WorldWideScience

Sample records for spiral arm structure

  1. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  2. Flocculent and grand design spiral arm structure in cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 829 spiral galaxies in 22 clusters having redshifts between z = 0.02 and 0.06 were classified according to the appearance of their spiral arm structures. The fraction of galaxies that have a grand design spiral structure was found to be higher among barred galaxies than among non-barred galaxies (at z = 0.02, 95 per cent of strongly barred galaxies have a grand design, compared with 67 per cent of non-barred or weakly barred galaxies). Cluster galaxies and distant non-cluster galaxies have the same fraction of grand design galaxies when resolution effects are considered. The grand design fraction among cluster galaxies is also similar to the fraction observed among nearby galaxies in binary systems and in groups. (author)

  3. Nature of galaxy spiral arms

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    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of galaxy spiral arms is discussed in a popular form. Two approaches in the theory of spiral arms are considered; they are related to the problem of differential galaxy rotation and the spiral structure wave theory. The example of Galaxy M31 is considered to compare the structural peculiarity of its spiral arms with the wave theory predictions. The situation in the central and south-eastern part of arm S4 in Galaxy M31 noted to be completely explained by the wave theory and modern concepts on the origin of massive stars

  4. Study on the Orion spiral arm structure by the statistical modelling method

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    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of investigation of the spiral structure based on the statistical modelling methods is suggested. This method is used for the study of the Orion spiral arm. The maxima of density and the widths of the Orion arm in the direction of the areas considered for the longitude interval 55 deg - 187 deg are defined under the assumption of normal distribution of stars across the arm. The Sun is shown to be at the inner edge of the arm [ru

  5. Version of the galaxy spiral structure model with opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links

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    Dolidze, M V [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Abastumani. Abastumanskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya

    1963-05-01

    An attempt is made to explain some peculiarities of the local spiral structure and large-scale distribution of HII regions in the Galaxy by coexistence of the trailing and leading arm systems of different power and development. The existence of opposite-directed arms and inter-arm links in the circular zone (5-15 kpc) is analysed from the point of view of different Galaxy models.

  6. How does a planet excite multiple spiral arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-01-01

    Protoplanetary disk simulations show that a single planet excites multiple spiral arms in the background disk, potentially supported by the multi-armed spirals revealed with recent high-resolution observations in some disks. The existence of multiple spiral arms is of importance in many aspects. It is empirically found that the arm-to-arm separation increases as a function of the planetary mass, so one can use the morphology of observed spiral arms to infer the mass of unseen planets. In addition, a spiral arm opens a radial gap as it steepens into a shock, so when a planet excites multiple spiral arms it can open multiple gaps in the disk. Despite the important implications, however, the formation mechanism of multiple spiral arms has not been fully understood by far.In this talk, we explain how a planet excites multiple spiral arms. The gravitational potential of a planet can be decomposed into a Fourier series, a sum of individual azimuthal modes having different azimuthal wavenumbers. Using a linear wave theory, we first demonstrate that appropriate sets of Fourier decomposed waves can be in phase, raising a possibility that constructive interference among the waves can produce coherent structures - spiral arms. More than one spiral arm can form since such constructive interference can occur at different positions in the disk for different sets of waves. We then verify this hypothesis using a suite of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Finally, we present non-linear behavior in the formation of multiple spiral arms.

  7. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  8. Galaxy Zoo: constraining the origin of spiral arms

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    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Keel, William C.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Masters, Karen L.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2018-05-01

    Since the discovery that the majority of low-redshift galaxies exhibit some level of spiral structure, a number of theories have been proposed as to why these patterns exist. A popular explanation is a process known as swing amplification, yet there is no observational evidence to prove that such a mechanism is at play. By using a number of measured properties of galaxies, and scaling relations where there are no direct measurements, we model samples of SDSS and S4G spiral galaxies in terms of their relative halo, bulge and disc mass and size. Using these models, we test predictions of swing amplification theory with respect to directly measured spiral arm numbers from Galaxy Zoo 2. We find that neither a universal cored or cuspy inner dark matter profile can correctly predict observed numbers of arms in galaxies. However, by invoking a halo contraction/expansion model, a clear bimodality in the spiral galaxy population emerges. Approximately 40 per cent of unbarred spiral galaxies at z ≲ 0.1 and M* ≳ 1010M⊙ have spiral arms that can be modelled by swing amplification. This population display a significant correlation between predicted and observed spiral arm numbers, evidence that they are swing amplified modes. The remainder are dominated by two-arm systems for which the model predicts significantly higher arm numbers. These are likely driven by tidal interactions or other mechanisms.

  9. Origins of galactic spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Theories of galactic structure are reviewed briefly before comparing them with recent observations. Also reviewed is the evidence for an intergalactic magnetic field and its possible effects on gas concentrations and patterns of star creation, including spiral arms. It is then shown that normal spiral galaxies may be divided into the M51-type and others. The rare M51-type have H I gas arms coincident with unusually filamentary and luminous optical arms; they also have a companion galaxy. The remaining great majority of spirals have no well-defined gas arms and their optical arms are irregular, broader and less luminous; they have no companion galaxy. It appears that without exception the half-dozen or so galaxies whose structures appear to support the density-wave theory show one or more of the characteristics of the rare type of spiral, and that 'the three principal confirmations of the spiral-wave idea' (M51, M81, M101) have companions which may account for their arms. Toomre has rejected this idea on the grounds that his models do not agree with the observed structures. It is shown that these models are inadequate in two major respects, and when replaced by magneto-tidal models using non-uniform gas disks one might expect agreement. The original hydromagnetic model of spiral arms is now reserved for non-interacting galaxies, of which M33 might be taken as a prototype. The model predicts broad or 'massive' optical arms and no corresponding arms of neutral hydrogen, as observed. (Auth.)

  10. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  11. Rolling motions in an inner spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, F.M.; Poeppel, W.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen line observations made at low galactic latitudes for l=318degree, 326degree, 334degree, and 337degree show the presence of velocity gradients in latitude in the nearest inner spiral arm, similar to those found by other observations in different regions. Maximum velocity change is about 10 km s -1 for l=337degree. By generating synthetic line profiles constructed from a model spiral arm, several possible causes of these ''rolling motions'' were studied, such as a vertical displacement or a tilt of the arm (which failed to account for the observations) and rotation or shearing in the arm. It was futher shown that a typical arm can maintain such a motion (approx. =75 km s -1 kpc -1 ) with its own gravitational potential. The results are used to study the origin and tilt of Gould's Belt

  12. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

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    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  13. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  14. Stellar complexes in spiral arms of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.

    The history of the introduction and development of the star complexes conception is briefly described. These large groups of stars were picked out and named as such ones in our Galaxy with argumentation and evidence for their physical unity (using the Cepheid variables the distances and ages of which are easy determined from their periods); anyway earlier the complexes were noted along the spiral arms of the Andromeda galaxy, but were not recognized as a new kind of star group. The chains of complexes along the spiral arms are observed quite rarely; their origin is explained by magneto- gravitational or purely gravitational instability developing along the arm. It is not clear why these chains are quite a rare phenomenon - and more so why sometimes the regular chain of complexes are observed in one arm only. Probably intergalactic magnetic field participated in formation of such chains. Apart from the complexes located along the arms, there are isolated giant complexes known (up to 700 pc in diameter) which look like super-gigantic but rather rarefied globular clusters. Until now only two of these formations are studied, in NGC 6946 and M51.

  15. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

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    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  16. Planet-driven Spiral Arms in Protoplanetary Disks. II. Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    We examine whether various characteristics of planet-driven spiral arms can be used to constrain the masses of unseen planets and their positions within their disks. By carrying out two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations varying planet mass and disk gas temperature, we find that a larger number of spiral arms form with a smaller planet mass and a lower disk temperature. A planet excites two or more spiral arms interior to its orbit for a range of disk temperatures characterized by the disk aspect ratio 0.04≤slant {(h/r)}p≤slant 0.15, whereas exterior to a planet’s orbit multiple spiral arms can form only in cold disks with {(h/r)}p≲ 0.06. Constraining the planet mass with the pitch angle of spiral arms requires accurate disk temperature measurements that might be challenging even with ALMA. However, the property that the pitch angle of planet-driven spiral arms decreases away from the planet can be a powerful diagnostic to determine whether the planet is located interior or exterior to the observed spirals. The arm-to-arm separations increase as a function of planet mass, consistent with previous studies; however, the exact slope depends on disk temperature as well as the radial location where the arm-to-arm separations are measured. We apply these diagnostics to the spiral arms seen in MWC 758 and Elias 2–27. As shown in Bae et al., planet-driven spiral arms can create concentric rings and gaps, which can produce a more dominant observable signature than spiral arms under certain circumstances. We discuss the observability of planet-driven spiral arms versus rings and gaps.

  17. Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

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    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales through out the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e., as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the 9 most prominent Herschel filaments from a pilot search field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3)×104 Msun, and beam-averaged (28", or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)x1022 cm-2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K due to local star formation activities. All the filaments are located within spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scale height and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade. These giant filaments, which often contain regularly spaced pc-scale clumps, are much larger than the filaments found in the Herschel Gould's Belt Survey, and they form the upper ends in the filamentary hierarchy. Full operational ALMA and NOEMA will be able to resolve and characterize similar filaments in nearby spiral galaxies, allowing us to compare the star formation in a uniform context of spiral arms.

  18. CHARACTERIZING SPIRAL ARM AND INTERARM STAR FORMATION

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    Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Meidt, S. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hughes, A., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2016-08-20

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy’s star formation budget and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we construct H α maps including detailed corrections for dust extinction and stellar absorption to identify 391 H ii regions at 35 pc resolution over 12 kpc{sup 2}. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate H ii regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. Using our full spectral coverage of each region, we find that most physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) of H ii regions are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of H α luminosity due to the background of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contaminating each H ii region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within H ii regions than in the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm H ii regions. Use of the temperature-sensitive [S ii]/H α line ratio instead of the H α surface brightness to identify the boundaries of H ii regions does not change this result. Using the dust attenuation as a tracer of the gas, we find depletion times consistent with previous work (2 × 10{sup 9} yr) with no differences between the arm and interarm, but this is very sensitive to the DIG correction. Unlike molecular clouds, which can be dynamically affected by the galactic environment, we see fairly consistent properties of H ii regions in both arm and interarm environments. This suggests either a difference in star formation and feedback in arms or a decoupling of dense star-forming clumps from the more extended surrounding molecular gas.

  19. Large-scale Bubble Structure of the Intersteller Medium (ISM) and Properties of the Local Spiral Arm (LSA)

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    Bochkarev, N. G.

    1984-01-01

    Bubbles which are very common structure units in the Galaxy and galaxies were examined. Collection of radio, optical, infrared and X-ray observations of the Cyg superbubble (CSB) region of the sky show that the CSB is not a single bubble object. Between 50 to 75 percent of its X-ray emission is ascribed to discrete sources. The other 25 to 50% X-ray emission, probably originates from bubbles around 8 OB associations of the region. All bubbles located within the spiral structure of Galaxy, M31 and M33 have diameter 300 pc. The large distance of stellar association from the galactic plane (GP) combined with picture of the gas distribution within the LSA shows that a Reyleigh-Taylor instability in the LSA can develop and give use to the formation of compact stellar clusters, such as the Cyg OB2 association. Development stages of the Reyleigh-Taylor instability, some peculiarities of the dust distribution and departures of the local structure from the galactic grand design suggest the absence of a spiral shockwave in the LSA.

  20. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  1. Model for the local spiral structure of the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the most luminous stars, associations, clusters, and H II regions in the region l = 270 0 to 30 0 reveal a major spiral arm, Sagittarius-Carina, which can be observed to 9 or 10 kpc from the sun in the direction l = 290 0 to 305 0 . Evidence is also presented for a spur at l = 305 0 to 310 0 on the inner side of the Saggitarius-Carina arm. The noncircular motions observed in the Carina and Sagittarius spiral features agree in both magnitude and direction and support the suggestion that Sagittarius-Carina is a major spiral arm. A model is presented for the local spiral structure with wide, massive, spiral arms which show fragmentation in our region of the Galaxy. On the basis of the optical spiral structure, the Milky Way is an Sc type spiral galaxy, perhaps of the M 101 type

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others

  3. Spiral arms and disc stability in the Andromeda galaxy

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    Tenjes, P.; Tuvikene, T.; Tamm, A.; Kipper, R.; Tempel, E.

    2017-04-01

    Aims: Density waves are often considered as the triggering mechanism of star formation in spiral galaxies. Our aim is to study relations between different star formation tracers (stellar UV and near-IR radiation and emission from H I, CO, and cold dust) in the spiral arms of M 31, to calculate stability conditions in the galaxy disc, and to draw conclusions about possible star formation triggering mechanisms. Methods: We selected fourteen spiral arm segments from the de-projected data maps and compared emission distributions along the cross sections of the segments in different datasets to each other, in order to detect spatial offsets between young stellar populations and the star-forming medium. By using the disc stability condition as a function of perturbation wavelength and distance from the galaxy centre, we calculated the effective disc stability parameters and the least stable wavelengths at different distances. For this we used a mass distribution model of M 31 with four disc components (old and young stellar discs, cold and warm gaseous discs) embedded within the external potential of the bulge, the stellar halo, and the dark matter halo. Each component is considered to have a realistic finite thickness. Results: No systematic offsets between the observed UV and CO/far-IR emission across the spiral segments are detected. The calculated effective stability parameter has a lowest value of Qeff ≃ 1.8 at galactocentric distances of 12-13 kpc. The least stable wavelengths are rather long, with the lowest values starting from ≃ 3 kpc at distances R > 11 kpc. Conclusions: The classical density wave theory is not a realistic explanation for the spiral structure of M 31. Instead, external causes should be considered, such as interactions with massive gas clouds or dwarf companions of M 31.

  4. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  5. COBE AND THE GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: GEOMETRY OF THE SPIRAL ARMS FROM FIR COOLING LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Wolfire, Mark; Hollenbach, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a new model for the spiral structure of the Milky Way based upon the essentially all-sky intensity maps of the [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm lines of the interstellar medium (ISM) obtained by the FIRAS instrument of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), with ancillary data from the Balloon-borne Infrared Carbon Explorer, and Infrared Space Observatory. These lines are important coolants of the ISM and strong tracers of the spiral structure. The model provides the volume emissivity of these species as a function of position within the Galaxy. Two-, three-, and four-arm models are examined, using a number of spiral functional forms. Two-arm models are found to be inconsistent with the COBE/FIRAS data. A three-arm model can be constructed that reproduces the [C II] and [N II] intensity profiles along the Galactic plane. This model, however, is discounted by historical observations of the Perseus and Cygnus ( O uter ) arms. A four-arm model, with arms defined by logarithmic spiral forms, reproduce the observations extremely well. Models of the Milky Way's spiral geometry proposed from ∼1980 to the present are examined in light of the COBE data and compared with the model presented herein. The preponderance of the evidence supports the existence of four well-defined logarithmic spiral arms in the gaseous component of the ISM. We note that essentially all two-arm models proposed since the mid-1980s are based upon observations of older evolved stars. We address the question of why studies based upon observations of stellar densities yield two-arm models while models based upon observations of more traditional tracers of spiral arms, i.e., enhanced gas and dust densities, star formation, and young stellar populations, yield four-arm models.

  6. Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales throughout the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large-scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e. as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL (Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey) data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the nine most prominent Herschel filaments, including six identified from a pilot search field plus three from outside the field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3) × 104 M⊙, and beam-averaged (28 arcsec, or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)× 1022 cm- 2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K. All the filaments are located within ≲60 pc from the Galactic mid-plane. Comparing the filaments to a recent spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scaleheight and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade.

  7. Kinematic properties of supergiants in the Perseus spiral arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, T P [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1963-05-01

    Large-scale inhomogeneity of the velocity field in the Perseus spiral arm region is found on the basis of the analysis of spatial motions of supergiants. The inhomogeneity seems to be connected with both presence of large groups of young stars and systematic motions in the arm predicted by the density wave theory. Proper motions of 78 stars are presented.

  8. Radial distributions of arm-gas offsets as an observational test of spiral theories

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Junichi; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Egusa, Fumi

    2015-01-01

    Theories of stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies can be grouped into two classes based on the longevity of a spiral arm. Although the quasi-stationary density wave theory supposes that spirals are rigidly-rotating, long-lived patterns, the dynamic spiral theory predicts that spirals are differentially-rotating, transient, recurrent patterns. In order to distinguish between the two spiral models from observations, we performed hydrodynamic simulations with steady and dynamic spiral models. Hyd...

  9. On the nature of the ramified spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishurov, Yu.N.; Suchkov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of large-scale branching of spiral arms observed in a number of galaxies has been explained in the framework of the density wave theory. The solutions of the dispersion equation of spiral waves of density relative to the wave number k(r) in the models of galaxies in the form of two discs rotating with different angular velocities have been shown to be branching functions of the parameter r (r is the galacto-centric distance) under definite conditions; it corresponds to the branching of spiral arms. Hydrodynamic and kinetic considerations are also presented. The last one makes possible the understanding several other structural properties of spiral galaxies

  10. Neutral hydrogen and spiral structure in M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, K.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of neutral hydrogen (H I) in the galaxy M33 are presented which have sufficient angular resolution (47 x 93 arcsec) to distinguish detailed H I spiral structure for the first time. H I spiral features extend over the entire disc; the pattern is broken and multi-armed with the best-defined arms lying at radii outside the brightest optical features. Several very narrow spiral 'filaments' are unresolved by the beam, implying true widths -1 , is perturbed near the inner spiral arms. These perturbations agree with the predictions of density-wave theory but may simply arise from the self-gravity of massive arms whether or not they are a quasi-stationary wave phenomenon. If the outer spiral features form a rigidly rotating density-wave pattern, the absence of large radial streaming motions along the features implies a small pattern speed ( -1 kpc -1 ), with corotation in the outer parts of the disc. (author)

  11. Prediction of the whirl gas motion between galactic spiral arms from the laboratory modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezlin, M.V.; Polyachenko, V.L.; Snezhkin, E.N.; Trubnikov, A.S.; Fridman, A.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1986-01-01

    The shallow water laboratory modelling of the spiral structure generation in galaxies with a discontinuity of the rotation velocity has revealed the banana-like anticyclone whirls with the surface density minima between the spiral waves. The particles trapped by the whirls flow into the spiral arms and move there with considerable radial velocities in the vicinity of the corotation (near the location of discontinuity). This puts in new light the problem of relative motion of the arms and a galactic disk's material. Self-consistent spiral-whirl structure is observed even for so fast rotation of the periphery when the Rossby-Obukhov radius is the order of magnitude less than arms' length. The results obtained are compared with observation data for NGC 1566 galaxy. It is also noted that in some SB galaxies the bar-phenomenon may by a consequence of the spiral-whirl structure of gaseous disk. The results of observations and laboratory experiment initiate the hypothesis that, in galaxies with nearby satellite oppositely rotating, the generation of spiral arms which are leading in the wave meaning is possible, that is with their ends rotating forwards (oppositely to the direction of the galaxy rotation)

  12. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  13. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  14. SpArcFiRe: morphological selection effects due to reduced visibility of tightly winding arms in distant spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianrui Rae; Edward English, John; Silva, Pedro; Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B.

    2018-03-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project has provided a plethora of valuable morphological data on a large number of galaxies from various surveys, and their team have identified and/or corrected for many biases. Here we study a new bias related to spiral arm pitch angles, which first requires selecting a sample of spiral galaxies that show observable structure. One obvious way is to select galaxies using a threshold in spirality, which we define as the fraction of Galaxy Zoo humans who have reported seeing spiral structure. Using such a threshold, we use the automated tool SpArcFiRe (SPiral ARC FInder and REporter) to measure spiral arm pitch angles. We observe that the mean pitch angle of spiral arms increases linearly with redshift for 0.05 data to provide a spirality for each artificially degraded image. We find that SpARcFiRe's ability to accurately measure pitch angles decreases as the image degrades, but that spirality decreases more quickly in galaxies with tightly wound arms, leading to the selection effect. This new bias means one must be careful in selecting a sample on which to measure spiral structure. Finally, we also include a sensitivity analysis of SpArcFiRe's internal parameters.

  15. SpArcFiRe: Scalable automated detection of spiral galaxy arm segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Given an approximately centered image of a spiral galaxy, we describe an entirely automated method that finds, centers, and sizes the galaxy (possibly masking nearby stars and other objects if necessary in order to isolate the galaxy itself) and then automatically extracts structural information about the spiral arms. For each arm segment found, we list the pixels in that segment, allowing image analysis on a per-arm-segment basis. We also perform a least-squares fit of a logarithmic spiral arc to the pixels in that segment, giving per-arc parameters, such as the pitch angle, arm segment length, location, etc. The algorithm takes about one minute per galaxies, and can easily be scaled using parallelism. We have run it on all ∼644,000 Sloan objects that are larger than 40 pixels across and classified as 'galaxies'. We find a very good correlation between our quantitative description of a spiral structure and the qualitative description provided by Galaxy Zoo humans. Our objective, quantitative measures of structure demonstrate the difficulty in defining exactly what constitutes a spiral 'arm', leading us to prefer the term 'arm segment'. We find that pitch angle often varies significantly segment-to-segment in a single spiral galaxy, making it difficult to define the pitch angle for a single galaxy. We demonstrate how our new database of arm segments can be queried to find galaxies satisfying specific quantitative visual criteria. For example, even though our code does not explicitly find rings, a good surrogate is to look for galaxies having one long, low-pitch-angle arm—which is how our code views ring galaxies. SpArcFiRe is available at http://sparcfire.ics.uci.edu.

  16. TESTING THE LINK BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND GALACTIC SPIRAL ARM TRANSIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, Andrew C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Pohl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We re-examine past suggestions of a close link between terrestrial climate change and the Sun's transit of spiral arms in its path through the Milky Way galaxy. These links produced concrete fits, deriving the unknown spiral pattern speed from terrestrial climate correlations. We test these fits against new data on spiral structure based on CO data that do not make simplifying assumptions about symmetry and circular rotation. If we compare the times of these transits with changes in the climate of Earth, the claimed correlations not only disappear, but we also find that they cannot be resurrected for any reasonable pattern speed.

  17. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  18. OT2_tvelusam_4: Probing Galactic Spiral Arm Tangencies with [CII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, T.

    2011-09-01

    We propose to use the unique viewing geometry of the Galactic spiral arm tangents , which provide an ideal environment for studying the effects of density waves on spiral structure. We propose a well-sampled map of the[C II] 1.9 THz line emission along a 15-degree longitude region across the Norma-3kpc arm tangential, which includes the edge of the Perseus Arm. The COBE-FIRAS instrument observed the strongest [C II] and [N II] emission along these spiral arm tangencies.. The Herschel Open Time Key Project Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+), also detects the strongest [CII] emission near these spiral arm tangential directions in its sparsely sampled HIFI survey of [CII] in the Galactic plane survey. The [C II] 158-micron line is the strongest infrared line emitted by the ISM and is an excellent tracer and probe of both the diffuse gases in the cold neutral medium (CNM) and the warm ionized medium (WIM). Furthermore, as demonstrated in the GOTC+ results, [C II] is an efficient tracer of the dark H2 gas in the ISM that is not traced by CO or HI observations. Thus, taking advantage of the long path lengths through the spiral arm across the tangencies, we can use the [C II] emission to trace and characterize the diffuse atomic and ionized gas as well as the diffuse H2 molecular gas in cloud transitions from HI to H2 and C+ to C and CO, throughout the ISM. The main goal of our proposal is to use the well sampled (at arcmin scale) [C II] to study these gas components of the ISM in the spiral-arm, and inter-arm regions, to constrain models of the spiral structure and to understand the influence of spiral density waves on the Galactic gas and the dynamical interaction between the different components. The proposed HIFI observations will consist of OTF 15 degree longitude scans and one 2-degree latitude scan sampled every 40arcsec across the Norma- 3kpc Perseus Spiral tangency.

  19. Spiral arm amplitude variations and pattern speeds in the grand design galaxies M51, M81, and M100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Seiden, P.E.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the modal theory of galactic spiral structure, the amplitude of a prominent two-arm spiral pattern should oscillate slightly with galactocentric distance because of an interference between the outward and inward propagating waves. In the stellar dynamical theory, the spiral arm amplitudes should oscillate because of differential crowding near and between wave-orbit resonances. Two and three cycles of such oscillations have been found in computer-enhanced images at B and I passbands of the grand design galaxies M81 and M100, respectively, and what is probably one cycle of such an amplitude variation in M51. These three galaxies are the most symmetric and global of the two-arm spirals in the near-IR survey of Elmegreen (1981), so the occurrence of such spiral amplitude oscillations could be common among galaxies of this type. The positions of the features discussed are used to suggest possible arm pattern speeds. 23 refs

  20. Smooth-arm spiral galaxies: their properties and significance to cluster-galaxy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In this dissertation a number of galaxies with optical appearances between those of normal, actively-star-forming spirals and SO galaxies have been examined. These so-called smooth-arm spiral galaxies exhibit spiral arms without any of the spiral tracers - H II regions, O-B star associations, dust - indicative of current star formation. Tests were made to find if, perhaps, these smooth-arm spirals could have, at one time, been normal, actively-star-forming spirals whose gas had been somehow removed; and that are currently transforming into SO galaxies. This scenario proceeds as (1) removal of gas, (2) gradual dying of disk density wave, (3) emergence of SO galaxy. If the dominant method of gas removal is ram-pressure stripping by a hot, intracluster medium, then smooth-arm spirals should occur primarily in x-ray clusters. Some major findings of this dissertation are as follows: (1) Smooth-arm spirals are redder than normal spirals of the same morphological type. Most smooth-arm spirals cannot be distinguished by color from SO galaxies. (2) A weak trend exists for smooth-arm spirals with stronger arms to be bluer than those with weaker arms; thus implying that the interval since gas removal has been shorter for the galaxies with stronger arms. (3) Smooth-arm spirals are deficient in neutral hydrogen - sometimes by an order of magnitude or, possibly, more

  1. Classifying and modelling spiral structures in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate numerical techniques for automatic identification of individual spiral arms in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs. Building on our earlier work, which used tensor classification to identify regions that were `spiral-like', we can now obtain fits to spirals for individual arm elements. We show this process can even detect spirals in relatively flocculent spiral patterns, but the resulting fits to logarithmic `grand-design' spirals are less robust. Our methods not only permit the estimation of pitch angles, but also direct measurements of the spiral arm width and pattern speed. In principle, our techniques will allow the tracking of material as it passes through an arm. Our demonstration uses smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, but we stress that the method is suitable for any finite-element hydrodynamics system. We anticipate our techniques will be essential to studies of star formation in disc galaxies, and attempts to find the origin of recently observed spiral structure in protostellar discs.

  2. Simulations of the flocculent spiral M33: what drives the spiral structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Pettitt, A. R.; Corbelli, E.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    We perform simulations of isolated galaxies in order to investigate the likely origin of the spiral structure in M33. In our models, we find that gravitational instabilities in the stars and gas are able to reproduce the observed spiral pattern and velocity field of M33, as seen in HI, and no interaction is required. We also find that the optimum models have high levels of stellar feedback which create large holes similar to those observed in M33, whilst lower levels of feedback tend to produce a large amount of small scale structure, and undisturbed long filaments of high surface density gas, hardly detected in the M33 disc. The gas component appears to have a significant role in producing the structure, so if there is little feedback, both the gas and stars organise into clear spiral arms, likely due to a lower combined Q (using gas and stars), and the ready ability of cold gas to undergo spiral shocks. By contrast models with higher feedback have weaker spiral structure, especially in the stellar component, compared to grand design galaxies. We did not see a large difference in the behaviour of Qstars with most of these models, however, because Qstars stayed relatively constant unless the disc was more strongly unstable. Our models suggest that although the stars produce some underlying spiral structure, this is relatively weak, and the gas physics has a considerable role in producing the large scale structure of the ISM in flocculent spirals.

  3. A FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF SPIRAL STRUCTURE IN DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Shields, Douglas W. [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 346 1/2 North Arkansas Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Westfall, Kyle B. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Flatman, Russell [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Hartley, Matthew T. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 226 Physics Building, 835 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Berrier, Joel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Martinsson, Thomas P. K. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Swaters, Rob A., E-mail: bld002@email.uark.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Spiral structure is the most distinctive feature of disk galaxies and yet debate persists about which theory of spiral structure is correct. Many versions of the density wave theory demand that the pitch angle be uniquely determined by the distribution of mass in the bulge and disk of the galaxy. We present evidence that the tangent of the pitch angle of logarithmic spiral arms in disk galaxies correlates strongly with the density of neutral atomic hydrogen in the disk and with the central stellar bulge mass of the galaxy. These three quantities, when plotted against each other, form a planar relationship that we argue should be fundamental to our understanding of spiral structure in disk galaxies. We further argue that any successful theory of spiral structure must be able to explain this relationship.

  4. Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ni, Xuan

    2012-01-01

    We study the formation of multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games with mobile individuals. We discover a set of seed distributions of species, which is able to produce multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals with a finite number of arms and pairs based on stochastic processes. The joint spiral waves are also predicted by a theoretical model based on partial differential equations associated with specific initial conditions. The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced to differentiate the multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals. For the given mobility, the spatial entropy of multi-armed spirals is higher than that of single armed spirals. The stability of the waves is explored with respect to individual mobility. Particularly, we find that both two armed spirals and one pair antispirals transform to the single armed spirals. Furthermore, multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable than those with higher numbers of arms and pairs. In addition, comparing to large amount of previous work, we employ the no flux boundary conditions which enables quantitative studies of pattern formation and stability in the system of stochastic interactions in the absence of excitable media. -- Highlights: ► Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are observed. ► Patterns are predicted by computer simulations and partial differential equations. ► The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced. ► Patterns are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. ► The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable.

  5. Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo, E-mail: jiangluoluo@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wang, Wen-Xu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lai, Ying-Cheng [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ni, Xuan [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-07-09

    We study the formation of multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals in spatial rock–paper–scissors games with mobile individuals. We discover a set of seed distributions of species, which is able to produce multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals with a finite number of arms and pairs based on stochastic processes. The joint spiral waves are also predicted by a theoretical model based on partial differential equations associated with specific initial conditions. The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced to differentiate the multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals. For the given mobility, the spatial entropy of multi-armed spirals is higher than that of single armed spirals. The stability of the waves is explored with respect to individual mobility. Particularly, we find that both two armed spirals and one pair antispirals transform to the single armed spirals. Furthermore, multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable than those with higher numbers of arms and pairs. In addition, comparing to large amount of previous work, we employ the no flux boundary conditions which enables quantitative studies of pattern formation and stability in the system of stochastic interactions in the absence of excitable media. -- Highlights: ► Multi-armed spirals and multi-pairs antispirals are observed. ► Patterns are predicted by computer simulations and partial differential equations. ► The spatial entropy of patterns is introduced. ► Patterns are relatively stable for intermediate mobility. ► The joint spirals with lower numbers of arms and pairs are relatively more stable.

  6. Planet-driven Spiral Arms in Protoplanetary Disks. I. Formation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    Protoplanetary disk simulations show that a single planet can excite more than one spiral arm, possibly explaining the recent observations of multiple spiral arms in some systems. In this paper, we explain the mechanism by which a planet excites multiple spiral arms in a protoplanetary disk. Contrary to previous speculations, the formation of both primary and additional arms can be understood as a linear process when the planet mass is sufficiently small. A planet resonantly interacts with epicyclic oscillations in the disk, launching spiral wave modes around the Lindblad resonances. When a set of wave modes is in phase, they can constructively interfere with each other and create a spiral arm. More than one spiral arm can form because such constructive interference can occur for different sets of wave modes, with the exact number and launching position of the spiral arms being dependent on the planet mass as well as the disk temperature profile. Nonlinear effects become increasingly important as the planet mass increases, resulting in spiral arms with stronger shocks and thus larger pitch angles. This is found to be common for both primary and additional arms. When a planet has a sufficiently large mass (≳3 thermal masses for (h/r) p = 0.1), only two spiral arms form interior to its orbit. The wave modes that would form a tertiary arm for smaller mass planets merge with the primary arm. Improvements in our understanding of the formation of spiral arms can provide crucial insights into the origin of observed spiral arms in protoplanetary disks.

  7. THE STRUCTURE OF SPIRAL SHOCKS EXCITED BY PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging observations have revealed spiral structures in protoplanetary disks. Previous studies have suggested that planet-induced spiral arms cannot explain some of these spiral patterns, due to the large pitch angle and high contrast of the spiral arms in observations. We have carried out three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical simulations to study spiral wakes/shocks excited by young planets. We find that, in contrast with linear theory, the pitch angle of spiral arms does depend on the planet mass, which can be explained by the nonlinear density wave theory. A secondary (or even a tertiary) spiral arm, especially for inner arms, is also excited by a massive planet. With a more massive planet in the disk, the excited spiral arms have larger pitch angle and the separation between the primary and secondary arms in the azimuthal direction is also larger. We also find that although the arms in the outer disk do not exhibit much vertical motion, the inner arms have significant vertical motion, which boosts the density perturbation at the disk atmosphere. Combining hydrodynamical models with Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we find that the inner spiral arms are considerably more prominent in synthetic near-IR images using full 3D hydrodynamical models than images based on two-dimensional models assuming vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, indicating the need to model observations with full 3D hydrodynamics. Overall, companion-induced spiral arms not only pinpoint the companion’s position but also provide three independent ways (pitch angle, separation between two arms, and contrast of arms) to constrain the companion’s mass

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF SPIRAL SHOCKS EXCITED BY PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dong, Ruobing, E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Direct imaging observations have revealed spiral structures in protoplanetary disks. Previous studies have suggested that planet-induced spiral arms cannot explain some of these spiral patterns, due to the large pitch angle and high contrast of the spiral arms in observations. We have carried out three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical simulations to study spiral wakes/shocks excited by young planets. We find that, in contrast with linear theory, the pitch angle of spiral arms does depend on the planet mass, which can be explained by the nonlinear density wave theory. A secondary (or even a tertiary) spiral arm, especially for inner arms, is also excited by a massive planet. With a more massive planet in the disk, the excited spiral arms have larger pitch angle and the separation between the primary and secondary arms in the azimuthal direction is also larger. We also find that although the arms in the outer disk do not exhibit much vertical motion, the inner arms have significant vertical motion, which boosts the density perturbation at the disk atmosphere. Combining hydrodynamical models with Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we find that the inner spiral arms are considerably more prominent in synthetic near-IR images using full 3D hydrodynamical models than images based on two-dimensional models assuming vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, indicating the need to model observations with full 3D hydrodynamics. Overall, companion-induced spiral arms not only pinpoint the companion’s position but also provide three independent ways (pitch angle, separation between two arms, and contrast of arms) to constrain the companion’s mass.

  9. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, T.M.

    1984-02-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz was surveyed in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy. Comparison of this survey with similar H1 data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21 cm features. To each of the classical 21 cm H1 spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is devised for the galactic distribution of molecular clouds. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide

  10. Measurement of Galactic Logarithmic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Using Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2012-01-01

    A logarithmic spiral is a prominent feature appearing in a majority of observed galaxies. This feature has long been associated with the traditional Hubble classification scheme, but historical quotes of pitch angle of spiral galaxies have been almost exclusively qualitative. We have developed a methodology, utilizing two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies, in order to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms. Our technique provides a quanti...

  11. Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Kengo; Lin, Chia Hui [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hosokawa, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sakurai, Yuya, E-mail: tomida@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-01-20

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues, and its radius becomes as large as 200 au toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk, soon becoming unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phases. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2–27, whose circumstellar disk has grand-design spiral arms. We find good agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand-design spiral arms around Elias 2–27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. If such spiral arms commonly exist in young circumstellar disks, it implies that young circumstellar disks are considerably massive and gravitational instability is the key process of angular momentum transport.

  12. Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Kengo; Lin, Chia Hui; Machida, Masahiro N.; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya

    2017-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues, and its radius becomes as large as 200 au toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk, soon becoming unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phases. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2–27, whose circumstellar disk has grand-design spiral arms. We find good agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand-design spiral arms around Elias 2–27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. If such spiral arms commonly exist in young circumstellar disks, it implies that young circumstellar disks are considerably massive and gravitational instability is the key process of angular momentum transport.

  13. MEASUREMENT OF GALACTIC LOGARITHMIC SPIRAL ARM PITCH ANGLE USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2012-01-01

    A logarithmic spiral is a prominent feature appearing in a majority of observed galaxies. This feature has long been associated with the traditional Hubble classification scheme, but historical quotes of pitch angle of spiral galaxies have been almost exclusively qualitative. We have developed a methodology, utilizing two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies, in order to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms. Our technique provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature. This will allow comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. In this work, we detail our image processing and analysis of spiral galaxy images and discuss the robustness of our analysis techniques.

  14. Measurement of Galactic Logarithmic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Using Two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2012-04-01

    A logarithmic spiral is a prominent feature appearing in a majority of observed galaxies. This feature has long been associated with the traditional Hubble classification scheme, but historical quotes of pitch angle of spiral galaxies have been almost exclusively qualitative. We have developed a methodology, utilizing two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies, in order to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms. Our technique provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature. This will allow comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. In this work, we detail our image processing and analysis of spiral galaxy images and discuss the robustness of our analysis techniques.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF GALACTIC LOGARITHMIC SPIRAL ARM PITCH ANGLE USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, 202 Field House, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Puerari, Ivanio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro 1, 72840 Santa Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2012-04-01

    A logarithmic spiral is a prominent feature appearing in a majority of observed galaxies. This feature has long been associated with the traditional Hubble classification scheme, but historical quotes of pitch angle of spiral galaxies have been almost exclusively qualitative. We have developed a methodology, utilizing two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies, in order to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms. Our technique provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature. This will allow comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. In this work, we detail our image processing and analysis of spiral galaxy images and discuss the robustness of our analysis techniques.

  16. Gas Clouds in Whirlpool Galaxy Yield Important Clues Supporting Theory on Spiral Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers studying gas clouds in the famous Whirlpool Galaxy have found important clues supporting a theory that seeks to explain how the spectacular spiral arms of galaxies can persist for billions of years. The astronomers applied techniques used to study similar gas clouds in our own Milky Way to those in the spiral arms of a neighbor galaxy for the first time, and their results bolster a theory first proposed in 1964. M51 The spiral galaxy M51: Left, as seen with the Hubble Space Telescope; Right, radio image showing location of Carbon Monoxide gas. CREDIT: STScI, OVRO, IRAM (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Optical and Radio (CO) Views (above image) HST Optical Image with CO Contours Overlaid Radio/Optical Composite Image of M51 VLA/Effelsberg Radio Image of M51, With Panel Showing Magnetic Field Lines The Whirlpool Galaxy, about 31 million light-years distant, is a beautiful spiral in the constellation Canes Venatici. Also known as M51, it is seen nearly face-on from Earth and is familiar to amateur astronomers and has been featured in countless posters, books and magazine articles. "This galaxy made a great target for our study of spiral arms and how star formation works along them," said Eva Schinnerer, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM. "It was ideal for us because it's one of the closest face-on spirals in the sky," she added. Schinnerer worked with Axel Weiss of the Institute for Millimeter Radio Astronomy (IRAM) in Spain, Susanne Aalto of the Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden, and Nick Scoville of Caltech. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Denver, Colorado. The scientists analyzed radio emission from Carbon Monoxide (CO) molecules in giant gas clouds along M51's spiral arms. Using telescopes at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the 30-meter radio telescope of IRAM, they were able to determine the temperatures and amounts of turbulence within the

  17. CATALOG OF OBSERVED TANGENTS TO THE SPIRAL ARMS IN THE MILKY WAY GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, one can use different arm tracers (CO, H I, thermal or ionized or relativistic electrons, masers, cold and hot dust, etc.) to locate a tangent to each spiral arm in the disk of the Milky Way. We present a master catalog of the astronomically observed tangents to the Galaxy's spiral arms, using different arm tracers from the literature. Some arm tracers can have slightly divergent results from several papers, so a mean value is taken—see the Appendix for CO, H II, and masers. The catalog of means currently consists of 63 mean tracer entries, spread over many arms (Carina, Crux-Centaurus, Norma, Perseus origin, near 3 kpc, Scutum, Sagittarius), stemming from 107 original arm tracer entries. Additionally, we updated and revised a previous statistical analysis of the angular offset and linear separation from the mid-arm for each different mean arm tracer. Given enough arm tracers, and summing and averaging over all four spiral arms, one could determine if arm tracers have separate and parallel lanes in the Milky Way. This statistical analysis allows a cross-cut of a Galactic spiral arm to be made, confirming a recent discovery of a linear separation between arm tracers. Here, from the mid-arm's CO to the inner edge's hot dust, the arm halfwidth is about 340 pc; doubling would yield a full arm width of 680 pc. We briefly compare these observations with the predictions of many spiral arm theories, notably the density wave theory

  18. CATALOG OF OBSERVED TANGENTS TO THE SPIRAL ARMS IN THE MILKY WAY GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Herzberg Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, one can use different arm tracers (CO, H I, thermal or ionized or relativistic electrons, masers, cold and hot dust, etc.) to locate a tangent to each spiral arm in the disk of the Milky Way. We present a master catalog of the astronomically observed tangents to the Galaxy's spiral arms, using different arm tracers from the literature. Some arm tracers can have slightly divergent results from several papers, so a mean value is taken—see the Appendix for CO, H II, and masers. The catalog of means currently consists of 63 mean tracer entries, spread over many arms (Carina, Crux-Centaurus, Norma, Perseus origin, near 3 kpc, Scutum, Sagittarius), stemming from 107 original arm tracer entries. Additionally, we updated and revised a previous statistical analysis of the angular offset and linear separation from the mid-arm for each different mean arm tracer. Given enough arm tracers, and summing and averaging over all four spiral arms, one could determine if arm tracers have separate and parallel lanes in the Milky Way. This statistical analysis allows a cross-cut of a Galactic spiral arm to be made, confirming a recent discovery of a linear separation between arm tracers. Here, from the mid-arm's CO to the inner edge's hot dust, the arm halfwidth is about 340 pc; doubling would yield a full arm width of 680 pc. We briefly compare these observations with the predictions of many spiral arm theories, notably the density wave theory.

  19. The Spiral Arm Segments of the Galaxy within 3 kpc from the Sun: A Statistical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griv, Evgeny [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Jiang, Ing-Guey [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road 101, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hou, Li-Gang, E-mail: griv@bgu.ac.il [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia-20, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    As can be reasonably expected, upcoming large-scale APOGEE, GAIA, GALAH, LAMOST, and WEAVE stellar spectroscopic surveys will yield rather noisy Galactic distributions of stars. In view of the possibility of employing these surveys, our aim is to present a statistical method to extract information about the spiral structure of the Galaxy from currently available data, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The model differs from previous works studying how objects are distributed in space in its calculation of the statistical significance of the hypothesis that some of the objects are actually concentrated in a spiral. A statistical analysis of the distribution of cold dust clumps within molecular clouds, H ii regions, Cepheid stars, and open clusters in the nearby Galactic disk within 3 kpc from the Sun is carried out. As an application of the method, we obtain distances between the Sun and the centers of the neighboring Sagittarius arm segment, the Orion arm segment in which the Sun is located, and the Perseus arm segment. Pitch angles of the logarithmic spiral segments and their widths are also estimated. The hypothesis that the collected objects accidentally form spirals is refuted with almost 100% statistical confidence. We show that these four independent distributions of young objects lead to essentially the same results. We also demonstrate that our newly deduced values of the mean distances and pitch angles for the segments are not too far from those found recently by Reid et al. using VLBI-based trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions.

  20. The Spiral Arm Segments of the Galaxy within 3 kpc from the Sun: A Statistical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hou, Li-Gang

    2017-01-01

    As can be reasonably expected, upcoming large-scale APOGEE, GAIA, GALAH, LAMOST, and WEAVE stellar spectroscopic surveys will yield rather noisy Galactic distributions of stars. In view of the possibility of employing these surveys, our aim is to present a statistical method to extract information about the spiral structure of the Galaxy from currently available data, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The model differs from previous works studying how objects are distributed in space in its calculation of the statistical significance of the hypothesis that some of the objects are actually concentrated in a spiral. A statistical analysis of the distribution of cold dust clumps within molecular clouds, H ii regions, Cepheid stars, and open clusters in the nearby Galactic disk within 3 kpc from the Sun is carried out. As an application of the method, we obtain distances between the Sun and the centers of the neighboring Sagittarius arm segment, the Orion arm segment in which the Sun is located, and the Perseus arm segment. Pitch angles of the logarithmic spiral segments and their widths are also estimated. The hypothesis that the collected objects accidentally form spirals is refuted with almost 100% statistical confidence. We show that these four independent distributions of young objects lead to essentially the same results. We also demonstrate that our newly deduced values of the mean distances and pitch angles for the segments are not too far from those found recently by Reid et al. using VLBI-based trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions.

  1. Molecular clouds and galactic spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz has been surveyed in the region 12 0 less than or equal to l less than or equal to 60 0 and -1 0 less than or equal to b less than or equal to 1 0 in order to study the distribution of molecular clouds in the inner galaxy; an inner strip 0 0 .5 wide has been sampled every beamwidth (0 0 .125), the rest every two beamwidths. Comparison of the survey with similar HI data reveals a detailed correlation with the most intense 21-cm features, implying that the CO and HI trace the same galactic features and have the same large-scale kinematics. To each of the classical 21-cm (HI) spiral arms of the inner galaxy there corresponds a CO molecular arm which is generally more clearly defined and of higher contrast. A simple model is developed in which all of the CO emission from the inner galaxy arises from spiral arms. The modeling results suggest that molecular clouds are essentially transient objects, existing for 15 to 40 million years after their formation in a spiral arm, and are largely confined to spiral features about 300 pc wide. A variety of methods are employed to estimate distances and masses for the largest clouds detected by the inner-galaxy survey and a catalogue is compiled. The catalogued clouds, the largest of which have masses of several 10 6 M/sub sunmass/ and linear dimensions in excess of 100 pc, are found to be excellent spiral-arm tracers. One of the nearest of the clouds, that associated with the supernova remnant W44, is fully mapped in both CO and 13 CO and is discussed in detail

  2. The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS): The Role of Spiral Arms in Cloud and Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Querejeta, Miguel [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Colombo, Dario [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hgel, Bonn (Germany); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, RO 106, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dobbs, Clare L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional—OAN, Observatorio de Madrid Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain); Hughes, Annie [IRAP, 9, avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Leroy, Adam K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pety, Jérôme [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica, Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012, Granada (Spain); Schuster, Karl F. [Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France)

    2017-02-10

    The process that leads to the formation of the bright star-forming sites observed along prominent spiral arms remains elusive. We present results of a multi-wavelength study of a spiral arm segment in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 that belongs to a spiral density wave and exhibits nine gas spurs. The combined observations of the (ionized, atomic, molecular, dusty) interstellar medium with star formation tracers (H ii regions, young <10 Myr stellar clusters) suggest (1) no variation in giant molecular cloud (GMC) properties between arm and gas spurs, (2) gas spurs and extinction feathers arising from the same structure with a close spatial relation between gas spurs and ongoing/recent star formation (despite higher gas surface densities in the spiral arm), (3) no trend in star formation age either along the arm or along a spur, (4) evidence for strong star formation feedback in gas spurs, (5) tentative evidence for star formation triggered by stellar feedback for one spur, and (6) GMC associations being not special entities but the result of blending of gas arm/spur cross sections in lower resolution observations. We conclude that there is no evidence for a coherent star formation onset mechanism that can be solely associated with the presence of the spiral density wave. This suggests that other (more localized) mechanisms are important to delay star formation such that it occurs in spurs. The evidence of star formation proceeding over several million years within individual spurs implies that the mechanism that leads to star formation acts or is sustained over a longer timescale.

  3. Relaxation near Supermassive Black Holes Driven by Nuclear Spiral Arms: Anisotropic Hypervelocity Stars, S-stars, and Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Adrian S. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: hamers@ias.edu [Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-09-10

    Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms can perturb the orbits of stars. In the case of the Galactic center (GC), these perturbations can affect the orbits of stars and binaries in a region extending to several hundred parsecs around the supermassive black hole (SMBH), causing diffusion in orbital energy and angular momentum. This diffusion process can drive stars and binaries to close approaches with the SMBH, disrupting single stars in tidal disruption events (TDEs), or disrupting binaries, leaving a star tightly bound to the SMBH and an unbound star escaping the galaxy, i.e., a hypervelocity star (HVS). Here, we consider diffusion by nuclear spiral arms in galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way GC. We determine nuclear-spiral-arm-driven diffusion rates using test-particle integrations and compute disruption rates. Our TDE rates are up to 20% higher compared to relaxation by single stars. For binaries, the enhancement is up to a factor of ∼100, and our rates are comparable to the observed numbers of HVSs and S-stars. Our scenario is complementary to relaxation driven by massive perturbers. In addition, our rates depend on the inclination of the binary with respect to the Galactic plane. Therefore, our scenario provides a novel potential source for the observed anisotropic distribution of HVSs. Nuclear spiral arms may also be important for accelerating the coalescence of binary SMBHs and for supplying nuclear star clusters with stars and gas.

  4. Propagating star formation and irregular structure in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.W.; Arnett, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    A simple model is proposed which describes the irregular optical appearance often seen in late-type spiral galaxies. If high-mass stars produce spherical shock waves which induce star formation, new high-mass stars will be born which, in turn, produce new shock waves. When this process operates in a differentially rotating disk, our numerical model shows that large-scale spiral-shaped regions of star formation are built up. The structure is seen to be most sensitive to a parameter which governs how often a region of the interstellar medium can undergo star formation. For a proper choice of this parameter, large-scale features disappear before differential rotation winds them up. New spiral features continuously form, so some spiral structure is seen indefinitely. The structure is not the classical two-armed symmetric spiral pattern which the density-wave theory attempts to explain, but it is asymmetric and disorderly.The mechanism of propagating star formation used in our model is consistent with observations which connect young OB associations with expanding shells of gas. We discuss the possible interaction of this mechanism with density waves

  5. Galactic models with variable spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Sellwood, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A series of three-dimensional computer simulations of disc galaxies has been run in which the self-consistent potential of the disc stars is supplemented by that arising from a small uniform Population II sphere. The models show variable spiral structure, which is more pronounced for thin discs. In addition, the thin discs form weak bars. In one case variable spiral structure associated with this bar has been seen. The relaxed discs are cool outside resonance regions. (author)

  6. Structure of the S6 spirel arm in the Andromeda galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of stars across the spiral arm S6 in M 31 within Baade's Field 4 is investigated. It is found that the brightest stars are concentrated to the middle line of the arm where the maximal star density is also observed. The symmetry of the arm S6 may be explained by its position near the corotation radius that followed from the spiral pattern velocity Ωsub(P) approximately 10 km/s kpc determined by the age gradient in the arm S4. The similarity between the structure of the arm S6 and that of the spiral arms near the Sun is pointed out [ru

  7. Trigonometric parallaxes of star forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Wu, Y. W.; Immer, K.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of trigonometric parallaxes for six high-mass star-forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Combining our measurements with 10 previous measurements from the BeSSeL Survey yields a total sample of 16 sources in the Scutum arm with trigonometric parallaxes in the Galactic longitude range from 5° to 32°. Assuming a logarithmic spiral model, we estimate a pitch angle of 19.°8 ± 3.°1 for the Scutum arm, which is larger than pitch angles reported for other spiral arms. The high pitch angle of the arm may be due to the arm's proximity to the Galactic bar. The Scutum arm sources show an average peculiar motion of 4 km s –1 slower than the Galactic rotation and 8 km s –1 toward the Galactic center. While the direction of this non-circular motion has the same sign as determined for sources in other spiral arms, the motion toward the Galactic center is greater for the Scutum arm sources.

  8. A Decade of MWC 758 Disk Images: Where Are the Spiral-arm-driving Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bin; Dong, Ruobing; Esposito, Thomas M.; Pueyo, Laurent; Debes, John H.; Poteet, Charles A.; Choquet, Élodie; Benisty, Myriam; Chiang, Eugene; Grady, Carol A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; Soummer, Rémi

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale spiral arms have been revealed in scattered light images of a few protoplanetary disks. Theoretical models suggest that such arms may be driven by and corotate with giant planets, which has called for remarkable observational efforts to look for them. By examining the rotation of the spiral arms for the MWC 758 system over a 10 year timescale, we are able to provide dynamical constraints on the locations of their perturbers. We present reprocessed Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/NICMOS F110W observations of the target in 2005, and the new Keck/NIRC2 L‧-band observations in 2017. MWC 758's two well-known spiral arms are revealed in the NICMOS archive at the earliest observational epoch. With additional Very Large Telescope (VLT)/SPHERE data, our joint analysis leads to a pattern speed of 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {6}-0\\buildrel{\\circ\\over{.} 6}+3\\buildrel{\\circ\\over{.} 3} {yr}}-1 at 3σ for the two major spiral arms. If the two arms are induced by a perturber on a near-circular orbit, its best-fit orbit is at 89 au (0.″59), with a 3σ lower limit of 30 au (0.″20). This finding is consistent with the simulation prediction of the location of an arm-driving planet for the two major arms in the system.

  9. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SPIRAL ARMS TO THE THICK DISK ALONG THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); Pérez-Villegas, A., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: mperez@astro.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    The first mechanism invoked to explain the existence of the thick disk in the Milky Way Galaxy was the spiral arms. Up-to-date work summons several other possibilities that together seem to better explain this component of our Galaxy. All these processes must affect distinct types of galaxies differently, but the contribution of each one has not been straightforward to quantify. In this work, we present the first comprehensive study of the effect of the spiral arms on the formation of thick disks, looking at early- to late-type disk galaxies in an attempt to characterize and quantify this specific mechanism in galactic potentials. To this purpose, we perform test particle numerical simulations in a three-dimensional spiral galactic potential (for early- to late-types spiral galaxies). By varying the parameters of the spiral arms we found that the vertical heating of the stellar disk becomes very important in some cases and strongly depends on the galactic morphology, pitch angle, arm mass, and the arm pattern speed. The later the galaxy type, the larger is the effect on the disk heating. This study shows that the physical mechanism causing the vertical heating is different from simple resonant excitation. The spiral pattern induces chaotic behavior not linked necessarily to resonances but to direct scattering of disk stars, which leads to an increase of the velocity dispersion. We applied this study to the specific example of the Milky Way Galaxy, for which we have also added an experiment that includes the Galactic bar. From this study we deduce that the effect of spiral arms of a Milky-Way-like potential on the dynamical vertical heating of the disk is negligible, unlike later galactic potentials for disks.

  10. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendl, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  11. Stellar metallicity variations across spiral arms in disk galaxies with multiple populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F.

    2018-03-01

    This Letter studies the formation of azimuthal metallicity variations in the disks of spiral galaxies in the absence of initial radial metallicity gradients. Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we model composite stellar discs, made of kinematically cold and hot stellar populations, and study their response to spiral arm perturbations. We find that, as expected, disk populations with different kinematics respond differently to a spiral perturbation, with the tendency for dynamically cooler populations to show a larger fractional contribution to spiral arms than dynamically hotter populations. By assuming a relation between kinematics and metallicity, namely the hotter the population, the more metal-poor it is, this differential response to the spiral arm perturbations naturally leads to azimuthal variations in the mean metallicity of stars in the simulated disk. Thus, azimuthal variations in the mean metallicity of stars across a spiral galaxy are not necessarily a consequence of the reshaping, by radial migration, of an initial radial metallicity gradient. They indeed arise naturally also in stellar disks which have initially only a negative vertical metallicity gradient.

  12. Can the large-scale magnetic field lines cross the spiral arms in our Milky Way galaxy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For the Sgr, Ori, and Per spiral arms, the pitch angle (i.e., deviation from a tangent parallel to a circular orbit around the center of the Galaxy) of the magnetic-field lines differs from the pitch angle of the spiral arms. For the spiral arms, the pitch angle of the magnetic-field lines can be measured independently from both quasars and galaxies as well as from pulsars, yielding a small (-6 deg) pitch angle, as predicted in the roughly circular oval gas streamline model of the density-wave theory. Meanwhile, the pitch angle of the spiral arms can be measured independently from both the O type stars and from the H II regions, yielding a large (-18 deg) pitch angle, also as predicted in the density-wave theory. Thus for these arms, the magnetic-field lines cross the spiral arms, to leave them outwardly at a sizable mean angle (+12 deg). 19 references

  13. Mode Theory of Multi-Armed Spiral Antennas and Its Application to Electronic Warfare Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radway, Matthew J.

    Since their invention about 55 years ago, spiral antennas have earned a reputation for providing stable impedance and far-field patterns over multi-decade frequency ranges. For the first few decades these antennas were researched for electronic warfare receiving applications, primarily in the 2-18 GHz range. This research was often done under conditions of secrecy, and often by private contractors who did not readily share their research, and now have been defunct for decades. Even so, the body of literature on the two-armed variant of these antennas is rich, often leading non-specialists to the misconception that these antennas are completely understood. Furthermore, early work was highly experimental in nature, and was conducted before modern data collection and postprocessing capabilities were widespread, which limited the range of the studies. Recent research efforts have focused on extending the application of spirals into new areas, as well as applying exotic materials to `improve' their performance and reduce their size. While interesting results have been obtained, in most instances these were incomplete, often compromising the frequency independent nature of these antennas. This thesis expands the role of the multi-armed spiral outside of its traditional niche of receive-only monopulse direction finding. As a first step, careful study of the spiral-antenna mode theory is undertaken with particular attention paid to the concepts of mode filtering and modal decomposition. A technique for reducing the modal impedance of high arm-count spirals is introduced. The insights gained through this theoretical study are first used to improve the far-field performance of the coiled-arm spiral antenna. Specifically, expanding the number of arms on a coiled arm spiral from two to four while providing proper excitation enables dramatically improved broadside axial ratio and azimuthal pattern uniformity. The multiarming technique is then applied to the design of an antenna

  14. Spiral arms and a supernova-dominated interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.W.J.L.; Heathcote, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Models of the interstellar medium (ISM) utilizing the large energy output of supernovae to determine the average kinematical properties of the gas, are subjected to an imposed (spiral) density wave. The consequent appearance of the ISM is considered. In particular the McKee-Ostriker model with cloud evaporation is used, but it is shown that the overall appearance of the galaxy model does not change significantly if a modification of Cox's mechanism, with no cloud evaporation, is incorporated. It is found that a spiral density wave shock can only be self-sustaining if quite restrictive conditions are imposed on the values of the galactic supernova rate and the mean interstellar gas density. (author)

  15. Flocculent and grand design spiral galaxies in groups: time scales for the persistence of grand design spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Spiral arm classifications were made for 261 low-inclination galaxies in groups listed by Huchra and Geller. The fractional occurrence of grand design spiral structure in nonbarred galaxies was found to increase from approx.0.1 to approx.0.6 and then level off as the group crossing rate or galaxy collision rate in a group increases. A simple model is discussed where the random encounters between galaxies of any type and flocculent galaxies induce transient grand design spirals in the flocculent galaxies. If this grand-design stimulation occurs for binary collisions with impact parameters less than αR 25 , were R 25 is the galactic radius at 25 mag arcsec - 2 , and if the induced grand design spirals persist for an average time equal to #betta# galactic rotations, then the quantity α 2 #betta# equals approximately 3 x 10 4 . If binary collisions are responsible for grand design spirals, then this result implies either that the induced spirals last for many galactic rotations (#betta#>15), or that they can be stimulated by very remote encounters (α>45.) Alternatively, grand design spirals may be stimulated by multiple galaxy encounters, which would be the case for such large α, or by interactions with the potential well of the associated group, rather than by simple binary encounters. Weak correlations between the grand design fraction and the galaxy size, or between this fraction and the total number of galaxies in a group, were also found. Spiral structures of barred galaxies show no correlations with group environment

  16. Tracing the Milky Way spiral arms. Now and in the Gaia era : Now and in the Gaia era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monguio, M.; Grosbo, P.; Figueras, F.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Torra, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M.R.; Gorgas, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pardo, J.R.; Gil de Paz, A.

    Whereas it is well established that spiral arms are important agents driving the evolution of the galactic disks, the observational evidences of the outer spiral arms in our Milky Way are frustratingly inconclusive. In order to shed some light on the still remaining open questions, we are developing

  17. Tracing the Milky Way spiral arms. Now and in the Gaia era : Now and in the Gaia era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monguio, M.; Grosbo, P.; Figueras, F.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Torra, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M.R.; Gorgas, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pardo, J.R.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas it is well established that spiral arms are important agents driving the evolution of the galactic disks, the observational evidences of the outer spiral arms in our Milky Way are frustratingly inconclusive. In order to shed some light on the still remaining open questions, we are developing

  18. Global spiral structure of M81 - radio continuum maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bash, F.N.; Kaufman, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus)

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of the radio continuum emission from M81 at 6 and 20 cm are presented and used to check the predictions of density-wave theories. Both thermal and nonthermal radiation from the spiral arms are detected. Most of the bright knots along the radio arms are giant radio H II regions. The nonthermal emission defines spiral arms that are patchy and well-resolved, with a width of 1-2 kpc. The observed nonthermal arms are too broad to agree with the continuum gasdynamical calculations of Roberts (1969), Shu et al. (1972), and Visser (1978, 1980) for a classical density wave model. The observed arm widths appear consistent with the predictions of density-wave models that emphasize the clumpy nature of the ISM. The 20 cm arms appear to spiral outward from a faint inner H I ring, suggesting that the ring is produced by the inner Lindblad resonance. 36 references

  19. Observations of barred spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of barred spiral galaxies are discussed which show that the presence of a bar increases the likelihood for grand design spiral structure only in early Hubble types. This result is contrary to the more common notion that grand design spiral structure generally accompanies bars in galaxies. Enhanced deprojected color images are shown which reveal that a secondary set of spiral arms commonly occurs in barred galaxies and also occasionally in ovally distorted galaxies. 6 refs

  20. AN M DWARF COMPANION AND ITS INDUCED SPIRAL ARMS IN THE HD 100453 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rafikov, Roman [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wagner, Kevin, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent VLT/SPHERE near-infrared imaging observations revealed two spiral arms with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry in the protoplanetary disk around the ∼1.7 M{sub ⊙} Herbig star HD 100453. A ∼0.3 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf companion, HD 100453 B, was also identified at a projected separation of 120 AU from the primary. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to examine the scattered light morphology of the HD 100453 disk as perturbed by the companion on a circular and coplanar orbit. We find that the companion truncates the disk at ∼45 AU in scattered light images, and excites two spiral arms in the remaining (circumprimary) disk with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry. Both the truncated disk size and the morphology of the spirals are in excellent agreement with the SPHERE observations at Y, J, H, and K1-bands, suggesting that the M dwarf companion is indeed responsible for the observed double-spiral-arm pattern. Our model suggests that the disk is close to face on (inclination angle ∼5°), and that the entire disk-companion system rotates counterclockwise on the sky. The HD 100453 observations, along with our modeling work, demonstrate that double spiral arm patterns in near-infrared scattered light images can be generically produced by companions, and support future observations to identify the companions responsible for the arms observed in the MWC 758 and SAO 206462 systems.

  1. Spatial and mass distributions of molecular clouds and spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.; Valdes, F.; National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    The growth of molecular clouds resulting from cloud-cloud collisions and coalescence in the Galactic ring between 4 and 8 kpc are modeled, taking into account the presence of a spiral potential and the mutual cloud-cloud gravitational attraction. The mean lifetime of molecular clouds is determined to be about 200 million years. The clouds are present in both spiral arm and interarm regions, but a spiral pattern in their spatial distribution is clearly discernible, with the more massive clouds showing a stronger correlation with the spiral arms. As viewed from within the Galactic disk, however, it is very difficult to ascertain that the molecular cloud distribution in longitude-velocity space has a spiral pattern. 19 references

  2. Are Elias 2-27's Spiral Arms Driven by Self-gravity, or by a Companion? A Comparative Spiral Morphology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.; Ilee, John D.; Meru, Farzana

    2018-06-01

    The spiral waves detected in the protostellar disk surrounding Elias 2-27 have been suggested as evidence of the disk being gravitationally unstable. However, previous work has shown that a massive, stable disk undergoing an encounter with a massive companion are also consistent with the observations. We compare the spiral morphology of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations modeling both cases. The gravitationally unstable disk produces symmetric, tightly wound spiral arms with constant pitch angle, as predicted by the literature. The companion disk’s arms are asymmetric, with pitch angles that increase with radius. However, these arms are not well-fitted by standard analytic expressions, due to the high disk mass and relatively low companion mass. We note that differences (or indeed similarities) in morphology between pairs of spirals is a crucial discriminant between scenarios for Elias 2-27, and hence future studies must fit spiral arms individually. If Elias 2-27 continues to show symmetric tightly wound spiral arms in future observations, then we posit that it is the first observed example of a gravitationally unstable protostellar disk.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, V. V., E-mail: kiselev@imp.uran.ru; Raskovalov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of “precursors” and “tails” in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.

  4. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PITCH ANGLE OF SPIRAL ARMS DEPENDING ON OPTICAL WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Luna, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacán, México, C.P. 58089 (Mexico); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura, E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U. P. Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, 07730 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-20

    Based on integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey, we investigate the possible dependence of spiral arm pitch angle with optical wavelength. For three of the five studied objects, the pitch angle gradually increases at longer wavelengths. This is not the case for two objects where the pitch angle remains constant. This result is confirmed by the analysis of SDSS data. We discuss the possible physical mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of the results.

  5. Recovering the observed b/c ratio in a dynamic spiral-armed cosmic ray model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyamin, David; Piran, Tsvi; Shaviv, Nir J.; Nakar, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    We develop a fully three-dimensional numerical code describing the diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way. It includes the nuclear spallation chain up to oxygen, and allows the study of various CR properties, such as the CR age, grammage traversed, and the ratio between secondary and primary particles. This code enables us to explore a model in which a large fraction of the CR acceleration takes place in the vicinity of galactic spiral arms that are dynamic. We show that the effect of having dynamic spiral arms is to limit the age of CRs at low energies. This is because at low energies the time since the last spiral arm passage governs the CR age, and not diffusion. Using the model, the observed spectral dependence of the secondary to primary ratio is recovered without requiring any further assumptions such as a galactic wind, re-acceleration or various assumptions on the diffusivity. In particular, we obtain a secondary to primary ratio which increases with energy below about 1 GeV.

  6. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  7. The Hubble law and the spiral structures of galaxies from equations of motion in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1975-01-01

    Fully exploiting the Lie group that characterizes the underlying symmetry of general relativity theory, Einstein's tensor formalism factorizes, yielding a generalized (16-component) quaternion field formalism. The associated generalized geodesic equation, taken as the equation of motion of a star, predicts the Hubble law from one approximation for the generally covariant equations of motion, and the spiral structure of galaxies from another approximation. These results depend on the imposition of appropriate boundary conditions. The Hubble law follows when the boundary conditions derive from the oscillating model cosmology, and not from the other cosmological models. The spiral structures of the galaxies follow from the same boundary conditions, but with a different time scale than for the whole universe. The solutions that imply the spiral motion are Fresnel integrals. These predict the star's motion to be along the 'Cornu Spiral'. The part of this spiral in the first quadrant is the imploding phase of the galaxy, corresponding to a motion with continually decreasing radii, approaching the galactic center as time increases. The part of the Cornu Spiral' in the third quadrant is the exploding phase, corresponding to continually increasing radii, as the star moves out from the hub. The spatial origin in the coordinate system of this curve is the inflection point, where the explosion changes to implosion. The two- (or many-) armed spiral galaxies are explained here in terms of two (or many) distinct explosions occurring at displaced times, in the domain of the rotating, planar galaxy. (author)

  8. The Orbit of the Companion to HD 100453A: Binary-driven Spiral Arms in a Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kevin; Dong, Ruobing; Sheehan, Patrick; Apai, Dániel; Kasper, Markus; McClure, Melissa; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Hinz, Phil; Quanz, Sascha P.; Fung, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    HD 100453AB is a 10 ± 2 Myr old binary whose protoplanetary disk was recently revealed to host a global two-armed spiral structure. Given the relatively small projected separation of the binary (1.″05, or ∼108 au), gravitational perturbations by the binary seemed to be a likely driving force behind the formation of the spiral arms. However, the orbit of these stars remained poorly understood, which prevented a proper treatment of the dynamical influence of the companion on the disk. We observed HD 100453AB between 2015 and 2017, utilizing extreme adaptive optics systems on the Very Large Telescope and the Magellan Clay Telescope. We combined the astrometry from these observations with published data to constrain the parameters of the binary’s orbit to a = 1.″06 ± 0.″09, e = 0.17±0.07, and i = 32.°5 ± 6.°5. We utilized publicly available ALMA 12CO data to constrain the inclination of the disk, {i}{{disk}}∼ 28^\\circ , which is relatively coplanar with the orbit of the companion and consistent with previous estimates from scattered light images. Finally, we input these constraints into hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to model the structural evolution of the disk. We find that the spiral structure and truncation of the circumprimary disk in HD 100453 are consistent with a companion-driven origin. Furthermore, we find that the primary star’s rotation, its outer disk, and the companion exhibit roughly the same direction of angular momentum, and thus the system likely formed from the same parent body of material.

  9. A possible explanation for the origin of the magnetic fields in the galactic spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.

    1975-04-01

    A theory for the movement of the interstellar gas under the influence of the gravitational field in the neighbourhood of the galactic arms is developped. If this gas bears electric charges of one sign (ωsub(e) approximately 3,000 electrons/gramm) a system of electric currents is produced by the relative velocity of the galactic gas and the spiral arms for which the streamlines are concentrated a little more to the galactic plane than above and below of it. By this way a large spaced magnetic field along the galactic arms is generated with opposite directions of the magnetic field vectors on the two sides of the galactic plane. (orig.) [de

  10. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  11. A Fundamental Plane of Spiral Structure in Disk Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Shields, Douglas W.; Flatman, Russell; Hartley, Matthew T.; Berrier, Joel C.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Rob A.

    Spiral structure is the most distinctive feature of disk galaxies and yet debate persists about which theory of spiral structure is correct. Many versions of the density wave theory demand that the pitch angle be uniquely determined by the distribution of mass in the bulge and disk of the galaxy. We

  12. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derue, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10 -3 0 0 = 50 ± 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is τ-bar = 0.45 0.11 +0.23 x 10 -6 . It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to estimate the disk contribution to the optical depth towards the bulge and the Magellanic Clouds. (author)

  13. Strained spiral vortex model for turbulent fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    A model for the intermittent fine structure of high Reynolds number turbulence is proposed. The model consists of slender axially strained spiral vortex solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. The tightening of the spiral turns by the differential rotation of the induced swirling velocity produces a cascade of velocity fluctuations to smaller scale. The Kolmogorov energy spectrum is a result of this model.

  14. The Density-wave Theory and Spiral Structures by Looking at Spiral Arms through a Multi-wavelength StudyHamed Pour-Imani1,2, Daniel Kennefick1,2, Julia Kennefick1,2, Mohamed Shameer Abdeen1,2, Eric Monson1,2, Douglas W. Shields1,2, B. L. Davis31Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA2Arkansas Center for Space & Planetary Sciences, Univ. of Arkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Shameer Abdeen, Mohammad; Monson, Erick; Shields, Douglas William; Davis, Benjamin L.

    2018-01-01

    The density-wave theory of spiral structure, though first proposed as long ago as the mid-1960s by C.C. Lin and F. Shu, continues to be challenged by rival theories, such as the manifold theory. One test between these theories which has been proposed is that the pitch angle of spiral arms for galaxies should vary with the wavelength of the image in the density-wave theory, but not in the manifold theory. The reason is that stars are born in the density wave but move out of it as they age. In this study, we combined large sample size with a wide range of wavelengths to investigate this issue. For each galaxy, we used wavelength FUV151nm, U-band, H-alpha, optical wavelength B-band and infrared 3.6 and 8.0μm. We measured the pitch angle with the 2DFFT and Spirality codes (Davis et al. 2012; Shields et al. 2015). We find that the B-band and 3.6μm images have smaller pitch angles than the infrared 8.0μm image in all cases, in agreement with the prediction of the density-wave theory. We also find that the pitch angle at FUV and H-alpha are close to the measurements made at 8.0μm. The Far-ultraviolet wavelength at 151nm shows very young, very bright UV stars still in the star-forming region (they are so bright as to be visible there and so short-lived that they never move out of it). We find that for both sets of measurements (2dFFT and Spirality) the 8.0μm, H-alpha and ultraviolet images agree in their pitch angle measurements, suggesting that they are, in fact, sensitive to the same region. By contrast, the 3.6μm and B-band images are uniformly tighter in pitch angle measurements than these wavelengths, suggesting that the density-wave picture is correct.

  15. PATTERN SPEEDS OF BARS AND SPIRAL ARMS FROM Hα VELOCITY FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, K.; Pinol-Ferrer, N.; Beckman, J. E.; MartInez-Valpuesta, I.; Hernandez, O.; Carignan, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method to 10 late-type barred spiral galaxies using data cubes, in Hα emission, from the FaNTOmM and GHAFAS Fabry-Perot spectrometers. We have combined the derived bar (and/or spiral) pattern speeds with angular frequency plots to measure the corotation radii for the bars in these galaxies. We base our results on a combination of this method with a morphological analysis designed to estimate the corotation radius to bar-length ratio using two independent techniques on archival near-infrared images, and although we are aware of the limitation of the application of the Tremaine-Weinberg method using Hα observations, we find consistently excellent agreement between bar and spiral arm parameters derived using different methods. In general, the corotation radius, measured using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, is closely related to the bar length, measured independently from photometry and consistent with previous studies. Our corotation/bar-length ratios and pattern speed values are in good agreement with general results from numerical simulations of bars. In systems with identified secondary bars, we measure higher Hα velocity dispersion in the circumnuclear regions, whereas in all the other galaxies, we detect flat velocity dispersion profiles. In the galaxies where the bar is almost purely stellar, Hα measurements are missing, and the Tremaine-Weinberg method yields the pattern speeds of the spiral arms. The excellent agreement between the Tremaine-Weinberg method results and the morphological analysis and bar parameters in numerical simulations suggests that although the Hα emitting gas does not obey the continuity equation, it can be used to derive the bar pattern speed. In addition, we have analyzed the Hα velocity dispersion maps to investigate signatures of secular evolution of the bars in these galaxies. The increased central velocity dispersion in the galaxies with secondary bars suggests that the formation of inner

  16. Massachusetts Stony Brook galactic plane CO survey - disk and spiral arm molecular cloud populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, P.M.; Sanders, D.B.; Rivolo, A.R.; Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pasadena, CA; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of a new high-resolution CO survey of the galactic disk is presented, which can detect and measure essentially all molecular clouds and cloud components in the inner Galaxy with size greater than 10 pc. In the region of l between 20 and 50 deg approximately 2000 emission centers are identified. Two populations which separate according to temperature are found. The disk population of cold molecular cores contains about three-quarters of the total number of cores, is not confined to any large-scale pattern in longitude-velocity space, and must be widespread in the Galaxy both in and out of spiral arms. The spiral arm population of warm molecular cores contains about one-quarter of the population with one-half of the emission and is very closely associated with radio H II regions. Between longitudes 20 and 50 deg their radial distribution shows two peaks at R = 5 and 7.5 kpc. The warm molecular cloud cores have a nonaxisymmetric galactic distribution, occur in clusters, and are confined to restricted regions and patterns in longitude-velocity space and in the galactic disk. 20 references

  17. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  18. Discovery of a point-like source and a third spiral arm in the transition disk around the Herbig Ae star MWC 758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, M.; Christiaens, V.; Absil, O.; Mawet, D.; Huby, E.; Choquet, E.; Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Ruane, G.; Femenia, B.; Serabyn, E.; Matthews, K.; Barraza, M.; Carlomagno, B.; Defrère, D.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Jolivet, A.; Karlsson, M.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Piron, P.; Surdej, J.; Vargas Catalan, E.; Wertz, O.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Transition disks offer the extraordinary opportunity to look for newly born planets and to investigate the early stages of planet formation. Aim. In this context we observed the Herbig A5 star MWC 758 with the L'-band vector vortex coronagraph installed in the near-infrared camera and spectrograph NIRC2 at the Keck II telescope, with the aim of unveiling the nature of the spiral structure by constraining the presence of planetary companions in the system. Methods: Our high-contrast imaging observations show a bright (ΔL' = 7.0 ± 0.3 mag) point-like emission south of MWC 758 at a deprojected separation of 20 au (r = 0.''111 ± 0.''004) from the central star. We also recover the two spiral arms (southeast and northwest), already imaged by previous studies in polarized light, and discover a third arm to the southwest of the star. No additional companions were detected in the system down to 5 Jupiter masses beyond 0.''6 from the star. Results: We propose that the bright L'-band emission could be caused by the presence of an embedded and accreting protoplanet, although the possibility of it being an asymmetric disk feature cannot be excluded. The spiral structure is probably not related to the protoplanet candidate, unless on an inclined and eccentric orbit, and it could be due to one (or more) yet undetected planetary companions at the edge of or outside the spiral pattern. Future observations and additional simulations will be needed to shed light on the true nature of the point-like source and its link with the spiral arms. The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A74

  19. New velocimetry and revised cartography of the spiral arms in the Milky Way—a consistent symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in the determinations of the positions (pitch angle, shape, numbers, interarm separation) and velocities (rotation curve) of the spiral arms are evaluated and compared to previous determinations. Based on these results, an average cartographic model is developed that fits the means of basic input data and provides predictions for the locations of the arms in the Milky Way, for each galactic quadrant. For each spiral arm segment in each galactic quadrant, the LSR radial velocities are calculated for the radial distance as well as for its galactic longitude. From our velocimetric model, arm intercepts (between line of sights and spiral arms) are indicated in velocity space and may be used to find the distance and velocity to any arm, in a given longitude range. Velocity comparisons between model predictions and published CO velocity distribution are done for each galactic quadrant, with good results. Our velocimetric model is not hydromagnetic in character, nor is it a particle-simulation scheme, yet it is simple to use for comparisons with the observations and it is in symbiosis and consistent with our cartographic model (itself simple to use for comparisons with observations). A blending in velocity of the Perseus and Cygnus arms is further demonstrated, as well as an apparent longitude-velocity blending of the starting points of the four spiral arms near 4 kpc (not a physical ring). An integrated (distance, velocity) model for the mass in the disk is employed, to yield the total mass of 3.0 × 10 11 M ☉ within a galactic radius of 28 kpc.

  20. Understanding the spiral structure of the Milky Way using the local kinematic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Figueras, F.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Pichardo, B.; Valenzuela, O.; Moreno, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spiral arm influence on the solar neighbourhood stellar kinematics. As the nature of the Milky Way (MW) spiral arms is not completely determined, we study two models: the Tight-Winding Approximation (TWA) model, which represents a local approximation, and a model with self-consistent

  1. Global enhancement and structure formation of the magnetic field in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, Sergey A.; Khrapov, Sergey S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study numerically large-scale magnetic field evolution and its enhancement in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. We consider a set of models with the various spiral pattern parameters and the initial magnetic field strength with taking into account gas self-gravity and cooling and heating processes. In agreement with previous studies we find out that galactic magnetic field is mostly aligned with gaseous structures, however small-scale gaseous structures (spurs and clumps) are more chaotic than the magnetic field structure. In spiral arms magnetic field often coexists with the gas distribution, in the inter-arm region we see filamentary magnetic field structure. These filaments connect several isolated gaseous clumps. Simulations reveal the presence of the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field as well as the reversal of magnetic field at the outer edge of the large-scale spurs. We provide evidences that the magnetic field in the spiral arms has a stronger mean-field component, and there is a clear inverse correlation between gas density and plasma-beta parameter, compared to the rest of the disk with a more turbulent component of the field and an absence of correlation between gas density and plasma-beta. We show the mean field growth up to >3-10 μG in the cold gas during several rotation periods (>500-800 Myr), whereas ratio between azimuthal and radial field is equal to >4/1. We find an enhancement of random and ordered components of the magnetic field. Mean field strength increases by a factor of >1.5-2.5 for models with various spiral pattern parameters. Random magnetic field component can reach up to 25% from the total strength. By making an analysis of the time-dependent evolution of the radial Poynting flux, we point out that the magnetic field strength is enhanced more strongly at the galactic outskirts which is due to the radial transfer of magnetic energy by the spiral arms pushing the magnetic field outward. Our results also

  2. Simulation algorithm for spiral case structure in hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yong Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the damage-plasticity model for concrete that was verified by the model experiment was used to calculate the damage to a spiral case structure based on the damage mechanics theory. The concrete structure surrounding the spiral case was simulated with a three-dimensional finite element model. Then, the distribution and evolution of the structural damage were studied. Based on investigation of the change of gap openings between the steel liner and concrete structure, the impact of the non-uniform variation of gaps on the load-bearing ratio between the steel liner and concrete structure was analyzed. The comparison of calculated results of the simplified and simulation algorithms shows that the simulation algorithm is a feasible option for the calculation of spiral case structures. In addition, the shell-spring model was introduced for optimization analysis, and the results were reasonable.

  3. Spiral Arms in the Asymmetrically Illuminated Disk of MWC 758 and Constraints on Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Muto, T.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Currie, T.; Biller, B.; Thalmann, C.; Sitko, M. L.; Russell, R.; Wisniewski, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near-IR scattered light detection of the transitional disk associated with the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using data obtained as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, and 1.1 micrometer Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS data. While submillimeter studies suggested there is a dust-depleted cavity with r = 0".35, we find scattered light as close as 0".1 (20-28 AU) from the star, with no visible cavity at H, K', or Ks . We find two small-scaled spiral structures that asymmetrically shadow the outer disk. We model one of the spirals using spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approximately 0.18, indicating a dynamically warm disk. If the spiral pattern is excited by a perturber, we estimate its mass to be 5(exp +3)(sub -4) M(sub J), in the range where planet filtration models predict accretion continuing onto the star. Using a combination of non-redundant aperture masking data at L' and angular differential imaging with Locally Optimized Combination of Images at K' and Ks , we exclude stellar or massive brown dwarf companions within 300 mas of the Herbig Ae star, and all but planetary mass companions exterior to 0".5. We reach 5 sigma contrasts limiting companions to planetary masses, 3-4 M(sub J) at 1".0 and 2 M(sub J) at 1".55, using the COND models. Collectively, these data strengthen the case for MWC 758 already being a young planetary system.

  4. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: the role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes

  5. STRUCTURAL VARIATION OF MOLECULAR GAS IN THE SAGITTARIUS ARM AND INTERARM REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Masahiro [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Handa, Toshihiro, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    We have carried out survey observations toward the Galactic plane at l Almost-Equal-To 38 Degree-Sign in the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. A wide area (0.{sup 0}8 Multiplication-Sign 0.{sup 0}8) was mapped with high spatial resolution (17''). The line of sight samples the gas in both the Sagittarius arm and the interarm regions. The present observations reveal how the structure and physical conditions vary across a spiral arm. We classify the molecular gas in the line of sight into two distinct components based on its appearance: the bright and compact B component and the fainter and diffuse (i.e., more extended) D component. The B component is predominantly seen at the spiral arm velocities, while the D component dominates at the interarm velocities and is also found at the spiral arm velocities. We introduce the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI, which indicates the dominance of the B component) in order to quantify the map's appearance. The radial velocities of BDI peaks coincide with those of high {sup 12}CO J = 3-2/{sup 12}CO J = 1-0 intensity ratio (i.e., warm gas) and H II regions, and tend to be offset from the line brightness peaks at lower velocities (i.e., presumably downstream side of the arm). Our observations reveal that the gas structure at small scales changes across a spiral arm: bright and spatially confined structures develop in a spiral arm, leading to star formation at the downstream side, while extended emission dominates in the interarm region.

  6. Can we detect Galactic spiral arms? 3D dust distribution in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Kh., Sara; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hanson, Richard

    2018-04-01

    We present a model to map the 3D distribution of dust in the Milky Way. Although dust is just a tiny fraction of what comprises the Galaxy, it plays an important role in various processes. In recent years various maps of dust extinction have been produced, but we still lack a good knowledge of the dust distribution. Our presented approach leverages line-of-sight extinctions towards stars in the Galaxy at measured distances. Since extinction is proportional to the integral of the dust density towards a given star, it is possible to reconstruct the 3D distribution of dust by combining many lines-of-sight in a model accounting for the spatial correlation of the dust. Such a technique can be used to infer the most probable 3D distribution of dust in the Galaxy even in regions which have not been observed. This contribution provides one of the first maps which does not show the ``fingers of God'' effect. Furthermore, we show that expected high precision measurements of distances and extinctions offer the possibility of mapping the spiral arms in the Galaxy.

  7. Dynamical effects of the spiral arms on the velocity distribution of disc stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Gouda, Naoteru; Yano, Taihei; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Tagawa, Hiromichi

    2018-04-01

    Nearby disc stars in Gaia DR1 (TGAS) and RAVE DR5 show a bimodal velocity distribution in the metal-rich region (characterized by the Hercules stream) and mono-modal velocity distribution in the metal-poor region. We investigate the origin of this [Fe/H] dependence of the local velocity distribution by using 2D test particle simulations. We found that this [Fe/H] dependence can be well reproduced if we assume fast rotating bar models with Ωbar ~= 52 km s-1 kpc-1. A possible explanation for this result is that the metal-rich, relatively young stars are more likely to be affected by bar's outer Lindblad resonance due to their relatively cold kinematics. We also found that slowly rotating bar models with Ωbar ~= 39 km s-1 kpc-1 can not reproduce the observed data. Interestingly, when we additionally consider spiral arms, some models can reproduce the observed velocity distribution even when the bar is slowly rotating.

  8. PARALLAXES FOR W49N AND G048.60+0.02: DISTANT STAR FORMING REGIONS IN THE PERSEUS SPIRAL ARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Plank-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zheng, X. W. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-09-20

    We report trigonometric parallax measurements of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers in two massive star-forming regions from Very Long Baseline Array observations as part of the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey. The distances of 11.11{sup +0.79}{sub -0.69} kpc to W49N (G043.16+0.01) and 10.75{sup +0.61}{sub -0.55} kpc to G048.60+0.02 locate them in a distant section of the Perseus arm near the solar circle in the first Galactic quadrant. This allows us to locate accurately the inner portion of the Perseus arm for the first time. Combining the present results with sources measured in the outer portion of the arm in the second and third quadrants yields a global pitch angle of 9.°5 ± 1.°3 for the Perseus arm. We have found almost no H{sub 2}O maser sources in the Perseus arm for 50° arm has little massive star formation activity.

  9. The dynamics of the spiral structure in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopoulos, G.

    1979-01-01

    The basic ideas and current problems of the linear and non-linear theory of spiral structure are reviewed. Some recent work on the response density and possible self-consistent solutions of bars with an Inner Lindblad Resonance are described. (Auth.)

  10. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yuri N.; Moiseev, Alexei V.

    2016-01-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended HI halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (~300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the H-alpha emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster ...

  11. A generating mechanism of spiral structure in barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielheim, K.O.; Wolff, H.

    1982-01-01

    The time-dependent response of non-interacting stars to growing oval distortions in disc galaxies is calculated by following their motion numerically and Fourier-analysing their positions. Long-lived spiral density waves are found for fast-growing perturbations as well as in cases in which the perturbation evolves only slowly, compared with a characteristic internal rotation period of the disc. This mechanism of driving a spiral structure in non-self-gravitating stellar discs provides an explanation for the long-lived global spiral patterns, observed in N-body experiments showing an evolving central bar, that is not based on the self-gravitation in the disc. In conjunction with the theory of Lynden-Bell according to which angular momentum transfer in the disc leads to a slow increase of the oval distortion, this effect provides a general mechanism for the generation of spiral structure in barred galaxies. In addition to stellar discs with velocity dispersion, cold discs, with the stars initially in circular motion, which bear great similarity to gaseous discs, are investigated. The linear epicyclic approximation is used to develop an analytical description of the generating mechanism. (author)

  12. SPIRAL STRUCTURE OF M51 - DISTRIBUTION AND KINEMATICS OF THE ATOMIC AND IONIZED HYDROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TILANUS, RPJ; ALLEN, RJ

    The atomic hydrogen (H I) and the H-alpha emission lines in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and the TAURUS Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer, respectively. Across the inner spiral arms significant tangential and radial velocity

  13. The Fundamental Structure and the Reproduction of Spiral Wave in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have systematically investigated the fundamental structure and the reproduction of spiral wave in a two-dimensional excitable lattice. A periodically rotating spiral wave is introduced as the model to reproduce spiral wave artificially. Interestingly, by using the dominant phase-advanced driving analysis method, the fundamental structure containing the loop structure and the wave propagation paths has been revealed, which can expose the periodically rotating orbit of spiral tip and the charity of spiral wave clearly. Furthermore, the fundamental structure is utilized as the core for artificial spiral wave. Additionally, the appropriate parameter region, in which the artificial spiral wave can be reproduced, is studied. Finally, we discuss the robustness of artificial spiral wave to defects.

  14. Variation in GMC Association Properties across the Bars, Spiral Arms, Inter-arms, and Circumnuclear Region of M100 (NGC 4321) Extracted from ALMA Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hsi-An [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kuno, Nario, E-mail: hapan@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 350-8577 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    We study the physical properties of giant molecular cloud associations (GMAs) in M100 (NGC 4321) using the ALMA Science Verification feathered (12 m+ACA) data in {sup 12}CO (1–0). To examine the environmental dependence of their properties, GMAs are classified based on their locations in various environments as circumnuclear ring (CNR), bar, spiral, and inter-arm GMAs. The CNR GMAs are massive and compact, while the inter-arm GMAs are diffuse, with low surface density. GMA mass and size are strongly correlated, as suggested by Larson. However, the diverse power-law index of the relation implies that the GMA properties are not uniform among the environments. The CNR and bar GMAs show higher velocity dispersion than those in other environments. We find little evidence for a correlation between GMA velocity dispersion and size, which indicates that the GMAs are in diverse dynamical states. Indeed, the virial parameter of the GMAs spans nearly two orders of magnitude. Only the spiral GMAs are generally self-gravitating. Star formation activity decreases in order over the CNR, spiral, bar, and inter-arm GMAs. The diverse GMA and star formation properties in different environments lead to variations in the Kennicutt–Schmidt relation. A combination of multiple mechanisms or gas phase change is necessary to explain the observed slopes. Comparisons of GMA properties acquired with the use of the 12 m array observations with those from the feathered data are also presented. The results show that the missing flux and extended emission cannot be neglected for the study of environmental dependence.

  15. Spiral model of the Galaxy from observations of the interstellar light attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urasin, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The model of two arms spiral structure of the Galaxy is made from the observations of space distribution of the interstellar dust matter. This model is the logarithmic spiral with characteristic angle (pith) 6.5 deg

  16. New variant of gravitational theory of Galactic spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Classification of galaxies with a regular spiral structure (grand design) is considered based on the properties of their central regions where a bar (bar-like mode) may grow. It is shown that along the usual mechanism of bar mode exitation connected with a rapid rotation, another possibility of bar formation occurs which depends on the presence of a sufficient percent of stars with radially-elongated orbits. Roughly speaking, these two mechanisms are additional one to another: the new bar modes exited in disks which are rotating in average slower than disks with usual bar instability

  17. Complex Spiral Structure in the HD 100546 Transitional Disk as Revealed by GPI and MagAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Macintosh, Bruce; Mullen, Wyatt; Bailey, Vanessa P. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Rameau, Julien [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dong, Ruobing; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Duchêne, Gaspard; Fung, Jeffrey; Wang, Jason [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Leonard, Clare; Spiro, Elijah [Physics and Astronomy Department, Amherst College, 21 Merrill Science Drive, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Marois, Christian [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ammons, S. Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Barman, Travis [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2017-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared high-contrast images of the transitional disk HD 100546 taken with the Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI data include both polarized intensity and total intensity imagery, and MagAO data are taken in Simultaneous Differential Imaging mode at H α . The new GPI H -band total intensity data represent a significant enhancement in sensitivity and field rotation compared to previous data sets and enable a detailed exploration of substructure in the disk. The data are processed with a variety of differential imaging techniques (polarized, angular, reference, and simultaneous differential imaging) in an attempt to identify the disk structures that are most consistent across wavelengths, processing techniques, and algorithmic parameters. The inner disk cavity at 15 au is clearly resolved in multiple data sets, as are a variety of spiral features. While the cavity and spiral structures are identified at levels significantly distinct from the neighboring regions of the disk under several algorithms and with a range of algorithmic parameters, emission at the location of HD 100546 “ c ” varies from point-like under aggressive algorithmic parameters to a smooth continuous structure with conservative parameters, and is consistent with disk emission. Features identified in the HD 100546 disk bear qualitative similarity to computational models of a moderately inclined two-armed spiral disk, where projection effects and wrapping of the spiral arms around the star result in a number of truncated spiral features in forward-modeled images.

  18. Spiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan

    1992-01-01

    From the tiny twisted biological molecules to the gargantuan curling arms of many galaxies, the physical world contains a startling repetition of spiral patterns. Today, researchers have a keen interest in identifying, measuring, and defining these patterns in scientific terms. Spirals play an important role in the growth processes of many biological forms and organisms. Also, through time, humans have imitated spiral motifs in their art forms, and invented new and unusual spirals which have no counterparts in the natural world. Therefore, one goal of this multiauthored book is to stress the c

  19. On observational foundations of models with a wave spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the density wave models of the spiral structure is considered. It is shown that the density wave in the Galaxy is doverned by its flat subsystem only, whereas the disk and the halo do not contribute significantly into the wave. It is found that the density wave model of the spiral structure of the Galaxy is confirmed by the value of the pattern speed derived from observational data (Ω = 20-25 km s -1 kpc -1 ). The position and the properties of the outer Lindblad resonance are confirmed by the existence and position of gas ring features in outer regions of our Galaxy and external galaxies. The corotation region in the Galaxy is situated at R=10/12 kpc. Near the corotation region the galactic shock wave is not expected to develop. The observed rapid decrease in the number of H2 regions while moving from R=5 kpc to R=10 kpc confirms this conclusion. The similar consistency between the positions of corotation region and outer resonance and the observed properties of H2 and H1 distribution has also been found for a number of extermal galaxies

  20. Spectral line survey toward the spiral arm of M51 in the 3 and 2 mm bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sorai, Kazuo, E-mail: nabe@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics/Department of Cosmoscience, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 3 and 2 mm bands toward two positions in a spiral arm of M51 (NGC 5194) with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m telescope. In this survey, we have identified 13 molecular species, including CN, CCH, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNCO, and CH{sub 3}OH. Furthermore, six isotopologues of the major species have been detected. On the other hand, SiO, HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and deuterated species such as DCN and DCO{sup +} were not detected. The deuterium fractionation ratios are evaluated to be less than 0.8% and 1.2% for DCN/HCN and DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +}, respectively. By comparing the results of the two positions with different star formation activities, we have found that the observed chemical compositions do not strongly depend on star formation activities. They seem to reflect a chemical composition averaged over the 1 kpc scale region including many giant molecular clouds. Among the detected molecules CN, CCH, and CH{sub 3}OH are found to be abundant. High abundances of CN and CCH are consistent with the above picture of a widespread distribution of molecules because they can be produced by photodissociation. On the other hand, it seems likely that CH{sub 3}OH is liberated in the gas phase by shocks associated with large-scale phenomena such as cloud-cloud collisions and/or by nonthermal desorption processes such as photoevaporation due to cosmic-ray-induced UV photons. The present result demonstrates a characteristic chemical composition of a giant molecular cloud complex in the spiral arm, which can be used as a standard reference for studying chemistry in active galactic nuclei and starbursts.

  1. THE B/C AND SUB-IRON/IRON COSMIC RAY RATIOS—FURTHER EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF THE SPIRAL-ARM DIFFUSION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyamin, David; Piran, Tsvi; Shaviv, Nir J.; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The boron to carbon (B/C) and sub-Fe/Fe ratios provide an important clue on cosmic ray (CR) propagation within the Galaxy. These ratios estimate the grammage that the CRs traverse as they propagate from their sources to Earth. Attempts to explain these ratios within the standard CR propagation models require ad hoc modifications and even with those these models necessitate inconsistent grammages to explain both ratios. As an alternative, physically motivated model, we have proposed that CRs originate preferably within the galactic spiral arms. CR propagation from dynamic spiral arms has important imprints on various secondary to primary ratios, such as the B/C ratio and the positron fraction. We use our spiral-arm diffusion model with the spallation network extended up to nickel to calculate the sub-Fe/Fe ratio. We show that without any additional parameters the spiral-arm model consistently explains both ratios with the same grammage, providing further evidence in favor of this model.

  2. THE B/C AND SUB-IRON/IRON COSMIC RAY RATIOS—FURTHER EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF THE SPIRAL-ARM DIFFUSION MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyamin, David; Piran, Tsvi; Shaviv, Nir J. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2016-07-20

    The boron to carbon (B/C) and sub-Fe/Fe ratios provide an important clue on cosmic ray (CR) propagation within the Galaxy. These ratios estimate the grammage that the CRs traverse as they propagate from their sources to Earth. Attempts to explain these ratios within the standard CR propagation models require ad hoc modifications and even with those these models necessitate inconsistent grammages to explain both ratios. As an alternative, physically motivated model, we have proposed that CRs originate preferably within the galactic spiral arms. CR propagation from dynamic spiral arms has important imprints on various secondary to primary ratios, such as the B/C ratio and the positron fraction. We use our spiral-arm diffusion model with the spallation network extended up to nickel to calculate the sub-Fe/Fe ratio. We show that without any additional parameters the spiral-arm model consistently explains both ratios with the same grammage, providing further evidence in favor of this model.

  3. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  4. Rossby vortices, spiral structures, solitons astrophysics and plasma physics in shallow water experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nezlin, Mikhail V

    1993-01-01

    This book can be looked upon in more ways than one. On the one hand, it describes strikingly interesting and lucid hydrodynamic experiments done in the style of the "good old days" when the physicist needed little more than a piece of string and some sealing wax. On the other hand, it demonstrates how a profound physical analogy can help to get a synoptic view on a broad range of nonlinear phenomena involving self-organization of vortical structures in planetary atmo­ spheres and oceans, in galaxies and in plasmas. In particular, this approach has elucidated the nature and the mechanism of such grand phenomena as the Great of galaxies. A number of our Red Spot vortex on Jupiter and the spiral arms predictions concerning the dynamics of spiral galaxies are now being confirmed by astronomical observations stimulated by our experiments. This book is based on the material most of which was accumulated during 1981-88 in close cooperation with our colleagues, experimenters from the Plasma Physics Department of the...

  5. Using spiral chain models for study of nanoscroll structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Alexander V.; Sakovich, Ruslan A.; Mazo, Mikhail A.

    2018-04-01

    Molecular nanoribbons with different chemical structures can form scrolled packings possessing outstanding properties and application perspectives due to their morphology. Here, we propose a simplified two-dimensional model of the molecular chain that allows us to describe the molecular nanoribbon's scrolled packings of various structures as a spiral packaging chain. The model allows us to obtain the possible stationary states of single-layer nanoribbon scrolls of graphene, graphane, fluorographene, fluorographane (graphene hydrogenated on one side and fluorinated on the other side), graphone C4H (graphene partially hydrogenated on one side), and fluorographone C4F . The obtained states and the states of the scrolls found through all-atomic models coincide with good accuracy. We show the stability of scrolled packings and calculate the dependence of energy, the number of coils, and the inner and outer radius of the scrolled packing on the nanoribbon length. It is shown that a scrolled packing is the most energetically favorable conformation for nanoribbons of graphene, graphane, fluorographene, and fluorographane at large lengths. A double-scrolled packing when the nanoribbon is symmetrically rolled into a scroll from opposite ends is more advantageous for longer length nanoribbons of graphone and fluorographone. We show the possibility of the existence of scrolled packings for nanoribbons of fluorographene and the existence of two different types of scrolls for nanoribbons of fluorographane, which correspond to the left and right Archimedean spirals of the chain model. The simplicity of the proposed model allows us to consider the dynamics of molecular nanoribbon scrolls of sufficiently large lengths and at sufficiently large time intervals.

  6. Circumbinary, not transitional: on the spiral arms, cavity, shadows, fast radial flows, streamers, and horseshoe in the HD 142527 disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.; Cuello, Nicolás; Pinte, Christophe; Mentiplay, Daniel; Casassus, Simon; Christiaens, Valentin; Kennedy, Grant M.; Cuadra, Jorge; Sebastian Perez, M.; Marino, Sebastian; Armitage, Philip J.; Zurlo, Alice; Juhasz, Attila; Ragusa, Enrico; Laibe, Guillaume; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamical models of the HD 142527 protoplanetary disc, a bright and well-studied disc that shows spirals and shadows in scattered light around a 100 au gas cavity, a large horseshoe dust structure in mm continuum emission, together with mysterious fast radial flows and streamers seen in gas kinematics. By considering several possible orbits consistent with the observed arc, we show that all of the main observational features can be explained by one mechanism - the interaction between the disc and the observed binary companion. We find that the spirals, shadows, and horseshoe are only produced in the correct position angles by a companion on an inclined and eccentric orbit approaching periastron - the `red' family from Lacour et al. Dust-gas simulations show radial and azimuthal concentration of dust around the cavity, consistent with the observed horseshoe. The success of this model in the HD 142527 disc suggests other mm-bright transition discs showing cavities, spirals, and dust asymmetries may also be explained by the interaction with central companions.

  7. Kinematic imprints from the bar and spiral structures in the galatic disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueras, F.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Valenzuela, O.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Alecian, G.; Belkacem, K.; Samadi, R.; Valls-Gabaud, D.

    2011-01-01

    At 140 years of the discovery of the moving groups, these stellar streams are emerging as powerful tools to constrain the models for the spiral arms and the Galactic bar in the Gaia era. From the kinematic-age-metallicity analysis in the solar neighbourhood it is now well established that some of

  8. Spiral structure and star formation. II. Stellar lifetimes and cloud kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, M.A.; Roberts, W.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    We present further results of our model, introduced in Paper I, of star formation and star-gas interactions in the cloud-dominated ISMs of spiral density wave galaxies. The global density distribution and velocity field of the gas clouds are virtually independent of stellar parameters and even of mean free path for the wide range of values studied, but local density variations are found which superficially resemble cloud complexes. Increasing the average life span of ''spiral tracer'' stellar associations beyond about 20 Myr washes out the spiral pattern which younger associations show. Allowing clouds to form several successive associations (sequential star formation) slightly increases the frequency of interarm, young-star spurs and substantially increases the average star formation rate. The mean velocity field of clouds shows tipped oval streamlines, similar to both continuum gas dynamical models and stellar-kinematic models of spiral density waves. These streamlines are almost ballistic orbits except close to the spiral arms. Newly formed stellar associations leave the spiral density peak with initial tangential velocitie shigher than ''postshock'' values and do not fall back into the ''preshock'' region. By varying our stellar parametes within physically reasonable limits, we may reproduce spiral galaxies with a wide range of morphological appearaces

  9. The study of the structural stability of the spiral laser beams propagation through inhomogeneous phase medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental results of the investigation of light beams that retain their intensity structure during propagation and focusing. Spiral laser beams are a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotation with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Functionality laser manipulators can be significantly enhanced by using spiral beams whose intensity remains invariable. It is well known, that these beams has non-zero orbital angular momentum. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. In this paper we investigate the structural stability of the laser beams having a spiral phase structure by passing them through an inhomogeneous phase medium. Laser beam is passed through a medium is characterized by a random distribution of phase in the range 0..2π. The modeling was performed using VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH). Compared the intensity distribution of the spiral and ordinary laser beam after the passage of the inhomogeneous medium. It is shown that the spiral beams exhibit a significantly better structural stability during the passage phase heterogeneous environments than conventional laser beams. The results obtained in the simulation are tested experimentally. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results.

  10. Cloud fluid compression and softening in spiral arms and the formation of giant molecular cloud complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this, the second paper of a series on the galactodynamics of the cloudy interstellar medium, we consider the response of such a gas to a forcing potential in the tight-winding density wave theory. The cloud fluid is treated in the hydrodynamic limit with an equation of state which softens at high densities. It is shown that in the inner regions of the galaxy, cooling of the cloud fluid in the arms can result in gravitational instability and the formation of large bound complexes of clouds which we identify with the giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Masses dimensions, distributions, and scale heights of the GMCs are predicted by the theory. It is suggested that the interstellar gas density in the disk is regulated by the gravitational instability mechanism in the arms which siphons material into star formation. Implications for the evolution of individual GMCs and for galactic morphology are discussed

  11. Insights into the properties of the Orion spiral arm. NGC 2302: first result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E.; Carraro, G.; Moitinho, A.; Radiszc, M.; Méndez, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    We summarize the first results from a program aimed at determining the properties of the Local (Orion) arm - LOA, based on a large and homogeneous set of kinematic and photometric data. We have made a comprehensive study of the young LOA cluster NGC 2302, which includes a UBVRI photometric analysis and determination of its kinematic properties -proper motion (PM) and radial velocity (RV) - and of its orbital parameters.

  12. Spiral Arms, Infall, and Misalignment of the Circumbinary Disk from the Circumstellar Disks in the Protostellar Binary System L1551 NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Saigo, Kazuya [ALMA Project Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Saito, Masao [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1805 (Japan); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Hanawa, Tomoyuki [Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: takakuwa@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    We report the ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE in the 0.9 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (3–2), {sup 13}CO (3–2), SO (7{sub 8}–6{sub 7}), and CS (7–6) emission. At 0.″18 (=25 au) resolution, ∼4 times higher than that of our Cycle 0 observations, the circumbinary disk (CBD) as seen in the 0.9 mm emission is shown to be composed of a northern and a southern spiral arm, with the southern arm connecting to the circumstellar disk (CSD) around Source B. The western parts of the spiral arms are brighter than the eastern parts, suggesting the presence of an m = 1 spiral mode. In the C{sup 18}O emission, the infall gas motions in the interarm regions and the outward gas motions in the arms are identified. These observed features are well reproduced with our numerical simulations, where gravitational torques from the binary system impart angular momenta to the spiral-arm regions and extract angular momenta from the interarm regions. Chemical differentiation of the CBD is seen in the four molecular species. Our Cycle 2 observations have also resolved the CSDs around the individual protostars, and the beam-deconvolved sizes are 0.″29 × 0.″19 (=40 × 26 au) (P.A. = 144°) and 0.″26 × 0.″20 (=36 × 27 au) (P.A. = 147°) for Sources A and B, respectively. The position and inclination angles of these CSDs are misaligned with those of the CBD. The C{sup 18}O emission traces the Keplerian rotation of the misaligned disk around Source A.

  13. Comparison of M33 and NGC7793: stochastic models of spiral galaxies modulated by density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Two late-type spiral galaxies with similar kinematic and photometric properties but different spiral arm structures, M33 and NGC7793, are compared to model galaxies with stochastic self-propagating star formation. The spontaneous probability, Psub(sp), representing the rate of primary star formation, is modulated by a smooth, density wave-like spiral pattern in the models of M33. When propagating star formation is included, these models show no age gradients in the underlying spiral arms. Models which have no imposed spiral modulation to Psub(sp) resemble the observed structure of NGC7793. (author)

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Spiral Structure of a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitting a wireless capsule endoscope (WCE with a navigation feature can maximize its functional benefits. The rotation of a spiral-type capsule can be converted to translational motion. The study investigated how the spiral structure and rotational speed affected the capsule's translation speed. A hand-held instrument, including two permanent magnets, a stepper motor, a controller and a power supplier, were designed to generate rotational magnetic fields. The surfaces of custom-built permanent magnet rings magnetized radially were mounted in spiral lines with different lead angles and diameters, acting as mock-up capsules. The experimental results demonstrate that the rotational speed of the magnetic field and the spiral have significant effects on the translational speed of a capsule. The spiral line with a larger lead angle and the rotating magnetic field with a higher speed can change the capsule's rotation into a translational motion more efficiently in the intestine.

  15. Profiles of the stochastic star formation process in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, N.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of spiral arms in disc galaxies is generally attributed to the effects of spiral density waves. These relatively small (i.e. 5 per cent) non-axisymmetric perturbations of the interstellar medium cause spiral arms highlighted by O and B type stars to be created. In this paper another mechanism for spiral arm formation, the stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) process is examined. The SSPSF process combines the theory that shock waves from supernovae will compress the interstellar medium to create new stars, some of which will be massive enough to also supernova, with a disc galaxy's differential rotation to create spiral arms. The present work extends this process to the case where the probability of star formation from supernova shocks decreases with galactic radius. Where this work and previous investigations overlap (namely the uniform probability case), the agreement is very good, pretty spirals with various numbers of arms are generated. The decreasing probability cases, taken to vary as rsup(-j), still form spiral arms for 0 1.5 the spiral structure is essentially non-existent. (author)

  16. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  17. Spiral-structured, nanofibrous, 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Valmikinathan, Chandra M; Liu, Wei; Laurencin, Cato T; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-05-01

    Polymeric nanofiber matrices have already been widely used in tissue engineering. However, the fabrication of nanofibers into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures is restricted due to current manufacturing techniques. To overcome this limitation, we have incorporated nanofibers onto spiral-structured 3D scaffolds made of poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). The spiral structure with open geometries, large surface areas, and porosity will be helpful for improving nutrient transport and cell penetration into the scaffolds, which are otherwise limited in conventional tissue-engineered scaffolds for large bone defects repair. To investigate the effect of structure and fiber coating on the performance of the scaffolds, three groups of scaffolds including cylindrical PCL scaffolds, spiral PCL scaffolds (without fiber coating), and spiral-structured fibrous PCL scaffolds (with fiber coating) have been prepared. The morphology, porosity, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds have been characterized. Furthermore, human osteoblast cells are seeded on these scaffolds, and the cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition on the scaffolds are evaluated. The results indicated that the spiral scaffolds possess porosities within the range of human trabecular bone and an appropriate pore structure for cell growth, and significantly lower compressive modulus and strength than cylindrical scaffolds. When compared with the cylindrical scaffolds, the spiral-structured scaffolds demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization and allowed better cellular growth and penetration. The incorporation of nanofibers onto spiral scaffolds further enhanced cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. These studies suggest that spiral-structured nanofibrous scaffolds may serve as promising alternatives for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. SAR and thermal response effects of a two-arm Archimedean spiral coil in a magnetic induction sensor on a human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyi; Liu, Peiguo; Zhou, Dongming; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the radiation safety of a newly designed magnetic induction sensor. This novel magnetic induction sensor uses a two-arm Archimedean spiral coil (TAASC) as the exciter. A human head model with a real anatomical structure was used to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature change. Computer Simulation Technology (CST) was used to determine the values of the peak 10-g SAR under different operating parameters (current, frequency, horizontal distance between the excitation coil and the receiver coil, vertical distance between the top of the head model and the XOY plane, position of excitation coil, and volume of hemorrhage). Then, the highest response for the SAR and temperature rise was determined. The results showed that this new magnetic induction sensor is safe in the initial state; for safety reasons, the TAASC current should not exceed 4 A. The scalp tissue absorbed most of the electromagnetic energy. The TAASC's SAR/thermal performance was close to that of the circular coil.

  19. Structure analysis of edge-on spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGrijs, R; vanderKruit, PC

    The stellar distribution of a small sample of edge-on spiral galaxies is examined in B, V, R, and I by fitting model distributions to the light profiles, both perpendicular to the galaxy planes and along the major axes. We have developed a method to compare the fits for the models obtained for

  20. Erratum: Spiral structure in the accretion disc of the binary IP Pegasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeghs, D.; Harlaftis, E. T.; Horne, Keith

    1998-05-01

    The paper `Spiral structure in the accretion disc of the binary IP Pegasi' was published in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 290, L28-L32 (1997). Figs 1 and 2 of the paper (grey-scale images) did not reproduce well, and are reprinted here (Fig. 1 overleaf). Colour versions of the images are available on the World Wide Web:http://www-star.st-and.ac.uk/^~ds10/spirals.html

  1. The optical polarization of M82 and the local spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axon, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    This thesis comprises two separate but related topics in the study of optical polarization of galaxies. In part I we investigate interstellar polarization within 2 kpc of the sun and attempt to quantify the local structure of the galactic magnetic field. In part II we report the results of polarization measurements of the peculiar galaxy M82, obtained using a new polarimeter and digital reduction techniques, and discuss models of the origin of the polarization. Measurements of the linear polarization of starlight have been collated into a catalogue containing the Stokes' parameters in galactic coordinates for those stars for which reliable distances could be determined. Assuming a magnetic alignment hypothesis we have investigated the direction and form of the galactic magnetic field through e-vector plots and from the periodicity of the Stokes' parameters Q(l) and U(l) with galactic longitude. In the second part of the thesis we describe an imaging polarimeter constructed for use with a McMullan electronographic camera and designed to operate at an f/15 focus. The instrument is intended for observations of galaxies and other nebulae to diameters of up to 8 minutes of arc and has been successfully used to observe the irregular galaxy M82 in the B-band. The results of these observations are reported in this thesis. (author)

  2. Frequency spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  3. Frequency spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H., E-mail: strogatz@cornell.edu [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  4. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  5. Determination of the spiral Galaxy structure parameters based on neutral hydrogen radiowave radiation in 21 cm line. 2. Nonlinear theory. 30 deg <= |l| <= 60 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, V.G.; Mishurov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Gas flow and its density distribution in the Galaxy spiral arm gravitational potential is calculated by means of the nonlinear theory. Line profile of H I emission in 21 cm based on the Galaxy spiral structure models proposed by Lin and Marochnik are constructed for the galactic coordinates 30 deg < or approximately |l| < or approximately 60 deg. It is shown that the conclusion about the possibility of agreement of the Marochnik model with observations made by means of the linear theory is confirmed in the nonlinear theory. In the Marochnik model distributions with R H II regions, CO-clouds, γ-radiation, supernova remnants and so on may also be understood connecting them with variation of gas compression in galactic shock with H radius

  6. Optical and theoretical studies of giant clouds in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    An optical study of four spiral galaxies, combined with radiative transfer models for transmitted and scattered light, has led to a determination of the opacities and masses of numerous dark patches and dust lanes that outline spiral structure. The observed compression factors for the spiral-like dust lanes are in accord with expectations from the theory of gas flow in spiral density waves. Several low density (10 2 cm -3 ) clouds containing 10 6 to 10 7 solar masses were also studied. These results are discussed in terms of recent theoretical models of cloud and star formation in spiral galaxies. The long-term evolution of giant molecular clouds is shown to have important consequences for the positions and ages of star formation sites in spiral arms. (Auth.)

  7. Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.

  8. Spirally Structured Conductive Composites for Highly Stretchable, Robust Conductors and Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2017-07-12

    Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites. This unique spirally layered structure breaks the typical trade-off between stretchability and conductivity of traditional conductive composites and, more importantly, restrains the generation and propagation of mechanical microcracks in the conductive layer under strain. Benefiting from such structure-induced advantages, the spirally layered composites exhibit high stretchability and flexibility, good conductive stability, and excellent robustness, enabling the composites to serve as highly stretchable conductors (up to 300% strain), versatile sensors for monitoring both subtle and large human activities, and functional threads for wearable electronics. This novel and efficient methodology provides a new design philosophy for manufacturing not only stretchable conductors and sensors but also other stretchable electronics, such as transistors, generators, artificial muscles, etc.

  9. A cloud/particle model of the interstellar medium - Galactic spiral structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, F. H.; Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A cloud/particle model for gas flow in galaxies is developed that incorporates cloud-cloud collisions and supernovae as dominant local processes. Cloud-cloud collisions are the main means of dissipation. To counter this dissipation and maintain local dispersion, supernova explosions in the medium administer radial snowplow pushes to all nearby clouds. The causal link between these processes is that cloud-cloud collisions will form stars and that these stars will rapidly become supernovae. The cloud/particle model is tested and used to investigate the gas dynamics and spiral structures in galaxies where these assumptions may be reasonable. Particular attention is given to whether large-scale galactic shock waves, which are thought to underlie the regular well-delineated spiral structure in some galaxies, form and persist in a cloud-supernova dominated interstellar medium; this question is answered in the affirmative.

  10. Frequency Modulation and Absorption Improvement of THz Micro-bolometer with Micro-bridge Structure by Spiral-Type Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Niu, Qingchen; Liang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2018-03-05

    Antenna-coupled micro-bridge structure is proven to be a good solution to extend infrared micro-bolometer technology for THz application. Spiral-type antennas are proposed in 25 μm × 25 μm micro-bridge structure with a single separate linear antenna, two separate linear antennas, or two connected linear antennas on the bridge legs, in addition to traditional spiral-type antenna on the support layer. The effects of structural parameters of each antenna on THz absorption of micro-bridge structure are discussed for optimized absorption of 2.52 THz wave radiated by far infrared CO 2 lasers. The design of spiral-type antenna with two separate linear antennas for wide absorption peak and spiral-type antenna with two connected linear antennas for relatively stable absorption are good candidates for high absorption at low absorption frequency with a rotation angle of 360*n (n = 1.6). Spiral-type antenna with extended legs also provides a highly integrated micro-bridge structure with fast response and a highly compatible, process-simplified way to realize the structure. This research demonstrates the design of several spiral-type antenna-coupled micro-bridge structures and provides preferred schemes for potential device applications in room temperature sensing and real-time imaging.

  11. Rotating shallow water modeling of planetary,astrophysical and plasma vortical structures (plasma transport across a magnetic field,model of the jupiter's GRS, prediction of existence of giant vortices in spiral galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nezlin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of results have been described in this paper. Firstly, an experimental study of the Rossby vortex meridional drift on the rotating shallow water has been carried out. Owing to the stringent physical analogy between the Rossby vortices and drift vortices in the magnetized plasma, the results obtained have allowed one to make a conclusion that the transport rate of the plasma, trapped by the drift vortices, across the magnetic field is equivalent to the “gyro-Bohm” diffusion coefficient. Secondly, a model of big vortices of the type of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, dominating in the atmospheres of the outer planets, has been produced. Thirdly, the rotating shallow water modeling has been carried out of the hydrodynamical generation mechanism of spiral structures in galaxies. Trailing spiral waves of various azimuthal modes, generated by a shear flow between fast rotating “nucleus” and slow rotating periphery, were produced. The spirals are similar to those existing in the real galaxies. The hydrodynamical concept of the spiral structure formation in galaxies has been substantiated. Strong anticyclonic vortices between the spiral arms of the structures under study have been discovered for the first time. The existence of analogous vortices in real galaxies has been predicted. (This prediction has been reliably confirmed recently in special astronomical observations, carried out on the basis of the mentioned laboratory modeling and the prediction made – see the paper by A. Fridman et al. (Astrophysics and Space Science, 1997, 252, 115.

  12. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  13. Interaction of multiarmed spirals in bistable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-feng; Ai, Bao-quan; Liu, Fu-cheng

    2013-05-01

    We study the interaction of both dense and sparse multiarmed spirals in bistable media modeled by equations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type. A dense one-armed spiral is characterized by its fixed tip. For dense multiarmed spirals, when the initial distance between tips is less than a critical value, the arms collide, connect, and disconnect continuously as the spirals rotate. The continuous reconstruction between the front and the back drives the tips to corotate along a rough circle and to meander zigzaggedly. The rotation frequency of tip, the frequency of zigzagged displacement, the frequency of spiral, the oscillation frequency of media, and the number of arms satisfy certain relations as long as the control parameters of the model are fixed. When the initial distance between tips is larger than the critical value, the behaviors of individual arms within either dense or sparse multiarmed spirals are identical to that of corresponding one-armed spirals.

  14. TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70° seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

  15. Double-flat-spiral magnetic structures: Theory and application to the RMn6X6 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, E.V.; Mushnikov, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    We studied magnetic structure of a layered magnetic material, the lattice of which consists of magnetic layers separated by alternating non-magnetic layers (slabs) of two different types. For such structure, the exchange integrals between the nearest magnetic layers separated by different slabs may have different values, while the next-nearest neighbor exchange integral is the same for all magnetic layers. We developed a model based on three different interlayer exchange integrals. In the framework of this model we analyzed conditions of the appearance of a magnetic structure of the double-flat-spiral type and its distortion in external magnetic field. The results are most obtained in the analytical form. The model was applied to analyze the magnetic structure and magnetization process of the RMn 6 X 6 (R=Y, Sc, Lu; X=Sn, Ge) compounds with the layered crystal structure

  16. The effect of the development of theatre missile defences on the arms control structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min

    1998-01-01

    Th arms control structure usually refers to current and past results of the efforts by the USA and former Soviet Union to negotiate strategic arms control agreements. The structure is to be represented by the various arms control agreements, such as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and the strategic Reduction Talks (START). Whatever the motives of the parties to these agreements, today people commonly regard the structure as the best way to achieve strategic stability. The profile od arms control and the impact of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, to understand how the Theatre Missile Defence (TMD) program affects the arms control structure

  17. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...

  18. Katanin spiral and ring structures shed light on power stroke for microtubule severing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehr, Elena; Szyk, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Szczesna, Ewa; Zuo, Xiaobing; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2017-08-07

    Microtubule-severing enzymes katanin, spastin and fidgetin are AAA ATPases critical for the biogenesis and maintenance of complex microtubule arrays in axons, spindles and cilia. Because of a lack of 3D structures, their mechanism has remained poorly understood. We report the first X-ray structure of the monomeric AAA katanin module and cryo-EM reconstructions of the hexamer in two conformations. These reveal an unexpected asymmetric arrangement of the AAA domains mediated by structural elements unique to severing enzymes and critical for their function. Our reconstructions show that katanin cycles between open spiral and closed ring conformations, depending on the ATP occupancy of a gating protomer that tenses or relaxes inter-protomer interfaces. Cycling of the hexamer between these conformations would provide the power stroke for microtubule severing.

  19. Plasmon response of a metal-semiconductor multilayer 4π-spiral as a negative-index metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadivand, Arash, E-mail: aahma011@fiu.edu; Pala, Nezih [Florida International University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we investigate the optical response and plasmonic features of a multilayer 4π-spiral composed of metal-semiconductor arms, numerically, by employing a finite-difference time-domain method. We verified that the proposed structure is able to support strong plasmon and Fano resonances in the circular arms. We showed that the negative polarizability of the spiral provides an opportunity to consider the examined 4π-spiral structure as a meta-atom. Quantifying the effective refractive index of the structure for the presence of various semiconductor substances such as Si, GaP, and InP, we obtained the highest possible value for the associated figure of merit (FOM). Ultimately, for a finite spiral structure with a compositional and multilayer arrangement of Au and GaP arms, the FOM is determined as approximately ∼62.3.

  20. Magnetic Braids in Eruptions of a Spiral Structure in the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Nelson, Chris J.; Liu, Jiajia; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Tian, Hui; Klimchuk, James A.; Chen, Yao; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    We report on high-resolution imaging and spectral observations of eruptions of a spiral structure in the transition region, which were taken with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The eruption coincided with the appearance of two series of jets, with velocities comparable to the Alfvén speeds in their footpoints. Several pieces of evidence of magnetic braiding in the eruption are revealed, including localized bright knots, multiple well-separated jet threads, transition region explosive events, and the fact that all three of these are falling into the same locations within the eruptive structures. Through analysis of the extrapolated 3D magnetic field in the region, we found that the eruptive spiral structure corresponded well to locations of twisted magnetic flux tubes with varying curl values along their lengths. The eruption occurred where strong parallel currents, high squashing factors, and large twist numbers were obtained. The electron number density of the eruptive structure is found to be ∼3 × 1012 cm‑3, indicating that a significant amount of mass could be pumped into the corona by the jets. Following the eruption, the extrapolations revealed a set of seemingly relaxed loops, which were visible in the AIA 94 Å channel, indicating temperatures of around 6.3 MK. With these observations, we suggest that magnetic braiding could be part of the mechanisms explaining the formation of solar eruption and the mass and energy supplement to the corona.

  1. Angular momentum redistribution by spiral waves in computer models of disc galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellwood, J.A.; James, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the spiral patterns which develop spontaneously in computer models of galaxies are generated through angular momentum transfer. By adjusting the distribution of mass in the rigid halo components of the models it is possible to alter radically the rotation curve of the disc component. Either trailing or leading spiral arms develop in the models, dependent only on the sense of the differential shear; no spirals are seen in models where the disc rotates uniformly. It is found that the distribution of angular momentum in the disc is altered by the spiral evolution. Although some spiral structure can be seen for a long period, the life of each pattern is very short. It is shown that resonances are of major importance even for these transient patterns. All spiral wave patterns which have been seen possess both an inner Lindblad resonance and a co-rotation resonance. (author)

  2. Electromechanics of graphene spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Topi; Koskinen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.koskinen@iki.fi [NanoScience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Among the most fascinating nanostructure morphologies are spirals, hybrids of somewhat obscure topology and dimensionality with technologically attractive properties. Here, we investigate mechanical and electromechanical properties of graphene spirals upon elongation by using density-functional tight-binding, continuum elasticity theory, and classical force field molecular dynamics. It turns out that electronic properties are governed by interlayer interactions as opposed to strain effects. The structural behavior is governed by van der Waals interaction: in its absence spirals unfold with equidistant layer spacings, ripple formation at spiral perimeter, and steadily increasing axial force; in its presence, on the contrary, spirals unfold via smooth local peeling, complex geometries, and nearly constant axial force. These electromechanical trends ought to provide useful guidelines not only for additional theoretical investigations but also for forthcoming experiments on graphene spirals.

  3. A Compact Narrow-Band Bandstop Filter Using Spiral-Shaped Defected Microstrip Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact narrow-band bandstop filter is implemented by using the proposed spiral-shaped defected microstrip structure (SDMS in this paper. Compared with other DMSs, the presented SDMS exhibits the advantage of compact size and narrow stopband. Meanwhile, an approximate design rule of the SDMS is achieved and the effects of the dimensions on the resonant frequency and 3 dB fractional bandwidth (FBW are analyzed in detail. Both the simulation and measurement results of the fabricated bandstop filter show that it has a 10 dB stopband from 3.4 GHz to 3.6 GHz with more than 45 dB rejection at the center frequency.

  4. The structure and evolution of galacto-detonation waves - Some analytic results in sequential star formation models of spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L. L.; Rybicki, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    Waves of star formation in a uniform, differentially rotating disk galaxy are treated analytically as a propagating detonation wave front. It is shown, that if single solitary waves could be excited, they would evolve asymptotically to one of two stable spiral forms, each of which rotates with a fixed pattern speed. Simple numerical solutions confirm these results. However, the pattern of waves that develop naturally from an initially localized disturbance is more complex and dies out within a few rotation periods. These results suggest a conclusive observational test for deciding whether sequential star formation is an important determinant of spiral structure in some class of galaxies.

  5. Bacterial mitosis: Partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2004-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2). Three independent techniques were used to investigate the subcellular localization of plasmids carrying par2. In cells......A-GFP oscillated in spiral-shaped structures. Amino acid substitutions in ParA simultaneously abolished ParA spiral formation, oscillation and either plasmid localization or plasmid separation at mid-cell. Therefore, our results suggest that ParA spirals position plasmids at the middle of the bacterial nucleoid...

  6. Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barada, Daisuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Juman, Guzhaliayi; Yoshida, Itsuki [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige, E-mail: omatsu@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Molecular Chirality Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawata, Shigeo [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Ohno, Seigo [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    It was discovered that optical vortices twist isotropic and homogenous materials, e.g., azo-polymer films to form spiral structures on a nano- or micro-scale. However, the formation mechanism has not yet been established theoretically. To understand the mechanism of the spiral surface relief formation in the azo-polymer film, we theoretically investigate the optical radiation force induced in an isotropic and homogeneous material under irradiation using a continuous-wave optical vortex with arbitrary topological charge and polarization. It is revealed that the spiral surface relief formation in azo-polymer films requires the irradiation of optical vortices with a positive (negative) spin angular momentum and a positive (negative) orbital angular momentum (constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling), i.e., the degeneracy among the optical vortices with the same total angular momentum is resolved.

  7. Centre-containing spiral-geometric structure of the space-time and nonrelativistic relativity of the unit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhazizyan, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of nonrelativistic dependence of unit length and unit time on the position in the space is considered on the basis of centre-containing spiral-geometric structure of the space-time. The experimental results of variation of the unit time are analyzed which well agree with the requirements of the model proposed. 13 refs.; 12 figs

  8. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Arms sales thus have become the main source of its revenue until the present and will play a key role in Russia's ongoing attempt to regenerate its armed forces while winning friends and influence abroad...

  9. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS: FEEDING THE BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Ven, Glenn; Fathi, Kambiz

    2010-01-01

    We present a harmonic expansion of the observed line-of-sight velocity field as a method to recover and investigate spiral structures in the nuclear regions of galaxies. We apply it to the emission-line velocity field within the circumnuclear star-forming ring of NGC 1097, obtained with the GMOS-IFU spectrograph. The radial variation of the third harmonic terms is well described by a logarithmic spiral, from which we interpret that the gravitational potential is weakly perturbed by a two-arm spiral density wave with an inferred pitch angle of 52 0 ± 4 0 . This interpretation predicts a two-arm spiral distortion in the surface brightness, as hinted by the dust structures in central images of NGC 1097, and predicts a combined one-arm and three-arm spiral structure in the velocity field, as revealed in the non-circular motions of the ionized gas. Next, we use a simple spiral perturbation model to constrain the fraction of the measured non-circular motions that is due to radial inflow. We combine the resulting inflow velocity with the gas density in the spiral arms, inferred from emission-line ratios, to estimate the mass inflow rate as a function of radius, which reaches about 0.011 M sun yr -1 at a distance of 70 pc from the center. This value corresponds to a fraction of about 4.2 x 10 -3 of the Eddington mass accretion rate onto the central black hole in this LINER/Seyfert1 galaxy. We conclude that the line-of-sight velocity can not only provide a cleaner view of nuclear spirals than the associated dust, but that the presented method also allows the quantitative study of these possibly important links in fueling the centers of galaxies, including providing a constraint on the mass inflow rate as a function of radius.

  10. Density wave theory and the classification of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Roberts, M.S.; Shu, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Axisymmetric models of disk galaxies taken together with the density wave theory allow us to distinguish and categorize spiral galaxies by means of two fundamental galactic parameters: the total mass of the galaxy, divided by a characteristic dimension; and the degree of concentration of mass toward the galactic center. These two parameters govern the strength of the galactic shocks in the interstellar gas and the geometry of the spiral wave pattern. In turn, the shock strength and the theoretical pitch angle of the spiral arms play a major role in determining the degree of development of spiral structure in a galaxy and its Hubble type. The application of these results to 24 external galaxies demonstrates that the categorization of galaxies according to this theoretical framework correlates well with the accepted classification of these galaxies within the observed sequences of luminosity class and Hubble type

  11. Logarithmic Spiral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Switzerland) even today can see the. Archimedian spiral and the inscription under it on the tombstone of Jacob Bernoulli 1. Logarithmic Spiral in Nature. Apart from logarithmic spiral no other curve seems to have attracted the attention of scientists, ...

  12. Bifurcation Observation of Combining Spiral Gear Transmission Based on Parameter Domain Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the bifurcation evolutions for a combining spiral gear transmission through parameter domain structure analysis. The system nonlinear vibration equations are created with piecewise backlash and general errors. Gill’s numerical integration algorithm is implemented in calculating the vibration equation sets. Based on cell-mapping method (CMM, two-dimensional dynamic domain planes have been developed and primarily focused on the parameters of backlash, transmission error, mesh frequency and damping ratio, and so forth. Solution demonstrates that Period-doubling bifurcation happens as the mesh frequency increases; moreover nonlinear discontinuous jump breaks the periodic orbit and also turns the periodic state into chaos suddenly. In transmission error planes, three cell groups which are Period-1, Period-4, and Chaos have been observed, and the boundary cells are the sensitive areas to dynamic response. Considering the parameter planes which consist of damping ratio associated with backlash, transmission error, mesh stiffness, and external load, the solution domain structure reveals that the system step into chaos undergoes Period-doubling cascade with Period-2m (m: integer periodic regions. Direct simulations to obtain the bifurcation diagram and largest Lyapunov exponent (LE match satisfactorily with the parameter domain solutions.

  13. New conceptual antenna with spiral structure and back Faraday shield for FWCD (fast wave current drive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, M.; Moriyama, S.; Fujii, T.; Kimura, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new conceptual antenna, which we call as a spiral antenna, is proposed as a traveling wave antenna for fast wave current drive in tokamaks. The features of the spiral antenna are a sharp N z spectrum, easy impedance matching, N z controllable and good coupling. A back Faraday shield is proposed for improving the cooling design of Faraday shield and better antenna-plasma coupling. A helical support which is a compact and wide band support is proposed as a kind of quarter wave length stub supports. The RF properties of the spiral antenna and the back Faraday shield have been investigated by using mock-up antennas. The VSWR of spiral antenna is low at the wide frequency band from 15 MHz to 201 MHz. The back Faraday shield is effective for suppressing the RF toroidal electric field between adjacent currents straps. (author)

  14. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-SCALE SPIRAL STRUCTURES IN THE DISK OF SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE DISK FROM SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE THEORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, T.; Takeuchi, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96002 (United States); Hashimoto, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fukagawa, M. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hornbeck, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Sitko, M. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Russell, R. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Werren, C. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Cure, M. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Currie, T. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ohashi, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Honda, M. [Department of Information Science, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Inutsuka, S. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602 (Japan); Dong, R.; Brandt, T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ08544 (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 06300 Nice (France); Brandner, W., E-mail: muto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-04-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of a dust-depleted cavity at r {<=} 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.''2 ({approx} 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.''5 ({approx} 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h {approx} 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelength observations.

  15. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-SCALE SPIRAL STRUCTURES IN THE DISK OF SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE DISK FROM SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE THEORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Curé, M.; Currie, T.; Ohashi, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Honda, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Dong, R.; Brandt, T.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of a dust-depleted cavity at r ≤ 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.''2 (∼ 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.''5 (∼ 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h ∼ 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelength observations.

  16. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r approximates 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations.

  17. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B)(exp 1): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Cure, M; Currie, T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru /HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 1353448). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx. 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes. independently from sub-nun observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations,

  18. Generation of fractional acoustic vortex with a discrete Archimedean spiral structure plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Rou; Wei, Qi; Wu, Da-Jian; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Artificial structure plates engraved with discrete Archimedean spiral slits have been well designed to achieve fractional acoustic vortices (FAVs). The phase and pressure field distributions of FAVs are investigated theoretically and demonstrated numerically. It is found that the phase singularities relating to the integer and fractional parts of the topological charge (TC) result in dark spots in the upper half of the pressure field profile and a low-intensity stripe in the lower half of the pressure field profile, respectively. The dynamic progress of the FAV is also discussed in detail as TC increases from 1 to 2. With increasing TC from 1 to 1.5, the splitting of the phase singularity leads to the deviation of the phase of the FAV from the integer case and hence a new phase singularity occurs. As TC m increases from 1.5 to 2, two phase singularities of the FAV approach together and finally merge as a new central phase singularity. We further perform an experiment based on the Schlieren method to demonstrate the generation of the FAV.

  19. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jog, Chanda J.; Combes, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The light distribution in the disks of many galaxies is 'lopsided' with a spatial extent much larger along one half of a galaxy than the other, as seen in M101. Recent observations show that the stellar disk in a typical spiral galaxy is significantly lopsided, indicating asymmetry in the disk mass distribution. The mean amplitude of lopsidedness is 0.1, measured as the Fourier amplitude of the m=1 component normalized to the average value. Thus, lopsidedness is common, and hence it is important to understand its origin and dynamics. This is a new and exciting area in galactic structure and dynamics, in contrast to the topic of bars and two-armed spirals (m=2) which has been extensively studied in the literature. Lopsidedness is ubiquitous and occurs in a variety of settings and tracers. It is seen in both stars and gas, in the outer disk and the central region, in the field and the group galaxies. The lopsided amplitude is higher by a factor of two for galaxies in a group. The lopsidedness has a strong impact on the dynamics of the galaxy, its evolution, the star formation in it, and on the growth of the central black hole and on the nuclear fuelling. We present here an overview of the observations that measure the lopsided distribution, as well as the theoretical progress made so far to understand its origin and properties. The physical mechanisms studied for its origin include tidal encounters, gas accretion and a global gravitational instability. The related open, challenging problems in this emerging area are discussed

  20. Primary design of Si cooling arm structure in ICF cryogenic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yi Yong; Tang Changhuan; Zhang Jicheng

    2013-01-01

    According to the requirement of the cryogenic target system to the Si cooling arm structure, the Si cooling arm was primarily designed based on the USA National Ignition Facility (NIF) target. A new three-dimensional model of Si cooling arm was developed by SolidWorks software, and the simulation and analysis of Si cooling arm in aspect of mechanical property, thermal response and assembly were made based on the model. A law about the effect of the arm length of Si cooling arm and the width and the length of bifurcation on Si cooling arm was achieved. The research may provide the theoretical foundation and reference for the further improvement of cryogenic target. (authors)

  1. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Although Russian observers believe that Washington did so because of these firms arms sales to Venezuela, these sales to such dangerous states oblige us to analyze the Russian defense export program...

  2. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L.

    2015-01-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter

  3. On the formation of spiral structure in gas discs through tidal interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the waves which are formed when a thin gas disc in a smooth axisymmetric potential is perturbed. The perturbation is introduced through tidal interaction with an external body moving in the plane of the disc. The model is investigated using numerical techniques which follow the formation of large-scale hyperbolic spirals. These are identified as the propagating fronts of epicyclic waves. Over an area comparable to the visual image of a galaxy the spirals change from the hyperbolic form towards an equiangular appearance. Predictions by analytical models were found to be in good agreement with the results. (author)

  4. Fatigue Resistant Design Criteria for MD SHA Cantilevered Mast Arm Signal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The fatigue design of the mast arm structures and connections vary significantly based on the Category of Importance factor adopted and the load cases for fatigue design loads. Consideration should include the cost and size of the structures for both...

  5. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  6. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. VIII. Structure of the cold ISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Draine, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Gonzalez, R. A.; Calzetti, D.; Thornley, M.; Buckalew, B.; Allen, Ronald J.; van der Kruit, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of dust in a spiral disk can be estimated using the dust's typical emission or the extinction of a known source. In this paper we compare two techniques, one based on emission and one on absorption, applied to sections of 14 disk galaxies. The two measurements reflect, respectively, the

  7. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II; Recherche d'evenements de microlentille gravitationnelle dans les bras spiraux de la galaxie avec EROS II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derue, Frederic [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-04-15

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10{sup -3} < M/M{sub 0} < 0.84 at 95% CL. The amplification curve of another candidate shows a modulation which can be interpreted as a microlensing effect acting on a binary source, with an orbital period of P{sub 0} = 50 {+-} 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is {tau}-bar = 0.45{sub 0.11}{sup +0.23} x 10{sup -6}. It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to

  8. Quasicrystallography on the spiral of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a spiral lattice is discussed. Some examples of known mineral structures, namely clino asbestos, halloysite and cylindrite, are then interpreted in terms of this structural principle. An example of a synthetic sulphide catalyst spiral structure having atomic dimensions is also described. All of these inorganic spiral structures are based on the sprial of Archimedes. The principles for a new type of crystallography, based on the Archimedian spiral, are then presented. 45 refs., 8 figs

  9. Experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spiral structures by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, Masahiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Yukio

    2017-10-16

    We report on experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spirals in Mn thin films on a W(110) substrate using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) with a double-axis superconducting vector magnet. From SP-STM images using Fe-coated W tips magnetized to the out-of-plane and [001] directions, we found that both Mn mono- and double-layers exhibit cycloidal rotation whose spins rotate in the planes normal to the propagating directions. Our results agree with the theoretical prediction based on the symmetry of the system, supporting that the magnetic structures are driven by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  10. Full-scale investigation of wind-induced vibrations of mast-arm traffic signal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Because of their inherent : fl : exibility and low damping ratios, cantilevered mast : - : arm : tra : ffi : c signal structures are suscepti : b : le to : wind : - : induced vibrations. : These vibrations : cause stru : ctural stresses and strains t...

  11. A new model for gravitational potential perturbations in disks of spiral galaxies. An application to our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, T. C.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Braga, C. A. S.; Barros, D. A.

    2013-02-01

    Aims: We propose a new, more realistic description of the perturbed gravitational potential of spiral galaxies, with spiral arms having Gaussian-shaped groove profiles. The aim is to reach a self-consistent description of the spiral structure, that is, one in which an initial potential perturbation generates, by means of the stellar orbits, spiral arms with a profile similar to that of the imposed perturbation. Self-consistency is a condition for having long-lived structures. Methods: Using the new perturbed potential, we investigate the stable stellar orbits in galactic disks for galaxies with no bar or with only a weak bar. The model is applied to our Galaxy by making use of the axisymmetric component of the potential computed from the Galactic rotation curve, in addition to other input parameters similar to those of our Galaxy. The influence of the bulge mass on the stellar orbits in the inner regions of a disk is also investigated. Results: The new description offers the advantage of easy control of the parameters of the Gaussian profile of its potential. We compute the density contrast between arm and inter-arm regions. We find a range of values for the perturbation amplitude from 400 to 800 km2 s-2 kpc-1, which implies an approximate maximum ratio of the tangential force to the axisymmetric force between 3% and 6%. Good self-consistency of arm shapes is obtained between the Inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) and the 4:1 resonance. Near the 4:1 resonance the response density starts to deviate from the imposed logarithmic spiral form. This creates bifurcations that appear as short arms. Therefore the deviation from a perfect logarithmic spiral in galaxies can be understood as a natural effect of the 4:1 resonance. Beyond the 4:1 resonance we find closed orbits that have similarities with the arms observed in our Galaxy. In regions near the center, elongated stellar orbits appear naturally, in the presence of a massive bulge, without imposing any bar

  12. Simulation and Experimental Studies on Grain Selection and Structure Design of the Spiral Selector for Casting Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Xu, Qingyan

    2017-10-27

    Grain selection is an important process in single crystal turbine blades manufacturing. Selector structure is a control factor of grain selection, as well as directional solidification (DS). In this study, the grain selection and structure design of the spiral selector were investigated through experimentation and simulation. A heat transfer model and a 3D microstructure growth model were established based on the Cellular automaton-Finite difference (CA-FD) method for the grain selector. Consequently, the temperature field, the microstructure and the grain orientation distribution were simulated and further verified. The average error of the temperature result was less than 1.5%. The grain selection mechanisms were further analyzed and validated through simulations. The structural design specifications of the selector were suggested based on the two grain selection effects. The structural parameters of the spiral selector, namely, the spiral tunnel diameter ( d w ), the spiral pitch ( h b ) and the spiral diameter ( h s ), were studied and the design criteria of these parameters were proposed. The experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the improved selector could accurately and efficiently produce a single crystal structure.

  13. Spiral density waves in M81. I. Stellar spiral density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Aside from the grand-design stellar spirals appearing in the disk of M81, a pair of stellar spiral arms situated well inside the bright bulge of M81 has been recently discovered by Kendall et al. The seemingly unrelated pairs of spirals pose a challenge to the theory of spiral density waves. To address this problem, we have constructed a three-component model for M81, including the contributions from a stellar disk, a bulge, and a dark matter halo subject to observational constraints. Given this basic state for M81, a modal approach is applied to search for the discrete unstable spiral modes that may provide an understanding for the existence of both spiral arms. It is found that the apparently separated inner and outer spirals can be interpreted as a single trailing spiral mode. In particular, these spirals share the same pattern speed 25.5 km s –1 kpc –1 with a corotation radius of 9.03 kpc. In addition to the good agreement between the calculated and the observed spiral pattern, the variation of the spiral amplitude can also be naturally reproduced.

  14. Multiple spiral patterns in the transitional disk of HD 100546

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, A.; Pantin, E.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Augereau, J.-C.; Meheut, H.; Quanz, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks around young stars harbor many structures related to planetary formation. Of particular interest, spiral patterns were discovered among several of these disks and are expected to be the sign of gravitational instabilities leading to giant planet formation or gravitational perturbations caused by already existing planets. In this context, the star HD 100546 presents some specific characteristics with a complex gaseous and dusty disk that includes spirals, as well as a possible planet in formation. Aims: The objective of this study is to analyze high-contrast and high angular resolution images of this emblematic system to shed light on critical steps in planet formation. Methods: We retrieved archival images obtained at Gemini in the near IR (Ks band) with the instrument NICI and processed the data using an advanced high contrast imaging technique that takes advantage of the angular differential imaging. Results: These new images reveal the spiral pattern previously identified with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with an unprecedented resolution, while the large-scale structure of the disk is mostly cancelled by the data processing. The single pattern to the southeast in HST images is now resolved into a multi-armed spiral pattern. Using two models of a gravitational perturber orbiting in a gaseous disk, we attempted to constrain the characteristics of this perturber, assuming that each spiral is independent, and drew qualitative conclusions. The non-detection of the northeast spiral pattern observed in HST allows putting a lower limit on the intensity ratio between the two sides of the disk, which if interpreted as forward scattering, yields a larger anisotropic scattering than is derived in the visible. Also, we find that the spirals are likely to be spatially resolved with a thickness of about 5-10 AU. Finally, we did not detect the candidate planet in formation recently discovered in the Lp band, with a mass upper limit of 16-18 MJ

  15. Spiraling in Urban Streams: A Novel Approach to Link Geomorphic Structure with Ecosystem Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R. A.; Lafrenz, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the relationship between channel complexity and nutrient spiraling along several reaches of an urbanized watershed in Portland, Oregon. Much research points to the effect urbanization has on watershed hydrology and nutrient loading at the watershed scale for various sized catchments. However the flux of nutrients over short reaches within a stream channel has been less studied because of the effort and costs associated with fieldwork and subsequent laboratory analysis of both surface and hyporheic water samples. In this study we explore a novel approach at capturing connectivity though nutrient spiraling along several short reaches (less than 100-meter) within the highly urbanized Fanno Creek watershed (4400 hectares). We measure channel complexity-sinuosity, bed material texture, organic matter-and use these measurements to determine spatial autocorrelation of 50 reaches in Fanno Creek, a small, urban watershed in Portland, Oregon. Using ion-selective electrodes, the fluxes of nitrate and ammonia are measured within each reach, which when combined with channel geometry and velocity measurements allow us to transform the values of nitrate and ammonia fluxes into spiraling metrics. Along each sampled reach, we collected three surface water samples to characterize nutrient amounts at the upstream, midstream, and downstream position of the reach. Two additional water samples were taken from the left and right bank hyporheic zones at a depth just below the armor layer of the channel bed using mini-piezometers and a hand-pumped vacuum device, which we constructed for this purpose. Adjacent to the hyporheic samples soil cores were collected and analyzed for organic matter composition, bulk density, and texture. We hypothesize that spiral metrics will respond significantly to the measured channel complexity values and will be a more robust predictor of nutrient flux than land cover characteristics in the area draining to each reach

  16. Spiral chain structure of high pressure selenium-II' and sulfur-II from powder x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Yamada, Takahiro; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Le Bihan, Tristan

    2004-01-01

    The structure of high pressure phases, selenium-II ' (Se-II ' ) and sulfur-II (S-II), for α-Se 8 (monoclinic Se-I) and α-S 8 (orthorhombic S-I) was studied by powder x-ray diffraction experiments. Se-II ' and S-II were found to be isostructural and to belong to the tetragonal space group I4 1 /acd, which is made up of 16 atoms in the unit cell. The structure consisted of unique spiral chains with both 4 1 and 4 3 screws. The results confirmed that the structure sequence of the pressure-induced phase transitions for the group VIb elements depended on the initial molecular form. The chemical bonds of the phases are also discussed from the interatomic distances that were obtained

  17. An experimental study on the influence of new spiral stent(Hanaro) on the vascular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Jeong, Yoong Ki; Kook, Myeong Cherl; Seo, Jung Wook [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Myung Kwan [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate basic experimental data for the clinical application of a self-expandable stainless steel intravascular Hanaro spiral stent. For evaluation of the physical properties of the Hanaro stent, hoop strength, radioopacity, longitudinal flexibility, and foreshortening were measured. Twelve intravascular hanaro spiral stents were placed in the infrarenal abdominal aorta (n=6) and common iliac artery (n=6) in six mongrel dogs. Angiography and light microscopic examination were performed after one, two and eight months of placement of the stents. The stent had good radioopacity and was deployed with minimal foreshortening. hoop strength of a 6 mm-interval bend was found to be superior to that of 8 mm- and 10 mm-bend stent. On angiography the patency rate and thrombosis rate were 100% and 0% in the abdominal aorta and 50% in the common iliac artery, respectively. Minimal corrosion was seen in all stents, and they appeared to be biocompatible. The stent wires were covered with well-developed neointima which after one month had mostly fibroblast and collagen tissue ; the thickness of the neointima increased gradually during a period of eight months. At the end of that period, collagen fibres in the neointima were denser and showed a more paralled configuration than at one month. The Hanaro stent has good physical properties and also has a high patency rate, and good biocompatibilities. The stent may therefore be reliably and safely deployed in the human vascular system.

  18. Role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of orbit crowding and cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of GMCs and their organization in global spiral structure is investigated. Both N-body simulations of the cloud system and a detailed analysis of individual particle orbits are used to develop a conceptual understanding of how individual clouds participate in the collective density response. Detailed comparisons are made between a representative cloud-particle simulation in which the cloud particles collide inelastically with one another and give birth to and subsequently interact with young star associations and stripped down simulations in which the cloud particles are allowed to follow ballistic orbits in the absence of cloud-cloud collisions or any star formation processes. Orbit crowding is then related to the behavior of individual particle trajectories in the galactic potential field. The conceptual picture of how GMCs are formed in the clumpy ISMs of spiral galaxies is formulated, and the results are compared in detail with those published by other authors. 68 references

  19. Three-dimensionally spiral structure of the water stream induced by a centrifugal stirrer in large aqua-cultural ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Taishi; Nakamura, Choji; Sugihara-Seki, Masako; Hyodo, Jinsuke

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted measurements of the water stream produced by a mechanical stirrer (diameter 2.4[m], electric power 50[W]) located in shallow rectangular reservoirs (small 0.7[ha], large 3.7[ha]), which may be employed as a cost-efficient aerator for the aqua-cultural purpose, with the aid of both particle tracking velocimetry by passive tracers floating on the surface and direct measurement by electro-magnetic velocimeter under the surface. The present measurements indicate that the stirrer drives primarily the horizontally rotating water stream and secondarily the vertical convection between the surface and the bottom of the reservoir, which results in the three-dimensionally spiral-shaped water streams scaled vertically by just a meter but horizontally by more than ten meters. It is suggested that the spiral structure driven by the stirrer may activate the underwater vertical mixing and enhance dissolved oxygen at the bottom of aqua-cultural pond more effectively than the paddle-wheel aerators commonly used in aqua-cultural ponds. This research was financially supported in part by the Kansai University Fund for Supporting Young Scholars, 2016-2017.

  20. Nuclear, disk-focused wind and the bipolar structure of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duric, N.; Seaquist, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A high-resolution, radio continuum study of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079 is presented which reveals the presence of a figure eight morphology along the minor axis, centered on the nucleus. The nucleus itself dominates the emission from the galaxy. It has an inverted spectrum and is a possible VLBI source. The morphology is successfully modeled as the interaction between a nuclear wind and interstellar gas in the disk and halo. In this model, the wind plows up interstellar material as it propagates away from the nucleus. The disk focuses the wind along the minor axis, thereby creating the observed features. The restricted volume of space where the wind originates and the high energies associated with the wind point to a compact object such as a black hole or an unusually compact and massive star cluster as the source of the wind. 24 references

  1. Design considerations for an astronaut monorail system for large space structures and the structural characterization of its positioning arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Judith J.

    1992-08-01

    An astronaut monorail system (AMS) is presented as a vehicle to transport and position EVA astronauts along large space truss structures. The AMS is proposed specifically as an alternative to the crew and equipment transfer aid for Space Station Freedom. Design considerations for the AMS were discussed and a reference configuration was selected for the study. Equations were developed to characterize the stiffness and frequency behavior of the AMS positioning arm. Experimental data showed that these equations gave a fairly accurate representation of the stiffness and frequency behavior of the arm. A study was presented to show trends for the arm behavior based on varying parameters of the stiffness and frequency equations. An ergonomics study was conducted to provide boundary conditions for tolerable frequency and deflection to be used in developing a design concept for the positioning arm. The feasibility of the AMS positioning arm was examined using equations and working curves developed in this study. It was found that a positioning arm of a length to reach all interior points of the space station truss structure could not be designed to satisfy frequency and deflection constraints. By relaxing the design requirements and the ergonomic boundaries, an arm could be designed which would provide a stable work platform for the EVA astronaut and give him access to over 75 percent of the truss interior.

  2. Structural Studies of Three-Arm Star Block Copolymers Exposed to Extreme Stretch Suggests a Persistent Polymer Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Kell; Borger, Anine L.; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.; Garvey, Christopher J.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Dorokhin, Andriy; Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2018-05-01

    We present structural small-angle neutron scattering studies of a three-armed polystyrene star polymer with short deuterated segments at the end of each arm. We show that the form factor of the three-armed star molecules in the relaxed state agrees with that of the random phase approximation of Gaussian chains. Upon exposure to large extensional flow conditions, the star polymers change conformation resulting in a highly stretched structure that mimics a fully extended three-armed tube model. All three arms are parallel to the flow, one arm being either in positive or negative stretching direction, while the two other arms are oriented parallel, right next to each other in the direction opposite to the first arm.

  3. Structural studies of three-arm star block copolymers exposed to extreme stretch suggests persistent polymer tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Christopher J.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2018-01-01

    We present structural SANS-studies of a three-armed polystyrene star polymer with short deuterated segments at the end of each arm. We show that the form factor of the three-armed star molecules in the relaxed state agrees with that of the random phase approximation of Gaussian chains. Upon...

  4. SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES IN M81. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS RESPONSE TO STELLAR SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Lee, Wing-Kit; Taam, Ronald E.; Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The gas response to the underlying stellar spirals is explored for M81 using unmagnetized hydrodynamic simulations. Constrained within the uncertainty of observations, 18 simulations are carried out to study the effects of self-gravity and to cover the parameter space comprising three different sound speeds and three different arm strengths. The results are confronted with the data observed at wavelengths of 8 μm and 21 cm. In the outer disk, the ring-like structure observed in the 8 μm image is consistent with the response of cold neutral medium with an effective sound speed 7 km s –1 . For the inner disk, the presence of spiral shocks can be understood as a result of 4:1 resonances associated with the warm neutral medium with an effective sound speed 19 km s –1 . Simulations with a single effective sound speed alone cannot simultaneously explain the structures in the outer and inner disks. Instead this justifies the coexistence of cold and warm neutral media in M81. The anomalously high streaming motions observed in the northeast arm and the outward shifted turning points in the iso-velocity contours seen along the southwest arm are interpreted as signatures of interactions with companion galaxies. The level of simulated streaming motions narrows down the uncertainty of the observed arm strength toward larger amplitudes

  5. SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES IN M81. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS RESPONSE TO STELLAR SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Lee, Wing-Kit; Taam, Ronald E.; Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan, E-mail: hhwang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-20

    The gas response to the underlying stellar spirals is explored for M81 using unmagnetized hydrodynamic simulations. Constrained within the uncertainty of observations, 18 simulations are carried out to study the effects of self-gravity and to cover the parameter space comprising three different sound speeds and three different arm strengths. The results are confronted with the data observed at wavelengths of 8 μm and 21 cm. In the outer disk, the ring-like structure observed in the 8 μm image is consistent with the response of cold neutral medium with an effective sound speed 7 km s{sup –1}. For the inner disk, the presence of spiral shocks can be understood as a result of 4:1 resonances associated with the warm neutral medium with an effective sound speed 19 km s{sup –1}. Simulations with a single effective sound speed alone cannot simultaneously explain the structures in the outer and inner disks. Instead this justifies the coexistence of cold and warm neutral media in M81. The anomalously high streaming motions observed in the northeast arm and the outward shifted turning points in the iso-velocity contours seen along the southwest arm are interpreted as signatures of interactions with companion galaxies. The level of simulated streaming motions narrows down the uncertainty of the observed arm strength toward larger amplitudes.

  6. Extended H I regions around spiral galaxies: a probe for galactic structure and the intergalactic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1977-01-01

    The H I disks observed at large radii around nearby spiral galaxies provide sensitive probes for the mass distributions in these galaxies and of their environments. We show, for a few well-observed systems, that there is an unseen component which dominates the mass at large radii. This additional matter cannot be gas, either neutral or ionized. The data do not distinguish strongly between flat and spherical spatial distributions for this mass, though they suggest that the distribution is spherical. An observational test is proposed to differentiate the two. We investigate the thermal interaction between a hot intergalactic medium near the closure density and these extended H I regions in the assumption of magnetic field lines extended outward into the intergalactic medium (IGM). We show that, with plausible initial conditions, the intergalactic temperature at present cannot exceed 1 x 10 7 K if the H I is to have survived until now. Consideration of conditions in the past places even more stringent limits on the temperature and density of the IGM. Survival of the H I disk also implies that these galaxies cannot have persistent hot, dense halos. The X-ray observations of M31, in particular, cannot be interpreted in terms of a thermal bremsstrahlung halo model, unless this halo is younger than about 10 7 yr

  7. Basinal Structure Of Yola Arm Of The Upper Benue Trough Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic data interpretation of the Yola arm of the Upper Benue Trough has previously been carried out. However, no detail modeling of the Crustal Structures has been undertaken. Two composite reduced Aeromagnetic maps on a scale of 1:250,000 were digitized and processed using computer techniques.

  8. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy investigation of the Octopus Vulgaris arm structures for the design of an octopus-like arm artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnocci, Antonio; Cianchetti, Matteo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Sebastiani, Luca; Laschi, Cecilia

    2015-12-01

    Octopus vulgaris is a cephalopod of the Octopodidae family. It has four pairs of arms and two rows of suckers which perform many functions, including bending and elongation. For this reason the octopus was chosen as model to develop a new generation of soft-body robots. In order to explain some of the fine structures of the octopus arm in relation to its specific ability, we examined the external and internal structures of O. vulgaris arms in a frozen-hydrated state using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The arms showed skin with a very complex design that is useful to elongation, and a pore pattern distribution on their surface which is functional to cutaneous oxygen uptake. The analysis of freeze-fractured frozen-hydrated arm samples allowed us to describe the developmental differences in the relative proportion of the areas of axial nerve cord, intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, in relation to the growth of the arms and of the increase in functional capability. In the suckers, we analyzed the shedding mechanisms in the outer part of the infundibulum and described the outer and inner characteristics of the denticles, showing in detail their pore system, which is fundamental for their ability to explore the environment. These results are discussed by considering their possible application in the design of new octopus-like artefacts, which will be able to take advantage of some of these ultrastructure characteristics and achieve advanced bioinspired functionalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Searching for the Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueras F.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose a two step approach to provide new insights on the outer spiral arm pattern of the Milky Way: 1 a Strömgren photometric survey to map the stellar space density of moderate young type stars tracing the Perseus arm, and 2 a spectroscopic survey to determine the velocity perturbation due to the density wave through accurate Radial Velocity (RV, hereafter. First reduced preliminary data suggest an overdensity around 1.5–2 kpc, probably associated with the Perseus arm. Results from this project will present a significant step towards mapping the spiral structure between the second and the third galactic quadrant, where the determination of kinematic distances is not possible.

  10. Properties of spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1989-10-01

    The present thesis deals with the calculation and the study of the application possibilities of single and double spiral resonators. The main aim was the development and the construction of reliable and effective high-power spiral resonators for the UNILAC of the GSI in Darmstadt and the H - -injector for the storage ring HERA of DESY in Hamburg. After the presentation of the construction and the properties of spiral resonators and their description by oscillating-circuit models the theoretical foundations of the bunching are presented and some examples of a rebuncher and debuncher and their influence on the longitudinal particle dynamics are shown. After the description of the characteristic accelerator quantities by means of an oscillating-circuit model and the theory of an inhomogeneous λ/4 line it is shown, how the resonance frequency and the efficiency of single and double spiral resonators can be calculated from the geometrical quantities of the structure. In the following the dependence of the maximal reachable resonator voltage in dependence on the gap width and the surface of the drift tubes is studied. Furthermore the high-power resonators are presented, which were built for the different applications for the GSI in Darmstadt, DESY in Hamburg, and for the FOM Institute in Amsterdam. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Robot-arm-based mobile HTS SQUID system for NDE of structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsugi, K; Hatsukade, Y; Tanaka, S [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tenpaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)], E-mail: hatukade@eco.tut.ac.jp

    2008-02-01

    A robot-arm-based mobile HTS SQUID system was developed for NDE of fixed targets. To realize the system, active magnetic shielding technique using fluxgate as reference sensor for ambient field was applied to a cryocooler-based HTS SQUID gradiometer that was mounted on commercial robot-arm. In this technique, ambient field noise and pulse noise of 550 nT from robot were measured by the fluxgate near the SQUID, and then the fluxgate output was negatively fed back to generate compensation field around the SQUID and fluxgate. The noise from robot was reduced by a factor of about 20 and the shielding technique enabled the HTS SQUID to move in unshielded environment by the robot-arm without flux-trapping or unlocking at 10 mm/s. System noise measurement and inspection of hidden cracks in multi-layer composite-metal structure were demonstrated using the mobile SQUID-NDE system.

  12. The spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibace, Roger; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2013-01-01

    ’s work with Bernard Kaplan on symbol formation is a primer on this idea. This paper examines the idea of spirality and develops the notion of dynamic coexistence that can clarify the issue of directionality of development; that is, what is the general trajectory or ground plan that development assumes...... and the environment. The idea of dynamic coexistence is developed on this foundation. In the context of Werner and Kaplan’s work, dynamic coexistence represents the syncretic nature of processes and levels of organization: they are neither innately fused nor organized. Instead, the antithesis between fusion...

  13. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L) J , as a function of (g – i) versus (i – J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  14. HST IMAGING OF DUST STRUCTURES AND STARS IN THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED VIRGO SPIRALS NGC 4402 AND NGC 4522: STRIPPED FROM THE OUTSIDE IN WITH DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-01-01

    We describe and constrain the origins of interstellar medium (ISM) structures likely created by ongoing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure stripping in two Virgo Cluster spirals, NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) BVI images of dust extinction and stars, as well as supplementary H i, H α , and radio continuum images. With a spatial resolution of ∼10 pc in the HST images, this is the highest-resolution study to date of the physical processes that occur during an ICM–ISM ram pressure stripping interaction, ram pressure stripping's effects on the multi-phase, multi-density ISM, and the formation and evolution of ram-pressure-stripped tails. In dust extinction, we view the leading side of NGC 4402 and the trailing side of NGC 4522, and so we see distinct types of features in both. In both galaxies, we identify some regions where dense clouds are decoupling or have decoupled and others where it appears that kiloparsec-sized sections of the ISM are moving coherently. NGC 4522 has experienced stronger, more recent pressure and has the “jellyfish” morphology characteristic of some ram-pressure-stripped galaxies. Its stripped tail extends up from the disk plane in continuous upturns of dust and stars curving up to ∼2 kpc above the disk plane. On the other side of the galaxy, there is a kinematically and morphologically distinct extraplanar arm of young, blue stars and ISM above a mostly stripped portion of the disk, and between it and the disk plane are decoupled dust clouds that have not been completely stripped. The leading side of NGC 4402 contains two kiloparsec-scale linear dust filaments with complex substructure that have partially decoupled from the surrounding ISM. NGC 4402 also contains long dust ridges, suggesting that large parts of the ISM are being pushed out at once. Both galaxies contain long ridges of polarized radio continuum emission indicating the presence of large-scale, ordered magnetic fields. We propose that

  15. A NEW SUB-PERIOD-MINIMUM CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE WITH PARTIAL HYDROGEN DEPLETION AND EVIDENCE OF SPIRAL DISK STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, C.; Garnavich, P.; Magno, K.; Applegate, A.; Pogge, R.; Irwin, J.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R.; Vinkó, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy and photometry of CSS 120422:111127+571239 (=SBS 1108+574), a recently discovered SU UMa-type dwarf nova whose 55 minute orbital period is well below the cataclysmic variable (CV) period minimum of ∼78 minutes. In contrast with most other known CVs, its spectrum features He I emission of comparable strength to the Balmer lines, implying a hydrogen abundance less than 0.1 of long-period CVs—but still at least 10 times higher than that in AM CVn stars. Together, the short orbital period and remarkable helium-to-hydrogen ratio suggest that mass transfer in CSS 120422 began near the end of the donor star's main-sequence lifetime, meaning that this CV is a strong candidate progenitor of an AM CVn system as described by Podsiadlowski et al. Moreover, a Doppler tomogram of the Hα line reveals two distinct regions of enhanced emission. While one is the result of the stream-disk impact, the other is probably attributable to spiral disk structure generated when material in the outer disk achieves a 2:1 orbital resonance with respect to the donor.

  16. Compression of interstellar clouds in spiral density-wave shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanism of triggering star formation by galactic shocks is discussed. The possibilty that shocks may form along spiral arms in the gaseous component of a galactic disk is by now a familiar feature of spiral wave theory. It was suggested by Roberts (1969) that these shocks could trigger star formation in narrow bands forming a coherent spiral pattern over most of the disk of a galaxy. Some results of computer simulations of such a triggering process for star formation are reported. (Auth.)

  17. The Three-Dimensional Culture System with Matrigel and Neurotrophic Factors Preserves the Structure and Function of Spiral Ganglion Neuron In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gaoying; Liu, Wenwen; Fan, Zhaomin; Zhang, Daogong; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Qi, Jieyu; Zhang, Shasha; Gao, Bradley T; Bai, Xiaohui; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Whole organ culture of the spiral ganglion region is a resourceful model system facilitating manipulation and analysis of live sprial ganglion neurons (SGNs). Three-dimensional (3D) cultures have been demonstrated to have many biomedical applications, but the effect of 3D culture in maintaining the SGNs structure and function in explant culture remains uninvestigated. In this study, we used the matrigel to encapsulate the spiral ganglion region isolated from neonatal mice. First, we optimized the matrigel concentration for the 3D culture system and found the 3D culture system protected the SGNs against apoptosis, preserved the structure of spiral ganglion region, and promoted the sprouting and outgrowth of SGNs neurites. Next, we found the 3D culture system promoted growth cone growth as evidenced by a higher average number and a longer average length of filopodia and a larger growth cone area. 3D culture system also significantly elevated the synapse density of SGNs. Last, we found that the 3D culture system combined with neurotrophic factors had accumulated effects in promoting the neurites outgrowth compared with 3D culture or NFs treatment only groups. Together, we conclude that the 3D culture system preserves the structure and function of SGN in explant culture.

  18. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  19. REPRODUCING THE CORRELATIONS OF TYPE C LOW-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION PARAMETERS IN XTE J1550–564 WITH A SPIRAL STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varniere, Peggy [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Lonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Vincent, Frederic H., E-mail: varniere@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Observatoire de Paris/LESIA, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2017-01-10

    While it has been observed that the parameters intrinsic to the type C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations are related in a nonlinear manner among themselves, there has been, up to now, no model to explain or reproduce how the frequency, the FWHM, and the rms amplitude of the type C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations behave with respect to one another. Here we are using a simple toy model representing the emission from a standard disk and a spiral such as that caused by the accretion–ejection instability to reproduce the overall observed behavior and shed some light on its origin. This allows us to prove the ability of such a spiral structure to be at the origin of flux modulation over more than an order of magnitude in frequency.

  20. Content and structure of knowledge base used for virtual control of android arm motion in specified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, F. N.; Nebritov, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the configuration of knowledge base necessary for intelligent control of android arm mechanism motion with different positions of certain forbidden regions taken into account. The present structure of the knowledge base characterizes the past experience of arm motion synthesis in the vector of velocities with due regard for the known obstacles. This structure also specifies its intrinsic properties. Knowledge base generation is based on the study of the arm mechanism instantaneous states implementations. Computational experiments connected with the virtual control of android arm motion with known forbidden regions using the developed knowledge base are introduced. Using the developed knowledge base to control virtually the arm motion reduces the time of test assignments calculation. The results of the research can be used in developing control systems of autonomous android robots in the known in advance environment.

  1. Synchrotron X-ray scattering characterization of the molecular structures of star polystyrenes with varying numbers of arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sangwoo; Higashihara, Tomoya; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Yoon, Jinhwan; Rho, Yecheol; Ahn, Byungcheol; Kim, Jehan; Hirao, Akira; Ree, Moonhor

    2010-05-20

    We have synthesized well-defined multiarmed star polystyrenes, with 6, 9, 17, 33, and 57 arms, and studied their molecular shapes and structural characteristics in a good solvent (tetrahydrofuran at 25 degrees C) and in a theta (Theta) solvent (cyclohexane at 35 degrees C) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) using a synchrotron radiation source. Analysis of the SAXS data provided a detailed characterization of the molecular shapes, including the contributions of the blob morphology of the arms, the radius of gyration, the paired distance distribution, the radial electron density distribution, and the Zimm-Stockmayer and Roovers g-factor, for the multiarmed star polystyrenes. In particular, the molecular shapes of the star polystyrenes were found to change from a fuzzy ellipsoid, for the 6-armed polystyrene, to a fuzzy sphere, for the 57-armed polystyrene, with an increasing number of arms. The ellipsoidal character of the star polystyrenes with fewer arms may originate from the extended anisotropically branched architecture at the center of the molecule. The arms of the star polystyrenes were found to be more extended than those of the linear polystyrenes. Furthermore, the degree of chain extension in the arms increased with the number of arms.

  2. Packing of equal discs on a parabolic spiral lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xudong, F.; Bursill, L.A.; Julin, P.

    1989-01-01

    A contact disc model is investigated to determine the most closely-packed parabolic spiral lattice. The most space-efficient packings have divergence angles in agreement with the priority ranking of natural spiral structures

  3. Investigation of logarithmic spiral nanoantennas at optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anamika; Pandey, Awanish; Mishra, Vigyanshu; Singh, Ten; Alam, Aftab; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    2013-12-01

    The first study is reported of a logarithmic spiral antenna in the optical frequency range. Using the finite integration technique, we investigated the spectral and radiation properties of a logarithmic spiral nanoantenna and a complementary structure made of thin gold film. A comparison is made with results for an Archimedean spiral nanoantenna. Such nanoantennas can exhibit broadband behavior that is independent of polarization. Two prominent features of logarithmic spiral nanoantennas are highly directional far field emission and perfectly circularly polarized radiation when excited by a linearly polarized source. The logarithmic spiral nanoantenna promises potential advantages over Archimedean spirals and could be harnessed for several applications in nanophotonics and allied areas.

  4. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  5. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  6. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  7. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Khan, S. M.; Nour, Maha A.; Rehman, M. U.; Rojas, J. P.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  8. Magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic spirals via domain wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Ryan D.; Kunz, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Domain wall dynamics have been investigated in a variety of ferromagnetic nanostructures for potential applications in logic, sensing, and recording. We present a combination of analytic and simulated results describing the reliable field driven motion of a domain wall through the arms of a ferromagnetic spiral nanowire. The spiral geometry is capable of taking advantage of the benefits of both straight and circular wires. Measurements of the in-plane components of the spirals' magnetization can be used to determine the angular location of the domain wall, impacting the magnetoresistive applications dependent on the domain wall location. The spirals' magnetization components are found to depend on the spiral parameters: the initial radius and spacing between spiral arms, along with the domain wall location. The magnetization is independent of the parameters of the rotating field used to move the domain wall, and therefore the model is valid for current induced domain wall motion as well. The speed of the domain wall is found to depend on the frequency of the rotating driving field, and the domain wall speeds can be reliably varied over several orders of magnitude. We further demonstrate a technique capable of injecting multiple domain walls and show the reliable and unidirectional motion of domain walls through the arms of the spiral.

  9. Rebuilding Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    occurring in less than 1,000 million years, the existence of such a large fraction of these LIRGs in the past Universe has important consequences on the total stellar formation rate. As François Hammer (Paris Observatory, France), leader of the team, states: "We are thus led to the conclusion that during the time span from roughly 8,000 million to 4,000 million years ago, intermediate mass galaxies converted about half of their total mass into stars. Moreover, this star formation must have taken place in very intense bursts when galaxies were emitting huge amount of infrared radiation and appeared as LIRGs." Another result could be secured using the spectra obtained with the Very Large Telescope: the astronomers measured the chemical abundances in several of the observed galaxies (PR Photo 02a/05). They find that galaxies with large redshifts show oxygen abundances two times lower than present-day spirals. As it is stars which produce oxygen in a galaxy, this again gives support to the fact that these galaxies have been actively forming stars in the period between 8,000 and 4,000 million years ago. And because it is believed that galaxy collisions and mergers play an important role in triggering such phases of enhanced star-forming activity, these observations indicate that galaxy merging still occurred frequently less than 8,000 million years ago. Spiral Rebuilding ESO PR Photo 02b/05 ESO PR Photo 02b/05 The Spiral Rebuilding Scenario [Preview - JPEG: 471 x 400 pix - 80k] [Normal - JPEG: 941 x 800 pix - 207k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 02b/05: Schematic representation of the newly proposed scenario of "spiral galaxy rebuilding": galaxies collide (1), then merge (2), inducing a burst of stellar formation activity. After the merging, the gas and the stars fall towards the centre in a very compact structure (3). Part of the gas which did not fall back initially, gradually rebuilds a disc around the compact structure, making a new spiral galaxy (4 and 5). The images are pictures

  10. HOW SPIRALS AND GAPS DRIVEN BY COMPANIONS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS APPEAR IN SCATTERED LIGHT AT ARBITRARY VIEWING ANGLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths have revealed structures of potentially planetary origin. Investigations of observational signatures from planet-induced features have so far focused on disks viewed face-on. Combining 3D hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we study how the appearance of the spiral arms and the gap produced in a disk by a companion varies with inclination and position angle in NIR scattered light. We compare the cases of a 3 M {sub J} and a 0.1 M {sub ⊙} companion, and make predictions suitable for testing with Gemini/GPI, Very Large Telescope/NACO/SPHERE, and Subaru/HiCIAO/SCExAO. We find that the two trailing arms produced by an external perturber can have a variety of morphologies in inclined systems—they may appear as one trailing arm; two trailing arms on the same side of the disk; or two arms winding in opposite directions. The disk ring outside a planetary gap may also mimic spiral arms when viewed at high inclinations. We suggest potential explanations for the features observed in HH 30, HD 141569 A, AK Sco, HD 100546, and AB Aur. We emphasize that inclined views of companion-induced features cannot be converted into face-on views using simple and commonly practiced image deprojections.

  11. HOW SPIRALS AND GAPS DRIVEN BY COMPANIONS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS APPEAR IN SCATTERED LIGHT AT ARBITRARY VIEWING ANGLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths have revealed structures of potentially planetary origin. Investigations of observational signatures from planet-induced features have so far focused on disks viewed face-on. Combining 3D hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we study how the appearance of the spiral arms and the gap produced in a disk by a companion varies with inclination and position angle in NIR scattered light. We compare the cases of a 3 M J and a 0.1 M ⊙ companion, and make predictions suitable for testing with Gemini/GPI, Very Large Telescope/NACO/SPHERE, and Subaru/HiCIAO/SCExAO. We find that the two trailing arms produced by an external perturber can have a variety of morphologies in inclined systems—they may appear as one trailing arm; two trailing arms on the same side of the disk; or two arms winding in opposite directions. The disk ring outside a planetary gap may also mimic spiral arms when viewed at high inclinations. We suggest potential explanations for the features observed in HH 30, HD 141569 A, AK Sco, HD 100546, and AB Aur. We emphasize that inclined views of companion-induced features cannot be converted into face-on views using simple and commonly practiced image deprojections.

  12. Sharp corners as sources of spiral pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biton, Y.; Rabinovitch, A.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that using the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, stimulation of excitable media inside a region possessing sharp corners, can lead to the appearance of sources of spiral-pairs of sustained activity. The two conditions for such source creation are: The corners should be less than 120 deg. and the range of stimulating amplitudes should be small, occurring just above the threshold value and decreasing with the corner angle. The basic mechanisms driving the phenomenon are discussed. These include: A. If the corner angle is below 120 deg., the wave generated inside cannot emerge at the corner tip, resulting in the creation of two free edges which start spiraling towards each other. B. Spiraling must be strong enough; otherwise annihilation of the rotating arms would occur too soon to create a viable source. C. The intricacies of the different radii involved are elucidated. Possible applications in heart stimulation and in chemical reactions are considered.

  13. The Molecular Structures of the Local Arm and Perseus Arm in the Galactic Region of l  = [139.°75, 149.°75], b  = [−5.°25, 5.°25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Using the Purple Mountain Observatory Delingha (PMODLH) 13.7 m telescope, we report a 96 deg{sup 2} {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O mapping observation toward the Galactic region of l  = [139.°75,149.°75], b  = [−5.°25, 5.°25]. The molecular structures of the Local Arm and Perseus Arm are presented. Combining H i data and part of the Outer Arm results, we obtain that the warp structure of both atomic and molecular gas is obvious, while the flare structure only exists in atomic gas in this observing region. In addition, five filamentary giant molecular clouds on the Perseus Arm are identified. Among them, four are newly identified. Their relations with the Milky Way large-scale structure are discussed.

  14. Analysis of spiral components in 16 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considere, S.; Athanassoula, E.

    1988-01-01

    A Fourier analysis of the intensity distributions in the plane of 16 spiral galaxies of morphological types from 1 to 7 is performed. The galaxies processed are NGC 300,598,628,2403,2841,3031,3198,3344,5033,5055,5194,5247,6946,7096,7217, and 7331. The method, mathematically based upon a decomposition of a distribution into a superposition of individual logarithmic spiral components, is first used to determine for each galaxy the position angle PA and the inclination ω of the galaxy plane onto the sky plane. Our results, in good agreement with those issued from different usual methods in the literature, are discussed. The decomposition of the deprojected galaxies into individual spiral components reveals that the two-armed component is everywhere dominant. Our pitch angles are then compared to the previously published ones and their quality is checked by drawing each individual logarithmic spiral on the actual deprojected galaxy images. Finally, the surface intensities for angular periodicities of interest are calculated. A choice of a few of the most important ones is used to elaborate a composite image well representing the main spiral features observed in the deprojected galaxies

  15. Human Development VII: A Spiral Fractal Model of Fine Structure of Physical Energy Could Explain Central Aspects of Biological Information, Biological Organization and Biological Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have made a draft of a physical fractal essence of the universe, a sketch of a new cosmology, which we believe to lay at the root of our new holistic biological paradigm. We present the fractal roomy spiraled structures and the energy-rich dancing “infinite strings” or lines of the universe that our hypothesis is based upon. The geometric language of this cosmology is symbolic and both pre-mathematical and pre-philosophical. The symbols are both text and figures, and using these we step by step explain the new model that at least to some extent is able to explain the complex informational system behind morphogenesis, ontogenesis, regeneration and healing. We suggest that it is from this highly dynamic spiraled structure that organization of cells, organs, and the wholeness of the human being including consciousness emerge. The model of ““dancing fractal spirals” carries many similarities to premodern cultures descriptions of the energy of the life and universe. Examples are the Native American shamanistic descriptions of their perception of energy and the old Indian Yogis descriptions of the life-energy within the body and outside. Similar ideas of energy and matter are found in the modern superstring theories. The model of the informational system of the organism gives new meaning to Bateson’s definition of information: “A difference that makes a difference”, and indicates how information-directed self-organization can exist on high structural levels in living organisms, giving birth to their subjectivity and consciousness.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  17. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  18. Structure and Properties of the Nonface-Spiral Fullerenes T-C380, D3-C384, D3-C440, and D3-C672 and Their Halma and Leapfrog Transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Tonner, Ralf; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    The structure and properties of the three smallest nonface-spiral (NS) fullerenes NS-T-C380, NS-D3-C384, NS-D3-C440, and the first isolated pentagon NS-fullerene, NS-D3-C672, are investigated in detail. They are constructed by either a generalized face-spiral algorithm or by vertex insertions......-fullerenes compared to C60, but, as expected, in a lower stability than most stable isomers. None of the many investigated halma transforms on nonspiral fullerenes, NS-T-C380, NS-D3-C384, NS-D3-C440, and NS-D3-C672, admit any spirals, and we conjecture that all halma transforms of NS-fullerenes belong to the class...

  19. Multiarm spirals on the periphery of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubov, Spiegel; Evgeny, Polyachenko

    2018-04-01

    Spiral patterns in some disc galaxies have two arms in the centre, and three or more arms on the periphery. The same result is also obtained in numerical simulations of stellar and gaseous discs.We argue that such patterns may occur due to fast cooling of the gas, resulting in formation of giant molecular clouds. The timescale of this process is 50 Myr, the factor of 10 shorter than of ordinary secular instability. The giant molecular clouds give rise to multiarm spirals through the mechanism of swing amplification.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Martini, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclear regions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improved method of image contrast enhancement, we created detailed high-quality " structure maps " that allow us to study the distributions of dust, star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions (100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially all of these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures with morphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaotic dusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physical connection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scales and large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. These connections are particularly striking in the interacting and barred galaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gas flows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to the fueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxy disks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dust morphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Sevfert 2s are obscured Sevfert Is, then the obscuration must occur on smaller scales than those probed by HST.

  1. Dust-trapping Vortices and a Potentially Planet-triggered Spiral Wake in the Pre-transitional Disk of V1247 Orionis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Stefan; Kreplin, Alexander; Young, Alison K.; Bate, Matthew R.; Harries, Tim T.; Willson, Matthew [University of Exeter, School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Fukugawa, Misato [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Sitko, Michael L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Grady, Carol [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96402 (United States); Monnier, John D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wisniewski, John, E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73071 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The radial drift problem constitutes one of the most fundamental problems in planet formation theory, as it predicts particles to drift into the star before they are able to grow to planetesimal size. Dust-trapping vortices have been proposed as a possible solution to this problem, as they might be able to trap particles over millions of years, allowing them to grow beyond the radial drift barrier. Here, we present ALMA 0.″04 resolution imaging of the pre-transitional disk of V1247 Orionis that reveals an asymmetric ring as well as a sharply confined crescent structure, resembling morphologies seen in theoretical models of vortex formation. The asymmetric ring (at 0.″17 = 54 au separation from the star) and the crescent (at 0.″38 = 120 au) seem smoothly connected through a one-armed spiral-arm structure that has been found previously in scattered light. We propose a physical scenario with a planet orbiting at ∼0.″3 ≈ 100 au, where the one-armed spiral arm detected in polarized light traces the accretion stream feeding the protoplanet. The dynamical influence of the planet clears the gap between the ring and the crescent and triggers two vortices that trap millimeter-sized particles, namely, the crescent and the bright asymmetry seen in the ring. We conducted dedicated hydrodynamics simulations of a disk with an embedded planet, which results in similar spiral-arm morphologies as seen in our scattered-light images. At the position of the spiral wake and the crescent we also observe {sup 12}CO(3-2) and H{sup 12}CO{sup +} (4-3) excess line emission, likely tracing the increased scale-height in these disk regions.

  2. Dust-trapping Vortices and a Potentially Planet-triggered Spiral Wake in the Pre-transitional Disk of V1247 Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefan; Kreplin, Alexander; Fukugawa, Misato; Muto, Takayuki; Sitko, Michael L.; Young, Alison K.; Bate, Matthew R.; Grady, Carol; Harries, Tim T.; Monnier, John D.; Willson, Matthew; Wisniewski, John

    2017-10-01

    The radial drift problem constitutes one of the most fundamental problems in planet formation theory, as it predicts particles to drift into the star before they are able to grow to planetesimal size. Dust-trapping vortices have been proposed as a possible solution to this problem, as they might be able to trap particles over millions of years, allowing them to grow beyond the radial drift barrier. Here, we present ALMA 0.″04 resolution imaging of the pre-transitional disk of V1247 Orionis that reveals an asymmetric ring as well as a sharply confined crescent structure, resembling morphologies seen in theoretical models of vortex formation. The asymmetric ring (at 0.″17 = 54 au separation from the star) and the crescent (at 0.″38 = 120 au) seem smoothly connected through a one-armed spiral-arm structure that has been found previously in scattered light. We propose a physical scenario with a planet orbiting at ˜0.″3 ≈ 100 au, where the one-armed spiral arm detected in polarized light traces the accretion stream feeding the protoplanet. The dynamical influence of the planet clears the gap between the ring and the crescent and triggers two vortices that trap millimeter-sized particles, namely, the crescent and the bright asymmetry seen in the ring. We conducted dedicated hydrodynamics simulations of a disk with an embedded planet, which results in similar spiral-arm morphologies as seen in our scattered-light images. At the position of the spiral wake and the crescent we also observe 12CO(3-2) and H12CO+ (4-3) excess line emission, likely tracing the increased scale-height in these disk regions.

  3. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  4. Spirals on the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Munk

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiral eddies were first seen in the sun glitter on the Apollo Mission 30 years ago; they have since been recorded on SAR missions and in the infrared. The spirals are globally distributed, 10-25 km in size and overwhelmingly cyclonic. They have not been explained. Under light winds favorable to visualization, linear surface features with high surfactant density and low surface roughness are of common occurrence. We have proposed that frontal formations concentrate the ambient shear and prevailing surfactants. Horizontal shear instabilities ensue when the shear becomes comparable to the coriolis frequency. The resulting vortices wind the liner features into spirals. The hypothesis needs to be tested by prolonged measurements and surface truth. Spiral eddies are a manifestation of a sub-mesoscale oceanography associated with upper ocean stirring; dimensional considerations suggest a horizontal diffusivity of order 103 m2 s-1.

  5. Nonuniqueness of self-propagating spiral galaxy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, W.L.; Madore, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonuniqueness of the basic assumptions leading to spiral structure in self-propagating star formation models. Even in the case where star formation occurs purely spontaneously and does not propagate, we have generated spiral structure by adopting the radically different assumption where star formation is systematically inhibited

  6. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  7. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  8. High-Assurance Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    HIGH-ASSURANCE SPIRAL CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO...MU 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave Pittsburgh, PA 15217 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. Carnegie Mellon Carnegie Mellon HA SPIRAL Code Synthesis KeYmaera X Hybrid Theorem Prover

  9. Circumnuclear Regions In Barred Spiral Galaxies. 1; Near-Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ramirez, D.; Knapen, J. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Laine, S.; Doyon, R.; Nadeau, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based near-infrared images of the central regions of a sample of twelve barred galaxies with circumnuclear star formation activity, which is organized in ring-like regions typically one kiloparsec in diameter. We also present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared images of ten of our sample galaxies, and compare them with our ground-based data. Although our sample galaxies were selected for the presence of circumnuclear star formation activity, our broad-band near-infrared images are heterogeneous, showing a substantial amount of small-scale structure in some galaxies, and practically none in others. We argue that, where it exists, this structure is caused by young stars, which also cause the characteristic bumps or changes in slope in the radial profiles of ellipticity, major axis position angle, surface brightness and colour at the radius of the circumnuclear ring in most of our sample galaxies. In 7 out of 10 HST images, star formation in the nuclear ring is clearly visible as a large number of small emitting regions, organised into spiral arm fragments, which are accompanied by dust lanes. NIR colour index maps show much more clearly the location of dust lanes and, in certain cases, regions of star formation than single broad-band images. Circumnuclear spiral structure thus outlined appears to be common in barred spiral galaxies with circumnuclear star formation.

  10. High assurance SPIRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Franz; Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Johnson, Jeremy R.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we introduce High Assurance SPIRAL to solve the last mile problem for the synthesis of high assurance implementations of controllers for vehicular systems that are executed in today's and future embedded and high performance embedded system processors. High Assurance SPIRAL is a scalable methodology to translate a high level specification of a high assurance controller into a highly resource-efficient, platform-adapted, verified control software implementation for a given platform in a language like C or C++. High Assurance SPIRAL proves that the implementation is equivalent to the specification written in the control engineer's domain language. Our approach scales to problems involving floating-point calculations and provides highly optimized synthesized code. It is possible to estimate the available headroom to enable assurance/performance trade-offs under real-time constraints, and enables the synthesis of multiple implementation variants to make attacks harder. At the core of High Assurance SPIRAL is the Hybrid Control Operator Language (HCOL) that leverages advanced mathematical constructs expressing the controller specification to provide high quality translation capabilities. Combined with a verified/certified compiler, High Assurance SPIRAL provides a comprehensive complete solution to the efficient synthesis of verifiable high assurance controllers. We demonstrate High Assurance SPIRALs capability by co-synthesizing proofs and implementations for attack detection and sensor spoofing algorithms and deploy the code as ROS nodes on the Landshark unmanned ground vehicle and on a Synthetic Car in a real-time simulator.

  11. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  12. Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.

  13. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  14. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  15. A Comparison of FDM Structural Layouts and Implementation of an Open-Source Arm-Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard David

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM is a manufacturing process to build components in a layer-by-layer approach through extrusion of polymers from a movable nozzle, allowing for significantly higher degrees of complexity over machined parts. Current FDM systems typically use actuation provided through a gantry or delta structural layout, operating through depositing successive planar layers in a 2.5D process; it has been shown in numerous studies the bonding between layers has significantly lower strength than the homogeneous material or in-plane properties - an issue which can be mitigated through the deposition of curved layers. This paper compares four differing structural layouts of FDM systems (gantry, delta, Stewart Platform, and arm-based to identify the key advantages of an arm-based method as the increased workspace and manipulability enabling “Additive Finalisation” of components, and suitability for curved layer FDM. Details are then presented of the open-source implementation and evaluation of a 6 degree-of-freedom arm-based FDM printer at the University of Bristol.

  16. NOTE: On the need to revise the arm structure in stylized anthropomorphic phantoms in lateral photon irradiation geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-11-01

    Distributions of radiation absorbed dose within human anatomy have been estimated through Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques implemented for two different classes of computational anthropomorphic phantoms: (1) mathematical equation-based stylized phantoms and (2) tomographic image-based voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms constructed from tomographic images of real human anatomy have been actively developed since the late 1980s to overcome the anatomical approximations necessary with stylized phantoms, which themselves have been utilized since the mid 1960s. However, revisions of stylized phantoms have also been pursued in parallel to the development of voxel phantoms since voxel phantoms (1) are initially restricted to the individual-specific anatomy of the person originally imaged, (2) must be restructured on an organ-by-organ basis to conform to reference individual anatomy and (3) cannot easily represent very fine anatomical structures and tissue layers that are thinner than the voxel dimensions of the overall phantom. Although efforts have been made to improve the anatomic realism of stylized phantoms, most of these efforts have been limited to attempts to alter internal organ structures. Aside from the internal organs, the exterior shapes, and especially the arm structures, of stylized phantoms are also far from realistic descriptions of human anatomy, and may cause dosimetry errors in the calculation of organ-absorbed doses for external irradiation scenarios. The present study was intended to highlight the need to revise the existing arm structure within stylized phantoms by comparing organ doses of stylized adult phantoms with those from three adult voxel phantoms in the lateral photon irradiation geometry. The representative stylized phantom, the adult phantom of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) series and two adult male voxel phantoms, KTMAN-2 and VOXTISS8, were employed for Monte Carlo dose calculation, and data from another voxel phantom, VIP

  17. On the need to revise the arm structure in stylized anthropomorphic phantoms in lateral photon irradiation geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of radiation absorbed dose within human anatomy have been estimated through Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques implemented for two different classes of computational anthropomorphic phantoms: (1) mathematical equation-based stylized phantoms and (2) tomographic image-based voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms constructed from tomographic images of real human anatomy have been actively developed since the late 1980s to overcome the anatomical approximations necessary with stylized phantoms, which themselves have been utilized since the mid 1960s. However, revisions of stylized phantoms have also been pursued in parallel to the development of voxel phantoms since voxel phantoms (1) are initially restricted to the individual-specific anatomy of the person originally imaged, (2) must be restructured on an organ-by-organ basis to conform to reference individual anatomy and (3) cannot easily represent very fine anatomical structures and tissue layers that are thinner than the voxel dimensions of the overall phantom. Although efforts have been made to improve the anatomic realism of stylized phantoms, most of these efforts have been limited to attempts to alter internal organ structures. Aside from the internal organs, the exterior shapes, and especially the arm structures, of stylized phantoms are also far from realistic descriptions of human anatomy, and may cause dosimetry errors in the calculation of organ-absorbed doses for external irradiation scenarios. The present study was intended to highlight the need to revise the existing arm structure within stylized phantoms by comparing organ doses of stylized adult phantoms with those from three adult voxel phantoms in the lateral photon irradiation geometry. The representative stylized phantom, the adult phantom of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) series and two adult male voxel phantoms, KTMAN-2 and VOXTISS8, were employed for Monte Carlo dose calculation, and data from another voxel phantom, VIP

  18. Cochlea and other spiral forms in nature and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stanković, Predrag; Štrbac, Mile; Tomić, Irina; Ćetković, Mila

    2012-01-01

    The original appearance of the cochlea and the specific shape of a spiral are interesting for both the scientists and artists. Yet, a correlation between the cochlea and the spiral forms in nature and art has been very rarely mentioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between the cochlea and the other spiral objects in nature, as well as the artistic presentation of the spiral forms. We explored data related to many natural objects and examined 13,625 artworks created by 2049 artists. We also dissected 2 human cochleas and prepared histologic slices of a rat cochlea. The cochlea is a spiral, cone-shaped osseous structure that resembles certain other spiral forms in nature. It was noticed that parts of some plants are arranged in a spiral manner, often according to Fibonacci numbers. Certain animals, their parts, or their products also represent various types of spirals. Many of them, including the cochlea, belong to the logarithmic type. Nature created spiral forms in the living world to pack a larger number of structures in a limited space and also to improve their function. Because the cochlea and other spiral forms have a certain aesthetic value, many artists presented them in their works of art. There is a mathematical and geometric correlation between the cochlea and natural spiral objects, and the same functional reason for their formation. The artists' imagery added a new aspect to those domains. Obviously, the creativity of nature and Homo sapiens has no limits--like the infinite distal part of the spiral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  20. Grasp planning for a reconfigurable parallel robot with an underactuated arm structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riedel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach of grasp planning is applied to find out the appropriate grasp points for a reconfigurable parallel robot called PARAGRIP (Parallel Gripping. This new handling system is able to manipulate objects in the six-dimensional Cartesian space by several robotic arms using only six actuated joints. After grasping, the contact elements at the end of the underactuated arm mechanisms are connected to the object which forms a closed loop mechanism similar to the architecture of parallel manipulators. As the mounting and grasp points of the arms can easily be changed, the manipulator can be reconfigured to match the user's preferences and needs. This paper raises the question, how and where these grasp points are to be placed on the object to perform well for a certain manipulation task.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  1. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Chen, H L; Liu, T; Liu, Y H; Liu, Z B; Liu, D H

    2012-01-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  2. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, H. L.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y. H.; Liu, Z. B.; Liu, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  3. A comment on spiral motions in projective relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzio, J.C.; Lousto, C.O.; Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio de la Republica Argentina)

    1985-01-01

    Astronomical evidence has been inadequately invoked to support projective relativity. The spiral structure cannot be explained just by the existence of spiral orbits, and the use of Oort's constant to support the theory is also a misunderstanding. Besides, some mathematical inaccuracies make the application invalid. (author)

  4. Chiral Magnetic Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basar, Goekce; Dunne, Gerald V.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the presence of a very strong magnetic field in the chirally broken phase induces inhomogeneous expectation values, of a spiral nature along the magnetic field axis, for the currents of charge and chirality, when there is finite baryon density or an imbalance between left and right chiralities. This 'chiral magnetic spiral' is a gapless excitation transporting the currents of (i) charge (at finite chirality), and (ii) chirality (at finite baryon density) along the direction of the magnetic field. In both cases it also induces in the transverse directions oscillating currents of charge and chirality. In heavy ion collisions, the chiral magnetic spiral possibly provides contributions both to the out-of-plane and the in-plane dynamical charge fluctuations recently observed at BNL RHIC.

  5. The Spiral of Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galpin, Charlotte; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    of Euroscepticism’, taking media autonomy seriously to understand how media logics and selective devices contribute to the shaping of public discourse about the EU. We review the literature on the media and EU legitimacy to show how media frames and their amplification on social media can account for the salience......Media scholars have increasingly examined the effects of a negativity bias that applies to political news. In the ‘spiral of cynicism’, journalist preferences for negative news correspond to public demands for sensational news. We argue that this spiral of cynicism in EU news results in a ‘spiral...... of Eurosceptic opinions in the public sphere that then push parties to contest the EU in predominantly negative terms....

  6. Embracing the Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical research demands that we interrogate our own positionality and social location. Critical reflexivity is a form of researcher critical consciousness that is constant and dynamic in a complex spiral-like process starting within our own experiences as racialized, gendered, and classed beings embedded in particular sociopolitical contexts. Across diverse critical methodologies, a group of graduate students and their supervisor explored their own conceptualization of the reflexivity spiral by reflecting on how their research motivations and methodologies emerged from their racializing, colonizing, language-learning, parenting, and identity negotiating experiences. In this article, they present a spiral model of the critical reflexivity process, review the literature on reflexivity, and conclude with a description of critical reflexivity as a social practice within a supportive and collaborative graduate school experience.

  7. The spinning ball spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  8. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  9. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of the Cr-doped spiral antiferromagnet BiMnFe2O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuk, Dmitry; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K.; Greenblatt, Martha; Hadermann, Joke

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The substitution of Cr for Mn in BiMnFe 2 O 6 is possible by the solution–gel method. • The BiCr x Mn 1−x Fe 2 O 6 solid solution is obtained for the x values up to 0.3. • Increasing Cr content lowers the temperature of the antiferromagnetic ordering. - Abstract: We report the Cr 3+ for Mn 3+ substitution in the BiMnFe 2 O 6 structure. The BiCr x Mn 1−x Fe 2 O 6 solid solution is obtained by the solution–gel synthesis technique for the x values up to 0.3. The crystal structure investigation using a combination of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the compounds retain the parent BiMnFe 2 O 6 structure (for x = 0.3, a = 5.02010(6)Å, b = 7.06594(7)Å, c = 12.6174(1)Å, S.G. Pbcm, R I = 0.036, R P = 0.011) with only a slight decrease in the cell parameters associated with the Cr 3+ for Mn 3+ substitution. Magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest strong similarities in the magnetic behavior of BiCr x Mn 1−x Fe 2 O 6 (x = 0.2; 0.3) and parent BiMnFe 2 O 6 . Only T N slightly decreases upon Cr doping that indicates a very subtle influence of Cr 3+ cations on the magnetic properties at the available substitution rates

  10. Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of a heart attack. Seek emergency treatment if you have: Arm, shoulder or back ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/arm-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050870 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  11. Construction and building of a compact RFQ spiral structure for the stopping of highly charged heavy ion beams for the HITRAP project of the GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, B.

    2007-01-01

    For experiments of the atomic-physics group of the GSI in Darmstadt an ion stopper is built, which will make low-energetic, extremely highly charged ions available. The plannings for the so-called HITRAP (highly charged ion's trap) began at the beginning of the ninetieth. With this facility highly-charged heavy ions shall be stopped in two stages to very low, thermal velocities, and be available for highly precise mass spectroscopy, measurements of the g factor of the bound electron of hydrogen-like ions, and other atomic-physics experiments. This decelerator facility shall first be built in the reinjection channel behind the ESR with the possibility, to apply all components later in teh extension of the GSI in the framework of the FAIR project in the facility for low-energetic antiprotons and ions to be newly built. the present thesis treats the development and the building of an integrated RFQ debuncher stopping accelerator, which represents a part of the HITRAP stopping structures. By this the ion beam is stopped from the IH stopping accelerator with an energy of 500 keV/u to 5 keV/u. By the integrated spiral buncher the beam can be fitted in energy and energy deviation to the subsequent cooler trap. In this thesis the foundations of the particle dynamics in a RFQ accelerator for the stopping of particle beams were worked out and realized, the particle-dynamics calculations necessary for the lay-out of such a structure performed with RFQSim, suitable RF structures with the simulation program Microwave Studio developed and studied, as well as the thermal load of the structures studied with the finite-element code ALGOR. A further, central topic of this thesis is the building and the tuning of the RFQ structure in order to reach a homogeneous as possible field distribution along the electrodes. Measurements of the fields in the RFQ were performed with a disturbing condenser, at the debuncher with a disturbing body. After successfully performed vacuum tests at the

  12. Graphite target for the spiral project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putaux, J.C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Ferro, A.; Foury, P.; Kotfila, L.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J.; Loiselet, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the thermal and physical properties of graphite targets for the SPIRAL project is presented. The main objective is to develop an optimized set-up both mechanically and thermally resistant, presenting good release properties (hot targets with thin slices). The results of irradiation tests concerning the mechanical and thermal resistance of the first prototype of SPIRAL target with conical geometry are presented. The micro-structural properties of the graphite target is also studied, in order to check that the release properties are not deteriorated by the irradiation. Finally, the results concerning the latest pilot target internally heated by an electrical current are shown. (author)

  13. PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  14. PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.

  15. Spiral loaded cavities for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Klein, H.

    1976-01-01

    A transmission line theory of the spiral resonator has been performed and the calculated and measured properties will be compared. Shunt impedances up to 50 MΩ/m have been measured. In a number of high power tests the structure has been tested and its electrical and mechanical stability has been investigated. The static frequency shift due to ponderomotoric forces was between 0.2 and 50 kHz/kW dependent on the geometrical parameters of the spirals. The maximum field strength obtained on the axis was 16 MV/m in pulsed operation and 9.2 MV/m in cw, corresponding to a voltage gain per cavity of up to 0.96 MV. The results show that spiral resonators are well suited as heavy ion accelerator cavities. (author)

  16. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10{sup 14} fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 11} particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC{sub 2} target with {sup 3,4}He, {sup 6,7}Li or {sup 12}C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  17. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10 14 fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10 6 to 10 11 particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC 2 target with 3,4 He, 6,7 Li or 12 C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  18. The Spiral Curriculum. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The Spiral Curriculum is predicated on cognitive theory advanced by Jerome Bruner (1960), who wrote, "We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development." In other words, even the most complex material, if properly structured and presented, can be understood by…

  19. Rediscovering the Giant Low Surface Brightness Spiral Galaxy Malin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz, Gaspar

    2018-01-01

    I summarize the latest discoveries regarding this ramarkable diffuse and giant galaxy, the largest single spiral in the universe so far. I describe how the latest discoveries could have been done easily 20 years ago, but an incredible summation of facts and some astronomical sociology, keeped many of them undisclosed. I present the most conspicuous features of the giant spiral arms of Malin 1, including stellar density, colors, stellar populations and some modeling describing their past evolution to the current state. I conclude with pending issues regarding stellar formation in Malin 1, and the efforts to detect its elusive molecular gas.

  20. The color gradient in spiral galaxies: application to M 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segalovitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The calculated development of the color of a star cluster is used to predict the expected color evolution, as a function of radius, in a spiral galaxy. It is assumed that the fraction of gas which is converted into stars during a spiral arm passage is a function of radius only. Applying this model to M 81, it is shown that the observed color and mass distributions can be explained by an initial disk-like gas distribution proportional to the inverse square of the radius and a consumption fraction which is an increasing function of radius. (orig.) [de

  1. The Galactic Centre Mini-Spiral with CARMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneriath, D.; Eckart, A.; Vogel, S. N.; Teuben, P.; Muzic, K.; Schodel. R.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Moultaka, J.; Staguhn, J.; Straubmeier, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic centre mini-spiral region is a mixture of gas and dust with temperatures ranging from a few hundred K to 10(exp 4) K. We report results from 1.3 and 3mm radio interferometric observations of this region with CARMA, and present a spectral index map of this region. We find a range of emission mechanisms in the region, including the inverted synchrotron spectrum of Sgr A*, free-free emission from the mini-spiral arms, and a possible dust emission contribution indicated by a positive spectral index.

  2. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov......–Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl are presented. Moving target and spiral foci are found, and the speed and direction of movement of single as well as double spiral foci are investigated. For the experiments analyzed in this paper it is found that the movement of a focus correlates with foci...

  3. Robustness, Death of Spiral Wave in the Network of Neurons under Partial Ion Channel Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Ma; Long, Huang; Chun-Ni, Wang; Zhong-Sheng, Pu

    2013-01-01

    The development of spiral wave in a two-dimensional square array due to partial ion channel block (Potassium, Sodium) is investigated, the dynamics of the node is described by Hodgkin—Huxley neuron and these neurons are coupled with nearest neighbor connection. The parameter ratio x Na (and x K ), which defines the ratio of working ion channel number of sodium (potassium) to the total ion channel number of sodium (and potassium), is used to measure the shift conductance induced by channel block. The distribution of statistical variable R in the two-parameter phase space (parameter ratio vs. poisoning area) is extensively calculated to mark the parameter region for transition of spiral wave induced by partial ion channel block, the area with smaller factors of synchronization R is associated the parameter region that spiral wave keeps alive and robust to the channel poisoning. Spiral wave keeps alive when the poisoned area (potassium or sodium) and degree of intoxication are small, distinct transition (death, several spiral waves coexist or multi-arm spiral wave emergence) occurs under moderate ratio x Na (and x K ) when the size of blocked area exceeds certain thresholds. Breakup of spiral wave occurs and multi-arm of spiral waves are observed when the channel noise is considered. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  5. Spiral nonimaging optical designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pablo; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Vilaplana, Juan

    2011-10-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. In some demanding nonimaging applications, these restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for negative draft angles. Some of these spiral symmetry examples will be shown here, as well as their simulated results.

  6. Spiral 2 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop

  7. Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Sahoo, Bindusar; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2010-06-01

    We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)

  8. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  9. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  10. Transitions between Taylor vortices and spirals via wavy Taylor vortices and wavy spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Ch; Altmeyer, S; Pinter, A; Luecke, M

    2009-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of closed wavy Taylor vortices and of helicoidal wavy spirals in the Taylor-Couette system. These wavy structures appearing via a secondary bifurcation out of Taylor vortex flow and out of spiral vortex flow, respectively, mediate transitions between Taylor and spiral vortices and vice versa. Structure, dynamics, stability and bifurcation behaviour are investigated in quantitative detail as a function of Reynolds numbers and wave numbers for counter-rotating as well as corotating cylinders. These results are obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations subject to axial periodicity for a radius ratio η=0.5 with a combination of a finite differences method and a Galerkin method.

  11. Structures of the APC–ARM domain in complexes with discrete Amer1/WTX fragments reveal that it uses a consensus mode to recognize its binding partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Akyildiz, Senem; Xiao, Yafei; Gai, Zhongchao; An, Ying; Behrens, Jürgen; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor APC employs its conserved armadillo repeat (ARM) domain to recognize many of its binding partners, including Amer1/WTX, which is mutated in Wilms' tumor and bone overgrowth syndrome. The APC–Amer1 complex has important roles in regulating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. Three sites A1, A2, and A3 of Amer1 have been reported to mediate its interaction with APC-ARM. In this study, crystal structures of APC–ARM in complexes with Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, which is newly identified in this work, were determined. Combined with our GST pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay results using mutants of APC and Amer1 interface residues, our structures demonstrate that Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, as well as other APC-binding proteins such as Asef and Sam68, all employ a common recognition pattern to associate with APC–ARM. In contrast, Amer1-A3 binds to the C-terminal side of APC–ARM through a bipartite interaction mode. Composite mutations on either APC or Amer1 disrupting all four interfaces abrogated their association in cultured cells and impaired the membrane recruitment of APC by Amer1. Our study thus comprehensively elucidated the recognition mechanism between APC and Amer1, and revealed a consensus recognition sequence employed by various APC–ARM binding partners. PMID:27462415

  12. Structures of the APC-ARM domain in complexes with discrete Amer1/WTX fragments reveal that it uses a consensus mode to recognize its binding partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Akyildiz, Senem; Xiao, Yafei; Gai, Zhongchao; An, Ying; Behrens, Jürgen; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor APC employs its conserved armadillo repeat (ARM) domain to recognize many of its binding partners, including Amer1/WTX, which is mutated in Wilms' tumor and bone overgrowth syndrome. The APC-Amer1 complex has important roles in regulating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. Three sites A1, A2, and A3 of Amer1 have been reported to mediate its interaction with APC-ARM. In this study, crystal structures of APC-ARM in complexes with Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, which is newly identified in this work, were determined. Combined with our GST pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay results using mutants of APC and Amer1 interface residues, our structures demonstrate that Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, as well as other APC-binding proteins such as Asef and Sam68, all employ a common recognition pattern to associate with APC-ARM. In contrast, Amer1-A3 binds to the C-terminal side of APC-ARM through a bipartite interaction mode. Composite mutations on either APC or Amer1 disrupting all four interfaces abrogated their association in cultured cells and impaired the membrane recruitment of APC by Amer1. Our study thus comprehensively elucidated the recognition mechanism between APC and Amer1, and revealed a consensus recognition sequence employed by various APC-ARM binding partners.

  13. Observational effects of explosions in the nuclei of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.H.; Bania, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    We conclude that an explosive event will produce a distinct observational signature evidenced by an inner ringlike structure of the principal spiral tracers, conspicuous dips in the gas rotation curve at the locus of this ring, and a ringlike or double radio structure in the plane of the galaxy. Evidence is presented supporting the suggestion that one particular spiral galaxy, NGC 4736, exhibits this characteristic signature and therefore is a galaxy which may have undergone a recent explosive event in its nucleus

  14. How do octopuses use their arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  15. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  16. Three phase spiral liver Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyanja, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perform rapid back-to-back spiral acquisitions is an important recent technical advantage of spiral CT. this allows imaging of the upper abdomen (liver) during peak arterial enhancement (arterial phase) and during peak hepatic parenchymal enhancement (portal venous phase). Breatheld spiral CT has completely replaced dynamic incremental CT for evaluation of the liver. in selected patients with hyper vascular metastasis (hepatoma, neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) a biphasic examination is performed with one spiral acquisition obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and a second acquisition during the portal venous phase

  17. Fatigue Resistant Design Criteria for MD SHA Cantilevered Mast Arm Signal Structure : Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, wind induced fatigue cracking of highway signs, luminaires, and traffic signal support structures have been increasingly reported all over the United States. While fatalities associated with these failures have been limited...

  18. Synthesis, structure and luminescence properties of lanthanide complex with a new tetrapodal ligand featuring salicylamide arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xueqin; Wen Xiaoguang; Liu Weisheng; Wang Daqi

    2010-01-01

    A new tetrapodal ligand 1,1,1-tetrakis{[(2'-(2-furfurylaminoformyl))phenoxyl]methyl}methane (L) has been prepared and their coordination chemistry with Ln III ions has been investigated. The structure of {[Ln 4 L 3 (NO 3 ) 12 ].H 2 O} ∞ (Ln=Nd, Eu)] shows the binodal 4,3-connected three-dimensional interpenetration coordination polymers with topology of a (8 6 ) 3 (8 3 ) 4 notation. [DyL(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ].0.5CH 3 OH and [ErL(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) (CH 3 OH)].CH 3 COCH 3 is a 1:1 mononuclear complex with interesting supramolecular features. The structure of [NdL(H 2 O) 6 ].3ClO 4 .3H 2 O is a 2:1 mononuclear complex which further self-assembled through hydrogen bond to form a three-dimensional supramolecular structures. The result presented here indicates that both subtle variation of the terminal group and counter anions can be applied in the modulation of the overall molecular structures of lanthanide complex of salicylamide derivatives due to the structure specialties of this type of ligand. The luminescence properties of the Eu III complex are also studied in detail. - Grapical Abstract: We present here a series of zero- to three-dimensional lanthanide coordination structures and luminescence properties of Eu(III) complex of a new tetrapodal ligand.

  19. Comments on H. Arp 'The persistent problem of spiral galaxies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1987-04-01

    In his paper 'The persistent problem of Spiral Galaxies' H. Arp criticises the standard theory of spiral galaxies and demonstrates that introduction of plasma theory is necessary in order to understand the structure of spiral galaxies. In the present paper arguments are given in support of Arp's theory and suggestions are made how Arp's ideas should be developed. An important result of Arp's new approach is that there is no convincing argument for the belief that there is a 'missing mass'. This is important from a cosmological point of view. (author)

  20. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  1. Thermal OH Emission, A New Tracer for Galaxy Structure: Z-Thickness and Rolling Motion of the Perseus Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Philip; Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations with the Green Bank Telescope (Allen et al. 2015) have shown that high-sensitivity measurements of OH 18-cm emission can be a useful alternative tracer for the large-scale distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic ISM. This component of the ISM is not well traced by 3-mm CO(1-0) emission. In the quiescent regions examined so far, fewer than half of the OH spectral features found show corresponding CO emission in the CfA survey (Dame el al. 2001). The intensities of the two main-line OH transitions at 1665 and 1667 MHz are in the “thermal” or LTE ratio of 5:9 and emanate from low-opacity gas with a wide spatial distribution similar to the HI. This morphology resembles that of the “dark gas” (or “dark neutral medium”) postulated by Grenier et al. (2005) as the possible source of target nucleii required to explain the excess gamma ray emission from the Galactic ISM. OH 18-cm emission provides a new tool for studies of the quantity, distance, and kinematics of this new CO-dark molecular component of the ISM. As a demonstration of the utility of this new tool, we apply it to two questions about the molecular structure of the Perseus Arm: the thickness in the z-direction, and the rolling motions of the arm discovered in the earliest HI maps of the Galaxy (e.g. Oort 1962, Rougoor 1964). Using OH emission as a molecular tracer, we find that the molecular component of gas in the Perseus Arm has a comparable z-thickness to that measured using HI, although it appears to be clumpier. OH also shows that the molecular component experiences the “rolling motions” known from the HI data. As a molecular tracer, OH allows more regions to be observed than can be observed using CO(1-0), and as an optically-thin emission line, OH can provide direct column density measurements.

  2. Equilibrium point control of a monkey arm simulator by a fast learning tree structured artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornay, M; Sanger, T D

    1993-01-01

    A planar 17 muscle model of the monkey's arm based on realistic biomechanical measurements was simulated on a Symbolics Lisp Machine. The simulator implements the equilibrium point hypothesis for the control of arm movements. Given initial and final desired positions, it generates a minimum-jerk desired trajectory of the hand and uses the backdriving algorithm to determine an appropriate sequence of motor commands to the muscles (Flash 1987; Mussa-Ivaldi et al. 1991; Dornay 1991b). These motor commands specify a temporal sequence of stable (attractive) equilibrium positions which lead to the desired hand movement. A strong disadvantage of the simulator is that it has no memory of previous computations. Determining the desired trajectory using the minimum-jerk model is instantaneous, but the laborious backdriving algorithm is slow, and can take up to one hour for some trajectories. The complexity of the required computations makes it a poor model for biological motor control. We propose a computationally simpler and more biologically plausible method for control which achieves the benefits of the backdriving algorithm. A fast learning, tree-structured network (Sanger 1991c) was trained to remember the knowledge obtained by the backdriving algorithm. The neural network learned the nonlinear mapping from a 2-dimensional cartesian planar hand position (x,y) to a 17-dimensional motor command space (u1, . . ., u17). Learning 20 training trajectories, each composed of 26 sample points [[x,y], [u1, . . ., u17] took only 20 min on a Sun-4 Sparc workstation. After the learning stage, new, untrained test trajectories as well as the original trajectories of the hand were given to the neural network as input. The network calculated the required motor commands for these movements. The resulting movements were close to the desired ones for both the training and test cases.

  3. Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h. For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w/h∼1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w/h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w/h≫1, these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.

  4. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  5. Global extinction in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, RB; Pierce, MJ; Saunders, W; Verheijen, MAW; Witchalls, PL

    Magnitude-limited samples of spiral galaxies drawn from the Ursa Major and Pisces Clusters are used to determine their extinction properties as a function of inclination. Imaging photometry is available for 87 spirals in the B, R, I, and K' bands. Extinction causes systematic scatter in

  6. The perfect shape spiral stories

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This book uses the spiral shape as a key to a multitude of strange and seemingly disparate stories about art, nature, science, mathematics, and the human endeavour. In a way, the book is itself organized as a spiral, with almost disconnected chapters circling around and closing in on the common theme. A particular strength of the book is its extremely cross-disciplinary nature - everything is fun, and everything is connected! At the same time, the author puts great emphasis on mathematical and scientific correctness, in contrast, perhaps, with some earlier books on spirals. Subjects include the mathematical properties of spirals, sea shells, sun flowers, Greek architecture, air ships, the history of mathematics, spiral galaxies, the anatomy of the human hand, the art of prehistoric Europe, Alfred Hitchcock, and spider webs, to name a few.

  7. Movement Structure in Young and Elderly Adults during Goal-Directed Movements of the Left and Right Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Brach; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Barduson, Beth; Stelmach, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Elderly adults often exhibit performance deficits during goal-directed movements of the dominant arm compared with young adults. Recent studies involving hemispheric lateralization have provided evidence that the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere-arm systems are specialized for controlling different movement parameters and that hemispheric…

  8. Broadband and stable acoustic vortex emitter with multi-arm coiling slits

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Xue

    2016-05-16

    We present the analytical design and experimental realization of a scheme based on multi-arm coiling slits to generate the stable acoustic vortices in a broadband. The proposed structure is able to spiral the acoustic wave spatially and generate the twisted acoustic vortices with invariant topological charge for a long propagation distance. Compared with conventional methods which require the electronic control of a bulky loudspeaker, this scheme provides an effective and compact solution to generate acoustic vortices with controllable topological charge in the broadband, which offers more initiatives in the demanding applications.

  9. Broadband and stable acoustic vortex emitter with multi-arm coiling slits

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Shi-lei; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-ye; Yang, Jing; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2016-01-01

    We present the analytical design and experimental realization of a scheme based on multi-arm coiling slits to generate the stable acoustic vortices in a broadband. The proposed structure is able to spiral the acoustic wave spatially and generate the twisted acoustic vortices with invariant topological charge for a long propagation distance. Compared with conventional methods which require the electronic control of a bulky loudspeaker, this scheme provides an effective and compact solution to generate acoustic vortices with controllable topological charge in the broadband, which offers more initiatives in the demanding applications.

  10. Broken Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of falling — including football, soccer, gymnastics, skiing and skateboarding — also increases the risk of a broken arm. ... for high-risk activities, such as in-line skating, snowboarding, rugby and football. Don't smoke. Smoking ...

  11. Swing-arm beam erector (SABER) concept for single astronaut assembly of space structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. J.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of tests conducted to evaluate a mobile work station/assembly fixture concept that would mechanically assist an astronaut in the on-orbit manual assembly of erectable truss-beams. The concept eliminates astronaut manual translation by use of a motorized work platform with foot restraints. The tests involved assembly of a tetrahedral truss-beam by a test subject in simulated zero gravity (neutral bouyancy in water). A three-bay truss-beam was assembled from 30 aluminum struts with quick-attachment structural joints. The results show that average on-orbit assembly rates of 2.1 struts per minute can be expected for struts of the size employed in these tests.

  12. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Tracing major structures of the inner Galaxy with 6.7-GHz methanol masers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestalozzi M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of correlations within the longitude-velocity distribution of 6.7-GHz methanol masers, we identify density enhancements indicative of large-scale regions of enhanced star formation. In the context of the inner structure of our Galaxy these are interpreted as the starting points of the spiral arms and the interaction of the long Galactic bar with the 3–kpc arms. Signatures of a continuous 3–kpc arm structure are seen including a prominent tangent at –22° Galactic longitude.

  14. A new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction for improving of energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C. H.; Zhao, X. L.; Hagiwara, I. R.

    2018-02-01

    As an effective and representative origami structure, reverse spiral origami structure can be capable to effectively take up energy in a crash test. The origami structure has origami creases thus this can guide the deformation of structure and avoid of Euler buckling. Even so the origami creases also weaken the support force and this may cut the absorption of crash energy. In order to increase the supporting capacity of the reverse spiral origami structure, we projected a new local thickening reverse spiral origami thin-wall construction. The reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure with thickening areas distributed along the longitudinal origami crease has a higher energy absorption capacity than the ordinary reverse spiral origami thin-wall structure.

  15. Magnetostrictive hypersound generation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of magnetic field induced phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Igor V. [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, Dmitry A., E-mail: kuzminda@csu.ru [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kamantsev, Alexander P.; Koledov, Victor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya Street 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    In present work we have investigated magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of magnetic field induced phase transition from spiral to collinear state. We found that such magnets may generate transverse sound waves with the wavelength equal to the spiral period. We have examined two types of spiral magnetic structures: with inhomogeneous exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. Frequency of the waves from exchange-caused spiral magnetic structure may reach some THz, while in case of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction-caused spiral it may reach some GHz. These waves will be emitted like a sound pulses. Amplitude of the waves is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. Some aspects of microwaves to hypersound transformation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of phase transition have been investigated as well. Results of the work may be interesting for investigation of phase transition kinetics as well, as for various hypersound applications. - Highlights: • Magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets at phase transition (PT) is studied. • Spiral magnets during PT may generate transverse sound with wavelength equal to spiral period. • Amplitude of the sound is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. • Microwave-to-sound transformation in the vicinity of PT is investigated as well.

  16. Polarization study of spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Thompson, D

    1987-01-01

    Optical polarimetry results are presented for four spiral galaxies: NGC 5194 (M51), NGC 1068, NGC 4565 and NGC 4594 (M104). M51 and NGC 1068 show spiral polarization patterns interpreted as indicating a spiral magnetic field in each case. NGC 4565 and M104 show polarizations in their dust lanes which are parallel to their galactic planes, and which are interpreted in terms of a magnetic field in the plane of each. It is hypothesized that the observed magnetic fields may be linked to galactic shocks. A discussion of the origin of galactic magnetic fields concludes that there is not evidence that necessitates a primordial magnetic field.

  17. Spiral phases of doped antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shraiman, B.I.; Siggia, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The dipole density field describing the holls in a doped antiferromagnet is considered for law hole density in the semiclassical limit. This yields a phase in which the order parameter is planar and spirals round a fixed direction. The single spiral state breaks the continuous spin rotational symmetry and exhibits long-range order at zero temperature. In it there is a global spin direction as rotation axis. The double spiral state, in which there are two perpendicular directions, is isotropic in both spin and real space. Several results of microscopic calculations, carried out to understand the electronic states, quantum fluctuations, lattice effects and normal mode dynamics, are recapitulated. 8 refs

  18. Contributions to reinforced concrete structures numerical simulations; Contributions a la simulation numerique de structures en beton arme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badel, P.B

    2001-07-15

    In order to be able to carry out simulations of reinforced concrete structures, it is necessary to know two aspects: the behaviour laws have to reflect the complex behaviour of concrete and a numerical environment has to be developed in order to avoid to the user difficulties due to the softening nature of the behaviour. This work deals with these two subjects. After an accurate estimation of two behaviour models (micro-plan and mesoscopic models), two damage models (the first one using a scalar variable, the other one a tensorial damage of the 2 order) are proposed. These two models belong to the framework of generalized standard materials, which renders their numerical integration easy and efficient. A method of load control is developed in order to make easier the convergence of the calculations. At last, simulations of industrial structures illustrate the efficiency of the method. (O.M.)

  19. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Ait-Djoudi, Fariza; Naceur, Wahib Mohamed; Soukane, Sofiane

    2015-01-01

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body

  20. A low frequency piezoelectric power harvester using a spiral-shaped bimorph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Yuantai; HU; Hongping; YANG; Jiashi

    2006-01-01

    We propose a spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph power harvester operating with coupled flexural and extensional vibration modes for applications to low frequency energy sources.A theoretical analysis is performed and the computational results show that the spiral structure has relatively low operating frequency compared to beam power harvesters of the same size.It is found that to optimize the performance of a piezoelectric spiral-shaped harvester careful design is needed.

  1. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  2. Rarefied, rotational gas flows in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Hausman, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We develop a computational model of a rotating, rarefied gas in which the individual molecules collide inelastically and are subject to circularly asymmetric external forces and internal heating sources. This model is applied to the interstellar medium (ISM) of spiral galaxies, in which most of the matter is confined to discrete gas clouds separated by a tenuous intercloud medium. We identify inelastically-colliding gas molecules with interstellar clouds which orbit ballistically in the galactic gravitational field and are perturbed by expanding shells surrounding supernovae. When a small, spiral perturbation is added to the gravitational force to mimic a spiral galaxy, the cloud distribution responds with a strong, global shock. In the model, stars are formed from the gas when clouds collide or are perturbed by supernovae; these stars are the internal heating sources for the gas cloud system. We determine the morphologies (evolution, distribution) of the two components, gas and stars, in the model as functions of varying input physics. Variation of the cloud system's collisional mean free path (over physically-realistic ranges) has remarkably little influence on the computed shock structure

  3. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that

  4. The Ultraviolet Attenuation Law in Backlit Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly "gray" law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread

  5. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Manning, Anna M. [Stennis Space Center, MS 39522 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201-AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu, E-mail: ammanning@bama.ua.edu, E-mail: bholwerd@rssd.esa.int, E-mail: Twitter@BenneHolwerda, E-mail: cjl@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Twitter@chrislintott, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: Twitter@kevinschawinski [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that

  6. The influence of long-range links on spiral waves and their application for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of long-range links on spiral waves in an excitable medium has been investigated. Spatiotemporal dynamics in an excitable small-world network transform remarkably when we increase the long-range connection probability P. Spiral waves with few perturbations, broken spiral waves, pseudo spiral turbulence, synchronous oscillations, and homogeneous rest state are discovered under different network structures. Tip number is selected to detect non-equilibrium phase transition between different spatiotemporal patterns. The Kuramoto order parameter is used to identify these patterns and explain the emergence of the rest state. Finally, we use long-range links to successfully control spiral waves and spiral turbulence. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Structural Sexual Violence in the Peruvian Military : An Empirical Study of Discrimination against Women and its consequences in the Peruvian Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo, Leiry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the better understanding of structural sexual violence against women. Through a human rights approach, the author examines the link between the gendered discriminatory policies against women and the occurrences of sexual violence against female soldiers within the Peruvian Armed Forces. This empirical study demonstrates that whereas civil and political rights must be respected and enforced, the satisfaction of socio-economic rights is also a key element for the preve...

  8. PHASE COHERENT STAR FORMATION PROCESSES IN THE DISKS OF GRAND DESIGN SPIRALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BECKMAN, JE; CEPA, J; KNAPEN, JH

    1991-01-01

    We show examples of a new technique we have devised to compare star formation efficiencies in the arms and discs of spirals. First results show striking evidence of the presence and influence of density wave systems of star formation in grand design galaxies.

  9. Unveiling the sources of disk heating in spiral galaxies with the CALIFA survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martig, M.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Leaman, R.

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) quantifies the amount of velocity dispersion in the vertical, radial and azimuthal directions. Since different disk heating mechanisms (e.g. spiral arms, giant molecular clouds, mergers, etc) affect these components differently, the SVE can constrain the sources

  10. A POSSIBLE EXTENSION OF THE SCUTUM-CENTAURUS ARM INTO THE OUTER SECOND QUADRANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Li, Fa-Cheng; Du, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: yansun@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2015-01-10

    Combining H I data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and CO data from the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting project, we have identified a new segment of a spiral arm between Galactocentric radii of 15 and 19 kpc that apparently lies beyond the Outer Arm in the second Galactic quadrant. Over most of its length, the arm is 400-600 pc thick in z. The new arm appears to be the extension of the distant arm recently discovered by Dame and Thaddeus as well as the Scutum-Centaurus Arm into the outer second quadrant. Our current survey identified a total of 72 molecular clouds with masses on the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} that probably lie in the new arm. When all of the available data from the CO molecular clouds are fit, the best-fitting spiral model gives a pitch angle of 9.°3 ± 0.°7.

  11. Orientation decoding: Sense in spirals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Colin W G; Mannion, Damien J

    2015-04-15

    The orientation of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the multivariate pattern of fMRI activity in human visual cortex. Whether this capacity requires coarse-scale orientation biases is controversial. We and others have advocated the use of spiral stimuli to eliminate a potential coarse-scale bias-the radial bias toward local orientations that are collinear with the centre of gaze-and hence narrow down the potential coarse-scale biases that could contribute to orientation decoding. The usefulness of this strategy is challenged by the computational simulations of Carlson (2014), who reported the ability to successfully decode spirals of opposite sense (opening clockwise or counter-clockwise) from the pooled output of purportedly unbiased orientation filters. Here, we elaborate the mathematical relationship between spirals of opposite sense to confirm that they cannot be discriminated on the basis of the pooled output of unbiased or radially biased orientation filters. We then demonstrate that Carlson's (2014) reported decoding ability is consistent with the presence of inadvertent biases in the set of orientation filters; biases introduced by their digital implementation and unrelated to the brain's processing of orientation. These analyses demonstrate that spirals must be processed with an orientation bias other than the radial bias for successful decoding of spiral sense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent Advances in the Analysis of Spiral Bevel Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    A review of recent progress for the analysis of spiral bevel gears will be described. The foundation of this work relies on the description of the gear geometry of face-milled spiral bevel gears via the approach developed by Litvin. This methodology was extended by combining the basic gear design data with the manufactured surfaces using a differential geometry approach, and provides the data necessary for assembling three-dimensional finite element models. The finite element models have been utilized to conduct thermal and structural analysis of the gear system. Examples of the methods developed for thermal and structural/contact analysis are presented.

  13. New compact cyclotron design for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.; Bourgarel, M.P.; Ripouteau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The SPIRAL project whose purpose is the production and the acceleration of radioactive nuclei is under realization at GANIL. The new facility uses a cyclotron as post accelerator taking place behind the present machine. The magnet structure is made of 4 independent return yokes and a common circular pole piece (3.5 m in diameter) with 4 sectors. The average induction needed is 1.56 Tesla with hill and valley gaps of respectively 0.12 and 0.3 m. The required field patterns are adjusted by means of circular trim coils located between the sectors and the pole piece. (author)

  14. Spiral Light Beams and Contour Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkin, Sergey A.; Kotova, Svetlana P.; Volostnikov, Vladimir G.

    Spiral beams of light are characterized by their ability to remain structurally unchanged at propagation. They may have the shape of any closed curve. In the present paper a new approach is proposed within the framework of the contour analysis based on a close cooperation of modern coherent optics, theory of functions and numerical methods. An algorithm for comparing contours is presented and theoretically justified, which allows convincing of whether two contours are similar or not to within the scale factor and/or rotation. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach are considered; the results of numerical modeling are presented.

  15. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation is used to probe dark matter (DM) in the optical regions of spiral galaxies. By establishing it at several different isophotal radii in an appropriate sample of 58 galaxies with good B-band photometry and rotation curves, it is shown that some of its attributes (such as scatter, residuals, nonlinearity, and bias) dramatically decrease moving from the disk edge inward. This behavior challenges any mass model which assumes no DM or a luminosity-independent DM mass fraction interior to the optical radius of spiral galaxies. 58 refs

  16. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Ulrich; Greess, Holger; Lell, Michael; Noemayr, Anton; Lenz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  17. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the U.S. Pacific from 2008 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term program for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 2008, Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) have...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  20. Assessing and monitoring cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates across the U.S.-affiliated islands and atolls in the Pacific since 2008 using the Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term program for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 2008, Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) have...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2010 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across American Samoa from 2012 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  3. Assessing cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) deployed at coral reef sites in Batangas, Philippines from 2012-03-12 to 2015-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0162829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity across the...

  4. Construction and building of a compact RFQ spiral structure for the stopping of highly charged heavy ion beams for the HITRAP project of the GSI; Konstruktion und Aufbau einer kompakten RFQ-Spiral-Struktur zum Abbremsen hochgeladener Schwerionenstrahlen fuer das HITRAP-Projekt der GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, B.

    2007-07-01

    For experiments of the atomic-physics group of the GSI in Darmstadt an ion stopper is built, which will make low-energetic, extremely highly charged ions available. The plannings for the so-called HITRAP (highly charged ion's trap) began at the beginning of the ninetieth. With this facility highly-charged heavy ions shall be stopped in two stages to very low, thermal velocities, and be available for highly precise mass spectroscopy, measurements of the g factor of the bound electron of hydrogen-like ions, and other atomic-physics experiments. This decelerator facility shall first be built in the reinjection channel behind the ESR with the possibility, to apply all components later in teh extension of the GSI in the framework of the FAIR project in the facility for low-energetic antiprotons and ions to be newly built. the present thesis treats the development and the building of an integrated RFQ debuncher stopping accelerator, which represents a part of the HITRAP stopping structures. By this the ion beam is stopped from the IH stopping accelerator with an energy of 500 keV/u to 5 keV/u. By the integrated spiral buncher the beam can be fitted in energy and energy deviation to the subsequent cooler trap. In this thesis the foundations of the particle dynamics in a RFQ accelerator for the stopping of particle beams were worked out and realized, the particle-dynamics calculations necessary for the lay-out of such a structure performed with RFQSim, suitable RF structures with the simulation program Microwave Studio developed and studied, as well as the thermal load of the structures studied with the finite-element code ALGOR. A further, central topic of this thesis is the building and the tuning of the RFQ structure in order to reach a homogeneous as possible field distribution along the electrodes. Measurements of the fields in the RFQ were performed with a disturbing condenser, at the debuncher with a disturbing body. After successfully performed vacuum tests at

  5. A study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, B.M.H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts have been made to look for possible correlations between integral properties of spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type. To investigate this problem, one needs the detailed distribution of both the gaseous and the stellar components for a well-defined sample of spiral galaxies. A sample of about 20 spiral galaxies was therefore defined; these galaxies were observed in the 21 cm neutral hydrogen line with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in three broad-band optical colours with the 48-inch Palomar Smidt Telescope. First, an atlas of the combined radio and optical observations of 16 nearby northern-hemisphere spiral galaxies is presented. Luminosity profiles are discussed and the scale lengths of the exponential disks and extrapolated central surface brightnesses are derived, as well as radial color distributions; azimuthal surface brightness distributions and rotation curves. Possible correlations with optical features are investigated. It is found that 20 to 50 per cent of the total mass is in the disk. (Auth.)

  6. The Spiral Pattern During Development*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-07

    Aug 7, 1971 ... which are destined to become the limb areas bud out laterally. Fig. 8. The early cells, which are destined to develop into the upper and the lower limbs, after lateral budding has occurred. Fig. 11 demonstrates the human embryo of about 5 mm. CR length and age of about 32 days. The spiral pattern is.

  7. Geometrical study of phyllotactic patterns by Bernoulli spiral lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2017-06-01

    Geometrical studies of phyllotactic patterns deal with the centric or cylindrical models produced by ideal lattices. van Iterson (Mathematische und mikroskopisch - anatomische Studien über Blattstellungen nebst Betrachtungen über den Schalenbau der Miliolinen, Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1907) suggested a centric model representing ideal phyllotactic patterns as disk packings of Bernoulli spiral lattices and presented a phase diagram now called Van Iterson's diagram explaining the bifurcation processes of their combinatorial structures. Geometrical properties on disk packings were shown by Rothen & Koch (J. Phys France, 50(13), 1603-1621, 1989). In contrast, as another centric model, we organized a mathematical framework of Voronoi tilings of Bernoulli spiral lattices and showed mathematically that the phase diagram of a Voronoi tiling is graph-theoretically dual to Van Iterson's diagram. This paper gives a review of two centric models for disk packings and Voronoi tilings of Bernoulli spiral lattices. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. Kinematical and dynamical models for barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a review of published works on the kinematics and dynamics of stellar bars and barred spiral galaxies. The periodic orbits of stars are elongated along the bar and enhance it out to a certain distance from the center. The important role of the interstellar gas is pointed out by the models of gas clouds and flows: the trajectories are also along the bar, but shock waves arise in front of the bar and transient spiral structures appear at its ends. These models reproduce the observed velocity fields fairly well. The investigations of the stability of axisymmetric galactic disks show that they are very unstable with respect to bar shaped perturbations and might explain why two thirds of the known spiral galaxies are barred [fr

  9. Vascular imaging with spiral CT. The way to CY angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, M.; Schaefer, C.; Kalender, W.A.; Polacin, A.; Galanski, M.

    1993-01-01

    Spiral CT is a technique that allows for high-quality two-dimensional angiographic projections and 3D imaging of vascular structures. The authors present the technical and methodological principles of the technique, including scan parameters and parameters of contrast application for various clinical imaging tasks. They present their experience with over 150 clinical cases using spiral CT angiography. Suitable applications of this technique include cogenital anomalies, aneurysms, dissections, stenoses, thrombi and vascular tumor involvement. Given a problem-adapted examination technique, pathologic changes in vessels of as little as 2 mm can be visualized. In some cases with complex vascular anatomy, spiral CT angiography can be superior to arterial angiography. (orig.) [de

  10. Auditory Mechanics of the Tectorial Membrane and the Cochlear Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Núria; Manoussaki, Daphne; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review is timely and relevant since new experimental and theoretical findings suggest that cochlear mechanics from the nanoscale to the macroscale are affected by mechanical properties of the tectorial membrane and the spiral shape. Recent findings Main tectorial membrane themes covered are i) composition and morphology, ii) nanoscale mechanical interactions with the outer hair cell bundle, iii) macroscale longitudinal coupling, iv) fluid interaction with inner hair cell bundles, v) macroscale dynamics and waves. Main cochlear spiral themes are macroscale low-frequency energy focusing and microscale organ of Corti shear gain. Implications Findings from new experimental and theoretical models reveal exquisite sensitivity of cochlear mechanical performance to tectorial membrane structural organization, mechanics, and its positioning with respect to hair bundles. The cochlear spiral geometry is a major determinant of low frequency hearing. Suggestions are made for future research directions. PMID:21785353

  11. New developments in the theory of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielheim, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    About 30% of all galaxies exhibit spiral forms, 60% are elliptical and 10% irregular. It is the objective of galactic dynamics to explain these structural features. A first generation of self-consistent N-body simulations indicates that ellipticals are equilibrium configurations of gravitationally interacting multi-particle systems for which unfortunately a theory does not yet exist. Recent progress has been made on the modal analysis of Freeman disks. In a second generation of N-body simulations spiral density waves have been reproduced in disk configurations. As an alternative to the Lin-Shu conjecture based on the QSSS-hypothesis the author considers a mechanism by which spiral density waves are produced in the surrounding disk as a consequence of the slow increase of the quadrupole moment of a central oval shaped equilibrium configuration immersed in the disk. (Auth.)

  12. A Twin Spiral Planar Antenna for UWB Medical Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe A. Zito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar-spiral antenna to be used in an ultrawideband (UWB radar system for heart activity monitoring is presented. The antenna, named “twin,” is constituted by two spiral dipoles in a compact structure. The reflection coefficient at the feed point of the dipoles is lower than −8 dB over the 3–12 GHz band, while the two-dipoles coupling is about −20 dB. The radiated beam is perpendicular to the plane of the spiral, so the antenna is wearable and it may be an optimal radiator for a medical UWB radar for heart rate detection. The designed antenna has been also used to check some hypotheses about the UWB radar heart activity detection mechanism. The radiation impedance variation, caused by the thorax vibrations associated with heart activity, seems to be the most likely explanation of the UWB radar operation.

  13. The mechanical properties of the non-sticky spiral in Nephila orb webs (Araneae, Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselberg, Thomas; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-10-01

    Detailed information on web geometry and the material properties of the various silks used enables the function of the web's different structures to be elucidated. In this study we investigated the non-sticky spiral in Nephila edulis webs, which in this species is not removed during web building. This permanent non-sticky spiral shows several modifications compared with others, e.g. temporary non-sticky spirals - it is zigzag shaped and wrapped around the radial thread at the elongated junctions. The material properties of the silk used in the non-sticky spiral and other scaffolding structures (i.e. radii, frame and anchor threads) were comparable. However, the fibre diameters differed, with the non-sticky spiral threads being significantly smaller. We used the measured data in a finite element (FE) model of the non-sticky spiral in a segment of the web. The FE analysis suggested that the observed zigzag index resulted from the application of very high pre-stresses to the outer turns of the non-sticky spiral. However, final pre-stress levels in the non-sticky spiral after reorganisation were down to 300 MPa or 1.5-2 times the stress in the radii, which is probably closer to the stress applied by the spider during web building.

  14. A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures ...

  15. Spiral intensity patterns in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Bache, Morten; Saffman, Mark

    2001-01-01

    We describe a nonlinear optical system that supports spiral pattern solutions in the field intensity. This new spatial structure is found to bifurcate above a secondary instability in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator. The analytical predictions of threshold and spatial scale...

  16. Infrared emission and tidal interactions of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of tidal interactions of spiral galaxies are used to attempt to understand recent discoveries about infrared (IR) emitting galaxies. It is found that the stronger tidal perturbation by a companion the more disk gas clouds are thrown into nucleus crossing orbits and the greater the velocity jumps crossing spiral arms. Both these tidally created characteristics would create more IR emission by high speed cloud collisions and more IR via effects of recently formed stars. This expectation at greater tidal perturbation matches the observation of greater IR emission for spiral galaxies with closer and/or more massive companions. The greater collision velocities found at stronger perturbations on the models will also result in higher dust temperature in the colliding clouds. In the IR pairs examined, most have only one member, the larger, detected and when both are detected, the larger is always the more luminous. In simulations and in a simple analytic description of the strong distance dependence of the tidal force, it is found that the big galaxy of a pair is more strongly affected than the small

  17. EFFECT OF CENTRAL MASS CONCENTRATION ON THE FORMATION OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Parijat; Jiang, I.-G.; Ann, H. B.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to study the response of the central kiloparsec region of a gaseous disk to the imposition of nonaxisymmetric bar potentials. The model galaxies are composed of three axisymmetric components (halo, disk, and bulge) and a nonaxisymmetric bar. These components are assumed to be invariant in time in the frame corotating with the bar. The potential of spherical γ-models of Dehnen is adopted for the bulge component whose density varies as r -γ near the center and r -4 at larger radii and, hence, possesses a central density core for γ = 0 and cusps for γ>0. Since the central mass concentration of the model galaxies increases with the cusp parameter γ, we have examined here the effect of the central mass concentration by varying the cusp parameter γ on the mechanism responsible for the formation of the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies. Our simulations show that the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals are formed by hydrodynamic spiral shocks driven by the gravitational torque of the bar for the models with γ = 0 and 0.5. On the other hand, the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in the models with γ = 1 and 1.5 are explained by gas density waves. Thus, we conclude that the mechanism responsible for the formation of symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies changes from hydrodynamic shocks to gas density waves as the central mass concentration increases from γ = 0 to 1.5.

  18. The Most Ancient Spiral Galaxy: A 2.6-Gyr-old Disk with a Tranquil Velocity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tiantian; Richard, Johan; Gupta, Anshu; Federrath, Christoph; Sharma, Soniya; Groves, Brent A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Cen, Renyue; Birnboim, Yuval; Fisher, David B.

    2017-11-01

    We report an integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) observation of a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy A1689B11 at redshift z = 2.54. It is the most ancient spiral galaxy discovered to date and the second kinematically confirmed spiral at z≳ 2. Thanks to gravitational lensing, this is also by far the deepest IFS observation with the highest spatial resolution (˜400 pc) on a spiral galaxy at a cosmic time when the Hubble sequence is about to emerge. After correcting for a lensing magnification of 7.2 ± 0.8, this primitive spiral disk has an intrinsic star formation rate of 22 ± 2 M ⊙ yr-1, a stellar mass of {10}9.8+/- 0.3 M ⊙, and a half-light radius of {r}1/2=2.6+/- 0.7 {kpc}, typical of a main-sequence star-forming galaxy at z˜ 2. However, the Hα kinematics show a surprisingly tranquil velocity field with an ordered rotation ({V}{{c}}=200+/- 12 km s-1) and uniformly small velocity dispersions ({V}σ ,{mean}=23 +/- 4 km s-1 and {V}σ ,{outer - {disk}}=15+/- 2 km s-1). The low gas velocity dispersion is similar to local spiral galaxies and is consistent with the classic density wave theory where spiral arms form in dynamically cold and thin disks. We speculate that A1689B11 belongs to a population of rare spiral galaxies at z≳ 2 that mark the formation epoch of thin disks. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will greatly increase the sample of these rare galaxies and unveil the earliest onset of spiral arms.

  19. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  20. Spiral density waves and vertical circulation in protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2018-06-01

    Spiral density waves dominate several facets of accretion disc dynamics - planet-disc interactions and gravitational instability (GI) most prominently. Though they have been examined thoroughly in two-dimensional simulations, their vertical structures in the non-linear regime are somewhat unexplored. This neglect is unwarranted given that any strong vertical motions associated with these waves could profoundly impact dust dynamics, dust sedimentation, planet formation, and the emissivity of the disc surface. In this paper, we combine linear calculations and shearing box simulations in order to investigate the vertical structure of spiral waves for various polytropic stratifications and wave amplitudes. For sub-adiabatic profiles, we find that spiral waves develop a pair of counter-rotating poloidal rolls. Particularly strong in the non-linear regime, these vortical structures issue from the baroclinicity supported by the background vertical entropy gradient. They are also intimately connected to the disc's g modes which appear to interact non-linearly with the density waves. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the poloidal rolls are ubiquitous in gravitoturbulence, emerging in the vicinity of GI spiral wakes, and potentially transporting grains off the disc mid-plane. Other than hindering sedimentation and planet formation, this phenomena may bear on observations of the disc's scattered infrared luminosity. The vortical features could also impact on the turbulent dynamo operating in young protoplanetary discs subject to GI, or possibly even galactic discs.

  1. Novel type of chimera spiral waves arising from decoupling of a diffusible component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaodong; Yang, Tao; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yuemin; Gao, Qingyu, E-mail: epstein@brandeis.edu, E-mail: gaoqy@cumt.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Epstein, Irving R., E-mail: epstein@brandeis.edu, E-mail: gaoqy@cumt.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Volen Center for Complex Systems, MS 015, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454-9110 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Spiral waves composed of coherent traveling waves surrounding a core containing stochastically distributed stationary areas are found in numerical simulations of a three-variable reaction-diffusion system with one diffusible species. In the spiral core, diffusion of this component (w) mediates transitions between dynamic states of the subsystem formed by the other two components, whose dynamics is more rapid than that of w. Diffusive coupling between adjacent sites can be “on” or “off” depending on the subsystem state. The incoherent structures in the spiral core are produced by this decoupling of the slow diffusive component from the fast non-diffusing subsystem. The phase diagram reveals that the region of incoherent behavior in chimera spirals grows drastically, leading to modulation and breakup of the spirals, in the transition zones between 1{sup n-1} and 1{sup n} local mixed-mode oscillations.

  2. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals

  3. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  4. Optical analysis of dust complexes in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.A.M.

    1979-01-01

    A method for quantitatively investigating properties of dust regions in external galaxies is presented. The technique involves matching radiative transfer models (with absorption plus scattering) to multicolor photographic and photometric observations. Dust features in each galaxy are modeled with two configurations; one is rectangular with a Gaussian distribution perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy, and the other is a uniform oblate spheroid with an arbitrary height from the midplane. It is found that it is possible to determine the intrinsic opacities in the clouds and in the nearby comparison regions, and that differention between high opacity low-lying clouds and low opacity clouds that are above the midplane can be made. This technique was used to study dust complexes in the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 628 (M74), NGC 5194 (M51), NGC 5457 (M101), and NGC 7793. Most of the features in the prominent dust lanes were found to have internal visual extinctions corresponding to 10 to 15 mag kpc -1 , while the adjacent comparison regions typically contained 4 mag kpc -1 . Thus the opacity through a dust lane is about 1.5 mag greater than the 0.5 to 1.0 mag of extinction through a comparison region. A noticeable deviation from this result was found for all of the dust lanes that occurred on the inner edges of the spiral arm branches. These features had internal densities that were approx. 10 times larger than in their comparison regions, in contrast to the normal dust lanes which had density enhancements of a factor of approx. 3. Dust features which were on the outer sides of spiral arms appeared to be no different than main inner dust lane features

  5. The Spiral-in Method for Designing and Connecting Learning Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios

    2012-01-01

    . The Spiral-in Method (SiM) encloses pedagogical and didactic potentials, addresses issues on both the educator and the group learners and implements personalized mechanisms. This methodology structures the design process into four distinct phases, fragmentation, coordination, combination and grouping...... given, LOs are created and connected in a linear structure, like a spiral. The LOs are grouped together into lessons attempting to satisfy short-term learning outcomes. The spiral has to be fully wrapped for the possession of the subject matter....

  6. Tissue-engineered spiral nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Shah, Munish B; Lee, Paul; Yu, Xiaojun

    2018-06-01

    Recently in peripheral nerve regeneration, preclinical studies have shown that the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) with multiple longitudinally channels and intra-luminal topography enhance the functional outcomes when bridging a nerve gap caused by traumatic injury. These features not only provide guidance cues for regenerating nerve, but also become the essential approaches for developing a novel NGC. In this study, a novel spiral NGC with aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube was first developed and investigated. Using the common rat sciatic 10-mm nerve defect model, the in vivo study showed that a novel spiral NGC (with and without inner nanofibers) increased the successful rate of nerve regeneration after 6 weeks recovery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining the spiral NGC with inner nanofibers and outer nanofibrous tube, based on the results of walking track analysis, electrophysiology, nerve histological assessment, and gastrocnemius muscle measurement. This demonstrated that the novel spiral NGC with inner aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube provided a better environment for peripheral nerve regeneration than standard tubular NGCs. Results from this study will benefit for future NGC design to optimize tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed a novel spiral nerve guidance conduit (NGC) with coated aligned nanofibers. The spiral structure increases surface area by 4.5 fold relative to a tubular NGC. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers was coated on the spiral walls, providing cues for guiding neurite extension. Finally, the outside of spiral NGC was wrapped with randomly nanofibers to enhance mechanical strength that can stabilize the spiral NGC. Our nerve histological data have shown that the spiral NGC had 50% more myelinated axons than a tubular structure for nerve regeneration across a 10 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve

  7. Dynamical models of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosbol, P.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of changing the basic parameters of rotation curve steepness, amount of bulge, and pitch angle of the imposed spiral pattern in the galactic model of Contoupolos and Grosbel (1986) are investigated. The general conclusions of the model are confirmed and shown to be insensitive to the specific choice of parameters for the galactic potential. The exact amplitude at which the nonlinear effects at the 4:1 resonance become important do, however, depend on the model

  8. Evolution of spirals during molecular beam epitaxy of GaN on 6H-SiC(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.; Li, L.

    2002-01-01

    Evolution of spirals during molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN films on 6H-SiC(0001) was studied by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. It was found that dislocations emerge at the film surface, creating straight steps with orientation along directions with a density of 10 10 cm -2 for 40-nm-thick films. During subsequent growth, these straight steps wind around dislocations and develop into spirals with a density of 10 9 cm -2 for 100-nm-thick films. The spirals can be classified into three types: single arm, interlocking double arm, and closed loop. The first two types originate from steps with one end pinned, and the third type results from steps with both ends pinned. At film thickness larger than 200 nm, these spirals further evolve into spiral mounds with a density of 10 7 cm -2 . Based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank theory, a model is proposed to explain the formation of different types of spirals and the reduction of their densities

  9. The scientific objectives of the SPIRAL 2 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, D.; Adoui, L.; Angelis, G. de [GANIL, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, BP 55027, 14076 Caen cedex 5 (France)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The construction of SPIRAL 2 at GANIL will open completely new possibilities for parallel beam operation of the whole facility. The whole GANIL/SPIRAL/SPIRAL2 accelerator complex will allow for the simultaneous use of up to 5 different radioactive and stable beams. Several combinations of different beams delivered in parallel for experiments at low (keV/u), medium (few MeV/u) and high (up to 100 MeV/u) energies will be possible. Presently the GANIL/SPIRAL facility delivers about 60 weeks per year of stable and radioactive beams (up to 3 simultaneous beams). Thanks to SPIRAL 2 and the construction of a new beam line connecting the CIME cyclotron and the G1 and G2 experimental rooms the available beam time for experiments may be extended up to about 120 (up to 5 simultaneous beams) weeks per year. The chapters which follow a general introduction deal with the detailed questions to be addressed by experiments with the beams from SPIRAL2. In chapter 2 the many unanswered questions related to the structure of exotic nuclei are posed and the role of SPIRAL2 in answering them outlined. Chapter 3 deals with the dynamics and thermodynamics of asymmetric nuclear systems. Chapter 4 is concerned with questions of nuclear astrophysics which are intimately related to the properties of exotic nuclei. Chapter 5 indicates how the atomic nucleus can act as a laboratory for tests of the Standard model of Particle Physics and Chapter 6 shows how the production of intense fluxes of neutrons at SPIRAL2 make it an excellent tool to address both questions related to damage in materials of importance in nuclear installations and to the s- and r-processes of nucleosynthesis. In chapter 7 we turn to the application, of the radioactive beams from SPIRAL2 and the radionuclides produced by it, to study condensed matter and radiobiology. Finally in the eight and last chapter the reader can find an account of the historical development of the SPIRAL2 facility and this is followed by an outline of

  10. The scientific objectives of the SPIRAL 2 Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, D.; Adoui, L.; Angelis, G. de

    2006-06-01

    The construction of SPIRAL 2 at GANIL will open completely new possibilities for parallel beam operation of the whole facility. The whole GANIL/SPIRAL/SPIRAL2 accelerator complex will allow for the simultaneous use of up to 5 different radioactive and stable beams. Several combinations of different beams delivered in parallel for experiments at low (keV/u), medium (few MeV/u) and high (up to 100 MeV/u) energies will be possible. Presently the GANIL/SPIRAL facility delivers about 60 weeks per year of stable and radioactive beams (up to 3 simultaneous beams). Thanks to SPIRAL 2 and the construction of a new beam line connecting the CIME cyclotron and the G1 and G2 experimental rooms the available beam time for experiments may be extended up to about 120 (up to 5 simultaneous beams) weeks per year. The chapters which follow a general introduction deal with the detailed questions to be addressed by experiments with the beams from SPIRAL2. In chapter 2 the many unanswered questions related to the structure of exotic nuclei are posed and the role of SPIRAL2 in answering them outlined. Chapter 3 deals with the dynamics and thermodynamics of asymmetric nuclear systems. Chapter 4 is concerned with questions of nuclear astrophysics which are intimately related to the properties of exotic nuclei. Chapter 5 indicates how the atomic nucleus can act as a laboratory for tests of the Standard model of Particle Physics and Chapter 6 shows how the production of intense fluxes of neutrons at SPIRAL2 make it an excellent tool to address both questions related to damage in materials of importance in nuclear installations and to the s- and r-processes of nucleosynthesis. In chapter 7 we turn to the application, of the radioactive beams from SPIRAL2 and the radionuclides produced by it, to study condensed matter and radiobiology. Finally in the eight and last chapter the reader can find an account of the historical development of the SPIRAL2 facility and this is followed by an outline of

  11. Structure of the Galaxy and its subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, J.

    1979-01-01

    Current knowledge is summed up of the structure of our galaxy consisting of more than 100 thousand million stars of an overal mass of 10 44 g, and of interstellar dust and gas. The galaxy comprises several subsystems, the oldest of which being of a spherical shape while the younger ones are more-or-less oblate rotational ellipsoids. It is considered on the basis of visual and radio observations that the galaxy has a spiral structure with many arms, similar to other galaxies. The structure of the galaxy nucleus has not yet been fully explained. (Ha)

  12. A new model of spiral galaxies based on propagating star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, John

    1996-01-01

    -lived two-armed grand-design spirals, which have not resulted from any of the previous propagating star formation models. The spiral density wave orders the star formation, but does not simply result in the star formation tracing directly the potential minima - it is found that the pitch angles of the imposed and observed spiral patterns differ significantly. Moreover, the pitch angle of the observed pattern exhibits a maximum value equal to the maximum pitch angle observed in late-type spirals. To compare the results of this, and other, models of galactic structure with observed galaxies, we require some way of classifying the appearance of the data sets. There already exist a number of schemes, but they are all somewhat subjective, and a reliable, quantitative approach would form a valuable addition. I have investigated a number of schemes, namely Fourier transforms, minimal spanning tree edge-length spectra and multifractal dimensions, and considered their application to both simulated and observed data. The results of the analysis are encouraging, particularly for the multifractals, although it is not as yet possible to calculate a single, unique number which fully characterises the morphology.

  13. Collective excitations in itinerant spiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampf, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the coupled charge and spin collective excitations in the spiral phases of the two-dimensional Hubbard model using a generalized random-phase approximation. Already for small doping the spin-wave excitations are strongly renormalized due to low-energy particle-hole excitations. Besides the three Goldstone modes of the spiral state the dynamical susceptibility reveals an extra zero mode for low doping and strong coupling values signaling an intrinsic instability of the homogeneous spiral state. In addition, near-zero modes are found in the vicinity of the spiral pitch wave number for out-of-plane spin fluctuations. Their origin is found to be the near degeneracy with staggered noncoplanar spiral states which, however, are not the lowest energy Hartree-Fock solutions among the homogeneous spiral states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Vectorisation of agrochemicals via amino acid carriers: influence of the spacer arm structure on the phloem mobility of phenylpyrrole conjugates in the Ricinus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhadour, Sophie; Wu, Hanxiang; Yang, Wen; Marivingt-Mounir, Cécile; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Chollet, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    Excessive agrochemical use poses significant threats to environmental safety and human health. Reducing pesticide use without reducing yield is necessary for sustainable agriculture. Therefore, we developed a vectorisation strategy to enhance agrochemical delivery through plant amino acid carriers. In addition to a fenpiclonil conjugate recently described, three new amino acid conjugates were synthesised by coupling fenpiclonil to an l-α-amino acid. Phloem mobility of these conjugates, which exhibit different structures of the spacer arm introduced between fenpiclonil and the α-amino acid function, was studied using the Ricinus model. Conjugate L-14, which contains a triazole ring with the shortest amino acid chain, showed the best phloem systemicity among the four conjugates. By contrast, removing the triazole ring in the spacer arm did not improve systemicity. L-14 exhibited phloem systemicity at all reported pH values (pH values from 5.0 to 6.5) of the foliar apoplast, while acidic derivatives of fenpiclonil were translocated only at pH values near 5.0. The conjugates were recognised by a pH-dependent transporter system and translocated at distance in the phloem. They exhibited a broader phloem systemicity than fenpiclonil acidic derivatives within the pH value range of the foliar apoplast. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The effect of boundaries on the asymptotic wavenumber of spiral wave solutions of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    KAUST Repository

    Aguareles, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider an oscillatory medium whose dynamics are modeled by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In particular, we focus on n-armed spiral wave solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in a disk of radius d

  16. Analisa Kekuatan Spiral Bevel Gear Dengan Variasi Sudut Spiral Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    OpenAIRE

    Deta Rachmat Andika; Agus Sigit Pramono

    2017-01-01

    Seiring perkembangan zaman,  teknologi roda gigi dituntut untuk mampu mentransmisikan daya yang besar dengan efisiensi yang besar pula. Pada jenis intersecting shaft gear, tipe roda gigi payung spiral (spiral bevel gear)  merupakan perkembangan dari roda gigi payung bergigi lurus (straight bevel gear). Kelebihan dari spiral bevel gear antara  lain adalah kemampuan transmisi daya dan efisiensi yang lebih besar pada geometri yang sama serta tidak terlalu berisik. Akan tetapi spiral bevel gear j...

  17. Solvable model of spiral wave chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A; Laing, Carlo R; Strogatz, Steven H

    2010-01-29

    Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core.

  18. Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development Tutorial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hantos, P

    2005-01-01

    .... NSS Acquisition Policy 03-01 provided some space-oriented customization and, similarly to the original DOD directives, also positioned Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development as preferred...

  19. Solvable Model of Spiral Wave Chimeras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Laing, Carlo R.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral...... can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core....

  20. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of the Cr-doped spiral antiferromagnet BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batuk, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.batuk@ua.ac.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Research (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020, Antwerp (Belgium); De Dobbelaere, Christopher [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Group, Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Tsirlin, Alexander A. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618, Tallinn (Estonia); Abakumov, Artem M. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Research (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020, Antwerp (Belgium); Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K. [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Group, Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Greenblatt, Martha [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8087 (United States); Hadermann, Joke [Electron Microscopy for Materials Research (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The substitution of Cr for Mn in BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} is possible by the solution–gel method. • The BiCr{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 6} solid solution is obtained for the x values up to 0.3. • Increasing Cr content lowers the temperature of the antiferromagnetic ordering. - Abstract: We report the Cr{sup 3+} for Mn{sup 3+} substitution in the BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} structure. The BiCr{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 6} solid solution is obtained by the solution–gel synthesis technique for the x values up to 0.3. The crystal structure investigation using a combination of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the compounds retain the parent BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6} structure (for x = 0.3, a = 5.02010(6)Å, b = 7.06594(7)Å, c = 12.6174(1)Å, S.G. Pbcm, R{sub I} = 0.036, R{sub P} = 0.011) with only a slight decrease in the cell parameters associated with the Cr{sup 3+} for Mn{sup 3+} substitution. Magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest strong similarities in the magnetic behavior of BiCr{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 6} (x = 0.2; 0.3) and parent BiMnFe{sub 2}O{sub 6}. Only T{sub N} slightly decreases upon Cr doping that indicates a very subtle influence of Cr{sup 3+} cations on the magnetic properties at the available substitution rates.

  1. Kinematics, dynamics and structural analyses of a semi-passive mechanical arm; Analise cinematica, dinamica e estrutural de um manipulador semi-passivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudio Violante [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Romano, Vitor Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the dynamics and kinematics modeling, and the structural analysis (including modal analysis) of a gantry type Semi-Passive mechanical Arm (SPA). The kinematics analysis of the SPA is referred in the Joints Space Coordinates. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameterization method is used in the manipulator kinematics model. The dynamics analysis is also referred in the Joints Space, and done by means of Lagrange Equations. To develop the dynamic equations it were considered the joints friction and the external loads related to marine currents and the AUV/SPA interaction. The dynamics analysis it was done in two SPA configurations: all joints with activated brakes (locked) and all joints with not activated brakes. A commercial FEM program, ANSYS{sup R} 5.5.1, was used to calculate the structural deformations and tensions, and these results were used to define the final structure configuration. This program has a Static Analysis Package which permits to determine the displacements, stresses, strains and forces in structures caused by external loads. In order to evaluate the SPA structural stiffness it was done the modal analysis and the determination of five SPA vibration modes and natural frequencies. (author)

  2. The rotation of spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1983-06-24

    There is accumulating evidence that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is nonluminous and is clumped, halo-like, around individual galaxies. The gravitational force of this dark matter is presumed to be responsible for the high rotational velocities of stars and gas in the disks of spiral galaxie. At present, the form of the dark matter is unknown. Possible candidates span a range in mass of 10(70), from non-zero-mass neutrinos to massive black holes.

  3. Planet Formation in AB Aurigae: Imaging of the Inner Gaseous Spirals Observed inside the Dust Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Gu, Pin-Gao; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne; Chapillon, Edwige; Folco, Emmanuel di [Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, alle Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac (France); Muto, Takayuki [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Shen, Bo-Ting [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Pietu, Vincent [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint-Martin-d’Hères (France); Fukagawa, Misato [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Corder, Stuartt [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hashimoto, Jun, E-mail: ywtang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Astrobiology Center of NINS 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    We report the results of ALMA observations of a protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star AB Aurigae. We obtained high-resolution (0.″1; 14 au) images in {sup 12}CO J = 2 − 1 emission and in the dust continuum at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The continuum emission is detected at the center and at the ring with a radius ( r ) of ∼120 au. The CO emission is dominated by two prominent spirals within the dust ring. These spirals are trailing and appear to be about 4 times brighter than their surrounding medium. Their kinematics is consistent with Keplerian rotation at an inclination of 23°. The apparent two-arm-spiral pattern is best explained by tidal disturbances created by an unseen companion located at r of 60–80 au, with dust confined in the pressure bumps created outside this companion orbit. An additional companion at r of 30 au, coinciding with the peak CO brightness and a large pitch angle of the spiral, would help to explain the overall emptiness of the cavity. Alternative mechanisms to excite the spirals are discussed. The origin of the large pitch angle detected here remains puzzling.

  4. Structural Gray Matter Changes in the Hippocampus and the Primary Motor Cortex on An-Hour-to-One- Day Scale Can Predict Arm-Reaching Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Kodama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed rapid (e.g., hours to days training-induced cortical structural changes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Currently, there is great interest in studying how such a rapid brain structural change affects behavioral improvement. Structural reorganization contributes to memory or enhanced information processing in the brain and may increase its capability of skill learning. If the gray matter (GM is capable of such rapid structural reorganization upon training, the extent of volume increase may characterize the learning process. To shed light on this issue, we conducted a case series study of 5-day visuomotor learning using neuroanatomical imaging, and analyzed the effect of rapid brain structural change on motor performance improvement via regression analysis. Participants performed an upper-arm reaching task under left-right mirror-reversal for five consecutive days; T1-weighted MR imaging was performed before training, after the first and fifth days, and 1 week and 1 month after training. We detected increase in GM volume on the first day (i.e., a few hours after the first training session in the primary motor cortex (M1, primary sensory cortex (S1, and in the hippocampal areas. Notably, regression analysis revealed that individual differences in such short-term increases were associated with the learning levels after 5 days of training. These results suggest that GM structural changes are not simply a footprint of previous motor learning but have some relationship with future motor learning. In conclusion, the present study provides new insight into the role of structural changes in causing functional changes during motor learning.

  5. Molecular gas and star formation in the centers of Virgo spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian, B.

    1990-01-01

    The CO and H alpha flux distributions for a sample of Virgo spirals were mapped out in an attempt to understand the coupling between gas dynamics and star formation in spiral galaxies. A broad range of morphological types were observed (types Sab through Scd) under the hypothesis that the gas dynamics is most influential in determining the overall appearance of a spiral galaxy. Only non-barred spirals were considered so that the well-studied but complicated properties of bars and their role in inducing star formation would not be a factor. All galaxies were chosen from the Virgo cluster to eliminate uncertainties due to distance errors. Since the dynamical seat of a spiral is at its center, it was expected that the dynamics of the central region would influence global properties of the rest of the disk. This could happen through the existence or absence of an inner Lindblad resonance (according to the degree of central concentration of mass) to modulate swing amplification of spiral waves, or the persistence of an oval distortion to initiate an instability which leads to spiral structure

  6. Spiral modes in cold cylindrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, H.

    1975-01-01

    The linearized hydrodynamical equations governing the non-axisymmetric free modes of oscillation of cold cylindrical stellar systems are separated in cylindrical coordinates and solved numerically for two models. Short-wavelength unstable modes corresponding to tight spirals do not exist; but there exists an unstable growing mode which has the form of trailing spirals which are quite open. (orig.) [de

  7. Spiral groove seal. [for rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates. This prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear. Provision is made for placing these spiral grooves in communication with the fluid to accelerate the generation of the hydraulic lifting force.

  8. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  9. Colours and morphology of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.

    1981-01-01

    Tinsley has proposed that late-type spirals have relatively more non-luminous material than early-type spirals. A re-examination of the data indicates that this proposal is equally consistent with dark matter being more dominant in barred galaxies than in unbarred galaxies. Neither conclusion can be firm, since the dataset is far from ideal. (author)

  10. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  11. Improved reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Beck; Mariager, Christian; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI (spectroscopic imaging scheme developed for hyperpolarized dynamic metabolic MR imaging) can be improved by using regularization with a sparsity constraint. By exploiting sparsity of the spectral domain, IDEAL spiral CSI can...

  12. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuki Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  13. Mass models for disk and halo components in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.

    1987-01-01

    The mass distribution in spiral galaxies is investigated by means of numerical simulations, summarizing the results reported by Athanassoula et al. (1986). Details of the modeling technique employed are given, including bulge-disk decomposition; computation of bulge and disk rotation curves (assuming constant mass/light ratios for each); and determination (for spherical symmetry) of the total halo mass out to the optical radius, the concentration indices, the halo-density power law, the core radius, the central density, and the velocity dispersion. Also discussed are the procedures for incorporating galactic gas and checking the spiral structure extent. It is found that structural constraints limit disk mass/light ratios to a range of 0.3 dex, and that the most likely models are maximum-disk models with m = 1 disturbances inhibited. 19 references

  14. A structural model of burnout syndrome, coping behavior and personality traits in professional soldiers of the Slovene armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Serec

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.

  15. Spiral phyllotaxis underlies constrained variation in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) tepal arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Stabilization and variation of floral structures are indispensable for plant reproduction and evolution; however, the developmental mechanism regulating their structural robustness is largely unknown. To investigate this mechanism, we examined positional arrangement (aestivation) of excessively produced perianth organs (tepals) of six- and seven-tepaled (lobed) flowers in six Anemone species (Ranunculaceae). We found that the tepal arrangement that occurred in nature varied intraspecifically between spiral and whorled arrangements. Moreover, among the studied species, variation was commonly limited to three types, including whorls, despite five geometrically possible arrangements in six-tepaled flowers and two types among six possibilities in seven-tepaled flowers. A spiral arrangement, on the other hand, was unique to five-tepaled flowers. A spiral phyllotaxis model with stochasticity on initiating excessive primordia accounted for these limited variations in arrangement in cases when the divergence angle between preexisting primordia was less than 144°. Moreover, interspecific differences in the frequency of the observed arrangements were explained by the change of model parameters that represent meristematic growth and differential organ growth. These findings suggest that the phyllotaxis parameters are responsible for not only intraspecific stability but interspecific difference of floral structure. Decreasing arrangements from six-tepaled to seven-tepaled Anemone flowers demonstrate that the stabilization occurs as development proceeds to increase the component (organ) number, in contrast from the intuition that the variation will be larger due to increasing number of possible states (arrangements).

  16. Composition gradients across spiral galaxies II. The stellar mass limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.; Tinsley, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    The equivalent width of the Hβ emission from H ii regions in spiral galaxies increases with distance from the nucleus. This W (Hβ) gradient is interpreted in terms of a radial gradient in the temperature of the hottest exciting stars. (T/subu/). From Searle's observations of M101, an increase Δ log T/subu/=0.02--0.13 from the intermediate to outermost spiral arms of M101 is inferred. There is also a radial decrease in the metal abundance (Z) across M101, and the T/subu/ gradient is consistent with the prediction of Kahn's recent theory that the upper mass limit for star formation should be smaller in regions of high Z. It is noted also that, even in the absence of changes in the upper mass limit, a T/subu/ gradient is expected because metal-rich stars of given mass have smaller effective temperatures. Several observational and theoretical improvements are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn, but it is clear that the presence of a T/subu/ gradient may lead to several important systematic changes in the interpretation of gradients in the properties of H ii regions across galaxies. A T/subu/ gradient reduces the Z gradient that is inferred from emission-line ratios, and it may help to explain why O ii is strong in the innermost regions where O iii is weak. A T/subu/ gradient may also partly camouflage a helium abundance gradient

  17. Unusual Objects in the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov Yu. N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several strange objects in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 are described. One of these objects is the giant stellar complex noted long ago; we suggested that its sharp semicircular western edge is a result of the ram pressure, arising owing to motion of this complex through the HI halo of NGC 6946. We found another enigmatic object, proposing for it the name Red Ellipse; it is located within the isolated Northern arm of the galaxy. The enormous size of this Ellipse, and especially the spectroscopic data obtained recently with the 6-m reflector of the Special Astrophysical Observatory, made us to conclude that this object could not be a supernova remnant. The excellent image of NGC 6946 obtained with the Subaru 8-m telescope also shows a strange region with several regular crossed dark lanes, connected with a black spot.

  18. Mass of the spirals galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupome, L; Pismis, P; Aguilar, L [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have found that the total mass of galaxies-especially of the spirals-based on values published until 1975, decreased as the Hubble type varied from Sa through Sc and Irregulars. It was also pointed out that masses determined from the hydrogen 21-cm line were higher than the optically determined masses. To investigate the cause of these tendencies we have estimated the masses using an analytic rotation curve of Brandt adjusted to the optical observations in order to include all the mass of a galaxy up to the last observed point. Although the masses computed in this manner were found to be larger, as expected, the decrease of mass with Hubble type found earlier is confirmed. However, there is a discrepancy in the earlier types (Sa, Sab) in that their radio-masses are smaller than the optically determined ones. At present, the cause of this is not clear.

  19. IMRT delivery verification using a spiral phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Susan L.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.; McNutt, Todd R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on the testing and verification of a system for IMRT delivery quality assurance that uses a cylindrical solid water phantom with a spiral trajectory for radiographic film placement. This spiral film technique provides more complete dosimetric verification of the entire IMRT treatment than perpendicular film methods, since it samples a three-dimensional dose subspace rather than using measurements at only one or two depths. As an example, the complete analysis of the predicted and measured spiral films is described for an intracranial IMRT treatment case. The results of this analysis are compared to those of a single field perpendicular film technique that is typically used for IMRT QA. The comparison demonstrates that both methods result in a dosimetric error within a clinical tolerance of 5%, however the spiral phantom QA technique provides a more complete dosimetric verification while being less time consuming. To independently verify the dosimetry obtained with the spiral film, the same IMRT treatment was delivered to a similar phantom in which LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were arranged along the spiral trajectory. The maximum difference between the predicted and measured TLD data for the 1.8 Gy fraction was 0.06 Gy for a TLD located in a high dose gradient region. This further validates the ability of the spiral phantom QA process to accurately verify delivery of an IMRT plan

  20. JPRS Report Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Table of Contents: (1) COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES - (A) GENERAL Flaws in U.S.-Russian SSD Agreement Viewed, Khariton - Espionage Not Crucial in Soviet Nuclear Arms Development, Further on Espionage Role in Nuclear Arms Projects...

  1. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  2. Design of wireless data transmission system for spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Wang Fuquan; Liu Huaili

    2010-01-01

    A new wireless data transmission scheme based on UWB was proposed after studying the structure and character of spiral CT transmission system, the system was designed and validated. Using UWB device as wireless module to realize wireless data transmission. Using FPGA as main controller to meet the requirement of timing control for system module. Using two pieces of SDRAM in pingpang operation to realize large capacity storage mechanism. Using USB 2.0 interface to realize high-speed connection with UWB module. The results show that the transmission speed of the system arrival at 16.87 M bit ps within 3 meters, and the precision is 100%, it can be used for line-array spiral CT. (authors)

  3. Laser milling of martensitic stainless steels using spiral trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, L.; Tantussi, F.; Fuso, F.

    2017-04-01

    A laser beam with sub-picosecond pulse duration was driven in spiral trajectories to perform micro-milling of martensitic stainless steel. The geometry of the machined micro-grooves channels was investigated by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and linked to laser parameters by using an experimental approach combining the beam energy distribution profile and the absorption phenomena in the material. Preliminary analysis shows that, despite the numerous parameters involved in the process, layer removal obtained by spiral trajectories, varying the radial overlap, allows for a controllable depth of cut combined to a flattening effect of surface roughness. Combining the developed machining strategy to a feed motion of the work stage, could represent a method to obtain three-dimensional structures with a resolution of few microns, with an areal roughness Sa below 100 nm.

  4. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  5. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  6. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M; Mazzolai, B; Dario, P; Mattoli, V

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  7. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  8. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  9. Echo-Interleaved-Spiral MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Shirrie; Azhari, Haim [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Montag, Avram [Elscint Ltd., MRI division, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-12-31

    Interleaved-Spiral imaging is an efficient method for MRI fast scans. However, images suffer from blurring and artifacts due to field inhomogeneities and the long readout times. In this paper, we combine interleaved-spirals with spin-echo for 3D scans. The refocusing RF-pulses (echoes) refocus off-resonance spins, thus allowing longer acquisition times per excitation, by limiting inhomogeneity effects. The total number of excitations for a 3D scan is reduced by half. The 3D Fourier transform of an object is divided into pairs of slices, one slice is scanned in an outgoing interleaved-spiral, initiated after a 90 degree pulse has been applied. The second slice is scanned in an ingoing interleaved-spiral, after a 180 degree pulse has been applied, thus reaching the slice origin at the echo time. (authors) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Echo-Interleaved-Spiral MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Shirrie; Azhari, Haim; Montag, Avram

    1998-01-01

    Interleaved-Spiral imaging is an efficient method for MRI fast scans. However, images suffer from blurring and artifacts due to field inhomogeneities and the long readout times. In this paper, we combine interleaved-spirals with spin-echo for 3D scans. The refocusing RF-pulses (echoes) refocus off-resonance spins, thus allowing longer acquisition times per excitation, by limiting inhomogeneity effects. The total number of excitations for a 3D scan is reduced by half. The 3D Fourier transform of an object is divided into pairs of slices, one slice is scanned in an outgoing interleaved-spiral, initiated after a 90 degree pulse has been applied. The second slice is scanned in an ingoing interleaved-spiral, after a 180 degree pulse has been applied, thus reaching the slice origin at the echo time. (authors)

  11. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  12. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  13. Pulsatile spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Fabian; Hye, Md Abdul; Paul, Manosh C

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile spiral blood flow in a modelled three-dimensional arterial stenosis, with a 75% cross-sectional area reduction, is investigated by using numerical fluid dynamics. Two-equation k-ω model is used for the simulation of the transitional flow with Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000. It is found that the spiral component increases the static pressure in the vessel during the deceleration phase of the flow pulse. In addition, the spiral component reduces the turbulence intensity and wall shear stress found in the post-stenosis region of the vessel in the early stages of the flow pulse. Hence, the findings agree with the results of Stonebridge et al. (2004). In addition, the results of the effects of a spiral component on time-varying flow are presented and discussed along with the relevant pathological issues.

  14. Statistical analysis of metallicity in spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1981-04-01

    A principal component analysis of metallicity and other integral properties of 33 spiral galaxies is presented; the involved parameters are: morphological type, diameter, luminosity and metallicity. From the statistical analysis it is concluded that the sample has only two significant dimensions and additonal tests, involving different parameters, show similar results. Thus it seems that only type and luminosity are independent variables, being the other integral properties of spiral galaxies correlated with them.

  15. Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2014-05-01

    Spiral laser beams is a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotate with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. This paper describes the results of analytical and computer simulation of Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution. In the simulation used a laser beam consisting of the sum of the two modes HG TEMnm and TEMn1m1. The coefficients n1, n, m1, m were varied. Additional phase depending from the coefficients n, m, m1, n1 imposed on the resulting beam. As a result, formed the Hermite Gaussian beam phase distribution which takes the form of a spiral in the process of distribution. For modeling was used VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH).

  16. TURBULENCE AND STAR FORMATION IN A SAMPLE OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University 527 S Beaver Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: erin-maier@uiowa.edu, E-mail: Lisa.Chien@nau.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We investigate turbulent gas motions in spiral galaxies and their importance to star formation in far outer disks, where the column density is typically far below the critical value for spontaneous gravitational collapse. Following the methods of Burkhart et al. on the Small Magellanic Cloud, we use the third and fourth statistical moments, as indicators of structures caused by turbulence, to examine the neutral hydrogen (H i) column density of a sample of spiral galaxies selected from The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We apply the statistical moments in three different methods—the galaxy as a whole, divided into a function of radii and then into grids. We create individual grid maps of kurtosis for each galaxy. To investigate the relation between these moments and star formation, we compare these maps with their far-ultraviolet images taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite.We find that the moments are largely uniform across the galaxies, in which the variation does not appear to trace any star-forming regions. This may, however, be due to the spatial resolution of our analysis, which could potentially limit the scale of turbulent motions that we are sensitive to greater than ∼700 pc. From comparison between the moments themselves, we find that the gas motions in our sampled galaxies are largely supersonic. This analysis also shows that the Burkhart et al. methods may be applied not just to dwarf galaxies but also to normal spiral galaxies.

  17. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10 13 fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10 6 euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10 6 euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10 6 euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron

  18. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  19. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  20. Spiral and Rotor Patterns Produced by Fairy Ring Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, N.; Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fungi fill many essential ecological and biogeochemical roles, e.g. decomposing litter, redistributing nutrients, and promoting biodiversity. Fairy ring fungi offer a rare glimpse into the otherwise opaque spatiotemporal dynamics of soil fungal growth, because subsurface mycelial patterns can be inferred from observations at the soil's surface. These observations can be made directly when the fungi send up fruiting bodies (e.g., mushrooms and toadstools), or indirectly via the effect the fungi have on neighboring organisms. Grasses in particular often temporarily thrive on the nutrients liberated by the fungus, creating bands of rich, dark green turf at the edge of the fungal mat. To date, only annular (the "ring" in fairy ring) and arc patterns have been described in the literature. We report observations of novel spiral and rotor pattern formation in fairy ring fungi, as seen in publically available high-resolution aerial imagery of 22 sites across the continental United States. To explain these new behaviors, we first demonstrate that a well-known model describing fairy ring formation is equivalent to the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion model, which is known to support a wide range of dynamical behaviors, including annular traveling waves, rotors, spirals, and stable spatial patterns including spots and stripes. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulation are then used to define the region of parameter space that supports spiral and rotor formation. We find that this region is adjacent to one within which typical fairy rings develop. Model results suggest simple experimental procedures that could potentially induce traditional ring structures to exhibit rotor or spiral dynamics. Intriguingly, the Gray-Scott model predicts that these same procedures could be used to solicit even richer patterns, including spots and stripes, which have not yet been identified in the field.

  1. Influence of a variation in the position of the arms on the sagittal connection of the gravity line with the spinal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaye, Jean; Duval-Beaupere, Ginette

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the position of the arms on the location of the body's gravity line. The sagittal balance of the pelvi-spinal unit is organized so that the gravity line is localized in a way that limits the mechanical loads and the muscle efforts. This position of the gravity line was analyzed in vivo, in standing position, the arms dangling, by the barycentremeter, a gamma rays scanner. Then, several teams had the same purpose but using a force platform combined with radiographies. Their results differed significantly among themselves and with the data of the barycentremetry. However, in these studies, the positions of the arms varied noticeably, either slightly bent forwards on a support, or the fingers on the clavicles or on the cheeks. We estimated, for each varied posture of the arms, the sagittal coordinates of the masses of the upper limbs and their influence on the anatomical position of the gravity line of the whole body. Using a simple equation and the data of the barycentremeter, we observed that the variations in the location of the gravity line were proportionally connected to the changes of the sagittal position of the mass of the upper limbs induced by the various positions of the arms. We conclude in a validation of the data of the barycentremeter, as well as of the data obtained by the force platforms as long as the artifact of the position of the arms is taken into account.

  2. Formation of polymeric toroidal-spiral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Shen, Hao; Nitsche, Ludwig C; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-10

    Compared to spherical matrices, particles with well-defined internal structure provide large surface to volume ratio and predictable release kinetics for the encapsulated payloads. We describe self-assembly of polymeric particles, whereby competitive kinetics of viscous sedimentation, diffusion, and cross-linking yield a controllable toroidal-spiral (T-S) structure. Precursor polymeric droplets are splashed through the surface of a less dense, miscible solution, after which viscous forces entrain the surrounding bulk solution into the sedimenting polymer drop to form T-S channels. The intricate structure forms because low interfacial tension between the two miscible solutions is dominated by viscous forces. The biocompatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA), is used to demonstrate the solidification of the T-S shapes at various configurational stages by UV-triggered cross-linking. The dimensions of the channels are controlled by Weber number during impact on the surface, and Reynolds number and viscosity ratio during subsequent sedimentation. We anticipate applications of the T-S particle in drug delivery, wherein diffusion through these T-S channels and the polymer matrix would offer parallel release pathways for molecules of different sizes. Polyphosphate, as a model macromolecule, is entrained in T-S particles during their formation. The in vitro release kinetics of polyphosphate from the T-S particles with various channel length and width is reported. In addition, self-assembly of T-S particles occurs in a single step under benign conditions for delicate macromolecules, and appears conducive to scaleup.

  3. Arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty commits each party to work towards nuclear disarmament and to negotiations to stop the nuclear arms race. All parties to the Treaty are included and a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues are covered. However the main focus at Treaty review conferences has been on nuclear disarmament by the nuclear weapon states which are party to the Treaty. This has led to bilateral United States - Soviet Union negotiations resulting in the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty in December 1987 and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in July followed by unilateral arms control measures in September and October 1991. (UK)

  4. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  5. Theory and design of heat exchanger : air cooled plate, spiral heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1960-02-01

    This book deals with air cooled heat exchanger, which introduces heat rejection system, wet surface cooler in new from, explanation of structure and design, materials, basic design like plenums chambers and fan ring, finned tube fouling factor, airflow in forced draft and fan design. It also tells of plate heat exchanger and spiral heat exchanger giving descriptions of summary, selection, basic design, device and safety function, maintenance, structure of plate heat exchanger, frames and connector plate and, basic things of spiral tube heat exchanger.

  6. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Zelman, Ido; Titon, Myriam; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hanassy, Shlomi; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm move...

  7. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are built and a 2-dimens...

  8. Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2014-07-16

    Spin-polarized triangular graphene nanoflakes (t-GNFs) serve as ideal building blocks for the long-desired ferromagnetic graphene superlattices, but they are always assembled to planar structures which reduce its mechanical properties. Here, by joining t-GNFs in a spiral way, we propose one-dimensional graphene spirals (GSs) with superior mechanical properties and tunable electronic structures. We demonstrate theoretically the unique features of electron motion in the spiral lattice by means of first-principles calculations combined with a simple Hubbard model. Within a linear elastic deformation range, the GSs are nonmagnetic metals. When the axial tensile strain exceeds an ultimate strain, however, they convert to magnetic semiconductors with stable ferromagnetic ordering along the edges. Such strain-induced phase transition and tunable electron spin-polarization revealed in the GSs open a new avenue for spintronics devices.

  9. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  10. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, E.A.; Morgan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  11. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1992-01-01

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  12. Principles of spiral CT: III. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, C.; Kalender, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1989 spiral CT has gained wide clinical acceptance and meanwhile it covers a large range of CT applications. This new technology, however, has not yet been recognized and acknowledged in the national or international regulations on scanner quality assurance (QA) programs. The conventional QA procedures should be extended to check the distribution of resolution and noise within the image plane. Imaging performance in the axial direction constitutes one of the major advantages of spiral scanning. Therefore, the slice sensitivity profiles and the spatial and low-contrast resolution along the z-axis have to be assessed. The high demands on table feed accuracy require additional tests. We suggest phantoms and procedures to check and quantify these parameters. Thereby, we hope to support the ongoing discussion about spiral CT quality assurance. (orig.) [de

  13. Organic carbon spiralling in stream ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V

    1982-01-01

    The term spiralling has been used to describe the combined processes of cycling and longitudinal transport in streams. As a measure or organic carbon spiralling, we introduced organic carbon turnover length, S, defined as the average or expected downstream distance travelled by a carbon atom between its entry or fixation in the stream and its oxidation. Using a simple model for organic carbon dynamics in a stream, we show that S is closely related to fisher and Likens' ecosystem efficiency. Unlike efficiency, however, S is independent of the length of the study reach, and values of S determined in streams of differing lengths can be compared. Using data from three different streams, we found the relationship between S and efficiency to agree closely with the model prediction. Hypotheses of stream functioning are discussed in the context of organic carbeon spiralling theory.

  14. Considerations of an oscillating spiral universe cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that if the spiral configuration of galaxies is explicable in terms of the equations of motion of its constituent stars, as an expression of global laws of nature, then the universe as a whole may be similarly described in terms of the motions of its constituent galaxies with a similar spiral dynamics. With the functional form of the spiral paths in terms of Fresnel integrals, taken from solutions of equations in general relativity (from previous analyses of galactic configurations) the density of the universe at the big bang stage is determined. It is found to depend, numerically, on the neutron lifetime and the period of oscillation of the universe as a whole. There is some concluding discussion of the implications of this analysis of the matter of the universe at the big bang stage vis a vis the black hole state of matter

  15. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  16. Spiral CT for evaluation of chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehnert, W.; Weise, R.

    1997-01-01

    After implementation of spiral CT in our department, we carried out an analysis for determining anew the value of CT as a modality of chest trauma diagnosis in the emergency department. The retrospective study covers a period of 10 months and all emergency patients with chest trauma exmined by spiral CT. The major lesions of varying seriousness covered by this study are: pneumothorax, hematothorax, pulmonary contusion or laceration, mediastinal hematoma, rupture of a vessel, injury of the heart and pericardium. The various fractures are not included in this study. In many cases, spiral CT within relatively short time yields significant diagnostic findings, frequently saving additional angiography. A rigid diagnostic procedure cannot be formulated. Plain-film chest radiography still remains a diagnostic modality of high value. (Orig.) [de

  17. Neutrons for science (NFS) at spiral-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Both cross section measurements and various applications could be realised successfully using the high energy neutrons that will be produced at SPIRAL-2. Two particular cases were examined in more detail, namely: (a) neutron time-of-flight (nToF) measurements with pulsed neutron beams, and (b) material activation-irradiation with high-energy high-intensity neutron fluxes. Thanks to the high energy and high intensity neutron flux available, SPIRAL-2 offers a unique opportunity for material irradiations both for fission and fusion related research, tests of various detection systems and of resistance of electronics components to irradiations, etc. SPIRAL-2 also could be considered as an intermediate step towards new generation dedicated irradiation facilities as IFMIF previewed only beyond 2015. Equally, the interval from 0.1 MeV to 40 MeV for neutron cross section measurements is an energy range that is of particular importance for energy applications, notably accelerator driven systems (ADS) and Gen-IV fast reactors, as well as for fusion related devices. It is also the region where pre-equilibrium approaches are often used to link the low (evaporation) and high energy (intra-nuclear cascade) reaction models. With very intense neutron beams of SPIRAL-2 measurements of very low mass (often radioactive) targets and small cross sections become feasible in short experimental campaigns. Production of radioactive targets for dedicated physics experiments is also an attractive feature of SPIRAL-2. In brief, it was shown that SPIRAL-2 has got a remarkable potential for neutron based research both for fundamental physics and various applications. In addition, in the neutron energy range from a few MeV to, say, 35 MeV this research would have a leading position for the next 10-15 years if compared to other neutron facilities in operation or under construction worldwide. (author)

  18. Kidney spiral CT, indications, realization, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, R.; Beilicke, M.; Hundt, W.; Breiteneder, T.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of spiral computed tomography (spiral CT) has vastly enriched the methodologically diversity of computer-tomographic scans. It allows for the recording of different perfusion or excretion stages of the kidney parenchyma of the urine draining paths by carrying out long-distance, phase-identical multiple examinations of the retroperitoneum. The description of the findings which are characterized by their local and contrasts behavior is possible. The following report describes the indications and technological process of kidney spiral CT using kidney-typical intravenous contrast media. Special emphasis is put on the advantages and limits of multiple phase spiral CT. Decisive preconditions are: 1. Specific clinical query, 2. selection of the corresponding phase contrasts of the kidneys and uretra or bladder, 3. exact technical and temporal adjustment of the acquisition parameters. Scanning times are in the range of seconds. The overall examination can be carried out quick and without any major strain on the part of the patient. A sound proof and a general differentiation of focal kideny lesions can be derived from the acquired data. This is also true for kidneys and ureters findings. Bladder findings can be localized and differentiated according to stage. More than two 'spiral acquisitions' should be carried out with restraint taking exposure to radiation into account. Due to the sound registration of focal lesions, its capability of reproduction and its short-time examination, the spiral CT of the kidneys can be said to be the most effective current scanning method of the retroperitoneum following clinical examinations and sonography. (orig.) [de

  19. Model for electromagnetic field analysis of superconducting power transmission cable comprising spiraled coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Taketsune; Maruyama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Since the superconductor layers of YBCO-coated conductors are very thin, the ac loss of coated conductors is dominated by the magnetic flux density normal to the conductor face. In cables, most of the normal magnetic flux component is generated near gaps between coated conductors. Although the effects of gaps are significant, there are few reports on the electromagnetic field analysis of cables with spiral structures carried out while taking the gap effect into consideration. In a finitely long cable with a spiral structure, the electromagnetic field is naturally periodic along the cable axis. In a two-layer cable, the simplest period along the cable axis is the least common multiple of the spiral pitches in the inner and outer layers. However, we verified that there is a shorter period, and the same electromagnetic field distribution appears in all conductors of the same layer. Using these periodicities, we developed a three-dimensional model for the analysis of two-layer cables with a spiral structure. Current distributions of cables were analyzed using this model, and ac losses were calculated. In addition, these results were compared with ac losses calculated by two-dimensional analysis performed on the cross section of a cable. It was verified that the ac loss in a cable is correctly calculated by the 2D model when the spiral pitch is long enough. However, in the case of a tightly twisted cable, the ac losses calculated by the 2D model include some errors caused by an approximation in which the spiral structure is ignored.

  20. The influence of fiber thickness, wall thickness and gap distance on the spiral nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junping; Shah, Ami; Yu Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a 3D nanofibrous spiral scaffold for bone tissue engineering which has shown enhanced cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation compared to traditional cylindrical scaffolds due to the spiral structures and the nanofiber incorporation. Some important parameters of these spiral scaffolds including gap distance, wall thickness and especially fiber thickness are crucial to the performance of the spiral structured scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness of the spiral structure on the behavior of osteoblast cells. The human osteoblast cells are seeded on spiral structured scaffolds with various fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness and cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition on the scaffolds are evaluated. It was found that increasing the thickness of nanofiber layer not only limited the cell infiltration into the scaffolds, but also restrained the osteoblastic cell phenotype development. Moreover, the geometric effect studies indicated that scaffolds with the thinner wall and gap distance 0.2 mm show the best bioactivity for osteoblasts.

  1. Transforming the Albanian Armed Forces, Overcoming the Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cahani, Nazmi

    2009-01-01

    The Albanian Armed Forces (AAF) are currently undergoing an extensive defense reform process that consists of transformation of its strategic concept, doctrine, organizational structure, personnel management system, military...

  2. Highly Nonlinear and Birefringent Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and design a spiral photonic crystal fiber with elliptical air holes for achieving high birefringence, large nonlinearity, and negative dispersion. The structure is designed using chalcogenide glass (As2S3 for different ellipticity ratios of air holes in the cladding and the effect on various properties is observed. The proposed structure has birefringence of the order 10−2, nonlinearity of 26739.42 W−1 m−1, and dispersion of −1136.69 at 0.85 μm. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the design and simulation of the structure. Due to high birefringence and negative dispersion, the proposed structure can be used for polarization control and dispersion compensation, respectively.

  3. The dynamics of the spiral galaxy M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the observations of the spiral galaxy M81 with the density-wave theory for tightly-wound spirals is presented. In particular, hydrogen-line observations are compared with the nonlinear density-wave theory for the gas with the aim of constructing a density-wave model for the spiral galaxy M81

  4. Adaptation of the control system in view of SPIRAL integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecorche, E.

    1998-01-01

    As soon as the collaboration between the SPIRAL project and the Control Group has been defined, the first implementation of the SPIRAL control system started following various directions. Both the global hardware and software architectures has been specified and some practical works have been undertaken such as the Ethernet network installation or the first SPIRAL oriented software design and coding. (authors)

  5. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  6. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  7. Spiral crack patterns observed for melt-grown spherulites of poly(L-lactic acid) upon quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Futoshi; Sobajima, Takamasa; Irie, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the characteristic spiral cracking that appears on the surface of melt-grown poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) spherulites with relatively large sizes (greater than 0.4mm in diameter). The crack occurs via thermal shrinkage upon quenching after crystallization. Although concentric cracks on polymer spherulites have been found to occur in quite a few studies, spiral crack patterns have never been reported so far. The present spiral crack was observed for thick spherulites (> 10 μm), whereas the concentric crack pattern was frequently observed for thin spherulites (typically 5 μm). The present PLLA spherulites exhibited a non-banded structure with no apparent structural periodicity at least on the scale of the spiral pitch, and thus no direct correlation between the crack pattern and the spherulitic structure was suggested. The spiral was revealed to be largely Archimedean of which the spiral pitch increases with an increase in the thickness of the spherulite. This may be interpreted in terms of a classical mechanical model for a thin layer with no delamination from the substrate.

  8. Bars and spirals in tidal interactions with an ensemble of galaxy mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Wadsley, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    We present simulations of the gaseous and stellar material in several different galaxy mass models under the influence of different tidal fly-bys to assess the changes in their bar and spiral morphology. Five different mass models are chosen to represent the variety of rotation curves seen in nature. We find a multitude of different spiral and bar structures can be created, with their properties dependent on the strength of the interaction. We calculate pattern speeds, spiral wind-up rates, bar lengths, and angular momentum exchange to quantify the changes in disc morphology in each scenario. The wind-up rates of the tidal spirals follow the 2:1 resonance very closely for the flat and dark matter-dominated rotation curves, whereas the more baryon-dominated curves tend to wind-up faster, influenced by their inner bars. Clear spurs are seen in most of the tidal spirals, most noticeable in the flat rotation curve models. Bars formed both in isolation and interactions agree well with those seen in real galaxies, with a mixture of `fast' and `slow' rotators. We find no strong correlation between bar length or pattern speed and the interaction strength. Bar formation is, however, accelerated/induced in four out of five of our models. We close by briefly comparing the morphology of our models to real galaxies, easily finding analogues for nearly all simulations presenter here, showing passages of small companions can easily reproduce an ensemble of observed morphologies.

  9. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-03-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  10. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  11. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost

  12. Irrational Numbers Can "In-Spiral" You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leslie D.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the instructional process of helping students visualize irrational numbers. Students learn to create a spiral, called "the wheel of Theodorus," which demonstrates irrational and rational lengths. Examples of student work help the reader appreciate the delightful possibilities of this project. (Contains 4 figures.)

  13. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  14. Spiral CT-angiography of the aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Eikelboom, B. C.; van Leeuwen, M. S.; Noordzij, J.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether the new technique of CT-angiography was accurate in displaying the complex anatomy of the aorta and its major branches. METHODS: Seventeen patients with a variety of aortic pathology were examined. Using a spiral CT-scanner a volumetric scan was made during injection of

  15. Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.

  16. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  17. Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems High quality drinking water can be produced with membrane filtration processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Because the global demand for fresh clean water is increasing, these membrane technologies will increase in importance in the

  18. Space charge effect in the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical and numerical theory of the space charge effects in the beam in the spiral inflector. It considers a simplified model of a 'straight' cylindrical beam by using a uniform particle distribution. Numerical results represented in this paper are obtained by using a modified version of the program CASINO

  19. Some optical properties of the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan; Subotic, Krunoslav

    1999-01-01

    This paper compares some optical properties of different spiral inflectors using the program CASINO. The electric field distribution in the inflectors has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field using the RELAX3D program. (author)

  20. A nutrient’s downstream spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of a stream’s ability to remove nutrients provide insights on watershed integrity and stream habitat characteristics that are needed to help managers to restore stream ecosystem services. We used the Tracer Additon Spiraling Characterization Curve (TASCC) to mea...

  1. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  2. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  3. Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradford D.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

  4. The Spiral-Interactive Program Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    1988-01-01

    Describes the spiral interactive program evaluation model, which is designed to evaluate vocational-technical education programs in secondary schools in Nigeria. Program evaluation is defined; utility oriented and process oriented models for evaluation are described; and internal and external evaluative factors and variables that define each…

  5. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  6. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  7. Rapid anatomical brain imaging using spiral acquisition and an expanded signal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Lars; Engel, Maria; Barmet, Christoph; Haeberlin, Maximilian; Wilm, Bertram J; Dietrich, Benjamin E; Schmid, Thomas; Gross, Simon; Brunner, David O; Stephan, Klaas E; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-03-01

    We report the deployment of spiral acquisition for high-resolution structural imaging at 7T. Long spiral readouts are rendered manageable by an expanded signal model including static off-resonance and B 0 dynamics along with k-space trajectories and coil sensitivity maps. Image reconstruction is accomplished by inversion of the signal model using an extension of the iterative non-Cartesian SENSE algorithm. Spiral readouts up to 25 ms are shown to permit whole-brain 2D imaging at 0.5 mm in-plane resolution in less than a minute. A range of options is explored, including proton-density and T 2 * contrast, acceleration by parallel imaging, different readout orientations, and the extraction of phase images. Results are shown to exhibit competitive image quality along with high geometric consistency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H.; Kogut, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  9. The Spiral Discovery Network as an Automated General-Purpose Optimization Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Csapo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spiral Discovery Method (SDM was originally proposed as a cognitive artifact for dealing with black-box models that are dependent on multiple inputs with nonlinear and/or multiplicative interaction effects. Besides directly helping to identify functional patterns in such systems, SDM also simplifies their control through its characteristic spiral structure. In this paper, a neural network-based formulation of SDM is proposed together with a set of automatic update rules that makes it suitable for both semiautomated and automated forms of optimization. The behavior of the generalized SDM model, referred to as the Spiral Discovery Network (SDN, and its applicability to nondifferentiable nonconvex optimization problems are elucidated through simulation. Based on the simulation, the case is made that its applicability would be worth investigating in all areas where the default approach of gradient-based backpropagation is used today.

  10. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cragin, Kim; Hoffman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... to traditional definitions of a security threat. For this analysis, the term "small arms" refers to man-portable personal and military weapons, ranging from handguns to assault rifles to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs...

  11. Spiral CT for evaluation of chest trauma; Spiral-CT beim Thoraxtrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehnert, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Weise, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1997-07-01

    After implementation of spiral CT in our department, we carried out an analysis for determining anew the value of CT as a modality of chest trauma diagnosis in the emergency department. The retrospective study covers a period of 10 months and all emergency patients with chest trauma exmined by spiral CT. The major lesions of varying seriousness covered by this study are: pneumothorax, hematothorax, pulmonary contusion or laceration, mediastinal hematoma, rupture of a vessel, injury of the heart and pericardium. The various fractures are not included in this study. In many cases, spiral CT within relatively short time yields significant diagnostic findings, frequently saving additional angiography. A rigid diagnostic procedure cannot be formulated. Plain-film chest radiography still remains a diagnostic modality of high value. (Orig.) [Deutsch] Nach Einfuehrung der Spiral-CT in unserer Einrichtung versuchten wir, den Stellenwert der Computertomographie in der Notfalldiagnostik des Thoraxtraumas neu zu bestimmen. Dazu wurden retrospektiv ueber einen Zeitraum von 10 Monaten alle mittels Spiral-CT untersuchten Notfallpatienten mit Thoraxverletzungen ausgewertet. Im Vordergrund standen folgende Befunde unterschiedlichen Schweregrades: Pneumothorax, Haematothorax, Lungenkontusion/-lazeration, Mediastinalhaematom, Gefaessruptur, Herz- und Herzbeutelverletzung. Auf die unterschiedlichen Frakturen wird bewusst nicht naeher eingegangen. In vielen Faellen liefert die Spiral-CT mit relativ geringem Zeitaufwand wesentliche diagnostische Aussagen. Haeufig kann auf eine Angiographie verzichtet werden. Ein starres diagnostisches Stufenschema laesst sich nicht definieren. Die Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme besitzt einen unveraendert hohen Stellenwert. (orig.)

  12. 21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazzi, G.

    1987-01-01

    High-sensitivity, 21 cm line observations of 130 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 Supercluster region are presented and used to study the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the direction of the Coma Supercluster and the H I content in spiral galaxies as a function of the local galaxy density. Groups of galaxies are found to form a quasi-continuous structure that connects the Local Supercluster to the Coma Supercluster. This structure is composed of real filaments only in the vicinity of the Coma Cluster. Spiral galaxies in the surveyed groups and multiple systems have H I content not dissimilar from that of isolated galaxies. Galaxies within about 1 Abell radius from the Coma Cluster contain about three times less hydrogen on average than isolated galaxies. There is a strong tendency for galaxies that are more severely H I-depleted to be redder and of earlier Hubble type. In the Coma Cluster a considerable fraction of late-type, blue galaxies have large deficiency parameters. 51 references

  13. A Rectangular Planar Spiral Antenna for GIS Partial Discharge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular planar spiral antenna sensor was designed for detecting the partial discharge in gas insulation substations (GIS. It can expediently receive electromagnetic waves leaked from basin-type insulators and can effectively suppress low frequency electromagnetic interference from the surrounding environment. Certain effective techniques such as rectangular spiral structure, bow-tie loading, and back cavity structure optimization during the antenna design process can miniaturize antenna size and optimize voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR characteristics. Model calculation and experimental data measured in the laboratory show that the antenna possesses a good radiating performance and a multiband property when working in the ultrahigh frequency (UHF band. A comparative study between characteristics of the designed antenna and the existing quasi-TEM horn antenna was made. Based on the GIS defect simulation equipment in the laboratory, partial discharge signals were detected by the designed antenna, the available quasi-TEM horn antenna, and the microstrip patch antenna, and the measurement results were compared.

  14. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  15. Utilization of the ion traps by SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Tamain, B.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap is a device capable of confine particles, ions or atoms in a well-controlled environment isolated from any exterior perturbations. There are different traps. They are utilized to collect or stock ions, to cool them after in order to subject them to high precision measurement of masses, magnetic moments, hyperfine properties, beta decay properties, etc. Some dozen of traps are currently used all over the world to study stable or radioactive ions.. SPIRAL has been designed and built to produce radioactive ions starting from various heavy ion beams. SPIRAL has the advantage that the projectile parameters, the target and the energy can be chosen to optimize the production in various regions of the nuclear chart. Also, in SPIRAL it is possible to extract more rapidly the radioactive ions formed in the targets. In addition, in SPIRAL the multicharged ion production in a ECR source is possible. The utilization of multicharged ions is indeed very useful for fast mass measurements or for the study of the interaction between the nucleus and the electronic cloud. Finally, utilization of a ion trap on SPIRAL can be designed first at the level of production target by installing a low energy output line. Than, the trap system could be up-graded and brought to its full utilization behind of the recoil spectrometer. It must be capable of selecting and slowing down the ions produced in the reactions (fusion transfer, very inelastic collisions, etc.) induced by the radioactive ions accelerated in CIME. At present, the collaboration is debating on the most favored subject to study and the most suited experimental setups. The following subjects were selected: ion capture, purification and manipulation; isomers (separation and utilization); mass measurements; hyperfine interactions; lifetimes, nuclear electric cloud; β decays; study of the N = Z nuclei close to the proton drip line; physical and chemical properties of transuranium systems

  16. Sequencing flow-sorted short arm of Haynaldia villosa chromosome 4V provides insights into its molecular structure and virtual gene order

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiao, J.; Dai, K.; Fu, S.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Wan, W.; Sun, H.; Zhao, J.; Yu, C.; Wu, Y.; Abrouk, Michael; Wang, H.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Wang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 791. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chromosome arm 4VS * Flow sorting * Genome zipper * Haynaldia villosa * Scaffold Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  17. Arms Races and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Baliga; Tomas Sjostrom

    2003-01-01

    Two players simultaneously decide whether or not to acquire new weapons in an arms race game. Each player's type determines his propensity to arm. Types are private information, and are independently drawn from a continuous distribution. With probability close to one, the best outcome for each player is for neither to acquire new weapons (although each prefers to acquire new weapons if he thinks the opponent will). There is a small probability that a player is a dominant strategy type who alw...

  18. Untangling the magnetic fields in spiral galaxy NGC 6946 with wide-band polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Anna; Heald, George; Wilcots, Eric M.; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    We present 13 cm polarization observations of nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946. These data provide a new perspective into the magnetic field structure of this galaxy. Previous observations show strong depolarization between 6 cm and 22 cm, and we show that the morphology of the 13 cm polarization

  19. Flattening and truncation of stellar discs in edge-on spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregel, M; van der Kruit, PC; de Grijs, R

    We analyse the global structure of the old stellar discs in 34 edge-on spiral galaxies. The radial and vertical exponential scale parameters of the discs are obtained by applying an improved two-dimensional decomposition technique to our I -band photometry. We find a clear increase in the disc

  20. The Spiral and the Lattice: Changes in Cognitive Learning Theory with Implications for Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasts recent views of learning and cognition with cognitive learning theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Maintains that Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum approach, still valuable, is not sufficient to explain cognitive development. Proposes a lattice-like cognitive development structure, inviting differing paths of exploration. (CFR)

  1. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  2. A WARP IN PROGRESS: H I AND RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPIRAL NGC 3145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Michele; Brinks, Elias; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s −1 ) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s −1 greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s −1 from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145

  3. A WARP IN PROGRESS: H I AND RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPIRAL NGC 3145

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Brinks, Elias [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M., E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: E.Brinks@herts.ac.uk, E-mail: curt@iastate.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Av., Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s{sup −1}) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s{sup −1} greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s{sup −1} from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145.

  4. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the U.S. Pacific from 2008-02-06 to 2012-05-18 (NCEI Accession 0162469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term program for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 2008, Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) have...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across Wake Island from 2011-03-23 to 2014-03-19 (NCEI Accession 0162467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-08-03 to 2016-09-24 (NCEI Accession 0162465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2008-10-07 to 2013-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0162470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across American Samoa from 2012-04-03 to 2015-03-26 (NCEI Accession 0162468)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011-04-07 to 2014-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0162461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2012-05-03 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0162464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  11. Mechanism of spiral formation in heterogeneous discretized excitable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shu-ichi; Iwamoto, Mayuko; Tateishi, Keita; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Ueyama, Daishin

    2013-06-01

    Spiral waves on excitable media strongly influence the functions of living systems in both a positive and negative way. The spiral formation mechanism has thus been one of the major themes in the field of reaction-diffusion systems. Although the widely believed origin of spiral waves is the interaction of traveling waves, the heterogeneity of an excitable medium has recently been suggested as a probable cause. We suggest one possible origin of spiral waves using a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and a discretized FitzHugh-Nagumo model. The heterogeneity of the reaction field is shown to stochastically generate unidirectional sites, which can induce spiral waves. Furthermore, we found that the spiral wave vanished with only a small reduction in the excitability of the reaction field. These results reveal a gentle approach for controlling the appearance of a spiral wave on an excitable medium.

  12. New Portraits of Spiral Galaxies NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    of this photo retains the original pixels. Note the many arms and the pronounced dust bands. North is up and East is left. NGC 613 is a beautiful barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation Sculptor. This galaxy is inclined by 32 degrees and, contrary to most barred spirals, has many arms that give it a tentacular appearance. Prominent dust lanes are visible along the large-scale bar. Extensive star-formation occurs in this area, at the ends of the bar, and also in the nuclear regions of the galaxy. The gas at the centre, as well as the radio properties are indicative of the presence of a massive black hole in the centre of NGC 613. NGC 1792 ESO PR Photo 33b/03 ESO PR Photo 33b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 473 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 946 x 800 pix - 376k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2716 x 2297 pix - 3.2M] PR Photo 33b/03 shows the starburst spiral galaxy NGC 1792 . Note the numerous background galaxies in this sky field. North is up and East is to the left. NGC 1792 is located in the southern constellation Columba (The Dove) - almost on the border with the constellation Caelum (The Graving Tool) - and is a so-called starburst spiral galaxy. Its optical appearance is quite chaotic, due to the patchy distribution of dust throughout the disc of this galaxy. It is very rich in neutral hydrogen gas - fuel for the formation of new stars - and is indeed rapidly forming such stars. The galaxy is characterized by unusually luminous far-infrared radiation; this is due to dust heated by young stars. M 66 (NGC 3627) ESO PR Photo 33c/03 ESO PR Photo 33c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 469 x 400 pix - 24k] [Normal - JPEG: 938 x 800 pix - 383k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2698 x 2300 pix - 3.0M] PR Photo 33c/03 of the spiral galaxy M 66 (or NGC 3627). North towards upper left, West towards upper right. The third galaxy is NGC 3627 , also known as Messier 66, i.e. it is the 66th object in the famous catalogue of nebulae by French astronomer Charles Messier (1730 - 1817). It is located in the constellation

  13. Acute radial nerve entrapment at the spiral groove: detection by DTI-based neurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jengojan, Suren; Breitenseher, Julia; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuro- and Musculosceletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Kovar, Florian [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Trauma-Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the potential of three-tesla diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography to detect changes of the radial (RN) and median (MN) nerves during transient upper arm compression by a silicon ring tourniquet. Axial T2-weighted and DTI sequences (b = 700 s/mm{sup 2}, 16 gradient encoding directions) of 13 healthy volunteers were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the MN and RN were measured at the spiral groove and further visualized in 3D by deterministic tractography (thresholds: FA =.15, angle change = 27 ). Local/lesional RN FA values increased (p = 0.001) and ADC values decreased (p = 0.02) during a 20-min upper arm compression, whereas no significant FA (p = 0.49) or ADC (p = 0.73) changes of the MN were detected. There were no T2-w nerve signal changes or alterations of nerve trajectories in 3D. Acute nerve compression of the RN leads to changes of its three-tesla DTI metrics. Peripheral nerve DTI provides non-invasive insights into the ''selective'' vulnerability of the RN at the spiral groove. (orig.)

  14. Influence of baryonic physics in simulations of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halle, A.

    2013-01-01

    The modelling of baryonic physics in numerical simulations of disc galaxies allows us to study the evolution of the different components, the physical state of the gas and the star formation. The present work aims at investigating in particular the role of the cold and dense molecular phase, which could play a role of gas reservoir in the outer galaxy discs, with low star formation efficiency. After a presentation of galaxies with a focus on spiral galaxies, their interstellar medium and dynamical evolution, we review the current state of hydrodynamical numerical simulations and the implementation of baryonic physics. We then present the simulations we performed. These include the cooling to low temperatures, and a molecular hydrogen component. The cooling functions we use include cooling by metals, for temperatures as low as 100 K, and cooling by H 2 due to collisions with H, He and other H 2 molecules. We use a TreeSPH type code that considers the stellar and gaseous components and black matter as particles. We especially test the impact of the presence of molecular hydrogen in simulations with several feedback efficiencies, and find that the molecular hydrogen allows in all cases some slow stellar formation to occur in the outer disc, with an effect on the vertical structure of the disc that is sensitive to the feedback efficiency. Molecular hydrogen is therefore able to play the role of gas reservoir in external parts of spiral galaxies, which accrete gas from cosmic filaments all along their lives

  15. Dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of thoracic outlet syndrome by anatomically adapted tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastora, I.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Remy, J.; Suess, C.; Scherf, C.; Guillot, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of the thoracic outlet by on-line tube-current control. Prospectively, 114 patients undergoing spiral CT angiography of the subclavian artery for thoracic outlet arterial syndromes were evaluated with and without tube-current modulation at the same session (scanning parameters for the two successive angiograms, one in the neutral position and one after the postural maneuver): 140 kV; 206 mA; scan time 0.75 s; collimation 3 mm; pitch = (1). The dose reduction system was applied in the neutral position in the first 92 consecutive patients and after postural maneuver in the remaining 22 consecutive patients. Dose reduction and image quality were analyzed in the overall study group (group 1; n = 114). The influence of the arm position was assessed in 44 of the 114 patients (group 2), matched by the transverse diameter of the upper thorax. The mean dose reduction was 33 % in group 1 (range 22-40 %) and 34 % in group 2 (range 26-40 %). In group 2 the only difference in image quality was a significantly higher frequency of graininess on low-dose scans compared with reference scans whatever the patient's arm position, graded as minimal in 38 of the 44 patients (86 %). When the low-dose technique was applied after postural maneuver in group 2: (a) the mean dose reduction was significantly higher (35 vs 32 % in the neutral position; p = 0.006); (b) graininess was less frequent (82 vs 91 % in the neutral position); and (c) the percentage of graininess graded as minimal was significantly higher (83 vs 70 % in the neutral position; p = 0.2027). On-line tube-current modulation enables dose reduction on high-quality, diagnostic spiral CT angiograms of the thoracic outlet and should be applied during data acquisition in the neutral position and after postural maneuver for optimal use. (orig.)

  16. Dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of thoracic outlet syndrome by anatomically adapted tube current modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastora, I.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Remy, J. [Dept. of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Medical Research Group, Lille (France); Suess, C.; Scherf, C. [Siemens Medical Systems, Forcheim (Germany); Guillot, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of the thoracic outlet by on-line tube-current control. Prospectively, 114 patients undergoing spiral CT angiography of the subclavian artery for thoracic outlet arterial syndromes were evaluated with and without tube-current modulation at the same session (scanning parameters for the two successive angiograms, one in the neutral position and one after the postural maneuver): 140 kV; 206 mA; scan time 0.75 s; collimation 3 mm; pitch = (1). The dose reduction system was applied in the neutral position in the first 92 consecutive patients and after postural maneuver in the remaining 22 consecutive patients. Dose reduction and image quality were analyzed in the overall study group (group 1; n = 114). The influence of the arm position was assessed in 44 of the 114 patients (group 2), matched by the transverse diameter of the upper thorax. The mean dose reduction was 33 % in group 1 (range 22-40 %) and 34 % in group 2 (range 26-40 %). In group 2 the only difference in image quality was a significantly higher frequency of graininess on low-dose scans compared with reference scans whatever the patient's arm position, graded as minimal in 38 of the 44 patients (86 %). When the low-dose technique was applied after postural maneuver in group 2: (a) the mean dose reduction was significantly higher (35 vs 32 % in the neutral position; p = 0.006); (b) graininess was less frequent (82 vs 91 % in the neutral position); and (c) the percentage of graininess graded as minimal was significantly higher (83 vs 70 % in the neutral position; p = 0.2027). On-line tube-current modulation enables dose reduction on high-quality, diagnostic spiral CT angiograms of the thoracic outlet and should be applied during data acquisition in the neutral position and after postural maneuver for optimal use. (orig.)

  17. Spiral optical designs for nonimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pablo; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Vilaplana, Juan; Buljan, Marina

    2011-10-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. In some demanding nonimaging applications, these restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for negative draft angles. Some of these spiral symmetry examples will be shown here, as well as their simulated results.

  18. Diagnosing extracranial atherosclerotic diseases with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, C.J.; Vannier, M.W.; Erickson, K.K.; Broderick, D.F.; Kido, D.K.; Yoffie, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this discovery study was performed to determine whether extracranial carotid artery plaques could be diagnosed with a new CT technique (spiral CT) that allows nondistorted three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions in the z axis. Twenty carotid arteries were examined with spiral CT in normal volunteers and in patients suspected of having atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial carotid arteries. The Somatom Plus CT table was advanced at a constant rate, the x-ray tube was continuously rotated, and 3D data were continuously acquired. Sixty milliliters of nonionic contrast medium was injected intravenously previous to and during the acquisition of data. The carotid bifurcations were identified in all patients. Planar images, similar to conventional intraarterial angiograms, were routinely produced from the volumetric CT data

  19. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, T., E-mail: thuillier@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Angot, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Sole, P. [LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Canet, C.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jardin, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Biarrotte, J. L. [IPN Orsay, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Denis, J.-F.; Roger, A.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D. [Irfu, CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SACM, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  20. Stationary spiral flow in polytropic stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekeris, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that, in addition to the static Emden solution, a self-gravitating polytropic gas has a dynamic option in which there is stationary flow along spiral trajectories wound around the surfaces of concentric tori. The motion is obtained as a solution of a partial differential equation which is satisfied by the meridional stream function, coupled with Poisson's equation and a Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure (density). The pressure is affected by the whole of the Bernoulli term rather than by the centrifugal part only, which acts for a rotating model, and it may be reduced down to zero at the center. The spiral type of flow is illustrated for an incompressible fluid (n = 0), for which an exact solution is obtained. The features of the dynamic constant-density model are discussed as a basis for future comparison with the solution for compressible models. PMID:16592825