterior fossa brain for a year of 2 years were included in the study. In all studies MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5 T system (General electrical medical systems. A dedicated phased-array coil was used. RESULTS The age group ranged from 1 year to 60 years, majority were between 1 to 20 years (39%. Slight male preponderance was seen (males 29, females 23. Commonest tumor encountered in our study was vestibular schwannoma. DWI alone can differentiate different pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors. One case of pilocytic astrocytoma showed solid lesion instead of typical cystic lesion with mural nodule. One case AT-RT showed 2 lesions one in cerebrum, one in CP angle. Common feature being intra-axial lesion involving cerebellum. MRI was able to predict diagnosis in 50 of the 52 tumors. CONCLUSION Magnetic Resonance Imaging was found to be a highly sensitive imaging procedure and method of choice for posterior fossa brain tumors.

  18. A high resolution hand-held focused beam profiler (United States)

    Zapata-Farfan, J.; Garduño-Mejía, J.; Rosete-Aguilar, M.; Ascanio, G.; Román-Moreno, C. J.


    The shape of a beam is important in any laser application and depending on the final implementation, there exists a preferred one which is defined by the irradiance distribution.1 The energy distribution (or laser beam profile) is an important parameter in a focused beam, for instance, in laser cut industry, where the beam shape determines the quality of the cut. In terms of alignment and focusing, the energy distribution also plays an important role since the system must be configured in order to reduce the aberration effects and achieve the highest intensity. Nowadays a beam profiler is used in both industry and research laboratories with the aim to characterize laser beams used in free-space communications, focusing and welding, among other systems. The purpose of the profile analyzers is to know the main parameters of the beam, to control its characteristics as uniformity, shape and beam size as a guide to align the focusing system. In this work is presented a high resolution hand-held and compact design of a beam profiler capable to measure at the focal plane, with covered range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. The detection is reached with a CMOS sensor sized in 3673.6 μm x 2738.4 μm which acquire a snap shot of the previously attenuated focused beam to avoid the sensor damage, the result is an image of beam intensity distribution, which is digitally processed with a RaspberryTMmodule gathering significant parameters such as beam waist, centroid, uniformity and also some aberrations. The profiler resolution is 1.4 μm and was probed and validated in three different focusing systems. The spot sizes measurements were compared with the Foucault knife-edge test.

  19. High Resolution Modelling of Crop Response to Climate Change (United States)

    Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.


    Crop production is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climatic variability and change. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and other greenhouse gases are causing increases in global temperature. In western North America, water supply is largely derived from mountain snowmelt. Climate change will have a significant impact on mountain snowpack and subsequently, the snow-derived water supply. This will strain water supplies and increase water demand in areas with substantial irrigation agriculture. Increasing temperatures may create heat stress for some crops regardless of soil water supply, and increasing surface O3 and other pollutants may damage crops and ecosystems. CO2 fertilization may or may not be an advantage in future. This work is part of a larger study that will address a series of questions based on a range of future climate scenarios for several watersheds in western North America. The key questions are: (1) how will snowmelt and rainfall runoff vary in future; (2) how will seasonal and inter-annual soil water supply vary, and how might that impacts food supplies; (3) how might heat stress impact (some) crops even with adequate soil water; (4) will CO2 fertilization alter crop yields; and (5) will pollution loads, particularly O3, cause meaningful changes to crop yields? The Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) Spatial Hydrometeorological Model is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution model designed to assess climate driven changes in mountain snowpack derived water supplies. We will link GENESYS to the CROPWAT crop model system to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity for a range of future climate scenarios. Literature bases studies will be utilised to develop approximate crop response functions for heat stress, CO2 fertilization and for O3 damages. The overall objective is to create modeling systems that allows meaningful assessment of agricultural productivity at a watershed scale under a

  20. High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars. (United States)

    Bandfield, Joshua L


    Theoretical models indicate that water ice is stable in the shallow subsurface (depths of Mars at high latitudes. These models have been mainly supported by the observed presence of large concentrations of hydrogen detected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The models and measurements are consistent with a water-ice table that steadily increases in depth with decreasing latitude. More detailed modelling has predicted that the depth at which water ice is stable can be highly variable, owing to local surface heterogeneities such as rocks and slopes, and the thermal inertia of the ground cover. Measurements have, however, been limited to the footprint (several hundred kilometres) of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite, preventing the observations from documenting more detailed water-ice distributions. Here I show that by observing the seasonal temperature response of the martian surface with the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, it is possible to observe such heterogeneities at subkilometre scale. These observations show significant regional and local water-ice depth variability, and, in some cases, support distributions in the subsurface predicted by atmospheric exchange and vapour diffusion models. The presence of water ice where it follows the depth of stability under current climatic conditions implies an active martian water cycle that responds to orbit-driven climate cycles. Several regions also have apparent deviations from the theoretical stability level, indicating that additional factors influence the ice-table depth. The high-resolution measurements show that the depth to the water-ice table is highly variable within the potential Phoenix spacecraft landing ellipses, and is likely to be variable at scales that may be sampled by the spacecraft.

  1. Development and Characterization of a High Resolution Portable Gamma Spectrometer (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad

    The recent disaster of Fukushima in Japan combined with the high demand to enhance nuclear safety and to minimize personal exposure to radioactive materials has a significant impact on research and development of radiation detection instrumentation. Currently, there is ample effort worldwide in the pursuit of radiation detection to maximize the accuracy and meet international standards in terms of size and specifications to enable radiation protection decision making. Among the requirements is the development of a portable, light-weight gamma-ray isotope identifier to be used by first responders in nuclear accidents as well as for radiation security and identification of illicit material isotopes. From nuclear security perspective, research into advanced screening technologies has become a high priority in all aspects, while for occupational safety, and environmental radiation protection, the regulatory authorities are requiring specific performance of radiation detection and measuring devices. At the applied radiation laboratory of the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, UOIT, the development of a high resolution spectrometer for medium and high energy gamma ray has been conducted. The spectrometer used a newly developed scintillator based on a LaBr3(Ce) crystal. The detector has been modeled using advanced Monte Carlo code (MCNP/X code) for the response function simulation and parameter characterization. The simulation results have been validated by experimental investigations using a wide range of gamma radiation energies. The developed spectrometer has been characterized in terms of resolution and response in different fields. It has also been compared with other crystals such as NaI(TI) and LiI(Eu).

  2. Metallic magnetic calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, M.; Hengstler, D.; Geist, J.; Schoetz, C.; Hassel, K.; Hendricks, S.; Keller, M.; Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). KIP


    We develop microfabricated, energy dispersive particle detector arrays based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to challenge bound-state QED calculations. Our MMCs are operated at about T=30 mK and use a paramagnetic temperature sensor, read-out by a SQUID, to measure the energy deposited by single X-ray photons. We discuss the physics of MMCs, the detector performance and the cryogenic setups for two different detector arrays. We present their microfabrication layouts with focus on challenges like the heatsinking of each pixel of the detector and the overhanging absorbers. The maXs-20 detector is a linear 1x8-pixel array with excellent linearity in its designated energy range up to 20 keV and unsurpassed energy resolution of 1.6 eV for 6 keV x-rays. MaXs-20 operated in a highly portable pulse tube cooled ADR setup has already been used at the EBIT facilities of the MPI-K for new reference measurements of V-like and Ti-like tungsten. The maXs-30 detector currently in development is a 8x8-pixel 2d-array with an active detection area of 16 mm{sup 2} and is designed to detect X-rays up to 50 keV with a designated energy resolution below 5 eV. MaXs-30 will be operated in a cryogen free 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator at the tip of a 40 cm long cold finger at T=20 mK.

  3. High Resolution Projection of Future Air Quality in South Asia (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Lamarque, J. F.; Walters, S.; Naja, M. K.; Ghude, S. D.


    About one seventh of the world's population living in South Asia faces the risk of severe air pollution due to high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to present day air pollution in South Asia is sufficient enough to reduce the lifespan of about 660 million people by about 3 years, destroy food that can feed about 94 million poor people and cause economic loss of several billion dollars. This problem may worsen in the future as anthropogenic emissions are expected to increase due to rapid economic growth in South Asia, and climate change is expected to lead to atmospheric conditions conducive for the production and accumulation of air pollutants. In order to predict how air quality will change in South Asia in future (2050), we are conducting high resolution air quality simulations for the present day (2005-2014) and future (2046-2055) time periods using the Nested Regional Climate Model coupled with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). The model domain covers entire South Asia at a horizontal grid spacing of 60 km with a nested domain over the densely populated and polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain region at a horizontal grid spacing of 12 km. The model results are being evaluated with available in situ and satellite based observations and the evaluation results show that NRCM-Chem model is able to capture several important features of the observed spatial and temporal distribution of key meteorological parameters and air pollutants. Initial model results show that annual average surface ozone and PM2.5 concentrations may increase by up to 15 ppbv and 25 μg m-3, respectively with highest increase in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

  4. High-resolution seismic reflection study, Vacherie Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A high-resolution seismic reflection study, consisting of recording, processing, and interpreting four seismic reflection lines, was made at Vacherie Dome, Louisiana. The presumed shape of the dome, as pictured in the geologic area characterization report by Law Engineering Testing Company in 1982, was based largely on interpretation of gravity data, constrained by a few wells and exploration-type seismic profiles. The purpose of the study was to obtain refined profiles of the dome above -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation. Additional study had been recommended by Louisiana State University in 1967 and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation in 1981 because the interpreted size of Vacherie Dome was based on limited seismic and gravity data. Forty-eight traces of seismic data were recorded each time shots were made to generate energy. Twelve-fold, common-depth-point data were obtained using geophone stations spaced at 15-m (50-ft) intervals with shots at 30-m (100-ft) intervals. The time-sampling interval used was 1 ms. Processing intended to enhance resolution included iterative static corrections, deconvolution before stacking, and both time- and depth-migration. The locations of the steep dome sides were inferred primarily from terminations of strong reflections (migrated) from strata near the top of the upper and lower Cretaceous sections. This interpretation agrees closely with the presumed shape from the top of the dome to about -610 m (-2000 ft) elevation, but below this on three of the profiles, this interpretation indicates a steeper salt face than the presumed shape. The area reduction at -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation is estimated to be on the order of 20 percent. 10 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  5. SOLARNET: a high resolution mission to complement the ILWS programme (United States)

    Dame, L.; Clade, S.; Malherbe, J. M.

    SOLARNET is a medium size high resolution solar physics mission proposed to CNES for a new start in 2006 and a possible launch in 2010. Partnerships with Germany, Belgium, China and India are under discussion. At the center of the SOLARNET mission is a 3-telescopes interferometer of 1 meter baseline capable to provide 50 times the best ever spatial resolution achieved in Space with previous, current or even planned solar missions: 20 mas - 20 km on the Sun in the FUV. The interferometer is associated to an on-axis subtractive double monochromator (imaging spectrograph) capable of high spectral (0.01 nm) and high temporal resolutions (50 ms) on a field of view of 40 arcsec and over the FUV and UV spectral domains (from 117.5 to 400 nm). This will allow to access process scales of magnetic reconnection, dissipation, emerging flux and much more, from the high chromosphere to the low corona with emphasis on the transition zone where the magnetic confinement is expected to be maximum. A whole new chapter of the physics of solar magnetic field structuring and evolution will be opened. The interferometer is complemented by several other instruments providing larger field of view and higher temperature (EUV-XUV coronal imaging) to define the context and extension of the solar phenomena. Helioseismology, a strong asset of SOHO, is also intended with both velocity and diameter measures, allowed by a non-eclipsing Sun synchronous orbit. The SOLARNET interferometer design results of an extensive laboratory demonstration program of interferometric imaging of extended objects. It started 10 years ago and culminates this year with the first interferometric observations (images) of the Sun at Meudon Observatory at the "Grand Siderostat de Foucault" with a complete 3 telescopes cophased interferometer representative of SOLARNET. We will review the scientific program of SOLARNET, describe the interferometer concept and design, present the first solar imaging results of the

  6. Impact of High Resolution SST Data on Regional Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig


    Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal regions [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal regions. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast impact was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast impact of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.

  7. A compact high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometer. (United States)

    Reinecke, T; Kirk, A T; Ahrens, A; Raddatz, C-R; Thoben, C; Zimmermann, S


    Electrospray is a commonly used ionization method for the analysis of liquids. An electrospray is a dispersed nebular of charged droplets produced under the influence of a strong electrical field. Subsequently, ions are produced in a complex process initiated by evaporation of neutral solvent molecules from these droplets. We coupled an electrospray ionization source to our previously described high resolution ion mobility spectrometer with 75 mm drift tube length and a drift voltage of 5 kV. When using a tritium source for chemical gas phase ionization, a resolving power of R=100 was reported for this setup. We replaced the tritium source and the field switching shutter by an electrospray needle, a desolvation region with variable length and a three-grid shutter for injecting ions into the drift region. Preliminary measurements with tetraalkylammonium halides show that the current configuration with the electrospray ionization source maintains the resolving power of R=100. In this work, we present the characterization of our setup. One major advantage of our setup is that the desolvation region can be heated separately from the drift region so that the temperature in the drift region stays at room temperature even up to desolvation region temperatures of 100 °C. We perform parametric studies for the investigation of the influence of temperature on solvent evaporation with different ratios of water and methanol in the solvent for different analyte substances. Furthermore, the setup is operated in negative mode and spectra of bentazon with different solvents are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High Resolution QC Analysis of Intact Recombinant Proteins (United States)

    Wunderlich, D.; Barsch, A.; Baessmann, C.; Jabs, W.


    RP-89 Connected with the increased interest in new biopharma products is the need for quality control to ensure the use of proper batches in the production of such recombinant proteins. This includes knowledge about the correct amino acid sequence as well as modifications like glycosylation, phosphorylation etc. Using a high resolution instrument is preferred here due to the heterogeneity of those samples as well as the advantage of having an exact mass on the intact compound as well as chemical or enzymatic fragments. With the possibility of running the intact proteins directly, a high-throughput analysis is possible. In this study, the maXis QTOF was applied for the LC/MS analysis of various proteins, including recombinant IgG (MW∼149 kDa) and its component light chains (MW∼24.4 kDa) as well as proteins in monomer and dimeric forms ranging from 11 up to 177 kDa. Proteins were separated with a Zorbax SBC8, Rapid Resolution Cartridge (2.1 × 30 mm, 3.5 μm) within 15 min. and directly MS analyzed. The resolution of this instrument is able to discriminate discrete changes in the glyco­sylation patterns of those large molecules. When the ecombinant IgG1 from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells was further analyzed by reduction and alkylation, it was possible to measure the resulting light chains at 0.2 ppm mass accuracy. Fractions from intact e.coli protein separations were injected by infusion into the maxis. Here, various proteins of ∼11, 20.8, and 177 kDa could be mass-separated and analyzed with high mass accuracy. The data is analyzed by specially designed software modules which compare mass patterns and accuracies with expected values ensuring a fast and reliable information retrieval.

  9. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO (United States)

    Merline, William


    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  10. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward


    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  11. High-resolution abundance analysis of HD 140283 (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Korotin, S. A.


    Context. HD 140283 is a reference subgiant that is metal poor and confirmed to be a very old star. The element abundances of this type of old star can constrain the nature and nucleosynthesis processes that occurred in its (even older) progenitors. The present study may shed light on nucleosynthesis processes yielding heavy elements early in the Galaxy. Aims: A detailed analysis of a high-quality spectrum is carried out, with the intent of providing a reference on stellar lines and abundances of a very old, metal-poor subgiant. We aim to derive abundances from most available and measurable spectral lines. Methods: The analysis is carried out using high-resolution (R = 81 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (800 literature. The newly NLTE Ba abundance, along with a NLTE Eu correction and a 3D Ba correction from literature, leads to [Eu/Ba] = + 0.59 ± 0.18. This result confirms a dominant r-process contribution, possibly together with a very small contribution from the main s-process, to the neutron-capture elements in HD 140283. Overabundances of the lighter heavy elements and the high abundances derived for Ba, La, and Ce favour the operation of the weak r-process in HD 140283. Based on observations within Brazilian time at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; Progr. ID 11AB01.Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  12. High resolution imaging system for Udaipur Solar Observatory (United States)

    Bayanna, A. Raja; Louis, Rohan Eugene; Kumar, Brajesh; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.


    A Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is proposed to be installed at the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) in India to monitor the Sun in optical and near infra-red wavelengths. The median value of the Fried's parameter at this site is 4 cm. USO is in the process of building an Adaptive optics (AO) system in order to have diffraction limited performance of the MAST under this moderate seeing condition. AO helps in achieving high-resolution imaging by compensating the atmospheric turbulence in real-time. We have performed simulations to evaluate the performance of AO for various seeing conditions. It was concluded that with the present availability of AO system components, a 55 cm aperture telescope would yield optimum performance with AO, in combination with post-processing techniques like speckle imaging and phase diversity. At present, we are developing a proto-type AO system at USO to demonstrate its performance with a 15 cm Coudé refracting telescope as a preparation for the main AO system to be deployed on the MAST. The prototype AO system is being realized in two phases. In the first phase, we have developed an image stabilization system to compensate the global tilt of the wave-front. The second phase consists of sensing and correcting the local tilts of the wave-front by integrating a micro-machined membrane deformable mirror with the image stabilization system and is currently in progress. Here, we present the details of our proto-type AO system. We also present preliminary results obtained from simulations using Phase Diversity as a post processing technique.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scullion, E.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der, E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)


    High resolution observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope revealed bright, discrete, blob-like structures (which we refer to as solar bullets) in the Hα 656.28 nm line core that appear to propagate laterally across the solar atmosphere as clusters in active regions (ARs). These small-scale structures appear to be field aligned and many bullets become triggered simultaneously and traverse collectively as a cluster. Here, we conduct a follow-up study on these rapidly evolving structures with coincident observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. With the co-aligned data sets, we reveal (a) an evolving multithermal structure in the bullet cluster ranging from chromospheric to at least transition region temperatures, (b) evidence for cascade-like behavior and corresponding bidirectional motions in bullets within the cluster, which indicate that there is a common source of the initial instability leading to bullet formation, and (c) a direct relationship between co-incident bullet velocities observed in Hα and He ii 30.4 nm and an inverse relationship with respect to bullet intensity in these channels. We find evidence supporting that bullets are typically composed of a cooler, higher density core detectable in Hα with a less dense, hotter, and fainter co-moving outer sheath. Bullets unequivocally demonstrate the finely structured nature of the AR corona. We have no clear evidence for bullets being associated with locally heated (or cooled), fast flowing plasma. Fast MHD pulses (such as solitons) could best describe the dynamic properties of bullets whereas the presence of a multithermal structure is new.

  14. Interstitial lung diseases with fibrosis - the pattern at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzemska, A.; Lasek, W.; Nawrocka, E.; Meder, G.; Zapala, M.


    Surgical lung biopsy, either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). In some cases, however, the repetitive pattern of radiological features in high-resolution computed tomography is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. The purpose of the study was to determine whether patients with ILD can be selected on the basis of the HRCT pattern. Thin-section CT scans were performed in 40 patients with histologically proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (26 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia UIP, 2 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia DIP, 2 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia BOOP, 2 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia NSIP, 11 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X). The location and the intensity of lesions were taken into consideration. Clinical and histopathological findings were compared. HRCT features of interstitial lung diseases such as nodules and cystic spaces in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary histiocytosis, and ground-glass opacities in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) were statistically significant for differential diagnosis in ILD cases. Combination of honeycombing and ground-glass opacities found in UIP and nodules found in DIP were also statistically significant features in IIP subtypes diagnosis. In some cases, HRCT patterns of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary histiocytosis X and IPF combined with clinical findings allowed for the accurate diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. Within a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia only in usual interstitial pneumonia characteristic pattern in thin-section CT can be defined. In other subgroups some typical features can imply a diagnosis. (author)

  15. Scottish Sea Lochs: High Resolution Archives of North Atlantic Climate (United States)

    Norgaard-Pedersen, N.; Austin, W. E.; Cage, A. G.; Shimmield, T. M.; Gillibrand, P. A.


    The sea lochs (fjords) of NW Scotland bridge the land-ocean interface in a region of Europe which is particularly well situated to monitor changes in westerly air flow. Inter-annual atmospheric circulation changes at this latitude are largely governed by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in turn influencing both westerlies and precipitation. Comparing two extreme recent NAO years, circulation modelling results from Loch Sunart, NW Scotland, reveal a clear response to freshwater runoff and wind forcing in both magnitude and rate of deep-water renewal events. Scottish fjords, because of the relatively small impact which salinity has on d18Owater (0.18 % per salinity unit), potentially provide NW Europe's most useful study sites in coastal palaeoclimate research, particularly where palaeotemperature is the primary record of interest. New data from a high-resolution record (7 yr sample resolution), spanning the last two millennia, from the deepest part of the main basin of Loch Sunart illustrate significant multi-decadal to centennial scale variability in the sedimentary and stable isotope record of epibenthic foraminifera Cibicides lobatulus. The long-term pattern in benthic d18O appears to reflect bottom water temperature differences of 1-2§C, resolving climatic periods such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Since the core site is connected with shelf waters (i.e. no shallow sill) it seems likely that this paleotemperature reflects changing shelf water, not the exchange process as a function of long-term runoff/wind forcing. Grain size data and XRF data point to catchment-wide responses (weathering and erosion) which appear to show the largest variability during the last millennium, driven either by rainfall and temperature and/or land-use. Pb-isotope data, constraining the modern and industrial period, suggest accelerated sedimentation rates over this interval. On-going work attempts to calibrate proxy data with instrumental historical data.

  16. Exploring Test–Retest Variability Using High-Resolution Perimetry (United States)

    Maddess, Ted; Matsumoto, Chota; Okuyama, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Nomoto, Hiroki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu


    Purpose Test–retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. Methods Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter. TRV was quantified as the standard deviation of the repeats at each point (retest-SD). We also computed the mean sensitivity at each point (retest-MS) and the running spatial-SD along the tested meridian. Multiple regression models investigated whether any of those variables (and also age, sex, and VF eccentricity) were significant independent determinants of TRV. Results The main independent determinants of TRV were the retest-MS at −0.04 dB TRV/dB loss (P retest-SD at 0.47 dB spatial variance/dB loss (P < 0.0001, t-statistic 12.5). Conclusions The larger effect for the spatial-SD suggested that it was perhaps a stronger determinant of TRV than scotoma depth per se. This might support the hypothesis that interactions between small perimetric stimuli, rapidly varying sensitivity across the field, and normal fixational jitter are strong determinants of TRV. Translational Relevance Our study indicates that methods that might reduce the effects of jagged sensitivity changes, such as increasing stimulus size or better gaze tracking, could reduce TRV. PMID:29046828

  17. Exploring Test-Retest Variability Using High-Resolution Perimetry. (United States)

    Numata, Takuya; Maddess, Ted; Matsumoto, Chota; Okuyama, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Nomoto, Hiroki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu


    Test-retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter. TRV was quantified as the standard deviation of the repeats at each point (retest-SD). We also computed the mean sensitivity at each point (retest-MS) and the running spatial-SD along the tested meridian. Multiple regression models investigated whether any of those variables (and also age, sex, and VF eccentricity) were significant independent determinants of TRV. The main independent determinants of TRV were the retest-MS at -0.04 dB TRV/dB loss ( P retest-SD at 0.47 dB spatial variance/dB loss ( P < 0.0001, t -statistic 12.5). The larger effect for the spatial-SD suggested that it was perhaps a stronger determinant of TRV than scotoma depth per se. This might support the hypothesis that interactions between small perimetric stimuli, rapidly varying sensitivity across the field, and normal fixational jitter are strong determinants of TRV. Our study indicates that methods that might reduce the effects of jagged sensitivity changes, such as increasing stimulus size or better gaze tracking, could reduce TRV.

  18. A high-resolution global flood hazard model (United States)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.


    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  19. Decadal prediction skill using a high-resolution climate model (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Coquart, Laure; Maisonnave, Éric; Moine, Marie-Pierre; Terray, Laurent; Valcke, Sophie


    The ability of a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (with a horizontal resolution of a quarter of a degree in the ocean and of about 0.5° in the atmosphere) to predict the annual means of temperature, precipitation, sea-ice volume and extent is assessed based on initialized hindcasts over the 1993-2009 period. Significant skill in predicting sea surface temperatures is obtained, especially over the North Atlantic, the tropical Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. The Sea Ice Extent and volume are also reasonably predicted in winter (March) and summer (September). The model skill is mainly due to the external forcing associated with well-mixed greenhouse gases. A decrease in the global warming rate associated with a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is simulated by the model over a suite of 10-year periods when initialized from starting dates between 1999 and 2003. The model ability to predict regional change is investigated by focusing on the mid-90's Atlantic Ocean subpolar gyre warming. The model simulates the North Atlantic warming associated with a meridional heat transport increase, a strengthening of the North Atlantic current and a deepening of the mixed layer over the Labrador Sea. The atmosphere plays a role in the warming through a modulation of the North Atlantic Oscillation: a negative sea level pressure anomaly, located south of the subpolar gyre is associated with a wind speed decrease over the subpolar gyre. This leads to a reduced oceanic heat-loss and favors a northward displacement of anomalously warm and salty subtropical water that both concur to the subpolar gyre warming. We finally conclude that the subpolar gyre warming is mainly triggered by ocean dynamics with a possible contribution of atmospheric circulation favoring its persistence.

  20. Roads Data Conflation Using Update High Resolution Satellite Images (United States)

    Abdollahi, A.; Riyahi Bakhtiari, H. R.


    Urbanization, industrialization and modernization are rapidly growing in developing countries. New industrial cities, with all the problems brought on by rapid population growth, need infrastructure to support the growth. This has led to the expansion and development of the road network. A great deal of road network data has made by using traditional methods in the past years. Over time, a large amount of descriptive information has assigned to these map data, but their geometric accuracy and precision is not appropriate to today's need. In this regard, the improvement of the geometric accuracy of road network data by preserving the descriptive data attributed to them and updating of the existing geo databases is necessary. Due to the size and extent of the country, updating the road network maps using traditional methods is time consuming and costly. Conversely, using remote sensing technology and geographic information systems can reduce costs, save time and increase accuracy and speed. With increasing the availability of high resolution satellite imagery and geospatial datasets there is an urgent need to combine geographic information from overlapping sources to retain accurate data, minimize redundancy, and reconcile data conflicts. In this research, an innovative method for a vector-to-imagery conflation by integrating several image-based and vector-based algorithms presented. The SVM method for image classification and Level Set method used to extract the road the different types of road intersections extracted from imagery using morphological operators. For matching the extracted points and to find the corresponding points, matching function which uses the nearest neighborhood method was applied. Finally, after identifying the matching points rubber-sheeting method used to align two datasets. Two residual and RMSE criteria used to evaluate accuracy. The results demonstrated excellent performance. The average root-mean-square error decreased from 11.8 to 4.1 m.

  1. High-resolution MRI encoding using radiofrequency phase gradients. (United States)

    Sharp, Jonathan C; King, Scott B; Deng, Qunli; Volotovskyy, Vyacheslav; Tomanek, Boguslaw


    Although MRI offers highly diagnostic medical imagery, patient access to this modality worldwide is very limited when compared with X-ray or ultrasound. One reason for this is the expense and complexity of the equipment used to generate the switched magnetic fields necessary for MRI encoding. These field gradients are also responsible for intense acoustic noise and have the potential to induce nerve stimulation. We present results with a new MRI encoding principle which operates entirely without the use of conventional B0 field gradients. This new approach--'Transmit Array Spatial Encoding' (TRASE)--uses only the resonant radiofrequency (RF) field to produce Fourier spatial encoding equivalent to conventional MRI. k-space traversal (image encoding) is achieved by spin refocusing with phase gradient transmit fields in spin echo trains. A transmit coil array, driven by just a single transmitter channel, was constructed to produce four phase gradient fields, which allows the encoding of two orthogonal spatial axes. High-resolution two-dimensional-encoded in vivo MR images of hand and wrist were obtained at 0.2 T. TRASE exploits RF field phase gradients, and offers the possibility of very low-cost diagnostics and novel experiments exploiting unique capabilities, such as imaging without disturbance of the main B0 magnetic field. Lower field imaging (moving through k space, there are many close analogies between it and conventional B0 -encoded techniques. TRASE is compatible with both B0 gradient encoding and parallel imaging, and so hybrid sequences containing all three spatial encoding approaches are possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. High resolution functional photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Yao, Lei; Xi, Lei; Jiang, Huabei, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Heldermon, Coy D. [Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of functional photoacoustic tomography (fPAT) for high resolution detection and characterization of breast cancer and to demonstrate for the first time quantitative hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation images of breasts that were formed with model-based reconstruction of tomographic photoacoustic data. Methods: The study was HIPAA compliant and was approved by the university institutional review board. Written informed consents were obtained from all the participants. Ten cases, including six cancer and four healthy (mean age = 50 yr; age range = 41–66 yr), were examined. Functional images of breast tissue including absolute total hemoglobin concentration (Hb{sub T}) and oxygen saturation (StO{sub 2}%) were obtained by fPAT and cross validated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readings and/or histopathology. Results: Hb{sub T} and StO{sub 2}% maps from all six pathology-confirmed cancer cases (60%) show clear detection of tumor, while MR images indicate clear detection of tumor for five of six cancer cases; one small tumor was read as near-complete-resolution by MRI. The average Hb{sub T} and StO{sub 2}% value of suspicious lesion area for the cancer cases was 61.6 ± 18.9 μM/l and 67.5% ± 5.2% compared to 25.6 ± 7.4 μM/l and 65.2% ± 3.8% for background normal tissue. Conclusions: fPAT has the potential to be a significant add-on in breast cancer detection and characterization as it provides submillimeter resolution functional images of breast lesions.

  3. Idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis: radiographic and high-resolution CT appearances and changes in response to therapy in two adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Donnell, David H


    Inflammatory conditions of the pleura characterized by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate are described in several disorders. The commonest underlying aetiologies include tuberculous infection, autoimmune disorders (particularly Sjogren\\'s syndrome), and post coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis (ILP) is a rare form of diffuse pleural inflammation characterized by extensive lymphocytic infiltration for which no cause is found. Radiological descriptions of ILP are limited. We describe the radiographic and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging features and response to corticosteroid therapy of ILP in two adults. Both patients presented with bilateral diffuse pleural thickening of >10 mm thickness extending >10 cm craniocaudally with small focal areas of atelectasis. Both cases demonstrated marked improvement in the degree and extent of pleural thickening and rounded atelectasis following corticosteroid therapy. HRCT provided a useful noninvasive method of assessing disease response to therapy.

  4. High-resolution urban flood modelling - a joint probability approach (United States)

    Hartnett, Michael; Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen


    The hydrodynamic modelling of rapid flood events due to extreme climatic events in urban environment is both a complex and challenging task. The horizontal resolution necessary to resolve complexity of urban flood dynamics is a critical issue; the presence of obstacles of varying shapes and length scales, gaps between buildings and the complex geometry of the city such as slopes affect flow paths and flood levels magnitudes. These small scale processes require a high resolution grid to be modelled accurately (2m or less, Olbert et al., 2015; Hunter et al., 2008; Brown et al., 2007) and, therefore, altimetry data of at least the same resolution. Along with availability of high-resolution LiDAR data and computational capabilities, as well as state of the art nested modelling approaches, these problems can now be overcome. Flooding and drying, domain definition, frictional resistance and boundary descriptions are all important issues to be addressed when modelling urban flooding. In recent years, the number of urban flood models dramatically increased giving a good insight into various modelling problems and solutions (Mark et al., 2004; Mason et al., 2007; Fewtrell et al., 2008; Shubert et al., 2008). Despite extensive modelling work conducted for fluvial (e.g. Mignot et al., 2006; Hunter et al., 2008; Yu and Lane, 2006) and coastal mechanisms of flooding (e.g. Gallien et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012), the amount of investigations into combined coastal-fluvial flooding is still very limited (e.g. Orton et al., 2012; Lian et al., 2013). This is surprising giving the extent of flood consequences when both mechanisms occur simultaneously, which usually happens when they are driven by one process such as a storm. The reason for that could be the fact that the likelihood of joint event is much smaller than those of any of the two contributors occurring individually, because for fast moving storms the rainfall-driven fluvial flood arrives usually later than the storm surge

  5. GANIL-SPIRAL1-SPIRAL2: Highlights and Perspectives (United States)

    Gales, S.


    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are presented. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100*A to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called*Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4 M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  6. Deciphering Modifications in Swine Cardiac Troponin I by Top-Down High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Dong, Xintong; Hacker, Timothy A.; Ge, Ying


    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is an important regulatory protein in cardiac muscle and its modification represents a key mechanism in the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. cTnI is often referred to as the “gold-standard” serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with acute cardiac injury since it is unique to the heart and released into the circulation following necrotic death of cardiac tissue. The swine (Sus scrofa) heart model is extremely valuable for cardiovascular research since the heart anatomy and coronary artery distribution of swine are almost identical to those of humans. Herein we report a comprehensive characterization of the modifications in swine cTnI using top-down high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry in conjugation with immunoaffinity chromatography purification. High-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometry revealed that swine cTnI affinity purified from domestic pig hearts was N-terminally acetylated and phosphorylated. Electron capture disassociation is uniquely suited for localization of labile phosphorylations, which unambiguously identified Ser22/Ser23 as the only basally phosphorylation sites that are well-known to be regulated by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Moreover, a combination of tandem mass spectrometry with sequence homology alignment effectively localized a single amino acid polymorphism, V116A, representing a novel genetic variant of swine cTnI. Overall, our studies demonstrated the unique power of top-down high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry in the characterization of protein modifications including labile phosphorylation and unexpected sequence variants. PMID:20223681

  7. Deciphering modifications in swine cardiac troponin I by top-down high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Dong, Xintong; Hacker, Timothy A; Ge, Ying


    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is an important regulatory protein in cardiac muscle, and its modification represents a key mechanism in the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. cTnI is often referred to as the "gold-standard" serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with acute cardiac injury since it is unique to the heart and released into the circulation following necrotic death of cardiac tissue. The swine (Sus scrofa) heart model is extremely valuable for cardiovascular research since the heart anatomy and coronary artery distribution of swine are almost identical to those of humans. Herein, we report a comprehensive characterization of the modifications in swine cTnI using top-down high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry in conjugation with immunoaffinity chromatography purification. High-resolution high accuracy mass spectrometry revealed that swine cTnI affinity purified from domestic pig hearts was N-terminally acetylated and phosphorylated. Electron capture disassociation is uniquely suited for localization of labile phosphorylations, which unambiguously identified Ser22/Ser23 as the only basally phosphorylated sites that are well-known to be regulated by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. Moreover, a combination of tandem mass spectrometry with sequence homology alignment effectively localized a single amino acid polymorphism, V116A, representing a novel genetic variant of swine cTnI. Overall, our studies demonstrated the unique power of top-down high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry in the characterization of protein modifications, including labile phosphorylation and unexpected sequence variants. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quasicrystallography on the spiral of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.


    The concept of a spiral lattice is discussed. Some examples of known mineral structures, namely clino asbestos, halloysite and cylindrite, are then interpreted in terms of this structural principle. An example of a synthetic sulphide catalyst spiral structure having atomic dimensions is also described. All of these inorganic spiral structures are based on the sprial of Archimedes. The principles for a new type of crystallography, based on the Archimedian spiral, are then presented. 45 refs., 8 figs

  9. A high-resolution imaging technique using a whole-body, research photon counting detector CT system (United States)

    Leng, S.; Yu, Z.; Halaweish, A.; Kappler, S.; Hahn, K.; Henning, A.; Li, Z.; Lane, J.; Levin, D. L.; Jorgensen, S.; Ritman, E.; McCollough, C.


    A high-resolution (HR) data collection mode has been introduced to a whole-body, research photon-counting-detector CT system installed in our laboratory. In this mode, 64 rows of 0.45 mm x 0.45 mm detector pixels were used, which corresponded to a pixel size of 0.25 mm x 0.25 mm at the iso-center. Spatial resolution of this HR mode was quantified by measuring the MTF from a scan of a 50 micron wire phantom. An anthropomorphic lung phantom, cadaveric swine lung, temporal bone and heart specimens were scanned using the HR mode, and image quality was subjectively assessed by two experienced radiologists. High spatial resolution of the HR mode was evidenced by the MTF measurement, with 15 lp/cm and 20 lp/cm at 10% and 2% modulation. Images from anthropomorphic phantom and cadaveric specimens showed clear delineation of small structures, such as lung vessels, lung nodules, temporal bone structures, and coronary arteries. Temporal bone images showed critical anatomy (i.e. stapes superstructure) that was clearly visible in the PCD system. These results demonstrated the potential application of this imaging mode in lung, temporal bone, and vascular imaging. Other clinical applications that require high spatial resolution, such as musculoskeletal imaging, may also benefit from this high resolution mode.

  10. Planet Formation in AB Aurigae: Imaging of the Inner Gaseous Spirals Observed inside the Dust Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Gu, Pin-Gao; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne; Chapillon, Edwige; Folco, Emmanuel di [Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, alle Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac (France); Muto, Takayuki [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Shen, Bo-Ting [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Pietu, Vincent [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint-Martin-d’Hères (France); Fukagawa, Misato [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Corder, Stuartt [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hashimoto, Jun, E-mail: [Astrobiology Center of NINS 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)


    We report the results of ALMA observations of a protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star AB Aurigae. We obtained high-resolution (0.″1; 14 au) images in {sup 12}CO J = 2 − 1 emission and in the dust continuum at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The continuum emission is detected at the center and at the ring with a radius ( r ) of ∼120 au. The CO emission is dominated by two prominent spirals within the dust ring. These spirals are trailing and appear to be about 4 times brighter than their surrounding medium. Their kinematics is consistent with Keplerian rotation at an inclination of 23°. The apparent two-arm-spiral pattern is best explained by tidal disturbances created by an unseen companion located at r of 60–80 au, with dust confined in the pressure bumps created outside this companion orbit. An additional companion at r of 30 au, coinciding with the peak CO brightness and a large pitch angle of the spiral, would help to explain the overall emptiness of the cavity. Alternative mechanisms to excite the spirals are discussed. The origin of the large pitch angle detected here remains puzzling.

  11. The design and basic performance of a Spiral Fiber Tracker for the J-PARC E36 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, O., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bianchin, S. [Canada' s National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics (TRIUMF) (Canada); Hasinoff, M.D. [University of British Columbia (Canada); Horie, K. [Osaka University (Japan); Igarashi, Y.; Imazato, J. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Ito, H.; Kawai, H.; Kodama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Kohl, M. [Hampton University (United States); Kudenko, Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Shimizu, S. [Osaka University (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University (Japan); Toyoda, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Yershov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A spiral fiber tracker (SFT) has been designed and produced for the J-PARC E36 experiment as an element of the tracking system for conducting a high-resolution momentum measurement of charged particles from kaon decays. A novel technique to wind the pre-made fiber ribbons spirally was employed for the configuration with four detector layers made of 1 mm diameter plastic scintillating fibers. Good position alignment and sufficiently high detection efficiency for charged particles with minimum ionizing energy were confirmed in cosmic ray test. The tracker was successfully used in the E36 experiment.

  12. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art. (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy


    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  13. The Spiral Pattern During Development*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 7, 1971 ... which are destined to become the limb areas bud out laterally. Fig. 8. The early cells, which are destined to develop into the upper and the lower limbs, after lateral budding has occurred. Fig. 11 demonstrates the human embryo of about 5 mm. CR length and age of about 32 days. The spiral pattern is.

  14. A study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, B.M.H.R.


    Attempts have been made to look for possible correlations between integral properties of spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type. To investigate this problem, one needs the detailed distribution of both the gaseous and the stellar components for a well-defined sample of spiral galaxies. A sample of about 20 spiral galaxies was therefore defined; these galaxies were observed in the 21 cm neutral hydrogen line with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in three broad-band optical colours with the 48-inch Palomar Smidt Telescope. First, an atlas of the combined radio and optical observations of 16 nearby northern-hemisphere spiral galaxies is presented. Luminosity profiles are discussed and the scale lengths of the exponential disks and extrapolated central surface brightnesses are derived, as well as radial color distributions; azimuthal surface brightness distributions and rotation curves. Possible correlations with optical features are investigated. It is found that 20 to 50 per cent of the total mass is in the disk. (Auth.)

  15. High-resolution haplotype block structure in the cattle genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jungwoo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovine HapMap Consortium has generated assay panels to genotype ~30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 501 animals sampled from 19 worldwide taurine and indicine breeds, plus two outgroup species (Anoa and Water Buffalo. Within the larger set of SNPs we targeted 101 high density regions spanning up to 7.6 Mb with an average density of approximately one SNP per 4 kb, and characterized the linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype block structure within individual breeds and groups of breeds in relation to their geographic origin and use. Results From the 101 targeted high-density regions on bovine chromosomes 6, 14, and 25, between 57 and 95% of the SNPs were informative in the individual breeds. The regions of high LD extend up to ~100 kb and the size of haplotype blocks ranges between 30 bases and 75 kb (10.3 kb average. On the scale from 1–100 kb the extent of LD and haplotype block structure in cattle has high similarity to humans. The estimation of effective population sizes over the previous 10,000 generations conforms to two main events in cattle history: the initiation of cattle domestication (~12,000 years ago, and the intensification of population isolation and current population bottleneck that breeds have experienced worldwide within the last ~700 years. Haplotype block density correlation, block boundary discordances, and haplotype sharing analyses were consistent in revealing unexpected similarities between some beef and dairy breeds, making them non-differentiable. Clustering techniques permitted grouping of breeds into different clades given their similarities and dissimilarities in genetic structure. Conclusion This work presents the first high-resolution analysis of haplotype block structure in worldwide cattle samples. Several novel results were obtained. First, cattle and human share a high similarity in LD and haplotype block structure on the scale of 1–100 kb. Second, unexpected

  16. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy


    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  17. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.


    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na I D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He I λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca II K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na I D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  18. High-resolution field shaping utilizing a masked multileaf collimator. (United States)

    Williams, P C; Cooper, P


    Multileaf collimators (MLCs) have become an important tool in the modern radiotherapy department. However, the current limit of resolution (1 cm at isocentre) can be too coarse for acceptable shielding of all fields. A number of mini- and micro-MLCs have been developed, with thinner leaves to achieve approved resolution. Currently however, such devices are limited to modest field sizes and stereotactic applications. This paper proposes a new method of high-resolution beam collimation by use of a tertiary grid collimator situated below the conventional MLC. The width of each slit in the grid is a submultiple of the MLC width. A composite shaped field is thus built up from a series of subfields, with the main MLC defining the length of each strip within each subfield. Presented here are initial findings using a prototype device. The beam uniformity achievable with such a device was examined by measuring transmission profiles through the grid using a diode. Profiles thus measured were then copied and superposed to generate composite beams, from which the uniformity achievable could be assessed. With the average dose across the profile normalized to 100%, hot spots up to 5.0% and troughs of 3% were identified for a composite beam of 2 x 5.0 mm grids, as measured at Dmax for a 6 MV beam. For a beam composed from 4 x 2.5 mm grids, the maximum across the profile was 3.0% above the average, and the minimum 2.5% below. Actual composite profiles were also formed using the integrating properties of film, with the subfield indexing performed using an engineering positioning stage. The beam uniformity for these fields compared well with that achieved in theory using the diode measurements. Finally sine wave patterns were generated to demonstrate the potential improvements in field shaping and conformity using this device as opposed to the conventional MLC alone. The scalloping effect on the field edge commonly seen on MLC fields was appreciably reduced by use of 2 x 5.0 mm

  19. High resolution computed tomographic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Omer; Ors, Fatih; Tozkoparan, Ergun; Ozcan, Ayhan; Gumus, Seyfettin; Bozlar, Ugur; Bilgic, Hayati; Ekiz, Kudret; Demirci, Necmettin


    Background: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with unknown etiology and with a nonuniform clinical course. Nonuniformity of clinical course might be related to the degree of pulmonary parenchymal alterations, which can be revealed with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, HRCT findings of PAM were not fully described in the current literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to interpret and to contribute to describe HRCT findings of PAM and to investigate a correlation between profusion of micro nodules (MN) and pulmonary parenchymal alterations in patients with PAM. Material and methods: Ten male patients with PAM (mean age: 22 ± 3.2) were included into the study. HRCT images were assessed for patterns, distribution, and profusion of pulmonary abnormalities. Dividing the lungs into three zones, profusion of abnormalities was assessed. A profusion score (1-4) was given and the scores of each zone were then summed to obtain a global profusion score for HRCT ranging from 0 to 12. Also a parenchymal alteration score (PAS) was defined with respect to profusion of abnormalities. Chest X-rays were also scored. Results: All of ten patients with PAM had findings of interstitial lung disease in varying degrees on their HRCTs. HRCT findings of patients with PAM were as following: MN, parenchymal bands (PB), ground glass opacity (GGO) and, sub pleural interstitial thickening (SPIT) in 10 patients; interlobular septal thickening (ILST), in 9 patients; paraseptal emphysema (PSA) in 8 patients; centrilobular emphysema (CLA) in 7 patients; bronchiectasis (BE), confluent micro nodules (CMN) in 6 patients; peri bronchovascular interstitial thickening (PBIT) in 5 patients; panacinar emphysema (PANAA) in 3 patients; pleural calcification (PC) in 2 patients. A significant correlation between MN scores and PAS (r = 0.68, p = 0.031, MN scores and GGO scores (r = 0.69, p = 0.027) and, MN scores and CLA scores (r = 0.67, p = 0

  20. High Resolution Insights into Snow Distribution Provided by Drone Photogrammetry (United States)

    Redpath, T.; Sirguey, P. J.; Cullen, N. J.; Fitzsimons, S.


    Dynamic in time and space, New Zealand's seasonal snow is largely confined to remote alpine areas, complicating ongoing in situ measurement and characterisation. Improved understanding and modeling of the seasonal snowpack requires fine scale resolution of snow distribution and spatial variability. The potential of remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) photogrammetry to resolve spatial and temporal variability of snow depth and water equivalent in a New Zealand alpine catchment is assessed in the Pisa Range, Central Otago. This approach yielded orthophotomosaics and digital surface models (DSM) at 0.05 and 0.15 m spatial resolution, respectively. An autumn reference DSM allowed mapping of winter (02/08/2016) and spring (10/09/2016) snow depth at 0.15 m spatial resolution, via DSM differencing. The consistency and accuracy of the RPAS-derived surface was assessed by comparison of snow-free regions of the spring and autumn DSMs, while accuracy of RPAS retrieved snow depth was assessed with 86 in situ snow probe measurements. Results show a mean vertical residual of 0.024 m between DSMs acquired in autumn and spring. This residual approximated a Laplace distribution, reflecting the influence of large outliers on the small overall bias. Propagation of errors associated with successive DSMs saw snow depth mapped with an accuracy of ± 0.09 m (95% c.l.). Comparing RPAS and in situ snow depth measurements revealed the influence of geo-location uncertainty and interactions between vegetation and the snowpack on snow depth uncertainty and bias. Semi-variogram analysis revealed that the RPAS outperformed systematic in situ measurements in resolving fine scale spatial variability. Despite limitations accompanying RPAS photogrammetry, this study demonstrates a repeatable means of accurately mapping snow depth for an entire, yet relatively small, hydrological basin ( 0.5 km2), at high resolution. Resolving snowpack features associated with re-distribution and preferential

  1. A High-Resolution Sensor Network for Monitoring Glacier Dynamics (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Murray, T.; O'Farrell, T.; Rutt, I. C.; Loskot, P.; Martin, I.; Selmes, N.; Aspey, R.; James, T.; Bevan, S. L.; Baugé, T.


    Changes in Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets due to ice flow/ice-berg calving are a major uncertainty affecting sea-level rise forecasts. Latterly GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have been employed extensively to monitor such glacier dynamics. Until recently however, the favoured methodology has been to deploy sensors onto the glacier surface, collect data for a period of time, then retrieve and download the sensors. This approach works well in less dynamic environments where the risk of sensor loss is low. In more extreme environments e.g. approaching the glacial calving front, the risk of sensor loss and hence data loss increases dramatically. In order to provide glaciologists with new insights into flow dynamics and calving processes we have developed a novel sensor network to increase the robustness of data capture. We present details of the technological requirements for an in-situ Zigbee wireless streaming network infrastructure supporting instantaneous data acquisition from high resolution GNSS sensors thereby increasing data capture robustness. The data obtained offers new opportunities to investigate the interdependence of mass flow, uplift, velocity and geometry and the network architecture has been specifically designed for deployment by helicopter close to the calving front to yield unprecedented detailed information. Following successful field trials of a pilot three node network during 2012, a larger 20 node network was deployed on the fast-flowing Helheim glacier, south-east Greenland over the summer months of 2013. The utilisation of dual wireless transceivers in each glacier node, multiple frequencies and four ';collector' stations located on the valley sides creates overlapping networks providing enhanced capacity, diversity and redundancy of data 'back-haul', even close to ';floor' RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) levels around -100 dBm. Data loss through radio packet collisions within sub-networks are avoided through the

  2. High-resolution field shaping utilizing a masked multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.; Cooper, P.


    Multileaf collimators (MLCs) have become an important tool in the modern radiotherapy department. However, the current limit of resolution (1 cm at isocentre) can be too coarse for acceptable shielding of all fields. A number of mini- and micro-MLCs have been developed, with thinner leaves to achieve approved resolution. Currently however, such devices are limited to modest field sizes and stereotactic applications. This paper proposes a new method of high-resolution beam collimation by use of a tertiary grid collimator situated below the conventional MLC. The width of each slit in the grid is a submultiple of the MLC width. A composite shaped field is thus built up from a series of subfields, with the main MLC defining the length of each strip within each subfield. Presented here are initial findings using a prototype device. The beam uniformity achievable with such a device was examined by measuring transmission profiles through the grid using a diode. Profiles thus measured were then copied and superposed to generate composite beams, from which the uniformity achievable could be assessed. With the average dose across the profile normalized to 100%, hot spots up to 5.0% and troughs of 3% were identified for a composite beam of 2x5.0 mm grids, as measured at D max for a 6 MV beam. For a beam composed from 4x2.5 mm grids, the maximum across the profile was 3.0% above the average, and the minimum 2.5% below. Actual composite profiles were also formed using the integrating properties of film, with the subfield indexing performed using an engineering positioning stage. The beam uniformity for these fields compared well with that achieved in theory using the diode measurements. Finally sine wave patterns were generated to demonstrate the potential improvements in field shaping and conformity using this device as opposed to the conventional MLC alone. The scalloping effect on the field edge commonly seen on MLC fields was appreciably reduced by use of 2x5.0 mm grids

  3. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail:; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)


    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  4. Semantic-based high resolution remote sensing image retrieval (United States)

    Guo, Dihua

    High Resolution Remote Sensing (HRRS) imagery has been experiencing extraordinary development in the past decade. Technology development means increased resolution imagery is available at lower cost, making it a precious resource for planners, environmental scientists, as well as others who can learn from the ground truth. Image retrieval plays an important role in managing and accessing huge image database. Current image retrieval techniques, cannot satisfy users' requests on retrieving remote sensing images based on semantics. In this dissertation, we make two fundamental contributions to the area of content based image retrieval. First, we propose a novel unsupervised texture-based segmentation approach suitable for accurately segmenting HRRS images. The results of existing segmentation algorithms dramatically deteriorate if simply adopted to HRRS images. This is primarily clue to the multi-texture scales and the high level noise present in these images. Therefore, we propose an effective and efficient segmentation model, which is a two-step process. At high-level, we improved the unsupervised segmentation algorithm by coping with two special features possessed by HRRS images. By preprocessing images with wavelet transform, we not only obtain multi-resolution images but also denoise the original images. By optimizing the splitting results, we solve the problem of textons in HRRS images existing in different scales. At fine level, we employ fuzzy classification segmentation techniques with adjusted parameters for different land cover. We implement our algorithm using real world 1-foot resolution aerial images. Second, we devise methodologies to automatically annotate HRRS images based on semantics. In this, we address the issue of semantic feature selection, the major challenge faced by semantic-based image retrieval. To discover and make use of hidden semantics of images is application dependent. One type of the semantics in HRRS image is conveyed by composite

  5. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Hernández, Trinitat; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo; Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del; Roselló Ferrando, Joan


    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good performance

  6. Antarctic Intermediate Water Formation in a High-Resolution OGCM (United States)

    Fetter, Antonio; Schodlok, Michael; Zlotnicki, Victor


    The importance of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), and the Southern Ocean, in the Climate System, has become apparent in the last decades. Water masses formed at these high latitudes are linked to the shallow and deep branches of the meridional overturning circulation. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), as the main water mass ventilating the base of the worlds ocean thermocline, plays a central role not only in the climate system dynamics, but also in the global cycles of carbon dioxide and other bio-geochemical tracers. The mechanisms AAIW formation, as well as, the relationship among the rate of formation of the AAIW, the ACC frontal locations and mesoscale activity at the fronts are investigated in this study. Thus, in this research the output of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project is used. It is a global high-resolution data synthesis in space and time, that is obtained through an orthogonal projection of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) onto available satellite and in-situ data. During winter, deep mixed layers (ML) of up to 600 m are formed as a result of deep convection. In turn, the deep ML are the nursery grounds for the Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), the lighter precursor of the AAIW. Diapycnal transformation of AAIW, due to internal mixing and air-sea interactions, is found to occur mainly in the South Pacific Ocean, which is known to be one of the most important regions for AAIW transformation. However, significant AAIW transformation is also observed in the South Indian Ocean. In ECCO2, AAIW is represented for by the water masses within the 27-27.8 kg m-3 neutral density range. While the heaviest AAIW (27.4-27.8 kg.m-3) is formed in the South Indian Ocean, reaching a peak production of about 40Sv during late July, the lighter version of the AAIW (27-27.4 kg.m-3) is mainly produced in the South Pacific Ocean. We found that eddy fluxes efficiently

  7. High-resolution (noble) gas time series for aquatic research (United States)

    Popp, A. L.; Brennwald, M. S.; Weber, U.; Kipfer, R.


    We developed a portable mass spectrometer (miniRUEDI) for on-site quantification of gas concentrations (He, Ar, Kr, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, etc.) in terrestrial gases [1,2]. Using the gas-equilibrium membrane-inlet technique (GE-MIMS), the miniRUEDI for the first time also allows accurate on-site and long-term dissolved-gas analysis in water bodies. The miniRUEDI is designed for operation in the field and at remote locations, using battery power and ambient air as a calibration gas. In contrast to conventional sampling and subsequent lab analysis, the miniRUEDI provides real-time and continuous time series of gas concentrations with a time resolution of a few seconds.Such high-resolution time series and immediate data availability open up new opportunities for research in highly dynamic and heterogeneous environmental systems. In addition the combined analysis of inert and reactive gas species provides direct information on the linkages of physical and biogoechemical processes, such as the air/water gas exchange, excess air formation, O2 turnover, or N2 production by denitrification [1,3,4].We present the miniRUEDI instrument and discuss its use for environmental research based on recent applications of tracking gas dynamics related to rapid and short-term processes in aquatic systems. [1] Brennwald, M.S., Schmidt, M., Oser, J., and Kipfer, R. (2016). Environmental Science and Technology, 50(24):13455-13463, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b03669[2] Gasometrix GmbH,[3] Mächler, L., Peter, S., Brennwald, M.S., and Kipfer, R. (2013). Excess air formation as a mechanism for delivering oxygen to groundwater. Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20547[4] Mächler, L., Brennwald, M.S., and Kipfer, R. (2013). Argon Concentration Time-Series As a Tool to Study Gas Dynamics in the Hyporheic Zone. Environmental Science and Technology, doi: 10.1021/es305309b

  8. POLLUX: A UV High-Resolution Spectropolatimeter for LUVOIR (United States)

    Bouret, Jean-Claude; Neiner, Coralie; Lopez Ariste, Arturo; Vivès, Sébastien; Muslimov, Eduard; Lopes, Louise; Costeraste, Josiane; Brachet, Frank; POLLUX Consortium


    The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is one of four large mission concept studies led by NASA for the 2020 Decadal Survey. A versatile suite of instruments is envisioned for LUVOIR, to advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planets that make up our Universe, and the life within it. We present POLLUX, a high-resolution spectropolarimeter, operating at UV wavelengths, designed for the 15-meter primary mirror option of LUVOIR. POLLUX study is supported by the French Space Agency (CNES) and developed by a European consortium of scientists.POLLUX will operate over a broad spectral range (98 to 390 nm), at high spectral resolution (R = 120,000). This will permit to resolve narrow UV emission and absorption lines, thus to follow the baryon cycle over cosmic time, from galaxies forming stars out of interstellar gas and grains, and stars forming planets, to the various forms of feedback into the interstellar and intergalactic medium (ISM and IGM), and active galactic nuclei (AGN).The most innovative characteristic of POLLUX is its unique spectropolarimetric capability, that will enable detection of the polarized light reflected from Earth-like exoplanets or from their circumplanetary material, and moons, and characterization of the magnetospheres of stars and planets, and their interactions. The magnetospheric properties of planets in the solar system will be accessible to exquisite level of details, while the influence of magnetic fields at the galactic scale and in the IGM will be measured. UV circular and linear polarisation will provide a full picture of magnetic field properties and impact for a variety of media and objects, from AGN outflows to all types of stars. It will probe the physics of accretion disks around young stars and white dwarfs, or supermassive black holes in AGNs, and constrain the properties, especially sphericity, of stellar ejecta and explosions. Since the parameter space opened by POLLUX is

  9. eWaterCycle: A high resolution global hydrological model (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin


    In 2013, the eWaterCycle project was started, which has the ambitious goal to run a high resolution global hydrological model. Starting point was the PCR-GLOBWB built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model will partially be re-engineered in order to enable to run it in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km. The idea is also to run the model in real-time and forecasting mode, using data assimilation. An on-demand hydraulic model will be available for detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management. The project faces a set of scientific challenges. First, to enable the model to run in a HPC environment, model runs were analyzed to examine on which parts of the program most CPU time was spent. These parts were re-coded in Open MPI to allow for parallel processing. Different parallelization strategies are thinkable. In our case, it was decided to use watershed logic as a first step to distribute the analysis. There is rather limited recent experience with HPC in hydrology and there is much to be learned and adjusted, both on the hydrological modeling side and the computer science side. For example, an interesting early observation was that hydrological models are, due to their localized parameterization, much more memory intensive than models of sister-disciplines such as meteorology and oceanography. Because it would be deadly to have to swap information between CPU and hard drive, memory management becomes crucial. A standard Ensemble Kalman Filter (enKF) would, for example, have excessive memory demands. To circumvent these problems, an alternative to the enKF was developed that produces equivalent results. This presentation shows the most recent results from the model, including a 5km x 5km simulation and a proof of concept for the new data assimilation approach. Finally, some early ideas about financial sustainability of an operational global

  10. Stochastic Approaches Within a High Resolution Rapid Refresh Ensemble (United States)

    Jankov, I.


    It is well known that global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) ensemble systems are under-dispersive, producing unreliable and overconfident ensemble forecasts. Typical approaches to alleviate this problem include the use of multiple dynamic cores, multiple physics suite configurations, or a combination of the two. While these approaches may produce desirable results, they have practical and theoretical deficiencies and are more difficult and costly to maintain. An active area of research that promotes a more unified and sustainable system is the use of stochastic physics. Stochastic approaches include Stochastic Parameter Perturbations (SPP), Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter (SKEB), and Stochastic Perturbation of Physics Tendencies (SPPT). The focus of this study is to assess model performance within a convection-permitting ensemble at 3-km grid spacing across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) using a variety of stochastic approaches. A single physics suite configuration based on the operational High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model was utilized and ensemble members produced by employing stochastic methods. Parameter perturbations (using SPP) for select fields were employed in the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) land surface model (LSM) and Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes. Within MYNN, SPP was applied to sub-grid cloud fraction, mixing length, roughness length, mass fluxes and Prandtl number. In the RUC LSM, SPP was applied to hydraulic conductivity and tested perturbing soil moisture at initial time. First iterative testing was conducted to assess the initial performance of several configuration settings (e.g. variety of spatial and temporal de-correlation lengths). Upon selection of the most promising candidate configurations using SPP, a 10-day time period was run and more robust statistics were gathered. SKEB and SPPT were included in additional retrospective tests to assess the impact of using

  11. High Resolution Computed Tomography in Asthma 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Maradny


    Full Text Available  Objectives: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT can detect the structural abnormalities in asthma. This study attempts to correlate these abnormalities with clinical and pulmonary function test (PFT data.Methods: Consecutive stable asthma patients attending Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, were subjected to HRCT during a six month period from July 2004 to December 2004, after initial evaluation and PFT.Results: Of the 28 cases, sixteen (57.1�20had moderate, 6 (21.4�20had mild and 6 (21.4�20had severe persistent asthma. Thirteen (46.4�20patients had asthma for 1 to 5 years and 12 (42.9�20were having asthma for >10 years. Bronchial wall thickening (57.1� bronchiectasis (28.6� mucoid impaction (17.9� mosaic attenuation (10.7� air trapping (78.6�20and plate like atelectasis (21.4�20were noted. Bronchial wall thickening (p=0.044 and bronchiectasis (p=0.063 were most prevalent in males. Ten (35.7�20patients exhibited mild, 9 (32.1�20had moderate and 3 (10.7�20had severe air trapping. The difference in Hounsfield units between expiratory and inspiratory slices (air trapping when correlated with percent-predicted FEV1 in right upper (r=0.25;p=0.30, left upper (r=0.20; p=0.41, right mid (r=0.15; p=0.53, left mid (r=-0.04; p=0.60, right lower (r=0.04; p=0.86 and left lower zones (r=-0.13; p=0.58 showed no relation. The same when correlated as above with the percent predicted FEF 25-75 did not show any significant association. The presence of air trapping was compared with sex (p=0.640, nationality (p=1.000, disease duration (p=1.000 and severity of symptoms (p=0.581.Conclusion: Abnormal HRCT findings are common in asthma; however, air trapping when present was not related to the duration or severity of the illness or to the FEV1.

  12. Phase-Contrast and High-Resolution Optics for X-Ray Microscopy


    von Hofsten, Olof


    X-ray microscopy is a well-established technique for nanoscale imaging. Zone plates are used as microscope objectives and provide high resolution, approaching 10 nm, currently limited by fabrication issues. This Thesis presents zone plate optics that achieve either high resolution or phase contrast in x-ray microscopy. The high-resolution optics use high orders of the zone plate, which alleviates the demands on fabrication, and the phase-contrast optics are single-element diffractive optical ...

  13. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting (United States)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao


    The increasing penetration of wind energy into national electricity markets has increased the demand for accurate surface layer wind forecasts. There has recently been a focus on forecasting the wind at wind farm sites using both statistical models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent advances in computing capacity and non-hydrostatic NWP models means that it is possible to nest mesoscale models down to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) scales over the spatial area of a typical wind farm. For example, the WRF model (Skamarock 2008) has been run at a resolution of 123 m over a wind farm site in complex terrain in Colorado (Liu et al. 2009). Although these modelling attempts indicate a great hope for applying such models for detailed wind forecasts over wind farms, one of the obvious challenges of running the model at this resolution is that while some boundary layer structures are expected to be modelled explicitly, boundary layer eddies into the inertial sub-range can only be partly captured. Therefore, the amount and nature of sub-grid-scale mixing that is required is uncertain. Analysis of Liu et al. (2009) modelling results in comparison to wind farm observations indicates that unrealistic wind speed fluctuations with a period of around 1 hour occasionally occurred during the two day modelling period. The problem was addressed by re-running the same modelling system with a) a modified diffusion constant and b) two-way nesting between the high resolution model and its parent domain. The model, which was run with horizontal grid spacing of 370 m, had dimensions of 505 grid points in the east-west direction and 490 points in the north-south direction. It received boundary conditions from a mesoscale model of resolution 1111 m. Both models had 37 levels in the vertical. The mesoscale model was run with a non-local-mixing planetary boundary layer scheme, while the 370 m model was run with no planetary boundary layer scheme. It was found that increasing the

  14. A high-resolution European dataset for hydrologic modeling (United States)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Salamon, Peter; Gomes, Goncalo; Sint, Hadewij; Lorini, Valerio; Thielen, Jutta


    There is an increasing demand for large scale hydrological models not only in the field of modeling the impact of climate change on water resources but also for disaster risk assessments and flood or drought early warning systems. These large scale models need to be calibrated and verified against large amounts of observations in order to judge their capabilities to predict the future. However, the creation of large scale datasets is challenging for it requires collection, harmonization, and quality checking of large amounts of observations. For this reason, only a limited number of such datasets exist. In this work, we present a pan European, high-resolution gridded dataset of meteorological observations (EFAS-Meteo) which was designed with the aim to drive a large scale hydrological model. Similar European and global gridded datasets already exist, such as the HadGHCND (Caesar et al., 2006), the JRC MARS-STAT database (van der Goot and Orlandi, 2003) and the E-OBS gridded dataset (Haylock et al., 2008). However, none of those provide similarly high spatial resolution and/or a complete set of variables to force a hydrologic model. EFAS-Meteo contains daily maps of precipitation, surface temperature (mean, minimum and maximum), wind speed and vapour pressure at a spatial grid resolution of 5 x 5 km for the time period 1 January 1990 - 31 December 2011. It furthermore contains calculated radiation, which is calculated by using a staggered approach depending on the availability of sunshine duration, cloud cover and minimum and maximum temperature, and evapotranspiration (potential evapotranspiration, bare soil and open water evapotranspiration). The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation with the above-mentioned meteorological variables. The dataset was created as part of the development of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) and has been continuously updated throughout the last years. The dataset variables are used as

  15. High resolution Ceres HAMO atlas derived from Dawn FC images (United States)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Chris T.


    Introduction: NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the orbit of dwarf planet Ceres in March 2015, and will characterize the geology, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure of Ceres. One of the major goals of the mission is a global mapping of Ceres. Data: The Dawn mission was mapping Ceres in HAMO (High Altitude Mapping Orbit, 1475 km altitude) between August and October 2015. The framing camera took about 2,600 clear filter images with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during these cycles. The images were taken with different viewing angles and different illumination conditions. We selected images from one cycle (cycle #1) for the mosaicking process to have similar viewing and illumination conditions. Very minor gaps in the coverage were filled with a few images from cycle #2. Data Processing: The first step of the processing chain towards the cartographic products is to ortho-rectify the images to the proper scale and map projec-tion type. This process requires detailed information of the Dawn orbit and attitude data and of the topography of the targets. Both, improved orientation and a high-resolution shape model, are provided by stereo processing (bundle block adjustment) of the HAMO stereo image dataset [3]. Ceres's HAMO shape model was used for the calculation of the ray intersection points while the map projection itself was done onto the reference sphere of Ceres with a radius of 470 km. The final step is the controlled mosaicking) of all images to a global mosaic of Ceres, the so-called basemap. Ceres map tiles: The Ceres atlas was produced in a scale of 1:750,000 and consists of 15 tiles that conform to the quadrangle scheme proposed by Greeley and Batson [4]. A map scale of 1:750,000 guarantees a mapping at the highest available Dawn resolution in HAMO. The individual tiles were extracted from the global mosaic and reprojected. Nomenclature: The Dawn team proposed 81 names for geological features. By international

  16. Developing a high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis for Australia (United States)

    White, Christopher; Fox-Hughes, Paul; Su, Chun-Hsu; Jakob, Dörte; Kociuba, Greg; Eisenberg, Nathan; Steinle, Peter; Harris, Rebecca; Corney, Stuart; Love, Peter; Remenyi, Tomas; Chladil, Mark; Bally, John; Bindoff, Nathan


    A dynamically consistent, long-term atmospheric reanalysis can be used to support high-quality assessments of environmental risk and likelihood of extreme events. Most reanalyses are presently based on coarse-scale global systems that are not suitable for regional assessments in fire risk, water and natural resources, amongst others. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology is currently working to close this gap by producing a high-resolution reanalysis over the Australian and New Zealand region to construct a sequence of atmospheric conditions at sub-hourly intervals over the past 25 years from 1990. The Australia reanalysis consists of a convective-scale analysis nested within a 12 km regional-scale reanalysis, which is bounded by a coarse-scale ERA-Interim reanalysis that provides the required boundary and initial conditions. We use an unchanging atmospheric modelling suite based on the UERRA system used at the UK Met Office and the more recent version of the Bureau of Meteorology's operational numerical prediction model used in ACCESS-R (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator-Regional system). An advanced (4-dimensional variational) data assimilation scheme is used to optimally combine model physics with multiple observations from aircrafts, sondes, surface observations and satellites to create a best estimate of state of the atmosphere over a 6-hour moving window. This analysis is in turn used to drive a higher-resolution (1.5 km) downscaling model over selected subdomains within Australia, currently eastern New South Wales and Tasmania, with the capability to support this anywhere in the Australia-New Zealand domain. The temporal resolution of the gridded analysis fields for both the regional and higher-resolution subdomains are generally one hour, with many fields such as 10 m winds and 2 m temperatures available every 10 minutes. The reanalysis also produces many other variables that include wind, temperature, moisture, pressure, cloud cover

  17. High-resolution spectra of sprites and halos with GRASSP (United States)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, Francisco J.; Passas, María; Sánchez, Justo; Pérez-Invernón, Francisco J.; Luque, Alejandro; van der Velde, Oscar; Montanyà, Joan


    The first and simultaneous spectroscopic campaigns of TLEs were carried out in the mid 1990s [1, 2], soon after the discovery of TLEs in 1989 [3]. These initial campaigns provided preliminary results on the optical emissions of TLEs corresponding to the first positive system (FPS) of N2(B3Πg) → N2(A3Σu+) in the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral range (540-840 nm) recorded at standard video rate (30 fps) and at low (between 9 and 6 nm) spectral resolution. More recently, in 2007, spectroscopic observations of sprite optical emissions between 640 nm and 820 nm provided information on the relative vibrational concentrations of the emitting electronic state N2(B3Πg, v') at different altitudes using higher video rate (300 fps) and higher spectral resolution (3 nm) spectrographs [4] originally designed for aurora spectroscopy [5]. The above mentioned sporadic TLE spectroscopic campaigns identified some of the key optical emissions from sprites (a type of TLE) and were even able to quantify some of the vibrational concentrations of the emitting levels in reasonable agreement with model predictions [6-8]. However, the best spectral resolution achieved to date is 3 nm and it is not enough to spectrally resolve the different low-lying vibro-rotational transitions of the FPS of N2. This contribution focuses on (1) the latest upgrades of the GRanada Sprite Spectrograph and Polarimeter (GRASSP), a ground-based medium-high spectral resolution spectrograph aimed at characterizing from ground the spectroscopic fingerprints of all sort of TLEs occurring in the mesosphere of the Earth and (2) the GRASSP 2015, 2016 summer-autumn TLE spectroscopic campaign in Europe when we recorded high-resolution spectra of sprite halos and columniform and carrot-like sprites. GRASSP works at 0.235 nm spectral resolution covering the spectral range between 700 nm and 800 nm. The last version of GRASSP is currently installed in Castellgalí, Barcelona (Spain), it is aimed and operated

  18. Brain Network Analysis from High-Resolution EEG Signals (United States)

    de Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Babiloni, Fabio

    lattice and a random structure. Such a model has been designated as "small-world" network in analogy with the concept of the small-world phenomenon observed more than 30 years ago in social systems. In a similar way, many types of functional brain networks have been analyzed according to this mathematical approach. In particular, several studies based on different imaging techniques (fMRI, MEG and EEG) have found that the estimated functional networks showed small-world characteristics. In the functional brain connectivity context, these properties have been demonstrated to reflect an optimal architecture for the information processing and propagation among the involved cerebral structures. However, the performance of cognitive and motor tasks as well as the presence of neural diseases has been demonstrated to affect such a small-world topology, as revealed by the significant changes of L and C. Moreover, some functional brain networks have been mostly found to be very unlike the random graphs in their degree-distribution, which gives information about the allocation of the functional links within the connectivity pattern. It was demonstrated that the degree distributions of these networks follow a power-law trend. For this reason those networks are called "scale-free". They still exhibit the small-world phenomenon but tend to contain few nodes that act as highly connected "hubs". Scale-free networks are known to show resistance to failure, facility of synchronization and fast signal processing. Hence, it would be important to see whether the scaling properties of the functional brain networks are altered under various pathologies or experimental tasks. The present Chapter proposes a theoretical graph approach in order to evaluate the functional connectivity patterns obtained from high-resolution EEG signals. In this way, the "Brain Network Analysis" (in analogy with the Social Network Analysis that has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology) represents an

  19. Optimization of CMOS active pixels for high resolution digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soo


    characteristics. The size of these pixels is 100 μm x 100 μm. The test chip was fabricated using ETRI 0.8 μm (2P/2M) standard CMOS process. It was found that the epitaxial type pixels have similar noise level compared to nonepitaxial type, and the noise of diffusion type pixel is larger than for a well type pixel on the same substrate type at the output node. But, at the input node, the n diffusion /p epitaxial /p substrate type pixel has the maximum SNR compared to other types. Secondly, the size of the designed pixels is 20 μm for high resolution X-ray imaging. In these test structures, AMIS 0.5 μm (2P/3M) CMOS standard process are used for fabrication and different values for design parameters (including optimum design parameters extracted from the developed model) are considered. The results of the noise measurement are agreed with model calculation and the optimum values of in-pixel components can be extracted using developed noise model.

  20. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging (United States)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas


    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques