WorldWideScience

Sample records for spiral analysis technique

  1. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing

    2010-01-01

    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  2. The accelerated ISOL technique and the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    The accelerated ISOL technique is presented as an introduction to the present status of the SPIRAL facility. SPIRAL is based on the very high intensity light and heavy ion beams available at GANIL. The facility will deliver radioactive beams with energies in the range between 1.7 A and 25 A MeV. The presently target-ion source production system, as well the new developments undertaken by the target ion-source group at GANIL are presented. (authors)

  3. Spiral analysis-improved clinical utility with center detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Qiping; Kurtis, Mónica M; Floyd, Alicia G; Smith, Whitney A; Pullman, Seth L

    2008-06-30

    Spiral analysis is a computerized method that measures human motor performance from handwritten Archimedean spirals. It quantifies normal motor activity, and detects early disease as well as dysfunction in patients with movement disorders. The clinical utility of spiral analysis is based on kinematic and dynamic indices derived from the original spiral trace, which must be detected and transformed into mathematical expressions with great precision. Accurately determining the center of the spiral and reducing spurious low frequency noise caused by center selection error is important to the analysis. Handwritten spirals do not all start at the same point, even when marked on paper, and drawing artifacts are not easily filtered without distortion of the spiral data and corruption of the performance indices. In this report, we describe a method for detecting the optimal spiral center and reducing the unwanted drawing artifacts. To demonstrate overall improvement to spiral analysis, we study the impact of the optimal spiral center detection in different frequency domains separately and find that it notably improves the clinical spiral measurement accuracy in low frequency domains.

  4. Volumetric analysis of root canals obturated with cold lateral condensation, single-cone and thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques using spiral computed tomography: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanol Anusha Crasta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the volume percentage of root canals obturated with gutta percha (POV, with various techniques using spiral computed tomography (SCT. Materials and Methods: Forty-five mandibular first premolar teeth were instrumented using Race files and randomly divided into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15. The volume of root canal space was measured using SCT and the root canals were obturated as follows: Group 1-lateral condensation, Group 2-single-cone obturation and Group 3-thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique. The filled volume of root canals was measured using SCT and POV was calculated in total and at apical, middle and coronal third individually. The data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukeys post hoc multiple comparison tests. Results: An intergroup comparison of the mean value of POV showed a statistically significant difference ( P < 0.05 in the middle third and in total when group 1 was compared to group 2. Conclusion: All the groups showed 100% POV at the apical third. Group 2 showed least POV at the middle third of the root canal.

  5. Improvement in printing technique of spiral CT three-dimensional colour image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yicheng; Liu Feng; Zhang Ling

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the printing technique of spiral CT three-dimensional (3D) colour image. Methods: The 3D colour images of 136 patients were printed, with the equipment of Marconi spiral CT, personnel computer, colour ink printer, and network switchboard. Results: All printed images were satisfied by this method. Conclusion: This technique is economic, simple, and useful, and can meet the need for clinical diagnosis and operation. (authors)

  6. Abundance analysis of giant H II regions in nearby spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, E.; Pagel, B.E.J.; Vílchez, J.M; Edmunds, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica. Díaz, Angeles I. et al. Abundance analysis of giant H II regions in nearby spirals. Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica 21 (1990): 223-227

  7. Computerized spiral analysis using the iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Jonathan A; Christophe, Brandon; Seville, Audrey Rakovich; Garton, Andrew L A; Gupta, Vivek P; Bandin, Alexander J; Yu, Qiping; Pullman, Seth L

    2017-01-01

    Digital analysis of writing and drawing has become a valuable research and clinical tool for the study of upper limb motor dysfunction in patients with essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and related disorders. We developed a validated method of computerized spiral analysis of hand-drawn Archimedean spirals that provides insight into movement dynamics beyond subjective visual assessment using a Wacom graphics tablet. While the Wacom tablet method provides robust data, more widely available mobile technology platforms exist. We introduce a novel adaptation of the Wacom-based method for the collection of hand-drawn kinematic data using an Apple iPad. This iPad-based system is stand-alone, easy-to-use, can capture drawing data with either a finger or capacitive stylus, is precise, and potentially ubiquitous. The iPad-based system acquires position and time data that is fully compatible with our original spiral analysis program. All of the important indices including degree of severity, speed, presence of tremor, tremor amplitude, tremor frequency, variability of pressure, and tightness are calculated from the digital spiral data, which the application is able to transmit. While the iPad method is limited by current touch screen technology, it does collect data with acceptable congruence compared to the current Wacom-based method while providing the advantages of accessibility and ease of use. The iPad is capable of capturing precise digital spiral data for analysis of motor dysfunction while also providing a convenient, easy-to-use modality in clinics and potentially at home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppression of Spiral Waves by Voltage Clamp Techniques in a Conductance-Based Cardiac Tissue Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian-Chun, Yu; Guo-Yong, Zhang; Yong, Chen; Jun, Ma

    2008-01-01

    A new control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media, which is described by the Morris–Lecar cells model. It is confirmed that successful suppression of spiral waves can be obtained by spatially clamping the membrane voltage of the excitable cells. The low voltage clamping induces breakup of spiral waves and the fragments are soon absorbed by low voltage obstacles, whereas the high voltage clamping generates travel waves that annihilate spiral waves through collision with them. However, each method has its shortcomings. Furthermore, a two-step method that combines both low and high voltage clamp techniques is then presented as a possible way of out this predicament. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. A Comparison of Galaxy Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Measurements Using Manual and Automated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian; Treuthardt, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxy evolution is dominated by secular processes in the nearby universe. Revealing the morphological characteristics and underlying dynamics of these galaxies is key to understanding their evolution. The arm structure of disk galaxies can generally be described with logarithmic spirals, thereby giving measurements of pitch angle. These measurements are valuable for probing the dynamics and less apparent characteristics of these galaxies (i.e. supermassive black hole mass). Pitch angle measurements are powerful because they can be derived from a single, uncalibrated, broadband image with sufficient contrast, as opposed to more intensive observations. Accurate determination of these measurements can be challenging, however, since pitch angle can vary with radius.There are currently several semi-automated and manual techniques used to determine pitch angle. These are, or will be, used in at least two Zooniverse citizen science projects. The goal of this work is to determine if different, specific techniques return similar pitch angles for the same set of galaxies. We compare the results from a machine vision technique using SPARCFIRE, a non-Euclidean based hand selection of pitch angle, and two methods using 2D Fourier decomposition (i.e. selecting stable regions from the results of direct application to broadband images and application to traced versions of the observed spiral pattern). Each technique is applied to our sample of galaxies and the resulting pitch angles are compared to generated logarithmic spirals to evaluate the match quality.

  10. The spiral aftereffect technique (SAT) can differentiate between depressive and somatoform disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lars

    2014-04-01

    This study examined how differences in visuo-perceptual patterns are related to psychopathology. Fifty-six patients (37 women, 19 men; M age = 43.8 yr., SD = 13.4) with a main diagnosis of unipolar depression and 42 patients (22 women, 20 men; M age = 42.0 yr., SD = 11.1) with a main diagnosis of somatoform disorder were compared. The duration and trend of a visual motion aftereffect were measured with the Spiral Aftereffect Technique (SAT). The results indicated that successively increasing aftereffect durations characterized the depressive patients, whereas patterns of very short or short final aftereffect preceded by successively decreasing aftereffect durations characterized the patients with a somatoform disorder. The SAT is thus a valuable tool for linking objectively measured perceptual-personality characteristics with some mental disorders.

  11. Automatic Spiral Analysis for Objective Assessment of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Memedi, Mevludin; Sadikov, Aleksander; Groznik, Vida; Žabkar, Jure; Možina, Martin; Bergquist, Filip; Johansson, Anders; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Nyholm, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method for objective quantification of PD motor symptoms related to Off episodes and peak dose dyskinesias, using spiral data gathered by using a touch screen telemetry device. The aim was to objectively characterize predominant motor phenotypes (bradykinesia and dyskinesia), to help in automating the process of visual interpretation of movement anomalies in spirals as rated by movement disorder specialists. Background: A retrospective analysis was conducted on recordi...

  12. Infrared video patch-clamp technique for spiral ganglion neurons in rat cochlear slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Ding-Jun; Lin, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Lian-Jun; Xue, Tao; Gao, Xue; Li, Yun-Qing; Qiao, Li; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2009-05-01

    Cochlear slice and infrared video patch-clamp techniques can be used in real-time observation. They provide a good method and platform for further study of the electrophysiological properties and auditory transduction mechanism of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN). To establish the isolated rat cochlear slice technique combined with the infrared video patch-clamp technique to explore the electrophysiological properties of the SGN. SD rats were divided into three groups according to postnatal days (0-2 days, 3-6 days and 7-14 days). After quickly making SD rat cochlear slices, the electrophysiological properties of the SGN were observed using the infrared differential interference contrast technique and patch-clamp recording, and the factors that affect the cochlear slice quality and patch-clamp recording were analysed. The successful slice rate was highest in 3-6-day-old SD rats and two to four slices could be prepared using each cochlea. It is crucial to maintain the connection of partial skull with the cochlea and the volute integrity when producing slices. The position of the cochlear axis and blade, and the slice preparation time were also important factors affecting slice quality and cell activity. SGN cells in good condition could easily be found using the infrared video patch-clamp technique to help the assessment of the seal test process. SGN resting membrane potential of whole-cell recording was -45.6+/-5.3 mV (n=52) and the currents of Na+ and K+ could be recorded.

  13. Endoscopic urethroplasty with a free graft on a biodegradable polyglycolic acid spiral stent. A new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, W; Talja, M

    2000-01-01

    Explore the possibility of an endoscopic urethroplasty with a free graft on a biodegradable, self-reinforced polyglycolic acid spiral stent. Urethral strictures, failures of previous urethrotomies, which still can be incised endoscopically are selected. Strong fibrotic strictures which are bad indications for the use of a free graft are excluded. A free graft (skin on mucosa) is sutured around the stent and brought at the place of the endoscopically opened stricture where the graft is fixed with a suture through skin, bulbar muscles and spongiosum. A suprapubic diversion is left for 10 days. The stent keeps the graft in contact with surrounding well vascularized tissue where it can take. Other parts of the graft become necrotic. The stent hydrolyses in about 3 weeks. 10 patients with bulbar strictures from 2 to 4 cm in length and failed previous urethrotomies were treated successfully with this technique. The follow-up varies from 39 to 3 months (mean: 21 months). After 2 years 1 stricture recurred in a man who underwent regular endoscopies for recurrent bladder tumors. All other patients were successful until now. One stent got lost in the bladder during the procedure but could be brought at the right place. Other complications were 1 hematuria, 1 urosepsis, 1 perineal pain, 1 painful evacuation of a part of the stent 16 days after operation, and 1 difficult micturition. The preliminary experiences indicate that this technique is a possible treatment of short bulbar strictures after failure of endoscopic treatment.

  14. Spiral CT during pharmacoangiography with angiotensin II in patients with pancreatic disease. Technique and diagnostic efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, C.; Mihara, N.; Hosomi, N.; Inoue, E.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ohigashi, H.; Ishikawa, O. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan). Dept. of Surgery; Nakaizumi, A. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Deseases (Japan). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Ishiguro, S. [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    1998-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic efficacy of pancreatic pharmacoangiographic CT using angiotensin II with conventional angiographic CT. Material and Methods: Eighteen patients with space-occupying pancreatic disease were examined in this study. Pharmacoangiographic CT was performed with a 1-3-{mu}/6-ml solution of angiotensin II injected through a catheter into the celiac artery during spiral CT. Results: In 17 of the 18 (94%) patients, the area of pancreatic parenchymal enhancement was the same or larger at pharmacoangiographic CT than at conventional angiographic CT. The attenuation value of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly increased at pharmacoangiographic CT (p=0.0010). Although the attenuation value of tumors was also increased on images obtained after the injection of angiotensin II, the tumor-to-pancreas contrast was significantly greater at pharmacoangiographic CT (p=0.0479). The mean differences in attenuation between tumor and pancreas at angiographic CT with and without angiotensin II were respectively 182 HU and 115 HU. Conclusion: Pharmacoangiographic CT with angiotensin II proved superior to conventional angiographic CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. We therefore recommend it as a supplementary technique at the angiographic examination of patients with suspected pancreatic tumor. (orig.).

  15. Comparison of laterally condensed, vertically compacted thermoplasticized, cold free-flow GP obturations – A volumetric analysis using spiral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Krishna, Reddy Gopi; Hannah, Rosaline; Arathi, Ganesh; Roohi, Riaz

    2009-01-01

    Aim/Objective: To compare the laterally condensed gutta-percha, vertically compacted thermoplastized gutta-percha (E and Q Plus system) and cold free-flow gutta–percha (GuttaFlow). This is a volumetric analysis using spiral CT, an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 60 single rooted anterior teeth; cleaning and shaping was done and obturated with three of the different techniques: group A: cold lateral; group B: vertically compacted thermoplasticized and group C: cold free-flow obturation techniques. Volume analysis was done using spiral computed tomography (CT). The percentage difference was calculated and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc multiple comparison Tukey HSD tests. Results: There were statistical significant differences between group A (0.183cm3) and group B (0.136cm3); group A (0.183cm3) and group C (0.128cm3). But there was no statistical significance between group B (0.136cm3) and group C (0.128cm3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study it can be concluded that cold free-flow obturation technique showed the highest volume of obturation, followed by the vertically condensed thermoplasticized technique. The least volume of obturation was observed in cold lateral condensation technique. PMID:20543923

  16. High-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope using a linear quadratic Gaussian controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibullah, H.; Pota, H. R.; Petersen, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM’s piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method

  17. High-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope using a linear quadratic Gaussian controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah, H; Pota, H R; Petersen, I R

    2014-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM's piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method.

  18. Logarithmic Spiral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anti-clockwise direction and we get a right-handed spiral. (Figure 2). We know that the derivative of eX is also eX. Various properties of logarithmic spiral depend on this property of eX. Properties of Logarithmic Spiral. 1. The most important property of a logarithmic spiral is that r (i.e. the distance from the origin) increases.

  19. High-resolution spiral computed tomography with multiplanar reformatting, 3D surface- and volume rendering: a non-destructive method to visualize ancient Egyptian mummification techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Roel J.; Poulus, Martin; Taconis, Wijbren; Stoker, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    Ancient Egyptians used mummification techniques to prevent their deceased from decay. This study evaluates the potential of computed tomography (CT) in determining these techniques in a non-destructive way. Twenty-five mummies were studied by using high-resolution spiral CT, 1 mm slice thickness for

  20. The spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibace, Roger; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2013-01-01

    ’s work with Bernard Kaplan on symbol formation is a primer on this idea. This paper examines the idea of spirality and develops the notion of dynamic coexistence that can clarify the issue of directionality of development; that is, what is the general trajectory or ground plan that development assumes....... Directionality is discussed in terms of the organism-in-environment unfolding over time as the unit of developmental analysis. Thinking on this issue has proceeded from the nature–nurture debates, to recognition of the interaction of external and internal processes, to transactions between the organism...

  1. Automatic Spiral Analysis for Objective Assessment of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevludin Memedi

    2015-09-01

    well as had good test-retest reliability. This study demonstrated the potential of using digital spiral analysis for objective quantification of PD-specific and/or treatment-induced motor symptoms.

  2. Automatic Spiral Analysis for Objective Assessment of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memedi, Mevludin; Sadikov, Aleksander; Groznik, Vida; Žabkar, Jure; Možina, Martin; Bergquist, Filip; Johansson, Anders; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Nyholm, Dag

    2015-01-01

    test-retest reliability. This study demonstrated the potential of using digital spiral analysis for objective quantification of PD-specific and/or treatment-induced motor symptoms. PMID:26393595

  3. Spiral CT aortography: an efficient technique for the diagnosis of traumatic aortic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicky, S.; Capasso, P.; Meuli, R.; Schnyder, P.; Fischer, A.; Segesser, L. von

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of spiral CT (SCT) aortography for diagnosing acute aortic lesions in blunt thoracic trauma patients. Between October 1992 and June 1997, 487 SCT scans of the chest were performed on blunt thoracic trauma patients. To assess aortic injury, the following SCT criteria were considered: hemomediastinum, peri-aortic hematoma, irregular aspect of the aortic wall, aortic pseudodiverticulum, intimal flap and traumatic dissection. Aortic injury was diagnosed on 14 SCT examinations (2.9 %), five of the patients having had an additional digital aortography that confirmed the aortic trauma. Twelve subjects underwent surgical repair of the thoracic aorta, which in all but one case confirmed the aortic injury. Two patients died before surgery from severe brain lesions. The aortic blunt lesions were confirmed at autopsy. According to the follow-up of the other 473 patients, we are aware of no false-negative SCT examination. Our limited series shows a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 99.8 % of SCT aortography in the diagnosis of aortic injury. It is concluded that SCT aortagraphy is an accurate diagnostic method for the assessment of aortic injury in blunt thoracic trauma patients. (orig.)

  4. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    with cholesteatomas 3 D volume rendering images could identify the site of the bony labyrinth erosion and its surrounding structures. Conclusions: Volume rendering technique can provide higher quality three-dimensional images of the bony labyrinth and serves as a useful tool for analysis of normal and anomalies of the inner ear. (authors)

  5. Spiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Istvan

    1992-01-01

    From the tiny twisted biological molecules to the gargantuan curling arms of many galaxies, the physical world contains a startling repetition of spiral patterns. Today, researchers have a keen interest in identifying, measuring, and defining these patterns in scientific terms. Spirals play an important role in the growth processes of many biological forms and organisms. Also, through time, humans have imitated spiral motifs in their art forms, and invented new and unusual spirals which have no counterparts in the natural world. Therefore, one goal of this multiauthored book is to stress the c

  6. Design and Stress Analysis of Low-Noise Adjusted Bearing Contact Spiral Bevel Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Litvin, F. L.; Mullins, B. R.; Woods, R.; Handschuh, R. F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2002-01-01

    An integrated computerized approach for design and stress analysis of low-noise spiral bevel gear drives with adjusted bearing contact is proposed. The procedure of computations is an iterative process that requires four separate procedures and provide: (a) a parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to reduce the effect of errors of alignment on noise and vibration, and (b) reduction of the shift of bearing contact caused by misalignment. Application of finite element analysis enables us to determine the contact and bending stresses and investigate the formation of the bearing contact. The design of finite element models and boundary conditions is automated and does not require intermediate CAD computer programs for application of general purpose computer program for finite element analysis.

  7. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  8. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS: FEEDING THE BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Ven, Glenn; Fathi, Kambiz

    2010-01-01

    We present a harmonic expansion of the observed line-of-sight velocity field as a method to recover and investigate spiral structures in the nuclear regions of galaxies. We apply it to the emission-line velocity field within the circumnuclear star-forming ring of NGC 1097, obtained with the GMOS-IFU spectrograph. The radial variation of the third harmonic terms is well described by a logarithmic spiral, from which we interpret that the gravitational potential is weakly perturbed by a two-arm spiral density wave with an inferred pitch angle of 52 0 ± 4 0 . This interpretation predicts a two-arm spiral distortion in the surface brightness, as hinted by the dust structures in central images of NGC 1097, and predicts a combined one-arm and three-arm spiral structure in the velocity field, as revealed in the non-circular motions of the ionized gas. Next, we use a simple spiral perturbation model to constrain the fraction of the measured non-circular motions that is due to radial inflow. We combine the resulting inflow velocity with the gas density in the spiral arms, inferred from emission-line ratios, to estimate the mass inflow rate as a function of radius, which reaches about 0.011 M sun yr -1 at a distance of 70 pc from the center. This value corresponds to a fraction of about 4.2 x 10 -3 of the Eddington mass accretion rate onto the central black hole in this LINER/Seyfert1 galaxy. We conclude that the line-of-sight velocity can not only provide a cleaner view of nuclear spirals than the associated dust, but that the presented method also allows the quantitative study of these possibly important links in fueling the centers of galaxies, including providing a constraint on the mass inflow rate as a function of radius.

  9. Volumetric analysis of root filling with cold lateral compaction, Obtura II, Thermafil, and Calamus using spiral computerized tomography: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Divya; Sharma, Medhavi; Raisingani, Deepak; Swarnkar, Anupama; Pant, Mridu; Mathur, Rachit

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is volumetric analysis of root canal filling with cold lateral compaction, Obtura II, Thermafil, and Calamus using spiral computerized tomography (SCT). Root canals of eighty mandibular premolars were instrumented using rotary ProTaper, and the volume of the canal space was measured using spiral computerized tomography (SCT). The teeth were divided into four groups of twenty teeth each, and root canals filled by lateral compaction technique, Thermafil carriers, Obtura II, and Calamus techniques, respectively. AH Plus was used as a sealer with all techniques. The filled volume in each canal was measured using SCT, and the percentage of obturated volume (POV) was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. The four groups were comparable in canal volume. The overall POV was 78.11%, 85.72%, 82.50%, and 87.89% for lateral compaction, Thermafil, Obtura II, and Calamus, respectively (P Conclusion: The greatest POV was obtained with Calamus and Thermafil. Voids were seen in all root fillings.

  10. Volumetric analysis of root filling with cold lateral compaction, Obtura II, Thermafil, and Calamus using spiral computerized tomography: An In vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is volumetric analysis of root canal filling with cold lateral compaction, Obtura II, Thermafil, and Calamus using spiral computerized tomography (SCT. Materials and Methods: Root canals of eighty mandibular premolars were instrumented using rotary ProTaper, and the volume of the canal space was measured using spiral computerized tomography (SCT. The teeth were divided into four groups of twenty teeth each, and root canals filled by lateral compaction technique, Thermafil carriers, Obtura II, and Calamus techniques, respectively. AH Plus was used as a sealer with all techniques. The filled volume in each canal was measured using SCT, and the percentage of obturated volume (POV was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The four groups were comparable in canal volume. The overall POV was 78.11%, 85.72%, 82.50%, and 87.89% for lateral compaction, Thermafil, Obtura II, and Calamus, respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The greatest POV was obtained with Calamus and Thermafil. Voids were seen in all root fillings.

  11. Using SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis) to estimate C 3- and C 4-grass abundance in the paleorecord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Scholes, Daniel R.; Joshi, Neeraj; Pearson, Ann

    2008-05-01

    C 3 and C 4 grasses differ greatly in their responses to environmental controls and influences on biogeochemical processes (e.g. water, carbon, and nutrient cycling). Difficulties in distinguishing between these two functional groups of grasses have hindered paleoecological studies of grass-dominated ecosystems. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of individual grains of grass pollen using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer holds promise for improving C 3 and C 4 grass reconstructions. This technique, SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis), has only been evaluated using pollen of known C 3 and C 4 grasses. To test the ability of SPIRAL to reproduce the abundance of C 3 and C 4 grasses on the landscape, we measured δ13C values of > 1500 individual grains of grass pollen isolated from the surface sediments of ten lakes in areas that span a large gradient of C 3- and C 4-grass abundance, as determined from vegetation surveys. Results indicate a strong positive correlation between the δ13C-based estimates of % C 4-grass pollen and the abundance of C 4 grasses on the landscape. The % C 4-grass pollen slightly underestimates the actual abundance of C 4 grasses at sites with high proportions of C 4 grasses, which can be corrected using regression analysis. Comparison of the % C 4-grass pollen with C/N and δ13C measurements of bulk organic matter illustrates the distinct advantages of grass-pollen δ13C as a proxy for distinguishing C 3 and C 4 shifts within the grass family. Thus SPIRAL promises to advance our understanding of grassland ecology and evolution.

  12. Hepatic spiral CT in children: scan delay time-enhancement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luker, G.D.; Siegel, M.J.; Bradley, D.A.; Baty, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the effect of different time delays between contrast administration and the start of spiral CT scanning on hepatic enhancement in children. Materials and methods. Forty-five children (2-9 years old, mean 6 years) with no evidence of hepatic disease were examined with spiral CT. Sequential spiral scans through the entire liver were performed following a uniphasic injection of nonionic contrast medium. In group 1 scanning started at 80 % of the contrast injection time, in group 2 scanning started at 100 % of injection time, and in group 3 scanning started at 150 % of injection time. Mean hepatic, aortic, and inferior vena caval enhancement were determined using regions-of-interest measurements. Results. Mean hepatic enhancement was 41.4, 47.0, and 40.6 HU for the 80 %, 100 %, and 150 % injection times, respectively. Enhancement was significantly greater in the 100 % injection time group (p < 0.05). A mean aortocaval difference of greater than 10 HU was present in all examinations. Conclusion. Our results suggest that delaying the initiation of spiral CT scanning until the completion of the contrast injection increases hepatic enhancement in children. These data should help to improve the quality of hepatic spiral CT in pediatric patients. (orig.). With 2 tabs

  13. A minimally interactive method to segment enlarged lymph nodes in 3D thoracic CT images using a rotatable spiral-scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Moltz, Jan H.; Bornemann, Lars; Hahn, Horst K.

    2012-03-01

    Precise size measurement of enlarged lymph nodes is a significant indicator for diagnosing malignancy, follow-up and therapy monitoring of cancer diseases. The presence of diverse sizes and shapes, inhomogeneous enhancement and the adjacency to neighboring structures with similar intensities, make the segmentation task challenging. We present a semi-automatic approach requiring minimal user interactions to fast and robustly segment the enlarged lymph nodes. First, a stroke approximating the largest diameter of a specific lymph node is drawn manually from which a volume of interest (VOI) is determined. Second, Based on the statistical analysis of the intensities on the dilated stroke area, a region growing procedure is utilized within the VOI to create an initial segmentation of the target lymph node. Third, a rotatable spiral-scanning technique is proposed to resample the 3D boundary surface of the lymph node to a 2D boundary contour in a transformed polar image. The boundary contour is found by seeking the optimal path in 2D polar image with dynamic programming algorithm and eventually transformed back to 3D. Ultimately, the boundary surface of the lymph node is determined using an interpolation scheme followed by post-processing steps. To test the robustness and efficiency of our method, a quantitative evaluation was conducted with a dataset of 315 lymph nodes acquired from 79 patients with lymphoma and melanoma. Compared to the reference segmentations, an average Dice coefficient of 0.88 with a standard deviation of 0.08, and an average absolute surface distance of 0.54mm with a standard deviation of 0.48mm, were achieved.

  14. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS for Echographic Detection of Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients Previously Treated with Multiple Techniques: Comparison of Conventional US, Spiral CT and 3-Dimensional CEUS with Navigator Technique (3DNav CEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giangregorio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available technique named “NAVIGATOR” (Esaote, Italy easily enables a 3-D reconstruction of a single 2-D acquisition of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS imaging of the whole liver (with a volumetric correction thanks to the electromagnetic device of NAVIGATOR. Aim of the study was to evaluate this “panoramic” technique in comparison with conventional US and spiral CT in the detection of new hepatic lesions. 144 cirrhotic patients (previously treated for hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC in follow-up with detection of 98 new nodules (N, 28 multinodular (Nmulti, 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR 94 efficaciously treated without new nodules (neg and four multinodular without new nodules, were submitted to 200 examinations with this new technique from November 2008 to November 2009. 3DNavCEUS was performed using SonoVue (Bracco, as contrast agent, and a machine (Technos MPX, Esaote. Spiral CT and 3DNav CEUS were performed in the same month during follow up. Sens.,Spec.,diagn.-Acc.,PPV and NPV were evaluated; comparison and differences between the techniques were obtained with chi-square (SPSS release-15. Final diagnosis was: 98 new lesions (N (one to three, 28 multinodular HCC (Nmulti and 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR; in 94 no more lesions were observed during follow-up; conventional US obtained: 58 N (+18 multinodularN and 8 LR, 40 false negative (+10 Nmulti and 6 LR (sens:59.2, spec:100%, Diagn Accur:73.6, PPV:100; NPV:70.1; spiral CT obtained: 84N (+26-multinodularN and 14-LR, 14 false-negative (+2-Nmulti, and one false-positive (sens:85.7, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:90.9, PPV:97.7; NPV:86.8; 3DNAV obtained: 92N (+28 multinodularN and 14LR, 6 false-negative, and two false-positives (sens:93.9, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:95.6, PPV:97.9; NPV:93.9. 3-DNav CEUS is significantly better than US and almost similar to spiral CT for detection of new HCC. This technique, in particular, showed the presence of lesions even in the cases not

  15. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for Echographic Detection of Hepato Cellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients Previously Treated with Multiple Techniques: Comparison of Conventional US, Spiral CT and 3-Dimensional CEUS with Navigator Technique (3DNav CEUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, Francesco [Department of Gastroenterology, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Via Taverna 49, Piacenza 29121 (Italy)

    2011-03-30

    A commercially available technique named “NAVIGATOR” (Esaote, Italy) easily enables a 3-D reconstruction of a single 2-D acquisition of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) imaging of the whole liver (with a volumetric correction thanks to the electromagnetic device of NAVIGATOR). Aim of the study was to evaluate this “panoramic” technique in comparison with conventional US and spiral CT in the detection of new hepatic lesions. 144 cirrhotic patients (previously treated for hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC)) in follow-up with detection of 98 new nodules (N), 28 multinodular (Nmulti), 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR) 94 efficaciously treated without new nodules (neg) and four multinodular without new nodules, were submitted to 200 examinations with this new technique from November 2008 to November 2009. 3DNavCEUS was performed using SonoVue (Bracco), as contrast agent, and a machine (Technos MPX, Esaote). Spiral CT and 3DNav CEUS were performed in the same month during follow up. Sens.,Spec.,diagn.-Acc.,PPV and NPV were evaluated; comparison and differences between the techniques were obtained with chi-square (SPSS release-15). Final diagnosis was: 98 new lesions (N) (one to three), 28 multinodular HCC (Nmulti) and 14 loco-regional regrowth (LR); in 94 no more lesions were observed during follow-up; conventional US obtained: 58 N (+18 multinodularN and 8 LR), 40 false negative (+10 Nmulti and 6 LR) (sens:59.2, spec:100%, Diagn Accur:73.6, PPV:100; NPV:70.1); spiral CT obtained: 84N (+26-multinodularN and 14-LR), 14 false-negative (+2-Nmulti), and one false-positive (sens:85.7, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:90.9, PPV:97.7; NPV:86.8); 3DNAV obtained: 92N (+28 multinodularN and 14LR), 6 false-negative, and two false-positives (sens:93.9, spec:97.9%, Diagn Accur:95.6, PPV:97.9; NPV:93.9). 3-DNav CEUS is significantly better than US and almost similar to spiral CT for detection of new HCC. This technique, in particular, showed the presence of lesions even in the cases not

  16. Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Pediatric Cardiac Computed Tomography: A Comparison Between Sequential and Third-Generation Dual-Source High-Pitch Spiral Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Huiliang; Ong, Ching Ching; Choo, Yun Song; Liang, Chong Ri; Tan, Grace Hui Zhen; Lim, Terence Chee Wen; Quek, Swee Chye; Sriram, Shankar; Teo, Lynette Li San

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a reduction in radiation dose and improvement in image quality of pediatric cardiac computed tomography scans performed using the high-pitch spiral technique on a new third-generation dual-source 2 × 192-slice scanner (group B) compared with scans performed using the sequential technique on a single-source 256-slice scanner (group A). We performed a retrospective observational study on 40 patients aged ≤18 years who underwent prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered cardiac computed tomography. Image quality was assessed by pre-defined objective indices and a four-point subjective score. Apart from a higher mean heart rate in group A (P = 0.016), there were otherwise no significant inter-group differences in patient characteristics. The median effective dose was 4.41 mSv (interquartile range 2.58-5.90 mSv) in group A and 0.52 mSv (interquartile range 0.39-0.59 mSv) in group B (P quality score was significantly better in group B (4 = excellent with no artifact, mode 57.1 %) than in group A (3 = good with mild artifact, mode 57.9 %) (P source high-pitch spiral scan technique can deliver excellent image quality with low radiation dose. Our results suggest that it should be considered as a first-choice technique for performing cardiac computed tomography in the pediatric population.

  17. An ex vivo comparative analysis on shaping ability of four NiTi rotary endodontic instruments using spiral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitin, Nitin; Arunagiri, D; Brave, Dexter; Maitin, Shipra Nangalia; Kaushik, Sandeep; Roy, Saumya

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of shaping ability of four different rotary endodontic instruments using spiral computed tomography (CT). Eighty freshly extracted human mandibular first molars were used in the present study. Samples were randomly divided into four experimental groups with twenty samples in each group. Images of mesiobuccal canal of each sample were obtained pre- and post-operatively using spiral CT. All samples were prepared using their respective endodontic file systems (group I - ProTaper, group II - K3, group III - RaCe, and group IV - Mtwo). Image analyses were done using image analysis software for evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability. Data was then statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. There was no statistically significance in transportation in their intergroup difference at any of the three locations (coronal, middle, and apical third). In centering ability there was no statistically significance in the coronal and middle third of the intergroup. However, there was a statistically significance of (P = 0.044) at the apical third between all the groups. Canals prepared with ProTaper had more canal transportation at all the three levels of root canal (coronal, middle, and apical third). Canals prepared with Mtwo were well centered at coronal and middle third whereas with RaCe canals were centered only at the apical third. All instruments showed some degree of canal aberrations in terms of shaping ability.

  18. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  19. Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments are designed to study the cycling of nutrients in stream ecosystems where hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes determine nutrient fate. Because of the importance of hydrologic processes in stream ecosystems, a conceptual model known as nutrient spiraling is frequently employed. A central part of the nutrient spiraling approach is the determination of uptake length (SW), the average distance traveled by dissolved nutrients in the water column before uptake. Although the nutrient spiraling concept has been an invaluable tool in stream ecology, the current practice of estimating uptake length from steady-state nutrient data using linear regression (called here the "SW approach") presents a number of limitations. These limitations are identified by comparing the exponential SW equation with analytical solutions of a stream solute transport model. This comparison indicates that (1) SW, is an aggregate measure of uptake that does not distinguish between main channel and storage zone processes, (2) SW, is an integrated measure of numerous hydrologie and nonhydrologic processes-this process integration may lead to difficulties in interpretation when comparing estimates of SW, and (3) estimates of uptake velocity and areal uptake rate (Vf and U) based on S W, are not independent of system hydrology. Given these findings, a transport-based approach to nutrient spiraling is presented for steady-state and time-series data sets. The transport-based approach for time-series data sets is suggested for future research on nutrient uptake as it provides a number of benefits, including the ability to (1) separately quantify main channel and storage zone uptake, (2) quantify specific hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes using various model parameters (process separation), (3) estimate uptake velocities and areal uptake rates that are independent of hydrologic effects, and (4) use short-term, non-plateau nutrient additions such that the effects of

  20. Multivariate analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendavid, Josh [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Fisher, Wade C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Junk, Thomas R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The end products of experimental data analysis are designed to be simple and easy to understand: hypothesis tests and measurements of parameters. But, the experimental data themselves are voluminous and complex. Furthermore, in modern collider experiments, many petabytes of data must be processed in search of rare new processes which occur together with much more copious background processes that are of less interest to the task at hand. The systematic uncertainties on the background may be larger than the expected signal in many cases. The statistical power of an analysis and its sensitivity to systematic uncertainty can therefore usually both be improved by separating signal events from background events with higher efficiency and purity.

  1. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  2. Dark-field microspectroscopic analysis of gold nanorods in spiral Ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, J.; Brown, W. G. A.; Needham, K.; Nayagam, B. A.; Yu, A.; McArthur, S. L.; Stoddart, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneous samples of spiral ganglion neuron primary cells were incubated with gold nanorods in order to investigate the photothermal processes induced by exposure to 780 nm laser light. Dark-field microspectroscopy was used to analyze the distribution and spectrum of nanorods in the neurons. The scattering data showed a typical gold nanorod spectrum, while a shift in the peak position suggested changes in the refractive index of the nanorod environment. The relationship between gold nanorods distribution and local temperature has also been examined with an open pipette microelectrode placed in the surrounding bath of the neurons. These temperature measurements confirm that the gold nanorods provide efficient localized heating under 780 nm laser exposure.

  3. Influence analysis of secondary O-ring seals in dynamic behavior of spiral groove gas face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Songtao; Huang, Weifeng; Liu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2016-05-01

    The current research on secondary O-ring seals used in mechanical seals has begun to focus on their dynamic properties. However, detailed analysis of the dynamic properties of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals is lacking. In particular a transient study and a difference analysis of steady-state and transient performance are imperative. In this paper, a case study is performed to gauge the effect of secondary O-ring seals on the dynamic behavior (steady-state performance and transient performance) of face seals. A numerical finite element method (FEM) model is developed for the dynamic analysis of spiral groove gas face seals with a flexibly mounted stator in the axial and angular modes. The rotor tilt angle, static stator tilt angle and O-ring damping are selected to investigate the effect of O-ring seals on face seals during stable running operation. The results show that the angular factor can be ignored to save time in the simulation under small damping or undamped conditions. However, large O-ring damping has an enormous effect on the angular phase difference of mated rings, affecting the steady-state performance of face seals and largely increasing the possibility of face contact that reduces the service life of face seals. A pressure drop fluctuation is carried out to analyze the effect of O-ring seals on the transient performance of face seals. The results show that face seals could remain stable without support stiffness and O-ring damping during normal stable operation but may enter a large-leakage state when confronting instantaneous fluctuations. The oscillation-amplitude shortening effect of O-ring damping on the axial mode is much greater than that on the angular modes and O-ring damping prefers to cater for axial motion at the cost of angular motion. This research proposes a detailed dynamic-property study of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals, to assist in the design of face seals.

  4. Noninvasive coronary artery imaging by multislice spiral computed tomography. A novel approach for a retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Inoue Fumio

    2003-01-01

    Although the excellent spatial resolution of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) enables the coronary arteries to be visualized, its limited temporal resolution results in poor image reproducibility because of cardiac motion artifact (CMA) and hence limits its widespread clinical use. A novel retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction method has been developed to minimize CMA. In 88 consecutive patients, the scan data were reconstructed using 2 retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction methods. Method 1: the end of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the peak of the P wave on ECG, which corresponded to the end of the slow filling phase during diastole immediately before atrial contraction. Method 2 (conventional method): relative retrospective gating with 50% referred to the R-R interval was performed so that the beginning of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the halfway point between the R-R intervals of the heart cycle. The quality of the coronary artery images was evaluated according to the presence or absence of CMA. The assessment was applied to the left main coronary artery (LMCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD, segments no.6, no.7, and no.8), the left circumflex artery (LCx, segments no.11 and no.13) and the right coronary artery (RCA, segments no.1, no.2 and no.3). The first diagonal artery (no.9-1), the obtuse marginal artery (no.12-1), the posterior descending artery (no.4-PD), the atrioventricular node branch (no.4-AV) and the first right ventricular branch (RV) were also evaluated. Of the 88 patients, 85 were eligible for image evaluation. Method 1 allowed visualization of the major coronary arteries without CMA in the majority of patients. The left coronary artery (LCA) system (segments no.5-7, no.11 and no.13) and the proximal portion of the RCA were visualized in more than 94% of patients. Artifact-free visualization of the distal portion of the LAD (segment no.8) and RCA (no.4

  5. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  6. 'Volumetric analysis of hand and rotary root canal instrumentation and filling in primary teeth using Spiral Computed Tomography' - an invitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Parameswarappa; Disha, Patil; Nagaveni, Nandanhosur Basavanthappa; Roopa, KirishettaR Basavaraj; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Neena, Indavara Edagunji

    2016-05-01

    To compare and evaluate the volumetric analysis of pre- and post-root canal instrumentation in primary teeth using hand and rotary files and also to analyse the volume of root canal filling. A total of 20 primary teeth were divided into two groups randomly and subjected to spiral computed tomography (SCT) analysis before and after instrumentation. For manual technique (Group 1), teeth were prepared using K files and rotary (Group 2) preparation was performed with Mtwo files. Volumetric enlargement was calculated using Osirix software. Root canals were then filled with rotary lentulospiral using zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE). The filled volume in each canal was measured using SCT and the percentage of obturated volume was calculated. The data were statistically analysed using paired t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in the volume of root canal enlarged in both the groups. Rotary files showed significant increase in the volume compared to K files. Mtwo instrumented root canals showed good obturated volume compared to manual technique, although voids were common in both the groups. Rotary root canal instrumentation may be indicated for utilization in primary teeth, for enhancing root canal preparation and good quality of root canal filling. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Measurement and analysis of cardiopulmonary vascular in Lanzhou healthy adults with multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaonan; Guo Shunlin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To constitute a normal standard of cardiopulmonary vascular diameter and size of normal adult in Lanzhou, and to compared with the other's data reported in the previous bibliography by measuring diameter and area of cardiopulmonary artery lumen of the healthy adults in Lanzhou with multislice spiral CT (MSCT). Methods: Three hundred Lanzhou adults with no cardiopulmonary disease were equally assigned to 3 groups according to their age (A group: 18-39 years, B group: 40-60 years, C group: 61-80 years; 50 females and 50 males in each group). CT data were acquired at the end of deep inspiration phase and measurements were done on 3D reconstruction image with precise landmarks. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The diameters and areas of the main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery ascending aorta and descending aorta differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<0.05). In groups B and C, there were significant differences in diameters and areas of pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary between different genders (P<0.05). Conclusion: Imaging standard is provided for Lanzhou adult in early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. The diameters and areas of main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery of Lanzhou healthy adults are different from that of other regions. It may be related to the geographical environment and the state of air pollution in Lanzhou. (authors)

  8. Using Static Percentiles of AE9/AP9 to Approximate Dynamic Monte Carlo Runs for Radiation Analysis of Spiral Transfer Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Betty P.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2015-06-01

    The Aerospace Corporation performed a study to determine whether static percentiles of AE9/AP9 can be used to approximate dynamic Monte Carlo runs for radiation analysis of spiral transfer orbits. Solar panel degradation is a major concern for solar-electric propulsion because solar-electric propulsion depends on the power output of the solar panel. Different spiral trajectories have different radiation environments that could lead to solar panel degradation. Because the spiral transfer orbits only last weeks to months, an average environment does not adequately address the possible transient enhancements of the radiation environment that must be accounted for in optimizing the transfer orbit trajectory. Therefore, to optimize the trajectory, an ensemble of Monte Carlo simulations of AE9/AP9 would normally be run for every spiral trajectory to determine the 95th percentile radiation environment. To avoid performing lengthy Monte Carlo dynamic simulations for every candidate spiral trajectory in the optimization, we found a static percentile that would be an accurate representation of the full Monte Carlo simulation for a representative set of spiral trajectories. For 3 LEO to GEO and 1 LEO to MEO trajectories, a static 90th percentile AP9 is a good approximation of the 95th percentile fluence with dynamics for 4-10 MeV protons, and a static 80th percentile AE9 is a good approximation of the 95th percentile fluence with dynamics for 0.5-2 MeV electrons. While the specific percentiles chosen cannot necessarily be used in general for other orbit trade studies, the concept of determining a static percentile as a quick approximation to a full Monte Carlo ensemble of simulations can likely be applied to other orbit trade studies. We expect the static percentile to depend on the region of space traversed, the mission duration, and the radiation effect considered.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Pixel Analysis of the Interacting Face-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-10-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 × 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec-2 to V = 17 mag arcsec-2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ~2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ~ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ~ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  10. The Spiral of Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galpin, Charlotte; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Media scholars have increasingly examined the effects of a negativity bias that applies to political news. In the ‘spiral of cynicism’, journalist preferences for negative news correspond to public demands for sensational news. We argue that this spiral of cynicism in EU news results in a ‘spiral...

  11. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  12. Comparison and analysis on patient dose of gemston spectral CT and ordinary spiral CT in a hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaojun; Ding Li

    2014-01-01

    This article compared the difference of CTDI and DLP in chest routine scan detected by dose testing system between gemston spectral CT and 16-slice spiral CT in a hospital, the result showed there was no significant difference. (authors)

  13. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF Fligh experiment DATA FOR DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOTION OF A ROUND PARACHUTE on a spiral trajectory AT HIGH ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zhurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to the analysis of the trajectory parameters and videos obtained during the flight experiment at the launch of meteo-rocket MMP-06 with the purpose to determine major parameters of motion of a round parachute at subsonic speeds in the range of altitudes from 0 to 40 km. The data analysis showed that the trajectory of the parachute represents spiral "stretched" by the wind in the horizontal direction and disturbed by random factors of a non-stationary flow around the parachute. The main parameters of the trajectory are obtained according to the experimental data. Only qualitative analysis of spiral motion paths for round parachutes may be found in the publications on parachute subjects. This article presents the quantitative characteristics of this process.

  14. Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, spiral computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subbarao, Chandana; Subbarao, Chandragiri V

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), spiral computed tomography (SCT), plain (plain digi), and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiographs (contrast digi) in studying root canal morphology. The root canal anatomy was analyzed in 95 teeth using CBCT, pQCT, SCT, plain digi, and contrast digi. After flushing out the radiopaque dye, access cavities were sealed, and the teeth were subject to the modified canal staining and clearing technique. The number of root canals (Vertucci classification and Gulabivala's additional classes) was calculated by three calibrated endodontists and two maxillofacial radiologists. Erroneous or unsuccessful identifications of root canals were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (p = 0.05). The modified canal staining and clearing technique identified an average of 1.8 root canals per mandibular central incisor, 2.3 per maxillary first premolar, 3.9 per maxillary first molar, 3.8 per maxillary and mandibular second molar, and 4.3 per mandibular first molar. CBCT and pQCT were erroneous in 0.29% and 2.05% cases, whereas SCT, contrast digi, and plain digi were unsuccessful in 15.58%, 14.7%, and 23.8%, respectively. There was a significant difference between all the methods (p technique where there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). CBCT and pQCT were as accurate as the modified canal staining and tooth clearing technique in identifying root canal systems. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Algorithms for computing efficient, electric-propulsion, spiralling trajectories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop techniques for rapidly designing many-revolution, electric-propulsion, spiralling trajectories, including the effects of shadowing, gravity harmonics, and...

  16. Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TATARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained using ANSYS and working directly on documentation, without automatic generation of nodes and elements (with few exceptions, the rear fuselage database (performed at this stage obtained with Pro/ ENGINEER and the one obtained by using ANSYS with the second database. Then, each of the three databases will be used according to arising necessities.The main objective is to develop the parameterized model of the rear fuselage using the computer aided design software Pro/ ENGINEER. A review of research regarding the use of virtual reality with the interactive analysis performed by the finite element method is made to show the state- of- the-art achieved in this field.

  17. MALDI SpiralTOF high-resolution mass spectrometry and Kendrick mass defect analysis applied to the characterization of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Nakamura, Sayaka; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-15

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers - usually referred to as EVA - are first class industrial polymers used for applications ranging from padding to photovoltaics as encapsulant for the silicon solar cells. Various techniques have been used for their characterization but the analysis of intact EVA chains using mass spectrometry (MS) has not been reported so far. Three copolymers containing 18, 25 and 40 wt% vinyl acetate (VA) have been characterized using an off-line coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spiral-time-of-flight (TOF) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The representativeness of those results for the entire samples has been checked using (13) C NMR spectroscopy. Lastly, Kendrick mass defect analysis has been proposed as an alternative and user-friendly data treatment method. The shortest chains isolated by SEC fractionation and mass-analyzed by HRMS have been thoroughly described in terms of end-groups (found to be hydrogens) and co-monomeric composition. The VA content was successfully derived from the peak assignments in MS spectra for the EVA 40 wt% and 25 wt% while it tended to be overestimated for the latest EVA 18 wt% (increasing poly(ethylene) character). Similar results have been found using a faster data treatment method relying on the Kendrick mass defect analysis of the MS data. EVA low molecular weight intact oligomers have been extensively characterized by MS for the first time and the structural features confidently extended to the full sample according to NMR data. The Kendrick mass analysis finally constituted an efficient method for a fast evaluation of their VA content with no need for manual assignment. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  19. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique. Comparison with angiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kato, Masahiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Surugadai Hospital] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses {>=}50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. (author)

  20. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  1. Virtual bronchoscopy based on spiral CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Haubner, Michael; Krapichler, Christian; Schuhmann, Dietrich; Seemann, Mark; Fuerst, H.; Reiser, Maximilian

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: To improve the diagnosis of pathologic modified airways, a visualization system has been developed and tested based on the techniques of digital image analysis, synthesis of spiral CT and the visualization by methods of virtual reality. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with pathologic modifications of the airways (tumors, obstructions) were examined with Spiral-CT. The three-dimensional shape of the airways and the lung tissue is defined by a semiautomatic volume growing method and a following geometric surface reconstruction. This is the basis of a multidimensional display system which visualizes volumes, surfaces and computation results simultaneously. To enable the intuitive and immersive inspection of the airways a virtual reality system, consisting of two graphic engines, a head mounted display system, data gloves and specialized software was integrated. Results: In 20 cases the extension of the pathologic modification of the airways could be visualized with the virtual bronchoscopy. The user interacts with and manipulates the 3D model of the airways in an intuitive and immersive way. In contrast to previously proposed virtual bronchoscopy systems the described method permits truly interactive navigation and detailed exploration of anatomic structures. The system enables a user oriented and fast inspection of the volumetric image data. Conclusion: To support radiological diagnosis with additional information in an easy to use and fast way a virtual bronchoscopy system was developed. It enables the immersive and intuitive interaction with 3D Spiral CTs by truly 3D navigation within the airway system. The complex anatomy of the central tracheobronchial system could be clearly visualized. Peripheral bronchi are displayed up to 5th degree.

  2. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  3. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  4. Spiral finned crucible pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemowidagdo, Arianto Leman; Tiwan, Widarto, Ardian, Aan

    2018-02-01

    Innovation on a crucible furnace to increase its efficiency in aluminum melting has been done. The innovation was a spiral finned crucible pot. The inclination of the spiral finned was vary of 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees. The spiral finned effects was determined from the performance test result. A crucible pot without fin was also tested as a control. The crucible pot was examined at the same process condition. The crucible pot with the inclined fin of 10 degrees gives an optimum performance. It gives effective heating rate so that more efficient in LPG consumption. Therefore it saves energy in the aluminum melting process.

  5. MR appearance of cartilage defects of the knee: preliminary results of a spiral CT arthrography-guided analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.C. vande; Lecouvet, F.E.; Maldague, B.; Malghem, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine signal intensity patterns of cartilage defects at MR imaging. The MR imaging (3-mm-thick fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo images) was obtained in 31 knees (21 male and 10 female patients; mean age 45.5 years) blindly selected from a series of 252 consecutive knees investigated by dual-detector spiral CT arthrography. Two radiologists determined in consensus the MR signal intensity of the cartilage areas where cartilage defects had been demonstrated on the corresponding reformatted CT arthrographic images. There were 83 cartilage defects at spiral CT arthrography. In 52 (63%) lesion areas, the MR signal intensity was higher than that of adjacent normal cartilage with signal intensity equivalent to (n=31) or lower than (n=21) that of articular fluid. The MR signal intensity was equivalent to that of adjacent normal cartilage in 17 (20%) lesion areas and lower than that of adjacent cartilage in 8 (10%) lesion areas. In 6 (7%) lesion areas, mixed low and high signal intensity was observed. The MR signal intensity of cartilage defects demonstrated on spiral CT arthrographic images varies from low to high on fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo MR images obtained with our equipment and MR parameters. (orig.)

  6. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  7. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  8. Classifying and modelling spiral structures in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate numerical techniques for automatic identification of individual spiral arms in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs. Building on our earlier work, which used tensor classification to identify regions that were `spiral-like', we can now obtain fits to spirals for individual arm elements. We show this process can even detect spirals in relatively flocculent spiral patterns, but the resulting fits to logarithmic `grand-design' spirals are less robust. Our methods not only permit the estimation of pitch angles, but also direct measurements of the spiral arm width and pattern speed. In principle, our techniques will allow the tracking of material as it passes through an arm. Our demonstration uses smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, but we stress that the method is suitable for any finite-element hydrodynamics system. We anticipate our techniques will be essential to studies of star formation in disc galaxies, and attempts to find the origin of recently observed spiral structure in protostellar discs.

  9. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models

  10. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  11. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  12. Development of communications analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Major results from the frequency analysis of system program (FASP) are reported. The FASP procedure was designed to analyze or design linear dynamic systems, but can be used to solve any problem that can be described by a system of linear time invariant differential equations. The program also shows plots of performance changes as design parameters are adjusted. Experimental results on narrowband FM distortion are also reported.

  13. Innovative Techniques Simplify Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the early years of development, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers encountered challenges related to components in the space shuttle main engine. To assess the problems, they evaluated the effects of vibration and oscillation. To enhance the method of vibration signal analysis, Marshall awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to AI Signal Research, Inc. (ASRI), in Huntsville, Alabama. ASRI developed a software package called PC-SIGNAL that NASA now employs on a daily basis, and in 2009, the PKP-Module won Marshall s Software of the Year award. The technology is also used in many industries: aircraft and helicopter, rocket engine manufacturing, transportation, and nuclear power."

  14. The spinning ball spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  15. Quarkyonic Chiral Spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Kojo; Hidaka, Y.; Pisarski, R.; McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    We argue the properties of confining dense quark matter, 'quarkyonic' matter, from the viewpoint of both bulk properties and excitation modes. After a brief review of confining aspects, the chiral breaking/restoration will be discussed. We argue that the strong infrared correlations induce the chiral spiral, i.e., the spatial modulation of the chiral condensate which breaks the chiral symmetry locally but restore it globally. The effective dimensional reduction takes place, allowing us to analyzing the system as 2D model in which several exact results can be explicitly derived. We also discuss the excitation spectra, both mesonic and baryonic ones, on the chiral spiral. (author)

  16. Photometry and mass modeling of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent estimates of the relative contributions of dark and luminous matter to the mass of spiral galaxies are reviewed. In these studies, the galactic mass distribution is modeled on the basis of photometric and kinematic observational data. The accuracy of current photometry is discussed; the three-dimensional structure of spiral galaxies and the techniques used in bulge-disk decomposition are examined; and mass models incorporating rotation curves are presented. The disk mass/luminosity ratios in the red band (corrected for internal extinction) are found to range from 1.6 to 3.2, with no particular radius at which dark matter dominates. 20 references

  17. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10 14 fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10 6 to 10 11 particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC 2 target with 3,4 He, 6,7 Li or 12 C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  18. Spiral 2 the scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The French ministry of research took the decision to build Spiral-2 in May 2005. Its construction costs are estimated to 130 million euros while its operating costs will near 8.5 million euros per year. The construction works will last 5 years. The Spiral-2 facility is based on a high power, superconducting driver Linac, which will deliver a high intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass over charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, fast neutrons from the breakup of the 5 mA of deuterons impinging on a uranium carbide target will induce a rate of up to 10{sup 14} fissions/s. The radioactive ion beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to 140 will be of the order of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 11} particles/s surpassing by one or two orders-of-magnitude any existing facility in the world. A direct irradiation of the UC{sub 2} target with {sup 3,4}He, {sup 6,7}Li or {sup 12}C may also be used. Different production targets will be used to produce high-intensity beams of light radioactive species with the Isol technique. The extracted radioactive ion beam will be accelerated to energies up to 20 MeV/nucleons by the existing Cime cyclotron. One of the most important features of the future Ganil accelerator complex will be the capability of delivering up to 5 stable or radioactive beams simultaneously in the energy range from the keV to several tens of MeV/nucleons. The document details also the future contribution of Spiral-2 concerning the structure of exotic nuclei, the thermodynamical aspects of nuclear matter, nucleosynthesis, the fundamental basic interactions, and the use of neutrons. (A.C.)

  19. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined by the...

  20. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  1. Spiraling into Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranton, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how technical and vocational learning may spiral into transformative learning. Transformative learning theory is reviewed and the learning tasks of critical theory are used to integrate various approaches to transformative learning. With this as a foundation, the article explores how transformative learning can be fostered in…

  2. Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi

    2018-01-01

    We study the transition of the number of spirals (called parastichy in the theory of phyllotaxis) within a Voronoi tiling for Archimedean spiral lattices. The transition of local parastichy numbers within a tiling is regarded as a transition at the base site point in a continuous family of tilings. This gives a natural description of the quasiperiodic structure of the grain boundaries. It is proved that the number of tiles in the grain boundaries are denominators of rational approximations of the argument (called the divergence angle) of the generator. The local parastichy numbers are non-decreasing functions of the plastochron parameter. The bifurcation diagram of local parastichy numbers has a Farey tree structure. We also prove Richards’ formula of spiral phyllotaxis in the case of Archimedean Voronoi spiral tilings, and show that, if the divergence angle is a quadratic irrational number, then the shapes of tiles in the grain boundaries are close to rectangles. If the divergence angle is linearly equivalent to the golden section, then the shape of tiles in the grain boundaries is close to square.

  3. Properties of spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1989-10-01

    The present thesis deals with the calculation and the study of the application possibilities of single and double spiral resonators. The main aim was the development and the construction of reliable and effective high-power spiral resonators for the UNILAC of the GSI in Darmstadt and the H - -injector for the storage ring HERA of DESY in Hamburg. After the presentation of the construction and the properties of spiral resonators and their description by oscillating-circuit models the theoretical foundations of the bunching are presented and some examples of a rebuncher and debuncher and their influence on the longitudinal particle dynamics are shown. After the description of the characteristic accelerator quantities by means of an oscillating-circuit model and the theory of an inhomogeneous λ/4 line it is shown, how the resonance frequency and the efficiency of single and double spiral resonators can be calculated from the geometrical quantities of the structure. In the following the dependence of the maximal reachable resonator voltage in dependence on the gap width and the surface of the drift tubes is studied. Furthermore the high-power resonators are presented, which were built for the different applications for the GSI in Darmstadt, DESY in Hamburg, and for the FOM Institute in Amsterdam. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations. S V Dhurandhar ... The performance of some of these techniques on real data obtained will be discussed. Finally, some results on ... S V Dhurandhar1. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India ...

  5. Event tree analysis using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hinton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques used in Expert Systems and Object Oriented Programming are discussed as they apply to Event Tree Analysis. A SeQUence IMPortance calculator, SQUIMP, is presented to demonstrate the implementation of these techniques. Benefits of using AI methods include ease of programming, efficiency of execution, and flexibility of application. The importance of an appropriate user interface is stressed. 5 figs

  6. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  7. Constrained principal component analysis and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Takane, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre

  8. Techniques for sensitivity analysis of SYVAC results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prust, J.O.

    1985-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis techniques may be required to examine the sensitivity of SYVAC model predictions to the input parameter values, the subjective probability distributions assigned to the input parameters and to the relationship between dose and the probability of fatal cancers plus serious hereditary disease in the first two generations of offspring of a member of the critical group. This report mainly considers techniques for determining the sensitivity of dose and risk to the variable input parameters. The performance of a sensitivity analysis technique may be improved by decomposing the model and data into subsets for analysis, making use of existing information on sensitivity and concentrating sampling in regions the parameter space that generates high doses or risks. A number of sensitivity analysis techniques are reviewed for their application to the SYVAC model including four techniques tested in an earlier study by CAP Scientific for the SYVAC project. This report recommends the development now of a method for evaluating the derivative of dose and parameter value and extending the Kruskal-Wallis technique to test for interactions between parameters. It is also recommended that the sensitivity of the output of each sub-model of SYVAC to input parameter values should be examined. (author)

  9. CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

  10. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  11. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  12. Quality assurance techniques for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and techniques of quality assurance are applied to the measurement method of activation analysis. Quality assurance is defined to include quality control and quality assessment. Plans for quality assurance include consideration of: personnel; facilities; analytical design; sampling and sample preparation; the measurement process; standards; and documentation. Activation analysis concerns include: irradiation; chemical separation; counting/detection; data collection, and analysis; and calibration. Types of standards discussed include calibration materials and quality assessment materials

  13. A numerical technique for reactor subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, Hassan E.S.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical technique is developed for the solution of the transient boundary layer equations with a moving liquid-vapour interface boundary. The technique uses the finite difference method with the velocity components defined over an Eulerian mesh. A system of interface massless markers is defined where the markers move with the flow field according to a simple kinematic relation between the interface geometry and the fluid velocity. Different applications of nuclear engineering interest are reported with some available results. The present technique is capable of predicting the interface profile near the wall which is important in the reactor subchannel analysis

  14. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  15. A Method to Automate Identification of Spiral Arms in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Christina K.; Mercer, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present our preliminary results in identifying the spiral arms of NGC 6946 using a nearest-neighbors analysis. NGC 6946 is grand design spiral galaxy with well-defined arms. The spiral arms were previously identified in an Hα image and traced out by Matonick, D. et al., ApJS, 113, 333, (1997) by visual inspection. We want to develop a computer algorithm that will identify the spiral arms automatically. Once the spiral arms have been found digitally, we can use this information to compare the spiral arms with the locations of compact objects such as supernova remnants and perform statistical tests, for example, to determine if the supernova remnants are associated with the spiral arms. We are using the publicly available program PyFITS, a development project of the Science Software Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) that is available for software download from STScI, to perform a computer-based image analysis. We have written python macros that interact with the already written image manipulation and display features of PyFITS to perform the image analysis and implement a nearest-neighbors algorithm to identify and link the centers of the high emission regions from the spiral arm regions. Our code currently identifies the centers of the high emission regions, but more work is needed to link up these sites and draw out the spiral arms. Future work includes improving the code to better identify spiral arms and converting the code to work on the Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Robitaille, T. P., et al. A&A 558, A33, 2013).

  16. A review of sensitivity analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    Mathematical models are utilized to approximate various highly complex engineering, physical, environmental, social, and economic phenomena. Model parameters exerting the most influence on model results are identified through a {open_quotes}sensitivity analysis.{close_quotes} A comprehensive review is presented of more than a dozen sensitivity analysis methods. The most fundamental of sensitivity techniques utilizes partial differentiation whereas the simplest approach requires varying parameter values one-at-a-time. Correlation analysis is used to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Regression analysis provides the most comprehensive sensitivity measure and is commonly utilized to build response surfaces that approximate complex models.

  17. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  18. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  19. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  20. Segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries: evaluation with electron-beam versus spiral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, U J; Helmberger, T; Holzknecht, N; Kang, D S; Bruening, R D; Aydemir, S; Becker, C R; Muehling, O; Knez, A; Haberl, R; Reiser, M F

    2000-02-01

    To compare contrast agent-enhanced spiral and electron-beam computed tomography (CT) for the analysis of segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries was performed in 56 patients to rule out pulmonary embolism. Electron-beam CT was performed in 28 patients. The other 28 patients underwent spiral CT with comparable scanning protocols. The depiction of segmental and subsegmental arteries was analyzed by three independent readers. The contrast enhancement in the main pulmonary artery was measured in each patient. Analysis was performed in 1,120 segmental and 2, 240 subsegmental arteries. One segmental (RA7, P =.010) and two subsegmental (LA7b, P =.029; RA6a+b, P =.038) arteries in paracardiac and basal segments of the lung were depicted significantly better with electron-beam CT. There was no statistically significant difference between electron-beam and spiral CT in the total number of analyzable peripheral arteries depicted. The mean contrast enhancement in the main pulmonary artery was 362 HU in electron-beam CT studies versus 248 HU in spiral CT studies. Detailed visualization of peripheral pulmonary arteries is well within the scope of advanced CT techniques. Electron-beam CT has minor advantages in analyzing paracardiac arteries, probably because of reduction of motion artifacts and higher contrast enhancement. Further studies are needed to establish whether electron-beam CT allows a more confident diagnosis of emboli in these vessels.

  1. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of hybrid thermoelastic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Samad; J.M. Considine

    2017-01-01

    Stress functions have been used as a complementary tool to support experimental techniques, such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC), in an effort to evaluate the complete and separate full-field stresses of loaded structures. The need for such coupling between experimental data and stress functions is due to the fact that...

  3. Fourier Spectroscopy: A Simple Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, William C.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a simple method of analysis in which the student can integrate, point by point, any interferogram to obtain its Fourier transform. The manual technique requires no special equipment and is based on relationships that most undergraduate physics students can derive from the Fourier integral equations. (Author/MLH)

  4. Three phase spiral liver Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyanja, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perform rapid back-to-back spiral acquisitions is an important recent technical advantage of spiral CT. this allows imaging of the upper abdomen (liver) during peak arterial enhancement (arterial phase) and during peak hepatic parenchymal enhancement (portal venous phase). Breatheld spiral CT has completely replaced dynamic incremental CT for evaluation of the liver. in selected patients with hyper vascular metastasis (hepatoma, neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, etc.) a biphasic examination is performed with one spiral acquisition obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and a second acquisition during the portal venous phase

  5. Fast spiral-scan atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I A; Reza Moheimani, S O

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new scanning technique for fast atomic force microscopy. In this method, the sample is scanned in a spiral pattern instead of the well established raster pattern. A spiral scan can be produced by applying single frequency cosine and sine signals with slowly varying amplitudes to the x-axis and y-axis of an atomic force microscope (AFM) scanner respectively. The use of the single tone input signals allows the scanner to move at high speeds without exciting the mechanical resonance of the device and with relatively small control efforts. Experimental results obtained by implementing this technique on a commercial AFM indicate that high-quality images can be generated at scan frequencies well beyond the raster scans.

  6. Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-11-01

    Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. CRDM motion analysis using machine learning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mayumi; Yaguchi, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic jack type Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant operates control rods in response to electrical signals from a reactor control system. CRDM operability is evaluated by quantifying armature's response of closed/opened time which means interval time between coil energizing/de-energizing points and armature closed/opened points. MHI has already developed an automatic CRDM motion analysis and applied it to actual plants so far. However, CRDM operational data has wide variation depending on their characteristics such as plant condition, plant, etc. In the existing motion analysis, there is an issue of analysis accuracy for applying a single analysis technique to all plant conditions, plants, etc. In this study, MHI investigated motion analysis using machine learning (Random Forests) which is flexibly accommodated to CRDM operational data with wide variation, and is improved analysis accuracy. (author)

  8. Fault tree analysis: concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of fault tree analysis have been developed over the past decade and now predictions from this type analysis are important considerations in the design of many systems such as aircraft, ships and their electronic systems, missiles, and nuclear reactor systems. Routine, hardware-oriented fault tree construction can be automated; however, considerable effort is needed in this area to get the methodology into production status. When this status is achieved, the entire analysis of hardware systems will be automated except for the system definition step. Automated analysis is not undesirable; to the contrary, when verified on adequately complex systems, automated analysis could well become a routine analysis. It could also provide an excellent start for a more in-depth fault tree analysis that includes environmental effects, common mode failure, and human errors. The automated analysis is extremely fast and frees the analyst from the routine hardware-oriented fault tree construction, as well as eliminates logic errors and errors of oversight in this part of the analysis. Automated analysis then affords the analyst a powerful tool to allow his prime efforts to be devoted to unearthing more subtle aspects of the modes of failure of the system

  9. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  10. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  11. Relative frequencies of supernovae versus properties of spiral hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Petrosian, A. R.; Aramyan, L. S.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Gomes, J. M.; Turatto, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present an analysis of SNe number ratios in spiral galaxies with different morphological subtypes, luminosities, sSFR, and metallicities, to provide important information about the physical properties of the progenitor populations.

  12. ANALYSIS OF COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim A. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer Aided Process Planning ( CAPP has been recognized as playing a key role in Computer Integrated Manufacturing ( CIM . It was used as a bridge to link CAD with CAM systems, in order to give the possibility of full integration in agreement with computer engineering to introduce CIM. The benefits of CAPP in the real industrial environment are still to be achieved. Due to different manufacturing applications, many different CAPP systems have been developed. The development of CAPP techniques needs to a summarized classification and a descriptive analysis. This paper presents the most important and famous techniques for the available CAPP systems, which are based on the variant, generative or semi-generative methods, and a descriptive analysis of their application possibilities.

  13. Artificial Intelligence techniques for big data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Khatri

    2017-01-01

    During my stay in Salamanca (Spain), I was fortunate enough to participate in the BISITE Research Group of the University of Salamanca. The University of Salamanca is the oldest university in Spain and in 2018 it celebrates its 8th centenary. As a computer science researcher, I participated in one of the many international projects that the research group has active, especially in big data analysis using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. AI is one of BISITE's main lines of rese...

  14. Accelerometer Data Analysis and Presentation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project analyzes Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement System data for principal investigators of microgravity experiments. Principal investigators need a thorough understanding of data analysis techniques so that they can request appropriate analyses to best interpret accelerometer data. Accelerometer data sampling and filtering is introduced along with the related topics of resolution and aliasing. Specific information about the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement System data sampling and filtering is given. Time domain data analysis techniques are discussed and example environment interpretations are made using plots of acceleration versus time, interval average acceleration versus time, interval root-mean-square acceleration versus time, trimmean acceleration versus time, quasi-steady three dimensional histograms, and prediction of quasi-steady levels at different locations. An introduction to Fourier transform theory and windowing is provided along with specific analysis techniques and data interpretations. The frequency domain analyses discussed are power spectral density versus frequency, cumulative root-mean-square acceleration versus frequency, root-mean-square acceleration versus frequency, one-third octave band root-mean-square acceleration versus frequency, and power spectral density versus frequency versus time (spectrogram). Instructions for accessing NASA Lewis Research Center accelerometer data and related information using the internet are provided.

  15. Comparison of analysis techniques for electromyographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J C

    1978-01-01

    Electromyography has been effectively employed to estimate the stress encountered by muscles in performing a variety of functions in the static environment. Such analysis provides the basis for modification of a man-machine system in order to optimize the performances of individual tasks by reducing muscle stress. Myriad analysis methods have been proposed and employed to convert raw electromyographic data into numerical indices of stress and, more specifically, muscle work. However, the type of analysis technique applied to the data can significantly affect the outcome of the experiment. In this study, four methods of analysis are employed to simultaneously process electromyographic data from the flexor muscles of the forearm. The methods of analysis include: 1) integrated EMG (three separate time constants), 2) root mean square voltage, 3) peak height discrimination (three level), and 4) turns counting (two methods). Mechanical stress input as applied to the arm of the subjects includes static load and vibration. The results of the study indicate the comparative sensitivity of each of the techniques to changes in EMG resulting from changes in static and dynamic load on the muscle.

  16. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  17. The perfect shape spiral stories

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This book uses the spiral shape as a key to a multitude of strange and seemingly disparate stories about art, nature, science, mathematics, and the human endeavour. In a way, the book is itself organized as a spiral, with almost disconnected chapters circling around and closing in on the common theme. A particular strength of the book is its extremely cross-disciplinary nature - everything is fun, and everything is connected! At the same time, the author puts great emphasis on mathematical and scientific correctness, in contrast, perhaps, with some earlier books on spirals. Subjects include the mathematical properties of spirals, sea shells, sun flowers, Greek architecture, air ships, the history of mathematics, spiral galaxies, the anatomy of the human hand, the art of prehistoric Europe, Alfred Hitchcock, and spider webs, to name a few.

  18. Intra-individual diagnostic image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose comparison between spiral cCT with iterative image reconstruction and z-axis automated tube current modulation and sequential cCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Holger; Maros, Máté E.; Meyer, Mathias; Gawlitza, Joshua; Förster, Alex; Haubenreisser, Holger; Kurth, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Groden, Christoph; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    •Superiority of spiral versus sequential cCT in image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose.•Spiral cCT: lower organ-specific-radiation-dose in eye lense compared to tilted sequential cCT.•State-of-the-art IR spiral cCT techniques has significant advantages over sequential cCT techniques. Superiority of spiral versus sequential cCT in image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose. Spiral cCT: lower organ-specific-radiation-dose in eye lense compared to tilted sequential cCT. State-of-the-art IR spiral cCT techniques has significant advantages over sequential cCT techniques. To prospectively evaluate image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose of spiral cranial CT (cCT) combined with automated tube current modulation (ATCM) and iterative image reconstruction (IR) in comparison to sequential tilted cCT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) without ATCM. 31 patients with a previous performed tilted non-contrast enhanced sequential cCT aquisition on a 4-slice CT system with only FBP reconstruction and no ATCM were prospectively enrolled in this study for a clinical indicated cCT scan. All spiral cCT examinations were performed on a 3rd generation dual-source CT system using ATCM in z-axis direction. Images were reconstructed using both, FBP and IR (level 1–5). A Monte-Carlo-simulation-based analysis was used to compare organ-specific-radiation dose. Subjective image quality for various anatomic structures was evaluated using a 4-point Likert-scale and objective image quality was evaluated by comparing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Spiral cCT led to a significantly lower (p < 0.05) organ-specific-radiation dose in all targets including eye lense. Subjective image quality of spiral cCT datasets with an IR reconstruction level 5 was rated significantly higher compared to the sequential cCT acquisitions (p < 0.0001). Consecutive mean SNR was significantly higher in all spiral datasets (FBP, IR 1–5) when compared to sequential cCT with a mean

  19. A new analysis technique for microsamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, R.; Journoux, J.P.; Duval, C.

    1989-01-01

    For many decades, isotopic analysis of Uranium or Plutonium has been performed by mass spectrometry. The most recent analytical techniques, using the counting method or a plasma torch combined with a mass spectrometer (ICP.MS) have not yet to reach a greater degree of precision than the older methods in this field. The two means of ionization for isotopic analysis - by electronic bombardment of atoms or molecules (source of gas ions) and - by thermal effect (thermoionic source) are compared revealing some inconsistency between the quantity of sample necessary for analysis and the luminosity. In fact, the quantity of sample necessary for the gas source mass spectrometer is 10 to 20 times greater than that for the thermoionization spectrometer, while the sample consumption is between 10 5 to 10 6 times greater. This proves that almost the entire sample is not necessary for the measurement; it is only required because of the system of introduction for the gas spectrometer. The new analysis technique referred to as ''Microfluorination'' corrects this anomaly and exploits the advantages of the electron bombardment method of ionization

  20. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  1. Measurement and structure of spiral wave response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri; Panfilov, Alexander V.

    2017-09-01

    The rotating spiral waves that emerge in diverse natural and man-made systems typically exhibit a particle-like behaviour since their adjoint critical eigenmodes (response functions) are often seen to be localised around the spiral core. We present a simple method to numerically compute response functions for circular-core and meandering spirals by recording their drift response to many elementary perturbations. Although our method is computationally more expensive than solving the adjoint system, our technique is fully parallellisable, does not suffer from memory limitations and can be applied to experiments. For a cardiac tissue model with the linear spiral core, we find that the response functions are localised near the turning points of the trajectory.

  2. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  3. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  4. CFD simulation of flow through single and multi vane spiral pump for low pressure application using moving node unsteady computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, I.; Mahendra, A.K.; Chandresh, B.G.; Srikanthan, M.R.; Bera, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    A spiral pump uses two interleaved spirals (it can be involutes of a circle, involutes of a square, hybrid wraps, Archimedean spiral, logarithmic spirals and so on). Interleaved spiral orbits eccentrically without rotation around a fixed scroll, thereby trapping and compressing pockets of fluids between the spirals. Another method of providing the compression motion is by virtue of co-rotating the spirals synchronously with an offset in centers of rotation thereby providing relative motion similar to orbiting. Recently spiral pumps for low-pressure application have become popular. Since spiral pumps contain gas volumes, whose shapes and size change continuously, the flow fields inside the pumps is time dependent. The unsteadiness controls the mechanisms responsible for the behavior of the spiral pump components. To improve the spiral pump design for better performance as per our process requirement and reliability, information is required to understand the detailed physics of the unsteady flows inside the spiral pumps. The unsteady flows in a pump are studied numerically. The system simulated includes one side gap between fixed and moving spirals as the other side lies just in the reverse symmetry of the one side. Heavy molecular weight, condensable gas is used as the moving fluid. The mesh free Least Square Kinetic Upwind Method (LSKUM) for moving node is applied for numerical analysis of wobbling spiral. Nodes and boundaries change their positions, for every real time step hence at every iteration nodes take new coordinates. Our work consists of identifying various spiral dimensions and geometry, geometric modeling of suction process, identifying the eccentric orbiting motion of the moving spiral, formation of variable velocity moving nodes. Flow analysis of the spiral pump is done with a view to design and develop new pump as per our requirement. Experimental data from an existing spiral pump is used to carryout validation of the code. (author)

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of Contemporary Throwing Technique Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the movement process of throwing and in order to further improve the throwing technique of our country, this paper will first illustrate the main influence factors which will affect the shot distance via the mutual combination of movement equation and geometrical analysis. And then, it will give the equation of the acting force that the throwing athletes have to bear during throwing movement; and will reach the speed relationship between each arthrosis during throwing and batting based on the kinetic analysis of the throwing athletes’ arms while throwing. This paper will obtain the momentum relationship of the athletes’ each arthrosis by means of rotational inertia analysis; and then establish a restricted particle dynamics equation from the Lagrange equation. The obtained result shows that the momentum of throwing depends on the momentum of the athletes’ wrist joints while batting.

  6. Hurricane Spiral Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Thomas A.; Schubert, Wayne H.

    1993-10-01

    The spiral bands that occur in tropical cyclones can be conveniently divided into two classes-outer bands and inner bands. Evidence is presented here that the outer bands form as the result of nonlinear effects during the breakdown of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) through barotropic instability. In this process a zonal strip of high potential vorticity (the ITCZ shear zone or monsoon trough) begins to distort in a varicose fashion, with the potential vorticity (PV) becoming pooled in local regions that are connected by filaments of high PV. As the pooled regions become more axisymmetric, the filaments become thinner and begin to wrap around the PV centers.It is argued that inner bands form in a different manner. As a tropical cyclone intensifies due to latent heat release, the PV field becomes nearly circular with the highest values of PV in the cyclone center. The radial gradient of PV provides a state on which PV waves (the generalization of Rossby waves) can propagate. The nonlinear breaking of PV waves then leads to an irreversible distortion of the PV contours and a downgradient flux of PV. The continuation of this proem tends to erode the high PV core of the tropical cyclone, to produce a surrounding surf zone, and hence to spread the PV horizontally. In a similar fashion, inner bands can also form by the merger of a vortex with a patch of relatively high PV air. As the merger proem occurs the patch of PV is quickly elongated and wrapped around the vortex. The resulting vortex is generally larger in horizontal extent and exhibits a spiral band of PV.When the formation of outer and inner bands is interpreted in the context of a normal-mode spectral model, they emerge as slow manifold phenomena; that is, they have both rotational and (balanced or slaved) gravitational mode aspects. In this sense, regarding them as simply gravity waves leads to an incomplete dynamical picture.

  7. Clustering Analysis within Text Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina ZURINI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a personal approach upon the main applications of classification which are presented in the area of knowledge based society by means of methods and techniques widely spread in the literature. Text classification is underlined in chapter two where the main techniques used are described, along with an integrated taxonomy. The transition is made through the concept of spatial representation. Having the elementary elements of geometry and the artificial intelligence analysis, spatial representation models are presented. Using a parallel approach, spatial dimension is introduced in the process of classification. The main clustering methods are described in an aggregated taxonomy. For an example, spam and ham words are clustered and spatial represented, when the concepts of spam, ham and common and linkage word are presented and explained in the xOy space representation.

  8. Reliability analysis techniques for the design engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Witt, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a fault tree analysis package that eliminates most of the housekeeping tasks involved in proceeding from the initial construction of a fault tree to the final stage of presenting a reliability analysis in a safety report. It is suitable for designers with relatively little training in reliability analysis and computer operation. Users can rapidly investigate the reliability implications of various options at the design stage and evolve a system which meets specified reliability objectives. Later independent review is thus unlikely to reveal major shortcomings necessitating modification and project delays. The package operates interactively, allowing the user to concentrate on the creative task of developing the system fault tree, which may be modified and displayed graphically. For preliminary analysis, system data can be derived automatically from a generic data bank. As the analysis proceeds, improved estimates of critical failure rates and test and maintenance schedules can be inserted. The technique is applied to the reliability analysis of the recently upgraded HIFAR Containment Isolation System. (author)

  9. Interferogram analysis using the Abel inversion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Munajat; Mohamad Kadim Suaidi

    2000-01-01

    High speed and high resolution optical detection system were used to capture the image of acoustic waves propagation. The freeze image in the form of interferogram was analysed to calculate the transient pressure profile of the acoustic waves. The interferogram analysis was based on the fringe shift and the application of the Abel inversion technique. An easier approach was made by mean of using MathCAD program as a tool in the programming; yet powerful enough to make such calculation, plotting and transfer of file. (Author)

  10. Interferogram analysis using Fourier transform techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddier, Claude; Roddier, Francois

    1987-01-01

    A method of interferogram analysis is described in which Fourier transform techniques are used to map the complex fringe visibility in several types of interferograms. Algorithms are developed for estimation of both the amplitude and the phase of the fringes (yielding the modulus and the phase of the holographically recorded object Fourier transform). The algorithms were applied to the reduction of interferometric seeing measurements (i.e., the estimation of the fringe amplitude only), and the reduction of interferometric tests (i.e., estimation of the fringe phase only). The method was used to analyze scatter-plate interferograms obtained at NOAO.

  11. Dynamic study of the larynx with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Yeon; Choi, Chang Ho; Yoon, Chi Soon; Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Nam, Sang Hwa; Kim, Kun Il; Kim, Byung Soo; Wang, Soo Guen

    1994-01-01

    It is essential to know the functional and morphologic changes of the larynx in the evaluation of laryngeal lesions. Conventional CT which has relatively long examination time is not suitable for this aim. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the capability of spiral CT in the dynamic study of the larynx and to know whether this new technique can replace conventional laryngography or not. Five healthy volunteers and 20 patients with laryngeal lesions underwent spiral dynamic CT scans with 3-dimensional reconstruction of the mucosal surface. A series of spiral CT scans were done while the volunteers performed various laryngeal positions to obtain the functional and morphologic information. The maneuvers used were: quite breathing, 'E' phonation, Valsalva maneuver, modified Valsalva maneuver, and a new method of our own, 'modified breath holding' technique. The patients were scanned when in quite breathing. Additional scans were obtained by using the 'modified breath holding' technique. The dynamic study with spiral CT could provide high resolutional images which nicely depicted the mobility of vocal cords and the mucosal changes of the laryngeal cavity in both healthy volunteer and patient groups. In patient group, the new 'modified breath holding' technique was easier and more reproducible than other maneuvers. Spiral CT allows a dynamic study of the larynx and can be a new alternative of laryngography

  12. Low energy analysis techniques for CUORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); D' Aguanno, D.; Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Drobizhev, A.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Freedman, S.J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Moggi, N.; Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (US); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (US); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2017-12-15

    CUORE is a tonne-scale cryogenic detector operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) that uses tellurium dioxide bolometers to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te. CUORE is also suitable to search for low energy rare events such as solar axions or WIMP scattering, thanks to its ultra-low background and large target mass. However, to conduct such sensitive searches requires improving the energy threshold to 10 keV. In this paper, we describe the analysis techniques developed for the low energy analysis of CUORE-like detectors, using the data acquired from November 2013 to March 2015 by CUORE-0, a single-tower prototype designed to validate the assembly procedure and new cleaning techniques of CUORE. We explain the energy threshold optimization, continuous monitoring of the trigger efficiency, data and event selection, and energy calibration at low energies in detail. We also present the low energy background spectrum of CUORE-0 below 60 keV. Finally, we report the sensitivity of CUORE to WIMP annual modulation using the CUORE-0 energy threshold and background, as well as an estimate of the uncertainty on the nuclear quenching factor from nuclear recoils in CUORE-0. (orig.)

  13. Machine monitoring via current signature analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.; Nowlin, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    A significant need in the effort to provide increased production quality is to provide improved plant equipment monitoring capabilities. Unfortunately, in today's tight economy, even such monitoring instrumentation must be implemented in a recognizably cost effective manner. By analyzing the electric current drawn by motors, actuator, and other line-powered industrial equipment, significant insights into the operations of the movers, driven equipment, and even the power source can be obtained. The generic term 'current signature analysis' (CSA) has been coined to describe several techniques for extracting useful equipment or process monitoring information from the electrical power feed system. A patented method developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described which recognizes the presence of line-current modulation produced by motors and actuators driving varying loads. The in-situ application of applicable linear demodulation techniques to the analysis of numerous motor-driven systems is also discussed. The use of high-quality amplitude and angle-demodulation circuitry has permitted remote status monitoring of several types of medium and high-power gas compressors in (US DOE facilities) driven by 3-phase induction motors rated from 100 to 3,500 hp, both with and without intervening speed increasers. Flow characteristics of the compressors, including various forms of abnormal behavior such as surging and rotating stall, produce at the output of the specialized detectors specific time and frequency signatures which can be easily identified for monitoring, control, and fault-prevention purposes. The resultant data are similar in form to information obtained via standard vibration-sensing techniques and can be analyzed using essentially identical methods. In addition, other machinery such as refrigeration compressors, brine pumps, vacuum pumps, fans, and electric motors have been characterized

  14. A planar microfluidic mixer based on logarithmic spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, Thomas; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Quitadamo, Christian; Tesvich, Preston; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Hayes, Daniel; Monroe, W Todd; Tiersch, Terrence; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A passive, planar micromixer design based on logarithmic spirals is presented. The device was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane soft photolithography techniques, and mixing performance was characterized via numerical simulation and fluorescent microscopy. Mixing efficiency initially declined as the Reynolds number increased, and this trend continued until a Reynolds number of 15 where a minimum was reached at 53%. Mixing efficiency then began to increase reaching a maximum mixing efficiency of 86% at Re = 67. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of fluid mixing in this design were compared to other planar geometries such as the Archimedes spiral and Meandering-S mixers. The implementation of logarithmic curvature offers several unique advantages that enhance mixing, namely a variable cross-sectional area and a logarithmically varying radius of curvature that creates 3D Dean vortices. These flow phenomena were observed in simulations with multilayered fluid folding and validated with confocal microscopy. This design provides improved mixing performance over a broader range of Reynolds numbers than other reported planar mixers, all while avoiding external force fields, more complicated fabrication processes and the introduction of flow obstructions or cavities that may unintentionally affect sensitive or particulate-containing samples. Due to the planar design requiring only single-step lithographic features, this compact geometry could be easily implemented into existing micro-total analysis systems requiring effective rapid mixing. (paper)

  15. The star cluster-field star connection in nearby spiral galaxies. I. Data analysis techniques and application to NGC 4395

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva-Villa, E.; Larsen, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Context. It is generally assumed that a large fraction of stars are initially born in clusters. However, a large fraction of these disrupt on short timescales and the stars end up belonging to the field. Understanding this process is of paramount importance if we wish to constrain the star formation

  16. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  17. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  18. Spiral inlets for steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  19. Population estimation techniques for routing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathisan, S.K.; Chagari, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    A number of on-site and off-site factors affect the potential siting of a radioactive materials repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Transportation related issues such route selection and design are among them. These involve evaluation of potential risks and impacts, including those related to population. Population characteristics (total population and density) are critical factors in the risk assessment, emergency preparedness and response planning, and ultimately in route designation. This paper presents an application of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to facilitate such analyses. Specifically, techniques to estimate critical population information are presented. A case study using the highway network in Nevada is used to illustrate the analyses. TIGER coverages are used as the basis for population information at a block level. The data are then synthesized at tract, county and state levels of aggregation. Of particular interest are population estimates for various corridor widths along transport corridors -- ranging from 0.5 miles to 20 miles in this paper. A sensitivity analysis based on the level of data aggregation is also presented. The results of these analysis indicate that specific characteristics of the area and its population could be used as indicators to aggregate data appropriately for the analysis

  20. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  1. Data Analysis Techniques for Ligo Detector Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes Sanchez, Guillermo A.

    Gravitational-wave astronomy is a branch of astronomy which aims to use gravitational waves to collect observational data about astronomical objects and events such as black holes, neutron stars, supernovae, and processes including those of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang. Einstein first predicted gravitational waves in the early century XX, but it was not until Septem- ber 14, 2015, that the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) directly ob- served the first gravitational waves in history. LIGO consists of two twin detectors, one in Livingston, Louisiana and another in Hanford, Washington. Instrumental and sporadic noises limit the sensitivity of the detectors. Scientists conduct Data Quality studies to distinguish a gravitational-wave signal from the noise, and new techniques are continuously developed to identify, mitigate, and veto unwanted noise. This work presents the application of data analysis techniques, such as Hilbert-Huang trans- form (HHT) and Kalman filtering (KF), in LIGO detector characterization. We investigated the application of HHT to characterize the gravitational-wave signal of the first detection, we also demonstrated the functionality of HHT identifying noise originated from light being scattered by perturbed surfaces, and we estimated thermo-optical aberration using KF. We put particular attention to the scattering origin application, for which a tool was developed to identify disturbed surfaces originating scattering noise. The results reduced considerably the time to search for the scattering surface and helped LIGO commissioners to mitigate the noise.

  2. Chromatographic screening techniques in systematic toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, O H

    1999-10-15

    A review of techniques used to screen biological specimens for the presence of drugs was conducted with particular reference to systematic toxicological analysis. Extraction systems of both the liquid-liquid and solid-phase type show little apparent difference in their relative ability to extract a range of drugs according to their physio-chemical properties, although mixed-phase SPE extraction is a preferred technique for GC-based applications, and liquid-liquid were preferred for HPLC-based applications. No one chromatographic system has been shown to be capable of detecting a full range of common drugs of abuse, and common ethical drugs, hence two or more assays are required for laboratories wishing to cover a reasonably comprehensive range of drugs of toxicological significance. While immunoassays are invariably used to screen for drugs of abuse, chromatographic systems relying on derivatization and capable of extracting both acidic and basic drugs would be capable of screening a limited range of targeted drugs. Drugs most difficult to detect in systematic toxicological analysis include LSD, psilocin, THC and its metabolites, fentanyl and its designer derivatives, some potent opiates, potent benzodiazepines and some potent neuroleptics, many of the newer anti-convulsants, alkaloids colchicine, amantins, aflatoxins, antineoplastics, coumarin-based anti-coagulants, and a number of cardiovascular drugs. The widespread use of LC-MS and LC-MS-MS for specific drug detection and the emergence of capillary electrophoresis linked to MS and MS-MS provide an exciting possibility for the future to increase the range of drugs detected in any one chromatographic screening system.

  3. Initial clinical experience with spiral CT angiography in the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaa, J.; Stehling, M.K.; Costello, P.

    1993-01-01

    The latest developments in modern CT instruments, offering scanning times of a second, opened up new possibilities in CT imaging in combination with the spiral technique. The data set normally taken with single-breath-hold technique is free of respiratory artefacts and thus is a good basis for accurate 3D image reconstruction. Spiral CTA allows a non-invasive 3D imaging of various blood vessels. Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms of aorto-iliac bypass can be examined as outpatients within 15 minutes. (orig.) [de

  4. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  5. Analysis of obsidians by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuncio Q, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of obsydian samples from different mineral sites in Mexico, undertaken by an Ion Beam Analysis: PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). As part of an intensive investigation of obsidian in Mesoamerica by anthropologists from Mexico National Institute of Anthropology and History, 818 samples were collected from different volcanic sources in central Mexico for the purpose of establishing a data bank of element concentrations of each source. Part of this collection was analyzed by Neutron activation analysis and most of the important elements concentrations reported. In this work, a non-destructive IBA technique (PIXE) are used to analyze obsydian samples. The application of this technique were carried out at laboratories of the ININ Nuclear Center facilities. The samples consisted of of obsydians from ten different volcanic sources. This pieces were mounted on a sample holder designed for the purpose of exposing each sample to the proton beam. This PIXE analysis was carried out with an ET Tandem Accelerator at the ININ. X-ray spectrometry was carried out with an external beam facility employing a Si(Li) detector set at 52.5 degrees in relation to the target normal (parallel to the beam direction) and 4.2 cm away from the target center. A filter was set in front of the detector, to determine the best attenuation conditions to obtain most of the elements, taking into account that X-ray spectra from obsydians are dominated by intense major elements lines. Thus, a 28 μ m- thick aluminium foil absorber was selected and used to reduce the intensity of the major lines as well as pile-up effects. The mean proton energy was 2.62 MeV, and the beam profile was about 4 mm in diameter. As results were founded elemental concentrations of a set of samples from ten different sources: Altotonga (Veracruz), Penjamo (Guanajuato), Otumba (Mexico), Zinapecuaro (Michoacan), Ucareo (Michoacan), Tres Cabezas (Puebla), Sierra Navajas (Hidalgo), Zaragoza

  6. Handbook of Qualitative Research Techniques and Analysis in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Leitch, Claire

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in the research design process is choosing the most appropriate data collection and analysis techniques. This Handbook provides a detailed introduction to five qualitative data collection and analysis techniques pertinent to exploring entreprneurial phenomena....

  7. Handbook of Qualitative Research Techniques and Analysis in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    One of the most challenging tasks in the research design process is choosing the most appropriate data collection and analysis techniques. This Handbook provides a detailed introduction to five qualitative data collection and analysis techniques pertinent to exploring entreprneurial phenomena....

  8. Visual Evaluation Techniques for Skill Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eugene W.

    1982-01-01

    Visual evaluation techniques provide the kinesiologist with a method of evaluating physical skill performance. The techniques are divided into five categories: (1) vantage point; (2) movement simplification; (3) balance and stability; (4) movement relationships; and (5) range of movement. (JN)

  9. Reliability of spiral tomography for implant site measurement of the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of spiral tomography through the comparison and analysis of SCANORA cross-sectional tomographs and DentaScan computed tomographic images of dry mandibles taken by a SCANORA spiral tomographic machine and a computed tomographic machine. Thirty-one dry mandibles with full or partial edentulous areas were used. To evaluate the possible effect of location in the edentulous area, it was divided into 4 regions of Me (region of mental foramen), M1 (the midportion between Me and M2), M2 (the midportion between mental foramen and mandibular foramen) and S (the midportion of the mandibular symphysis). A ZPC column (sized 4 mm X 5 mm) was seated on the edentulous regions of Me, M1, M2 and S using the acrylic stent. Then SCANORA spiral tomography and computed tomography were taken on the edentulous regions which contained the ZPC column. The ZPC columns and cross-sectional images of the mandible were measured in the radiographs by three observers and the differences between the two imaging modalities were analysed. The results were as follows: 1. In comparing the actual measurements of the ZPC column and measurements in the radiographs, the mean error of the DentaScan computed tomography was 0.07 mm in vertical direction and -0.06 mm in horizontal direction, while the mean error of the SCANORA spiral tomography was 0.06 mm in vertical direction and -0.12 mm in horizontal direction. There was a significant difference between the two radiographic techniques in the horizontal measurement of the ZPC column of the symphysis region (p<0.05). but there was no significant difference in the measurements of other regions>0.05). 2. In measurements of the distance from the alveolar crest to the inferior border of the mandible (H), and of the distance from the alveolar crest to the superior border of the mandibular canal (Y), there was no significant difference between the two radiographic techniques (p>0.05). 3. In

  10. Reliability of spiral tomography for implant site measurement of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of spiral tomography through the comparison and analysis of SCANORA cross-sectional tomographs and DentaScan computed tomographic images of dry mandibles taken by a SCANORA spiral tomographic machine and a computed tomographic machine. Thirty-one dry mandibles with full or partial edentulous areas were used. To evaluate the possible effect of location in the edentulous area, it was divided into 4 regions of Me (region of mental foramen), M1 (the midportion between Me and M2), M2 (the midportion between mental foramen and mandibular foramen) and S (the midportion of the mandibular symphysis). A ZPC column (sized 4 mm X 5 mm) was seated on the edentulous regions of Me, M1, M2 and S using the acrylic stent. Then SCANORA spiral tomography and computed tomography were taken on the edentulous regions which contained the ZPC column. The ZPC columns and cross-sectional images of the mandible were measured in the radiographs by three observers and the differences between the two imaging modalities were analysed. The results were as follows: 1. In comparing the actual measurements of the ZPC column and measurements in the radiographs, the mean error of the DentaScan computed tomography was 0.07 mm in vertical direction and -0.06 mm in horizontal direction, while the mean error of the SCANORA spiral tomography was 0.06 mm in vertical direction and -0.12 mm in horizontal direction. There was a significant difference between the two radiographic techniques in the horizontal measurement of the ZPC column of the symphysis region (p 0.05). 2. In measurements of the distance from the alveolar crest to the inferior border of the mandible (H), and of the distance from the alveolar crest to the superior border of the mandibular canal (Y), there was no significant difference between the two radiographic techniques (p>0.05). 3. In measurements of the distance from the lingual border of the mandible to the buccal

  11. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  12. Hurdles run technique analysis in the 400m hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Drtina, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hurdles run technique analysis in the 400m hurdles Thesis objectives: The main objective is to compare the technique hurdles run in the race tempo on the track 400 m hurdles at the selected probands. Tasks are identified kinematic parameters separately for each proband and identify their weaknesses in technique. Method: Analysis techniques hurdles run was done by using 3D kinematic analysis. Observed space-time events were recorded on two digital cameras. Records was transferred to a suitable...

  13. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  14. Computer simulation, nuclear techniques and surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, A. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. The “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions is used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. Details of prediction stages are given for thick flat target yields. Predictions are made for non-flat targets having asymmetric triangular surface contours. The method is successfully applied to depth profiling of 12C and 18O nuclei in thick targets, by deuteron (d,p and proton (p,α induced reactions, respectively.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energía” para reacciones nucleares. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan con datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obtención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Se dan detalles de las etapas de las predicciones de espectros para muestras espesas y planas. Se hacen predicciones para muestras no planas que tienen contornos superficiales triangulares asimétricos. Este método se aplica con éxito en el cálculo de perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 18O en muestras espesas a través de reacciones (d,p y (p,α inducidas por deuterones y protones, respectivamente.

  15. GANIL-SPIRAL1-SPIRAL2: Highlights and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2010-06-01

    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are presented. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100*A to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called*Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4 M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  16. Quasicrystallography on the spiral of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a spiral lattice is discussed. Some examples of known mineral structures, namely clino asbestos, halloysite and cylindrite, are then interpreted in terms of this structural principle. An example of a synthetic sulphide catalyst spiral structure having atomic dimensions is also described. All of these inorganic spiral structures are based on the sprial of Archimedes. The principles for a new type of crystallography, based on the Archimedian spiral, are then presented. 45 refs., 8 figs

  17. Cochlear implant simulator for surgical technique analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, Rebecca L.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Noble, Jack H.

    2014-03-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery is a procedure in which an electrode array is inserted into the cochlea. The electrode array is used to stimulate auditory nerve fibers and restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The primary goals when placing the electrode array are to fully insert the array into the cochlea while minimizing trauma to the cochlea. Studying the relationship between surgical outcome and various surgical techniques has been difficult since trauma and electrode placement are generally unknown without histology. Our group has created a CI placement simulator that combines an interactive 3D visualization environment with a haptic-feedback-enabled controller. Surgical techniques and patient anatomy can be varied between simulations so that outcomes can be studied under varied conditions. With this system, we envision that through numerous trials we will be able to statistically analyze how outcomes relate to surgical techniques. As a first test of this system, in this work, we have designed an experiment in which we compare the spatial distribution of forces imparted to the cochlea in the array insertion procedure when using two different but commonly used surgical techniques for cochlear access, called round window and cochleostomy access. Our results suggest that CIs implanted using round window access may cause less trauma to deeper intracochlear structures than cochleostomy techniques. This result is of interest because it challenges traditional thinking in the otological community but might offer an explanation for recent anecdotal evidence that suggests that round window access techniques lead to better outcomes.

  18. Multidimensional scaling technique for analysis of magnetic storms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Multidimensional scaling is a powerful technique for analysis of data. The latitudinal dependenceof geomagnetic field variation in horizontal component (H) during magnetic storms is analysed in this paper by employing this technique.

  19. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  20. Inspired Spirals. Teaching Art with Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirals in nature, man-made objects, and art. Focuses on art that incorporates the spiral, including works by M. C. Escher and Frank Lloyd Wright, an African headdress, and a burial urn. Describes activities to help students make spirals of their own, such as constructing a coil clay pot. (CMK)

  1. The Spiral Pattern During Development*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-07

    Aug 7, 1971 ... which are destined to become the limb areas bud out laterally. Fig. 8. The early cells, which are destined to develop into the upper and the lower limbs, after lateral budding has occurred. Fig. 11 demonstrates the human embryo of about 5 mm. CR length and age of about 32 days. The spiral pattern is.

  2. A study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, B.M.H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts have been made to look for possible correlations between integral properties of spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type. To investigate this problem, one needs the detailed distribution of both the gaseous and the stellar components for a well-defined sample of spiral galaxies. A sample of about 20 spiral galaxies was therefore defined; these galaxies were observed in the 21 cm neutral hydrogen line with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in three broad-band optical colours with the 48-inch Palomar Smidt Telescope. First, an atlas of the combined radio and optical observations of 16 nearby northern-hemisphere spiral galaxies is presented. Luminosity profiles are discussed and the scale lengths of the exponential disks and extrapolated central surface brightnesses are derived, as well as radial color distributions; azimuthal surface brightness distributions and rotation curves. Possible correlations with optical features are investigated. It is found that 20 to 50 per cent of the total mass is in the disk. (Auth.)

  3. Surface analysis and techniques in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Smentkowski, Vincent S

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights state-of-the-art surface analytical instrumentation, advanced data analysis tools, and the use of complimentary surface analytical instrumentation to perform a complete analysis of biological systems.

  4. Recent trends in particle size analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances and developments in the particle-sizing technologies are briefly reviewed in accordance with three operating principles including particle size and shape descriptions. Significant trends of the particle size analysing equipment recently developed show that compact electronic circuitry and rapid data processing systems were mainly adopted in the instrument design. Some newly developed techniques characterizing the particulate system were also introduced.

  5. Inverse Filtering Techniques in Speech Analysis | Nwachuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inverse filtering' has been applied. The unifying features of these techniques are presented, namely: 1. a basis in the source-filter theory of speech production, 2. the use of a network whose transfer function is the inverse of the transfer function of ...

  6. Continuing research on the classical spiraling photon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongrui

    2014-11-01

    Based no the classical spiraling photon model proposed by Hongrui Li, the laws of reflection, refraction of a single photon can be derived. Moreover, the polarization, total reflection, evanescent wave and Goos-Hanchen shift of a single photon can be elucidated. However, this photon model is still unfinished. Especially, the spiraling diameter of a photon is not definite. In this paper, the continuous research works on this new theory are reported. According to the facts that the diffraction limit of light and the smallest diameter of the focal spot of lenses are all equal to the wavelength λ of the light, we can get that the spiraling diameter of a photon equals to the wavelength λ, so we gain that the angle between the linear velocity of the spiraling photon υ and the component of the linear velocity in the forward direction υb is 45°, and the energy of a classical spiraling photon E = (1/2)mυ2 = (1/2)m2c2 = mc2. This coincides with Einstein's mass-energy relation. While it is obtained that the velocity of the evanescent wave in the vacuum is slower than the velocity of light in glass in straight line. In such a way, the optical fiber can slow the light down. In addition, the force analysis of a single photon in optical tweezers system is discussed. And the reason that the laser beam can capture the particle slightly downstream from the focal point can be explained.

  7. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. An analysis of induction motor testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soergel, S.

    1996-01-01

    There are two main failure mechanisms in induction motors: bearing related and stator related. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a study which was completed in 1985, and found that near 37% of all failures were attributed to stator problems. Another data source for motor failures is the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). This database reveals that approximately 55% of all motors were identified as being degraded before failure occurred. Of these, approximately 35% were due to electrical faults. These are the faults which this paper will attempt to identify through testing techniques. This paper is a discussion of the current techniques used to predict incipient failure of induction motors. In the past, the main tests were those to assess the integrity of the ground insulation. However, most insulation failures are believed to involve turn or strand insulation, which makes traditional tests alone inadequate for condition assessment. Furthermore, these tests have several limitations which need consideration when interpreting the results. This paper will concentrate on predictive maintenance techniques which detect electrical problems. It will present appropriate methods and tests, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each

  9. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting ...

  10. A Dimensionality Reduction Technique for Efficient Time Series Similarity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2008-01-01

    We propose a dimensionality reduction technique for time series analysis that significantly improves the efficiency and accuracy of similarity searches. In contrast to piecewise constant approximation (PCA) techniques that approximate each time series with constant value segments, the proposed method--Piecewise Vector Quantized Approximation--uses the closest (based on a distance measure) codeword from a codebook of key-sequences to represent each segment. The new representation is symbolic and it allows for the application of text-based retrieval techniques into time series similarity analysis. Experiments on real and simulated datasets show that the proposed technique generally outperforms PCA techniques in clustering and similarity searches. PMID:18496587

  11. A Dimensionality Reduction Technique for Efficient Time Series Similarity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2008-03-01

    We propose a dimensionality reduction technique for time series analysis that significantly improves the efficiency and accuracy of similarity searches. In contrast to piecewise constant approximation (PCA) techniques that approximate each time series with constant value segments, the proposed method--Piecewise Vector Quantized Approximation--uses the closest (based on a distance measure) codeword from a codebook of key-sequences to represent each segment. The new representation is symbolic and it allows for the application of text-based retrieval techniques into time series similarity analysis. Experiments on real and simulated datasets show that the proposed technique generally outperforms PCA techniques in clustering and similarity searches.

  12. Sliding-slab three-dimensional TSE imaging with a spiral-In/Out readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dinghui; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Schär, Michael; Karis, John P; Pipe, James G

    2016-02-01

    T2 -weighted imaging is of great diagnostic value in neuroimaging. Three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian turbo spin echo (TSE) scans provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contiguous slice coverage. The purpose of this preliminary work is to implement a novel 3D spiral TSE technique with image quality comparable to 2D/3D Cartesian TSE. The proposed technique uses multislab 3D TSE imaging. To mitigate the slice boundary artifacts, a sliding-slab method is extended to spiral imaging. A spiral-in/out readout is adopted to minimize the artifacts that may be present with the conventional spiral-out readout. Phase errors induced by B0 eddy currents are measured and compensated to allow for the combination of the spiral-in and spiral-out images. A nonuniform slice encoding scheme is used to reduce the truncation artifacts while preserving the SNR performance. Preliminary results show that each of the individual measures contributes to the overall performance, and the image quality of the results obtained with the proposed technique is, in general, comparable to that of 2D or 3D Cartesian TSE. 3D sliding-slab TSE with a spiral-in/out readout provides good-quality T2 -weighted images, and, therefore, may become a promising alternative to Cartesian TSE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Trend Filtering Techniques for Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    López Arias, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Time series can be found almost everywhere in our lives and because of this being capable of analysing them is an important task. Most of the time series we can think of are quite noisy, being this one of the main problems to extract information from them. In this work we use Trend Filtering techniques to try to remove this noise from a series and understand the underlying trend of the series, that gives us information about the behaviour of the series aside from the particular...

  14. Techniques for Intelligence Analysis of Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cares, Jeffrey R

    2005-01-01

    ...) there are significant intelligence analysis manifestations of these properties; and (4) a more satisfying theory of Networked Competition than currently exists for NCW/NCO is emerging from this research...

  15. Dynamic speckle analysis using multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Alonso, José M; Alda, Javier; Rabal, Héctor; Grumel, Eduardo; Trivi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    In this work we use principal components analysis to characterize dynamic speckle patterns. This analysis quantitatively identifies different dynamics that could be associated to physical phenomena occurring in the sample. We also found the contribution explained by each principal component, or by a group of them. The method analyzes the paint drying process over a hidden topography. It can be used for fast screening and identification of different dynamics in biological or industrial samples by means of dynamic speckle interferometry. (paper)

  16. Advanced Imaging Techniques for Multiphase Flows Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoresano, A.; Langella, G.; Di Santo, M.; Iodice, P.

    2017-08-01

    Advanced numerical techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks have been applied in this work to digital images acquired on two applications, a centrifugal pump and a stationary spray in order to define, in a stochastic way, the gas-liquid interface evolution. Starting from the numeric matrix representing the image it is possible to characterize geometrical parameters and the time evolution of the jet. The algorithm used works with the fuzzy logic concept to binarize the chromatist of the pixels, depending them, by using the difference of the light scattering for the gas and the liquid phase.. Starting from a primary fixed threshold, the applied technique, can select the ‘gas’ pixel from the ‘liquid’ pixel and so it is possible define the first most probably boundary lines of the spray. Acquiring continuously the images, fixing a frame rate, a most fine threshold can be select and, at the limit, the most probably geometrical parameters of the jet can be detected.

  17. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  18. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  19. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M.J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.; Schneider, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel X-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g. hohlraums, etc.) at X-ray energies between 50 eV to 10 keV. It is a main diagnostics installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the X-ray diodes, filters and mirrors and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte-Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  20. 48 CFR 215.404-1 - Proposal analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposal analysis techniques. 215.404-1 Section 215.404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.404-1 Proposal analysis techniques. (1) Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-1 for...

  1. 48 CFR 15.404-1 - Proposal analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ensure a fair and reasonable price. Examples of such techniques include, but are not limited to, the... to the cost or price analysis of the service or product being proposed should also be included in the... techniques. (a) General. The objective of proposal analysis is to ensure that the final agreed-to price is...

  2. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  3. Analysis of Jordanian Cigarettes Using XRF Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullab, M.; Ismail, A.; AL-kofahi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen brands of Jordanian cigarettes were analyzed using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. These cigarettes were found to contain the elements: Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br.Rb and Sr. The major elements with concentrations of more than 1% by weight were Cl,K and Ca. The elements with minor concentrations, Between 0.1 and 1% by weight, were Si, S and P. The trace elements with concentrations below 0.1% by weight were Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr. The toxicity of some trace elements, like Br, Rb, and Sr, which are present in some brands of Jordanian cigarettes, is discussed. (Author's) 24 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  4. Evaluating Dynamic Analysis Techniques for Program Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, S.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Program comprehension is an essential part of software development and software maintenance, as software must be sufficiently understood before it can be properly modified. One of the common approaches in getting to understand a program is the study of its execution, also known as dynamic analysis.

  5. INVERSE FILTERING TECHNIQUES IN SPEECH ANALYSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    features in the speech process: (i) the resonant structure of the vocal-tract transfer function, i.e, formant analysis,. (ii) the glottal wave,. (iii) the fundamental frequency or pitch of the sound. During the production of speech, the configuration of the articulators: the vocal tract tongue, teeth, lips, etc, changes from one sound to.

  6. Microstructure analysis using SAXS/USAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Shojiro

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and ultra small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) is presented. SAXS is useful for microstructure analysis of age-hardenable alloys containing precipitates with several to several tens of nanometers in size. On the other hand, USAXS is appropriate to examine much larger microstructural heterogeneities, such as inclusions, voids, and large precipitates whose size is typically around one micrometer. Combining these two scattering methods, and sometimes also with diffractions, it is possible to assess the hierarchical structure of the samples in-situ and nondestructively, ranging from phase identification, quantitative analysis of precipitation structures upto their mesoscopic aggregates, large voids and inclusions. From technical viewpoint, USAXS requires some specific instrumentation for its optics. However, once a reasonable measurement was made, the analysis for the intensity is the same as that for conventional SAXS. In the present article, short introduction of conventional SAXS is presented, and then, the analysis is applied for a couple of USAXS data obtained for well-defined oxide particles whose average diameters are expected to be about 0.3 micrometers. (author)

  7. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  8. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  9. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  10. A methodological comparison of customer service analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Absher; Alan Graefe; Robert Burns

    2003-01-01

    Techniques used to analyze customer service data need to be studied. Two primary analysis protocols, importance-performance analysis (IP) and gap score analysis (GA), are compared in a side-by-side comparison using data from two major customer service research projects. A central concern is what, if any, conclusion might be different due solely to the analysis...

  11. Opaque spiral disks - Some empirical facts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, Edwin A.

    1990-01-01

    Results for the Sb and Sc galaxies, as obtained from the analysis of the optical ESO-LV data, are reviewed, and the implied constraints for the properties of the absorbing components in spiral disks are discussed. An alternative interpretation of flat rotation curves and a revised extinction model

  12. Nuclear techniques for analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The main purposes of this meeting were to establish the state-of-the-art in the field, to identify new research and development that is required to provide an adequate framework for analysis of environmental samples and to assess needs and possibilities for international cooperation in problem areas. This technical report was prepared on the subject based on the contributions made by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  13. Soft computing techniques in voltage security analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kabir

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on soft computing techniques for enhancing voltage security in electrical power networks. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been chosen as a soft computing tool, since such networks are eminently suitable for the study of voltage security. The different architectures of the ANNs used in this book are selected on the basis of intelligent criteria rather than by a “brute force” method of trial and error. The fundamental aim of this book is to present a comprehensive treatise on power system security and the simulation of power system security. The core concepts are substantiated by suitable illustrations and computer methods. The book describes analytical aspects of operation and characteristics of power systems from the viewpoint of voltage security. The text is self-contained and thorough. It is intended for senior undergraduate students and postgraduate students in electrical engineering. Practicing engineers, Electrical Control Center (ECC) operators and researchers will also...

  14. New analytical techniques for cuticle chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, H.R. [Fachhochschule Fresenius, Dept. of Trace Analysis, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    1) The analytical methodology of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) using soft ionization techniques by high electric fields (FL) are briefly described. Recent advances of Py-GC/MS and Py-FIMS for the analyses of complex organic matter such as plant materials, humic substances, dissolved organic matter in water (DOM) and soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural and forest soils are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of the applied methods. 2) Novel applications of Py-GC/MS and Py-MS in combination with conventional analytical data in an integrated, chemometric approach to investigate the dynamics of plant lipids are reported. This includes multivariate statistical investigations on maturation, senescence, humus genesis, and environmental damages in spruce ecosystems. 3) The focal point is the author`s integrated investigations on emission-induced changes of selected conifer plant constituents. Pattern recognition of Py-MS data of desiccated spruce needles provides a method for distinguishing needles damaged in different ways and determining the cause. Spruce needles were collected from both controls and trees treated with sulphur dioxide (acid rain), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone under controlled conditions. Py-MS and chemometric data evaluation are employed to characterize and classify leaves and their epicuticular waxes. Preliminary mass spectrometric evaluations of isolated cuticles of different plants such as spruce, ivy, holly, and philodendron, as well as ivy cuticles treated in vivo with air pollutants such as surfactants and pesticides are given. (orig.)

  15. New analytical techniques for cuticle chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    1) The analytical methodology of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) using soft ionization techniques by high electric fields (FL) are briefly described. Recent advances of Py-GC/MS and Py-FIMS for the analyses of complex organic matter such as plant materials, humic substances, dissolved organic matter in water (DOM) and soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural and forest soils are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of the applied methods. 2) Novel applications of Py-GC/MS and Py-MS in combination with conventional analytical data in an integrated, chemometric approach to investigate the dynamics of plant lipids are reported. This includes multivariate statistical investigations on maturation, senescence, humus genesis, and environmental damages in spruce ecosystems. 3) The focal point is the author's integrated investigations on emission-induced changes of selected conifer plant constituents. Pattern recognition of Py-MS data of desiccated spruce needles provides a method for distinguishing needles damaged in different ways and determining the cause. Spruce needles were collected from both controls and trees treated with sulphur dioxide (acid rain), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone under controlled conditions. Py-MS and chemometric data evaluation are employed to characterize and classify leaves and their epicuticular waxes. Preliminary mass spectrometric evaluations of isolated cuticles of different plants such as spruce, ivy, holly, and philodendron, as well as ivy cuticles treated in vivo with air pollutants such as surfactants and pesticides are given. (orig.)

  16. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  17. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions

  18. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN; Perez, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal's frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal's frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis

  19. Terahertz spectroscopic polarimetry of generalized anisotropic media composed of Archimedean spiral arrays: Experiments and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschaffenburg, Daniel J; Williams, Michael R C; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2016-05-07

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic polarimetry has been used to measure the polarization state of all spectral components in a broadband THz pulse upon transmission through generalized anisotropic media consisting of two-dimensional arrays of lithographically defined Archimedean spirals. The technique allows a full determination of the frequency-dependent, complex-valued transmission matrix and eigenpolarizations of the spiral arrays. Measurements were made on a series of spiral array orientations. The frequency-dependent transmission matrix elements as well as the eigenpolarizations were determined, and the eigenpolarizations were found be to elliptically corotating, as expected from their symmetry. Numerical simulations are in quantitative agreement with measured spectra.

  20. Techniques in micromagnetic simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in nanofabrication now allow us to manipulate magnetic material at micro- and nanoscales. As the steps of design, modelling and simulation typically precede that of fabrication, these improvements have also granted a significant boost to the methods of micromagnetic simulations (MSs) and analyses. The increased availability of massive computational resources has been another major contributing factor. Magnetization dynamics at micro- and nanoscale is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, which is an ordinary differential equation (ODE) in time. Several finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) based LLG solvers are now widely use to solve different kind of micromagnetic problems. In this review, we present a few patterns in the ways MSs are being used in the pursuit of new physics. An important objective of this review is to allow one to make a well informed decision on the details of simulation and analysis procedures needed to accomplish a given task using computational micromagnetics. We also examine the effect of different simulation parameters to underscore and extend some best practices. Lastly, we examine different methods of micromagnetic analyses which are used to process simulation results in order to extract physically meaningful and valuable information.

  1. Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Chi, K.Y.; Choi, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl - on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl - and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

  2. SpArcFiRe: morphological selection effects due to reduced visibility of tightly winding arms in distant spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianrui Rae; Edward English, John; Silva, Pedro; Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B.

    2018-03-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project has provided a plethora of valuable morphological data on a large number of galaxies from various surveys, and their team have identified and/or corrected for many biases. Here we study a new bias related to spiral arm pitch angles, which first requires selecting a sample of spiral galaxies that show observable structure. One obvious way is to select galaxies using a threshold in spirality, which we define as the fraction of Galaxy Zoo humans who have reported seeing spiral structure. Using such a threshold, we use the automated tool SpArcFiRe (SPiral ARC FInder and REporter) to measure spiral arm pitch angles. We observe that the mean pitch angle of spiral arms increases linearly with redshift for 0.05 learning algorithm trained on Galaxy Zoo data to provide a spirality for each artificially degraded image. We find that SpARcFiRe's ability to accurately measure pitch angles decreases as the image degrades, but that spirality decreases more quickly in galaxies with tightly wound arms, leading to the selection effect. This new bias means one must be careful in selecting a sample on which to measure spiral structure. Finally, we also include a sensitivity analysis of SpArcFiRe's internal parameters.

  3. 48 CFR 815.404-1 - Proposal analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposal analysis techniques. 815.404-1 Section 815.404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... techniques. (a) Contracting officers are responsible for the technical and administrative sufficiency of the...

  4. Canalplasty: the technique and the analysis of its results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, Erik; Ebbens, Fenna A.; Mirck, Peter G. B.; van Wettum, Cathelijne H. M.; van der Baan, Sieberen

    2013-01-01

    To describe the technique for canalplasty as performed in the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to present the results of this technique. Retrospective chart analysis. Charts of patients who underwent a canalplasty prodedure between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed for indication

  5. An operator expansion technique for path integral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of path integral analysis in the framework of a power series technique is presented. The method is based on the operator expansion of an exponential. A regular procedure to calculate the correction terms is found. (orig.)

  6. Search for the top quark using multivariate analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    The D0 collaboration is developing top search strategies using multivariate analysis techniques. We report here on applications of the H-matrix method to the eμ channel and neural networks to the e+jets channel

  7. The rotation of spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1983-06-24

    There is accumulating evidence that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is nonluminous and is clumped, halo-like, around individual galaxies. The gravitational force of this dark matter is presumed to be responsible for the high rotational velocities of stars and gas in the disks of spiral galaxie. At present, the form of the dark matter is unknown. Possible candidates span a range in mass of 10(70), from non-zero-mass neutrinos to massive black holes.

  8. New analysis technique for K-edge densitometry spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, Sin-Tao; Collins, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    A method for simulating absorption edge densitometry has been developed. This program enables one to simulate spectra containing any combination of special nuclear materials (SNM) in solution. The method has been validated with an analysis method using a single SNM in solution or a combination of two types of SNM separated by a Z of 2. A new analysis technique for mixed solutions has been developed. This new technique has broader applications and eliminates the need for bias correction

  9. Research on digital multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun; Ao Qi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques are developing in the direction of digitalization. Based on digital signal processing techniques, digital multi-channel analyzers are characterized by powerful pulse processing ability, high throughput, improved stability and flexibility. This paper analyzes key techniques of digital nuclear pulse processing. With MATLAB software, main algorithms are simulated, such as trapezoidal shaping, digital baseline estimation, digital pole-zero/zero-pole compensation, poles and zeros identification. The preliminary general scheme of digital MCA is discussed, as well as some other important techniques about its engineering design. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade digital nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  10. Development of environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been developing environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards and preparing a clean chemistry laboratory with clean rooms. Methods to be developed are a bulk analysis and a particle analysis. In the bulk analysis, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer or Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer are used to measure nuclear materials after chemical treatment of sample. In the particle analysis, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer are used for elemental analysis and isotopic analysis, respectively. The design of the clean chemistry laboratory has been carried out and construction will be completed by the end of March, 2001. (author)

  11. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  12. Key-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2007-09-01

    We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.

  13. A brain impact stress analysis using advanced discretization meshless techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco; Belinha, Jorge; Dinis, Lúcia Maria Js; Natal Jorge, Renato

    2018-03-01

    This work has the objective to compare the mechanical behaviour of a brain impact using an alternative numerical meshless technique. Thus, a discrete geometrical model of a brain was constructed using medical images. This technique allows to achieve a discretization with realistic geometry, allowing to define locally the mechanical properties according to the medical images colour scale. After defining the discrete geometrical model of the brain, the essential and natural boundary conditions were imposed to reproduce a sudden impact force. The analysis was performed using the finite element analysis and the radial point interpolation method, an advanced discretization technique. The results of both techniques are compared. When compared with the finite element analysis, it was verified that meshless methods possess a higher convergence rate and that they are capable of producing smoother variable fields.

  14. The DESIR Facility at SPIRAL2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Beams from the low-energy branch of the separator spectrometer S3 and from SPIRAL1 will allow complementary studies of refrac- tory elements produced by means of fusion reactions as well as of light and intense exotic beams, respectively. Keywords. SPIRAL2; low-energy facility; nuclear physics; weak interaction; astro-.

  15. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  16. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  17. Model for Simulating a Spiral Software-Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Curley, Charles; Nayak, Umanath

    2010-01-01

    A discrete-event simulation model, and a computer program that implements the model, have been developed as means of analyzing a spiral software-development process. This model can be tailored to specific development environments for use by software project managers in making quantitative cases for deciding among different software-development processes, courses of action, and cost estimates. A spiral process can be contrasted with a waterfall process, which is a traditional process that consists of a sequence of activities that include analysis of requirements, design, coding, testing, and support. A spiral process is an iterative process that can be regarded as a repeating modified waterfall process. Each iteration includes assessment of risk, analysis of requirements, design, coding, testing, delivery, and evaluation. A key difference between a spiral and a waterfall process is that a spiral process can accommodate changes in requirements at each iteration, whereas in a waterfall process, requirements are considered to be fixed from the beginning and, therefore, a waterfall process is not flexible enough for some projects, especially those in which requirements are not known at the beginning or may change during development. For a given project, a spiral process may cost more and take more time than does a waterfall process, but may better satisfy a customer's expectations and needs. Models for simulating various waterfall processes have been developed previously, but until now, there have been no models for simulating spiral processes. The present spiral-process-simulating model and the software that implements it were developed by extending a discrete-event simulation process model of the IEEE 12207 Software Development Process, which was built using commercially available software known as the Process Analysis Tradeoff Tool (PATT). Typical inputs to PATT models include industry-average values of product size (expressed as number of lines of code

  18. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  19. Meta-analysis in a nutshell: Techniques and general findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the technique and main findings of meta-analysis to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the field and has the usual objections. A meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature reporting estimates of the same parameter. The funnel showing...

  20. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  1. [TXRF technique and quantitative analysis of mollusc teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y; Liu, K; Wu, X; Zheng, S

    1999-06-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis technique and the instrument with a short path, high efficiency, low power and small volume are briefly presented. The detection limit of the system are at pg-level for Cu and Mo target excitation. Teeth of a marine mollusc were measured quantitatively and the spectrum and analysis results were given.

  2. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-01-01

    SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization. Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be benefi cial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  3. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization.Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be beneficial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  4. Kinematics analysis technique fouettes 720° classic ballet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletics practice proved that the more complex the item, the more difficult technique of the exercises. Fouettes at 720° one of the most difficult types of the fouettes. Its implementation is based on high technology during rotation of the performer. To perform this element not only requires good physical condition of the dancer, but also requires possession correct technique dancer. On the basis corresponding kinematic theory in this study, qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of fouettes at 720 by the best Chinese dancers. For analysis, was taken the method of stereoscopic images and the theoretical analysis.

  5. Diagnosis of simulated condylar bone defects using panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Fatemeh; Shokri, Abbas; Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Radiographic examination is one of the most important parts of the clinical assessment routine for temporomandibular disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) with panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography for the detection of the simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. The sample consisted of 10 TMJs from 5 dried human skulls. Simulated erosive and osteophytic lesions were created in 3 different sizes using round diamond bur and bone chips, respectively. Panoramic radiography, spiral tomography and cone-beam computed tomography were used in defect detection. Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. The reliability and degrees of agreement between two observers were also determined by the mean of Cohen's Kappa analysis. CBCT had a statistically significant superiority than other studied techniques in detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with different sizes. There were significant differences between tomography and panoramic in correct detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with 1mm and 1.5 mm in size. However, there were no significant differences between Tomography and Panoramic in correct detection of both erosive and osteophytic lesions with 0.5 mm in size. CBCT images provide a greater diagnostic accuracy than spiral tomography and panoramic radiography in the detection of condylar bone erosions and osteophytes. Key words:Bone defect, Condyle, CBCT, Panoramic, radiography.

  6. Managing Software Project Risks (Analysis Phase) with Proposed Fuzzy Regression Analysis Modelling Techniques with Fuzzy Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Elzamly, Abdelrafe; Hussin, Burairah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose new mining techniques by which we can study the impact of different risk management techniques and different software risk factors on software analysis development projects. The new mining technique uses the fuzzy multiple regression analysis techniques with fuzzy concepts to manage the software risks in a software project and mitigating risk with software process improvement. Top ten software risk factors in analysis phase and thirty risk management techni...

  7. New approach to the defibrillation problem: Suppression of the spiral wave activity of cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, A. Yu.; Vysotskiĭ, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A model of an excitable medium is considered for describing the development of fibrillation (i.e., spatiotemporal chaos) in cardiac tissue through the generation of a set of coexisting spiral waves. It is shown that a weak external point action on such a medium leads to the suppression of all spiral waves and, correspondingly, to the stabilization of the system dynamics. After reaching the regular regime, only the external source exists in the medium. The frequencies and amplitudes at which such stabilization occurs are determined. The case of the action of several point sources is considered. Analysis is performed using the Bray method to identify the number of spiral waves.

  8. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.

    The thesis describes and develops the theoretical foundations of the Random Decrement technique, while giving several examples of modal analysis of large building constructions (bridges). The connection between modal parameters and Random Decrement functions is described theoretically....... The efficiency of the Random Decrement technique for the estimation of correlation functions is compared to other equivalent methods (FFT, Direct method). It is shown that the Random Decrement technique can be as much as a hundred times faster than other methods. The theory behind the Random Decrement technique...... is expanded to include both a vector formulation that increases speed considerably, and a new method for the prediction of the variance of the estimated Random Decrement functions. The thesis closes with a number of examples of modal analysis of bridges exposed to natural (ambient) load....

  9. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, I.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  10. The Coordinate Transformations Method Combined with AutoLisp to the Archimedean Spiral Representation in Autocad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Cristian ALBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make the geometric model to the Archimedean spiral, curve often used in practice. Although it is a widely used, in AutoCAD there is no command with which to represent the Archimedean spiral. The method used for determining the mathematical relationships that define the spiral is the coordinate transformation, and for the calculation of the points which define it, is use AutoLISP, representation being made in AutoCAD. The result of this work is to develop an AutoLISP program which can represent the Archimedean spiral, presented a method that can be applied to the representation of any curves used in the technique.

  11. Distributed temperature sensing using a SPIRAL configuration ultrasonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2017-02-01

    Distributed temperature sensing has important applications in the long term monitoring of critical enclosures such as containment vessels, flue gas stacks, furnaces, underground storage tanks and buildings for fire risk. This paper presents novel techniques for such measurements, using wire in a spiral configuration and having special embodiments such a notch for obtaining wave reflections from desired locations. Transduction is performed using commercially available Piezo-electric crystal that is bonded to one end of the waveguide. Lower order axisymmetric guided ultrasonic modes were employed. Time of fight (TOF) differences between predefined reflectors located on the waveguides are used to infer temperature profile in a chamber with different temperatures. The L(0,1) wave mode (pulse echo approach) was generated/received in a spiral waveguide at different temperatures for this work. The ultrasonic measurements were compared with commercially available thermocouples.

  12. The value of spiral CT scan on fracture of ankle joint and tarsal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaoli; Liang Jingyin; Pan Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of spiral CT scan on the fracture of ankle joint and tarsal bones. Methods: 43 cases with the fracture of ankle joint and tarsal bones were collected and analyzed. All the cases were examined by plain film radiography and spiral CT thin slice scan. Multi-planar reformation (MPR), surface shaded display (SSD) and other techniques of image post-processing were performed in 35 cases of them. Results: Spiral CT scan could demonstrate more fractures than plain film radiography in 28 cases(65.1%). There are 15 cases (34.9%) which are normal in plain film radiography but abnormal in Spiral CT scan. Spiral CT could demonstrate the different length, width, direction and number of linear low density shadow. SSD and MPR were performed again in the cases with avulsion fracture and fragmental fracture to demonstrate the fracture direction and the shape, size and location of fragments more clearly. Conclusion: Spiral CT thin slice scan with image post-processing techniques can play an important role in fracture of ankle joint and tarsal bones. (authors)

  13. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  15. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  16. Image analysis techniques for the study of turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Simone

    In this paper, a brief review of Digital Image Analysis techniques employed in Fluid Mechanics for the study of turbulent flows is given. Particularly the focus is on the techniques developed by the research teams the Author worked in, that can be considered relatively "low cost" techniques. Digital Image Analysis techniques have the advantage, when compared to the traditional techniques employing physical point probes, to be non-intrusive and quasi-continuous in space, as every pixel on the camera sensor works as a single probe: consequently, they allow to obtain two-dimensional or three-dimensional fields of the measured quantity in less time. Traditionally, the disadvantages are related to the frequency of acquisition, but modern high-speed cameras are typically able to acquire at frequencies from the order of 1 KHz to the order of 1 MHz. Digital Image Analysis techniques can be employed to measure concentration, temperature, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure fields with similar equipment and setups, and can be consequently considered as a flexible and powerful tool for measurements on turbulent flows.

  17. Image analysis techniques for the study of turbulent flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Simone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brief review of Digital Image Analysis techniques employed in Fluid Mechanics for the study of turbulent flows is given. Particularly the focus is on the techniques developed by the research teams the Author worked in, that can be considered relatively “low cost” techniques. Digital Image Analysis techniques have the advantage, when compared to the traditional techniques employing physical point probes, to be non-intrusive and quasi-continuous in space, as every pixel on the camera sensor works as a single probe: consequently, they allow to obtain two-dimensional or three-dimensional fields of the measured quantity in less time. Traditionally, the disadvantages are related to the frequency of acquisition, but modern high-speed cameras are typically able to acquire at frequencies from the order of 1 KHz to the order of 1 MHz. Digital Image Analysis techniques can be employed to measure concentration, temperature, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure fields with similar equipment and setups, and can be consequently considered as a flexible and powerful tool for measurements on turbulent flows.

  18. An integrated technique for the analysis of skin bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Herman; Owen, Johanna H; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore

    2008-01-01

    The high number of murder, rape, and child abuse cases in South Africa has led to increased numbers of bite mark cases being heard in high courts. Objective analysis to match perpetrators to bite marks at crime scenes must be able to withstand vigorous cross-examination to be of value in conviction of perpetrators. An analysis technique is described in four stages, namely determination of the mark to be a human bite mark, pattern association analysis, metric analysis and comparison with the population data, and illustrated by a real case study. New and accepted techniques are combined to determine the likelihood ratio of guilt expressed as one of a range of conclusions described in the paper. Each stage of the analysis adds to the confirmation (or rejection) of concordance between the dental features present on the victim and the dentition of the suspect. The results illustrate identification to a high degree of certainty.

  19. Analisa Kekuatan Spiral Bevel Gear Dengan Variasi Sudut Spiral Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deta Rachmat Andika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan zaman,  teknologi roda gigi dituntut untuk mampu mentransmisikan daya yang besar dengan efisiensi yang besar pula. Pada jenis intersecting shaft gear, tipe roda gigi payung spiral (spiral bevel gear  merupakan perkembangan dari roda gigi payung bergigi lurus (straight bevel gear. Kelebihan dari spiral bevel gear antara  lain adalah kemampuan transmisi daya dan efisiensi yang lebih besar pada geometri yang sama serta tidak terlalu berisik. Akan tetapi spiral bevel gear juga mempunyai kelemahan jika dibandingkan dengan straight bevel gear. Selain proses manufaktur yang lebih rumit, profil lengkung gigi spiral ini membuat distribusi tegangan yang terjadi menjadi lebih rumit untuk dimodelkan dengan persamaan matematika. Salah satu pendekatan yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan metode elemen hingga. Penelitian diawali dengan membuat model dari straight bevel gear dan juga spiral bevel gear yang sudut spiralnya divariasikan 20, 35, dan 45 derajat. Model dibuat dengan dimensi yang sama baik diameter maupun jumlah gigi gear. Langkah selanjutnya yaitu perhitungan analitis pada straight bevel gear dimana hasilnya akan dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi statis. Setelah eror yang terjadi dibawah 15% maka dilakukan simulasi dinamis pada semua model yang telah dibuat yaitu straight bevel dan juga spira bevel gear. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah secara keseluruhan spiral bevel gear lebih kuat daripada straight bevel gear pada dimensi dan beban yang sama jika dilihat dari lebih kecilnya tegangan bending dan tegangan kontak maksimum yang terjadi. Tegangan terbesar terjadi pada jenis straight bevel gear baik pada tegangan bending maupun tegangan kontak sedangkan spiral bevel gear dengan variasi sudut Seiring spiral 35 mempunyai nilai tegangan terkecil. Prosntase selisih tegangan bending maksimum yang terjadi antara straight bevel gear dan spiral bevel gear dengan variasi sudut spiral 35 derajat  sebesar 44

  20. Using Machine Learning Techniques in the Analysis of Oceanographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, K. E.; Abuomar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) are oceanographic tools capable of collecting large amounts of current profile data. Using unsupervised machine learning techniques such as principal component analysis, fuzzy c-means clustering, and self-organizing maps, patterns and trends in an ADCP dataset are found. Cluster validity algorithms such as visual assessment of cluster tendency and clustering index are used to determine the optimal number of clusters in the ADCP dataset. These techniques prove to be useful in analysis of ADCP data and demonstrate potential for future use in other oceanographic applications.

  1. On Density Waves in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    The spiral structure of five ordinary spiral galaxies was studied using deep BVIK' surface photometry maps obtained at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. The detailed shape of the arms was analyzed in terms of the spiral density wave theory. Grand design spirals were found on the K' maps in all five galaxies although at least two would be classified as flocculent on the blue images. In several of the galaxies, bulges with weak oval distortion (~10%) were observed. Dust spirals also continue, in some cases, inside the ILR where the stellar arms terminate. This emphasizes the strong bias of morphological classifications of spiral galaxies based on blue image due to dust and young stars. The 2--armed spirals were systematically found to be wound tighter on I than on K' maps suggesting the existence of a density wave. Locations of the ILR and the 4/1 resonance were estimated based on the arm morphology and the amplitude ratio between the m = 2,4 Fourier components. The wavenumber of the stellar 2--armed pattern is increasing towards the ILR which could suggest that the density wave is associated to the long waved branch of the dispersion relation. A possible scenario is discussed.

  2. Spiral arms in thermally stratified protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Attila; Rosotti, Giovanni P.

    2018-02-01

    Spiral arms have been observed in nearly a dozen protoplanetary discs in near-infrared scattered light and recently also in the submillimetre continuum. While one of the most compelling explanations is that they are driven by planetary or stellar companions, in all but one cases such companions have not yet been detected and there is even ambiguity on whether the planet should be located inside or outside the spirals. Here, we use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to study the morphology of spiral density waves launched by embedded planets taking into account the vertical temperature gradient, a natural consequence of stellar irradiation. Our simulations show that the pitch angle of the spirals in thermally stratified discs is the lowest in the disc mid-plane and increases towards the disc surface. We combine the hydrodynamic simulations with 3D radiative transfer calculations to predict that the pitch angle of planetary spirals observed in the near-infrared is higher than in the submillimetre. We also find that in both cases the spirals converge towards the planet. This provides a new powerful observational method to determine if the perturbing planet is inside or outside the spirals, as well as map the thermal stratification of the disc.

  3. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  4. Conference on Techniques of Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text : With their wide scope, particularly in the areas of environment, geology, mining, industry and life sciences; analysis techniques are of great importance in research as fundamental and applied. The Conference on Techniques for Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications (TANCA) are Registered in the national strategy of opening of the University and national research centers on their local, national and international levels. This conference aims to: Promoting nuclear and conventional analytical techniques; Contribute to the creation of synergy between the different players involved in these techniques include, Universities, Research Organizations, Regulatory Authorities, Economic Operators, NGOs and others; Inform and educate potential users of the performance of these techniques; Strengthen exchanges and links between researchers, industry and policy makers; Implement a program of inter-laboratory comparison between Moroccan one hand, and their foreign counterparts on the other; Contribute to the research training of doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars. Given the relevance and importance of the issues related to environment and impact on cultural heritage, this fourth edition of TANCA is devoted to the application of analytical techniques for conventional and nuclear Questions ied to environment and its impact on cultural heritage.

  5. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Emmerik, Richard E.A.; Ducharme, Scott W.; Amado, Avelino C.; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new stat...

  6. Multidimensional scaling technique for analysis of magnetic storms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Multidimensional scaling is a powerful technique for analysis of data. The latitudinal dependence of geomagnetic field ..... at best an approximation of the real situation but still it may contain a surprising amount of useful .... (oscillations) is a function of latitude and local time. Close to the dip equator just south of Trivan-.

  7. Regression Commonality Analysis: A Technique for Quantitative Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), it is common for social and behavioral science researchers to rely predominately on beta weights when evaluating how predictors contribute to a regression model. Presenting an underutilized statistical technique, this article describes how organizational researchers can use commonality…

  8. Study and analysis of wavelet based image compression techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented comprehensive study with performance analysis of very recent Wavelet transform based image compression techniques. Image compression is one of the necessities for such communication. The goals of image compression are to minimize the storage requirement and communication bandwidth.

  9. Evolution of the sedimentation technique for particle size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, R.

    1998-01-01

    After an introduction on the significance of particle size measurements, sedimentation methods are described, with emphasis on the evolution of the gravitational approach. The gravitational technique based on mass determination by X-ray adsorption allows fast analysis by automation and easy data handling, in addition to providing the accuracy required by quality control and research applications [it

  10. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the work carried out within the project: Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique - Application to Civil Engineering Structures. The project is part of the research programme: Dynamics of Structures sponsored by the Danish Technical Research Counsil. The planned...

  11. Metric Distance Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fuzzy critical path analysis of a project network is carried out. Metric distance ranking technique is used to order fuzzy numbers during the forward and backward pass computations to obtain the earliest start, earliest finish, latest start and latest finish times of the project's activities. A numerical example is ...

  12. Technologies and microstructures for separation techniques in chemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, Vincent L.; Spiering, V.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; van den Berg, Albert; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities for microtechnology in chemical analysis and separation techniques are discussed. The combination of the materials and the dimensions of structures can limit the sample and waste volumes on the one hand, but also increases the performance of the chemical systems. Especially in high

  13. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  14. Evaluation of Analysis Techniques for Fluted-Core Sandwich Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    Buckling-critical launch-vehicle structures require structural concepts that have high bending stiffness and low mass. Fluted-core, also known as truss-core, sandwich construction is one such concept. In an effort to identify an analysis method appropriate for the preliminary design of fluted-core cylinders, the current paper presents and compares results from several analysis techniques applied to a specific composite fluted-core test article. The analysis techniques are evaluated in terms of their ease of use and for their appropriateness at certain stages throughout a design analysis cycle (DAC). Current analysis techniques that provide accurate determination of the global buckling load are not readily applicable early in the DAC, such as during preliminary design, because they are too costly to run. An analytical approach that neglects transverse-shear deformation is easily applied during preliminary design, but the lack of transverse-shear deformation results in global buckling load predictions that are significantly higher than those from more detailed analysis methods. The current state of the art is either too complex to be applied for preliminary design, or is incapable of the accuracy required to determine global buckling loads for fluted-core cylinders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for calculating global buckling loads of fluted-core cylinders that includes transverse-shear deformations, and that can be easily incorporated in preliminary design.

  15. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  16. Spiraling in Urban Streams: A Novel Approach to Link Geomorphic Structure with Ecosystem Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R. A.; Lafrenz, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the relationship between channel complexity and nutrient spiraling along several reaches of an urbanized watershed in Portland, Oregon. Much research points to the effect urbanization has on watershed hydrology and nutrient loading at the watershed scale for various sized catchments. However the flux of nutrients over short reaches within a stream channel has been less studied because of the effort and costs associated with fieldwork and subsequent laboratory analysis of both surface and hyporheic water samples. In this study we explore a novel approach at capturing connectivity though nutrient spiraling along several short reaches (less than 100-meter) within the highly urbanized Fanno Creek watershed (4400 hectares). We measure channel complexity-sinuosity, bed material texture, organic matter-and use these measurements to determine spatial autocorrelation of 50 reaches in Fanno Creek, a small, urban watershed in Portland, Oregon. Using ion-selective electrodes, the fluxes of nitrate and ammonia are measured within each reach, which when combined with channel geometry and velocity measurements allow us to transform the values of nitrate and ammonia fluxes into spiraling metrics. Along each sampled reach, we collected three surface water samples to characterize nutrient amounts at the upstream, midstream, and downstream position of the reach. Two additional water samples were taken from the left and right bank hyporheic zones at a depth just below the armor layer of the channel bed using mini-piezometers and a hand-pumped vacuum device, which we constructed for this purpose. Adjacent to the hyporheic samples soil cores were collected and analyzed for organic matter composition, bulk density, and texture. We hypothesize that spiral metrics will respond significantly to the measured channel complexity values and will be a more robust predictor of nutrient flux than land cover characteristics in the area draining to each reach

  17. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  18. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  19. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  20. Extracted image analysis: a technique for deciphering mediated portrayals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D H; Coutts, L B

    1995-01-01

    A technique for analyzing print media that we have developed as a consequence of our interest in the portrayal of women in menstrual product advertising is reported. The technique, which we call extracted image analysis, involves a unique application of grounded theory and the concomitant heuristic use of the concept of ideal type (Weber, 1958). It provides a means of heuristically conceptualizing the answer to a variant of the "What is going on here?" question asked in analysis of print communication, that is, "Who is being portrayed/addressed here?" Extracted image analysis involves the use of grounded theory to develop ideal typologies. Because the technique re-constructs the ideal types embedded in a communication, it possesses considerable potential as a means of identifying the profiles of members of identifiable groups held by the producers of the directed messages. In addition, the analysis of such portrayals over time would be particularly well suited to extracted image analysis. A number of other possible applications are also suggested.

  1. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Description of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. Then, in the second and concluding part of this presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  2. Sensitivity analysis technique for application to deterministic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, T.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Unwin, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of sever accident source terms for light water reactors should include consideration of uncertainties. An important element of any uncertainty analysis is an evaluation of the sensitivity of the output probability distributions reflecting source term uncertainties to assumptions regarding the input probability distributions. Historically, response surface methods (RSMs) were developed to replace physical models using, for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for extensive calculations. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for sensitivity analysis that does not utilize RSM, but instead relies directly on the results obtained from the original computer code calculations. The merits of this approach are demonstrated by application of the proposed method to the suppression pool aerosol removal code (SPARC), and the results are compared with those obtained by sensitivity analysis with (a) the code itself, (b) a regression model, and (c) Iman's method

  3. Cylindrical spirals in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Karpati, G; Robitaille, Y; Melmed, C

    1979-01-01

    Muscle biopsies from two patients revealed that numerous type 2 fibers contained large abnormal areas filled with cylindrical spirals. The cytochemical profile of these cylindrical spirals was sufficiently characteristic that they could be distinguished from tubular aggregates. Their electron microscopic appearance was unmistakable. Their origin and significance are uncertain. The diverse nature of the patients' conditions (cramps and malignancy, and an unusual form of spinocerebellar degeneration) indicate that these abnormal structures are not disease specific.

  4. Wavelet Scattering on the Pitch Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Lostanlen, Vincent; Mallat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We present a new representation of harmonic sounds that linearizes the dynamics of pitch and spectral envelope, while remaining stable to deformations in the time-frequency plane. It is an instance of the scattering transform, a generic operator which cascades wavelet convolutions and modulus nonlinearities. It is derived from the pitch spiral, in that convolutions are successively performed in time, log-frequency, and octave index. We give a closed-form approximation of spiral scattering coe...

  5. FINE-GRAINEDCELLULAR CONCRETE CREEP ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE WITH CONSIDERATION FORCARBONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gaziev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the creep and creep deformation analysis technique in fine-grainedcellular concrete with consideration for carbonation and assurance requirements for the repairing properties and seismic stability. The procedure for determining the creep of fine-grainedcellular concrete is proposed with account of its carbonationby atmospheric carbon dioxide. It has been found theoretically and experimentally that the proposed technique allows obtaining reproducible results and can be recommended for creep determination of fine-grainedcellular concretes, including repairingones, taking into account their carbonation.

  6. Maximum entropy technique in the doublet structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashev, B.Z.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Shakhaliev, Eh.I.; Soroko, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Technique (MENT) for solution of the inverse problems is explained. The effective computer program for resolution of the nonlinear equations system encountered in the MENT has been developed and tested. The possibilities of the MENT have been demonstrated on the example of the MENT in the doublet structure analysis of noisy experimental data. The comparison of the MENT results with results of the Fourier algorithm technique without regularization is presented. The tolerant noise level is equal to 30% for MENT and only 0.1% for the Fourier algorithm

  7. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  8. Evaluation of Damping Using Frequency Domain Operational Modal Analysis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Anela; Georgakis, Christos T.; Brincker, Rune

    2015-01-01

    separated and closely spaced modes. Finally, the results of the numerical study are presented, in which the error of the structural damping estimates obtained by each OMA technique is shown for a range of damping levels. From this, it is clear that there are notable differences in accuracy between......Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques provide in most cases reasonably accurate estimates of structural frequencies and mode shapes. In contrast though, they are known to often produce uncertain structural damping estimates, which is mainly due to inherent random and/or bias errors...

  9. Curvature-driven bubbles or droplets on the spiral surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin; Hou, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Directional motion of droplets or bubbles can often be observed in nature and our daily life, and this phenomenon holds great potential in many engineering areas. The study shows that droplets or bubbles can be driven to migrate perpetually on some special substrates, such as the Archimedean spiral, the logarithmic spiral and a cantilever sheet in large deflection. It is found that a bubble approaches or deviates from the position with highest curvature of the substrate, when it is on the concave or convex side. This fact is helpful to explain the repelling water capability of Nepenthes alata. Based on the force and energy analysis, the mechanism of the bubble migration is well addressed. These findings pave a new way to accurately manipulate droplet or bubble movement, which bring inspirations to the design of microfluidic and water harvesting devices, as well as oil displacement and ore filtration.

  10. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  11. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L) J , as a function of (g – i) versus (i – J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  12. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A., E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx, E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  13. Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.

  14. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with spiral and electron-beam CT; Diagnostik der Lungenembolie mit Spiral- und Elektronenstrahl-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepf, U.J.; Bruening, R.D.; Becker, C.R.; Konschitzky, H.; Muehling, O.; Staebler, A.; Helmberger, T.; Holzknecht, N.; Reiser, M.F. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Knez, A.; Haberl, R. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 1

    1998-12-01

    Purpose: To compare spiral (SCT) and electron-beam CT (EBT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: From June 1997 to June 1998 188 patients with suspected acute or chronic thrombembolism of the pulmonary arteries were examined. A total of 108 patients were scanned using SCT and 80 patients using EBT. On each scanner two different scan protocols were evaluated. Conclusions: Advanced CT scanning techniques allow the highly accurate diagnosis of central and peripheral PE. Other potentially life-threatening underlying diseases are also readily recognized. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Spiral-CT (SCT) und Elektronenstrahlcomputertomographie (EBT) sollten hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung fuer die Diagnostik der Lungenembolie (LE) verglichen werden. Methode: Von Juni 1997 bis Juni 1998 wurden 188 Patienten mit Verdacht auf akute oder chronische thrombembolische Veraenderungen der Lungenarterien untersucht. Die CT-Diagnostik erfolgte dabei bei 108 Patienten mit Spiral-CT und bei 80 Patienten mit EBT. Schlussfolgerungen: Moderne CT-Scan-Verfahren erlauben mit hoher Genauigkeit die Diagnose der zentralen und peripheren Lungenembolie. Die EBT bietet Vorteile in der Darstellung herznaher peripherer Lungenarterien. Andere lebendsbedrohliche Ursachen fuer die Beschwerden des Patienten werden mit der CT sicher erkannt. (orig./AJ)

  15. TURBULENCE AND STAR FORMATION IN A SAMPLE OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University 527 S Beaver Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: erin-maier@uiowa.edu, E-mail: Lisa.Chien@nau.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We investigate turbulent gas motions in spiral galaxies and their importance to star formation in far outer disks, where the column density is typically far below the critical value for spontaneous gravitational collapse. Following the methods of Burkhart et al. on the Small Magellanic Cloud, we use the third and fourth statistical moments, as indicators of structures caused by turbulence, to examine the neutral hydrogen (H i) column density of a sample of spiral galaxies selected from The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We apply the statistical moments in three different methods—the galaxy as a whole, divided into a function of radii and then into grids. We create individual grid maps of kurtosis for each galaxy. To investigate the relation between these moments and star formation, we compare these maps with their far-ultraviolet images taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite.We find that the moments are largely uniform across the galaxies, in which the variation does not appear to trace any star-forming regions. This may, however, be due to the spatial resolution of our analysis, which could potentially limit the scale of turbulent motions that we are sensitive to greater than ∼700 pc. From comparison between the moments themselves, we find that the gas motions in our sampled galaxies are largely supersonic. This analysis also shows that the Burkhart et al. methods may be applied not just to dwarf galaxies but also to normal spiral galaxies.

  16. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  18. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs

  19. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  20. Three-dimensional cephalometry: spiral multi-slice vs cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Gwen R J; Schutyser, Filip

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial imaging techniques are becoming increasingly popular and have opened new possibilities for orthodontic assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Recently, a new 3D cephalometric method based on spiral multi-slice (MS) computed tomography (CT) was developed and validated by our research group. This innovative 3D virtual approach is a bridge between conventional cephalometry and modern craniofacial imaging techniques and provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable quantitative 3D data. The aim of this article was to describe the advantages and the disadvantages of spiral MS-CT 3D cephalometry and to discuss the potential of cone-beam CT 3D cephalometry.

  1. New trends in sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra S; Gonçalves, Virgínia M F; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Environmental samples include a wide variety of complex matrices, with low concentrations of analytes and presence of several interferences. Sample preparation is a critical step and the main source of uncertainties in the analysis of environmental samples, and it is usually laborious, high cost, time consuming, and polluting. In this context, there is increasing interest in developing faster, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Recently, new methods have been developed and optimized in order to miniaturize extraction steps, to reduce solvent consumption or become solventless, and to automate systems. This review attempts to present an overview of the fundamentals, procedure, and application of the most recently developed sample preparation techniques for the extraction, cleanup, and concentration of organic pollutants from environmental samples. These techniques include: solid phase microextraction, on-line solid phase extraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe).

  2. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  3. Optical image encryption in Fresnel domain using spiral phase transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we propose a new nonlinear optical image encryption technique using spiral phase transform (SPT). First, the primary image is phase encoded and multiplied with a random amplitude mask (RAM), and using power function, the product is then powered to m. This powered output is Fresnel propagated with distance z 1 and then modulated with a random phase mask (RPM). The modulated image is further Fresnel propagated with distance z 2. Similarly, a security image is also modulated with another RAM and then Fresnel propagated with distance z 3. Next, the two modulated images after Fresnel propagations, are interfered and further Fresnel propagated with distance z 4 to get a complex image. Finally, this complex image is SPT with particular spiral phase function (SPF), to get the final encrypted image for transmission. In the proposed technique, the security keys are Fresnel propagation distances, the security image, RPM, RAMs, power order, m, and order of SPF, q. Numerical simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is robust against noise and brutal force attacks.

  4. Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehner, Raymond P.; Tissot, Ralph G. Jr.; Michael, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 microm to 100 microm. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30 microm glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has been

  5. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  6. The analysis of gastric function using computational techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Young, P

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, between October 1996 and June 2000. This thesis describes the application of computerised techniques to the analysis of gastric function, in relation to Magnetic Resonance Imaging data. The implementation of a computer program enabling the measurement of motility in the lower stomach is described in Chapter 6. This method allowed the dimensional reduction of multi-slice image data sets into a 'Motility Plot', from which the motility parameters - the frequency, velocity and depth of contractions - could be measured. The technique was found to be simple, accurate and involved substantial time savings, when compared to manual analysis. The program was subsequently used in the measurement of motility in three separate studies, described in Chapter 7. In Study 1, four different meal types of varying viscosity and nutrient value were consumed by 12 volunteers. The aim of...

  7. On discriminant analysis techniques and correlation structures in high dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    the methods in two: Those who assume independence between the variables and thus use a diagonal estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, and those who assume dependence between the variables and thus use an estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, which also estimates the correlations between......This paper compares several recently proposed techniques for performing discriminant analysis in high dimensions, and illustrates that the various sparse methods dier in prediction abilities depending on their underlying assumptions about the correlation structures in the data. The techniques...... generally focus on two things: Obtaining sparsity (variable selection) and regularizing the estimate of the within-class covariance matrix. For high-dimensional data, this gives rise to increased interpretability and generalization ability over standard linear discriminant analysis. Here, we group...

  8. Technique Triangulation for Validation in Directed Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M. Humble PhD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor in wedding planning varies for first-time marriages, with three types of couples—traditional, transitional, and egalitarian—identified, but nothing is known about wedding planning for remarrying individuals. Using semistructured interviews, the author interviewed 14 couples in which at least one person had remarried and used directed content analysis to investigate the extent to which the aforementioned typology could be transferred to this different context. In this paper she describes how a triangulation of analytic techniques provided validation for couple classifications and also helped with moving beyond “blind spots” in data analysis. Analytic approaches were the constant comparative technique, rank order comparison, and visual representation of coding, using MAXQDA 2007's tool called TextPortraits.

  9. Contributions to flow techniques and mass spectrometry in water analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Inês Carvalho dos

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the use of different flow systems was exploited along with the use of different detection techniques for the development of simple, robust, and automated analytical procedures. With the purpose to perform in-line sample handling and pretreatment operations, different separation units were used. The main target for these methods was waters samples. The first procedure was based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system for carbon speciation (alkalinity, dis...

  10. Analysis of Indian silver coins by EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, B.B.; Rautray, T.R.; Das, Satya R.; Das, Manas R.; Vijayan, V.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of some of the Indian silver coins during British rule were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Technique. Eight elements namely Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag and Pb were estimated in this study which also seems to indicate the fragmentation as well as the impoverishment of the power for the regimes that had produced the studied coins. While Cu and Ag were present as major elements, other elements were found to be present in minor concentration. (author)

  11. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  12. Meta-analysis of surgical techniques for preventing parotidectomy sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Joseph M; King, Nancy; Reiter, David; Fisher, Kyle; Heffelfinger, Ryan N; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on surgical methods for the prevention of Frey syndrome and concave facial deformity after parotidectomy. A PubMed search through February 2008 identified more than 60 English-language studies involving surgical techniques for prevention of these parameters. Analyzed works included 15 retrospective or prospective controlled studies reporting quantitative data for all included participants for 1 or more of the measured parameters in patients who had undergone parotidectomy. Report quality was assessed by the strength of taxonomy recommendation (SORT) score. Data were directly extracted from reports and dichotomized into positive and negative outcomes. The statistical significance was then calculated. The mean SORT score for all studies was 2.34, and the mean SORT score for all the analyzed studies was 1.88. Meta-analysis for multiple techniques to prevent symptomatic Frey syndrome, positive starch-iodine test results, and contour deformity favored intervention with a cumulative odds ratio (OR) of 3.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.81-5.34); OR, 3.66 (95% CI; 2.32-5.77); and OR, 5.25 (95% CI, 3.57-7.72), respectively. Meta-analysis of operative techniques to prevent symptomatic Frey syndrome, positive starch-iodine test results, and facial asymmetry suggests that such methods are likely to reduce the incidence of these complications after parotidectomy.

  13. Multivariate Analysis Techniques for Optimal Vision System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara

    The present thesis considers optimization of the spectral vision systems used for quality inspection of food items. The relationship between food quality, vision based techniques and spectral signature are described. The vision instruments for food analysis as well as datasets of the food items...... and simplifcation of the design of practical vision systems....... used in this thesis are described. The methodological strategies are outlined including sparse regression and pre-processing based on feature selection and extraction methods, supervised versus unsupervised analysis and linear versus non-linear approaches. One supervised feature selection algorithm...

  14. Characterization of decommissioned reactor internals: Monte Carlo analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.D.; Love, E.F.; Luksic, A.T.

    1993-03-01

    This study discusses computer analysis techniques for determining activation levels of irradiated reactor component hardware to yield data for the Department of Energy's Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Program. The study recommends the Monte Carlo Neutron/Photon (MCNP) computer code as the best analysis tool for this application and compares the technique to direct sampling methodology. To implement the MCNP analysis, a computer model would be developed to reflect the geometry, material composition, and power history of an existing shutdown reactor. MCNP analysis would then be performed using the computer model, and the results would be validated by comparison to laboratory analysis results from samples taken from the shutdown reactor. The report estimates uncertainties for each step of the computational and laboratory analyses; the overall uncertainty of the MCNP results is projected to be ±35%. The primary source of uncertainty is identified as the material composition of the components, and research is suggested to address that uncertainty

  15. Some INDRA experiments on SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cussol, D.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    A panel joining members of INDRA collaboration and physicists off collaboration was gathered to debate the question whether the INDRA detector, designed to study multifragmentation with beams of stable nuclei, could be used also in experiments with beams of exotic nuclei. Four experiments were discussed as well as the implied detector modifications. In the frame of experiments with SISSI the study of the multifragmentation as a function of N/Z of the system should answer questions related to the system stability as a function of N/Z and origin of the particles emitted during the collision. Among the experiments with SPIRAL to study de-excitation of hot nuclei the following topics were examined: nuclear stability as a function of N/Z, α-n competition, emission of neutron-rich particles as a function of N/Z, evolution of emission modes near the shell closure. The de-excitation of the resonant excited states through 2p decay will be studied in the following three channels: 1p-1p sequential decay, un-correlated simultaneous 2p emission and correlated simultaneous 2p emission ( 2 He emission). Such experiments were carried out on 6 Be, 12 O and 14 O. The only first two channels were observed so far. The 16 Ne could be a good candidate to observe the third channel. Finally sub-barrier Coulomb fusion experiments were also discussed. Concerning the modifications to be undertaken on INDRA detector two were obvious: a modification at the level of electronics to make possible time-of-flight measurements with silicon detectors and transformations of ionization chambers in Bragg chambers. Simulation studies are under way to test the pertinence and validity of the solution

  16. Spiral and Rotor Patterns Produced by Fairy Ring Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, N.; Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil fungi fill many essential ecological and biogeochemical roles, e.g. decomposing litter, redistributing nutrients, and promoting biodiversity. Fairy ring fungi offer a rare glimpse into the otherwise opaque spatiotemporal dynamics of soil fungal growth, because subsurface mycelial patterns can be inferred from observations at the soil's surface. These observations can be made directly when the fungi send up fruiting bodies (e.g., mushrooms and toadstools), or indirectly via the effect the fungi have on neighboring organisms. Grasses in particular often temporarily thrive on the nutrients liberated by the fungus, creating bands of rich, dark green turf at the edge of the fungal mat. To date, only annular (the "ring" in fairy ring) and arc patterns have been described in the literature. We report observations of novel spiral and rotor pattern formation in fairy ring fungi, as seen in publically available high-resolution aerial imagery of 22 sites across the continental United States. To explain these new behaviors, we first demonstrate that a well-known model describing fairy ring formation is equivalent to the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion model, which is known to support a wide range of dynamical behaviors, including annular traveling waves, rotors, spirals, and stable spatial patterns including spots and stripes. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulation are then used to define the region of parameter space that supports spiral and rotor formation. We find that this region is adjacent to one within which typical fairy rings develop. Model results suggest simple experimental procedures that could potentially induce traditional ring structures to exhibit rotor or spiral dynamics. Intriguingly, the Gray-Scott model predicts that these same procedures could be used to solicit even richer patterns, including spots and stripes, which have not yet been identified in the field.

  17. RFID Tag Design Using Spiral Resonators and Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veysi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple generalized approach to design a compact chipless radio frequency identification tag. The proposed chipless tag encodes data into the spectral signature using a set of spiral resonators on both sides of substrate. Transmission amplitude component of the tag is used for data encoding. For miniaturization purpose, defected ground structure is used to reduce the circuit size by half compared to the conventional cascading technique. The proposed chipless tag operates between 4-6 GHz and produces 256 different binary strings through eight encoded bits. Measurement and simulation results verify the authenticity of this design.

  18. Application of Microfluidic Techniques to Pyrochemical Salt Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Launiere, C.; Smith, N.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques enable production of micro-samples of molten salt for analysis by at-line and off-line sensors and detectors. These sampling systems are intended for implementation in an electrochemical used fuel treatment facility as part of the material balance and control system. Microfluidics may reduce random statistical error associated with sampling inhomogeneity because a large number of uniform sub-microlitre droplets may be generated and successively analyzed. The approach combines two immiscible fluids in a microchannel under laminar flow conditions to generate slug flows. Because the slug flow regime is characterized by regularly sized and spaced droplets, it is commonly used in low-volume/high-throughput assays of aqueous and organic phases. This scheme is now being applied to high-temperature molten salts in combination with a second fluid that is stable at elevated temperatures. The microchip systems are being tested to determine the channel geometries and absolute and relative phase flow rates required to achieve stable slug flow. Because imaging is difficult at the 5000 C process temperatures the fluorescence of salt ions under ultraviolet illumination is used to discern flow regimes. As molten chloride melts are optically transparent, UV-visible light spectroscopy is also being explored as a spectroscopic technique for integration with at-line microchannel systems to overcome some of the current challenges to in situ analysis. A second technique that is amenable to droplet analysis is Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). A pneumatic droplet generator is being interfaced with a LIBS system for analysis of molten salts at near-process temperatures. Tests of the pneumatic generator are being run using water and molten salts, and in tandem with off-line analysis of the salt droplets with a LIBS spectrometer. (author)

  19. Characterization of arterial stenosis using 3D imaging: comparison between three imaging techniques (MRA, spiral CTA and 3D DSA) and four display methods (MIP, SR, MPVR, VA) in a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendib, K.; Poirier, C.; Croisille, P.; Roux, J.P.; Devel, D.; Amiel, M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction: accurate assessment of arterial stenosis is a major public health issue for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The number of imaging techniques and types of software for display of imaging data is increasing. Few studies that compare these different techniques are available in the literature. Materials and methods: using phantoms to reproduce the main types of arterial stenosis, the authors compared three 3D acquisition techniques (MRA, CTA, and 3D DSA) and four types of display methods (MIP, SR, MPVR, and VA). The degree, the shape, and the location of different types of stenoses were analyzed by three experienced observers during two successive readings. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were assessed. The results of the various acquisition techniques and display methods also were compared to the digital reference data (CFAO) of the physical phantoms. Results: the degree of intra- and inter-observer reproducibility for the assessment of shape and location of the stenoses was good. Visual assessment of the degree of stenosis showed significant differences between two observers as well as in two readings by one observer. The 3D DSA was the most accurate technique for assessing the degree of stenosis. CTA provided better results than MRA. MPVR provided an accurate assessment of the degree of the stenosis. 3D DSA and CTA assessed stenosis form and localization adequately, with no significant difference; both methods appeared to be more accurate than MRA. SR provided the best information on the eccentric nature of the stenosis. The shape was very well assessed by VA and MPVR. Conclusions: even though 3D DSA is the most accurate acquisition technique for visualization, the combined use of SR and MPVR appears to be the best compromise to describe the morphology and degree of stenosis. Further improvements in automatic 3D image processing could offer a better understanding and increased possibilities for assessing arterial

  20. Application of unsupervised analysis techniques to lung cancer patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Chip M; van Berkel, Victor H; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2017-01-01

    This study applies unsupervised machine learning techniques for classification and clustering to a collection of descriptive variables from 10,442 lung cancer patient records in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database. The goal is to automatically classify lung cancer patients into groups based on clinically measurable disease-specific variables in order to estimate survival. Variables selected as inputs for machine learning include Number of Primaries, Age, Grade, Tumor Size, Stage, and TNM, which are numeric or can readily be converted to numeric type. Minimal up-front processing of the data enables exploring the out-of-the-box capabilities of established unsupervised learning techniques, with little human intervention through the entire process. The output of the techniques is used to predict survival time, with the efficacy of the prediction representing a proxy for the usefulness of the classification. A basic single variable linear regression against each unsupervised output is applied, and the associated Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value is calculated as a metric to compare between the outputs. The results show that self-ordering maps exhibit the best performance, while k-Means performs the best of the simpler classification techniques. Predicting against the full data set, it is found that their respective RMSE values (15.591 for self-ordering maps and 16.193 for k-Means) are comparable to supervised regression techniques, such as Gradient Boosting Machine (RMSE of 15.048). We conclude that unsupervised data analysis techniques may be of use to classify patients by defining the classes as effective proxies for survival prediction.

  1. First results of spiral CT angiography in the evaluation of carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Brossmann, J.; Grabener, M.; Voss, C.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the value of spiral CT angiography in Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP)-technique for evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. A comparison of the MIP technique with intraarterial DSA was done in 24 patients with 40 stenoses. Quantification of stenosis was determined according to the NASCET study: mild (0-29%), moderate (30-69%), severe (70-99%) and occlusion (100%). Totally the correlation of spiral CT angiography with DSA was 80% (r=0.93; p=0.0001). In the moderate stenosis group (r=1; p=0.1573), severe stenosis group (r=0.89; p=0.002) and the occlusion group (r=1; p=0.0009) there was a good correlation with DSA. In the mild stenosis group (r=0.55; p=0.0704) correlation of spiral CT angiography with DSA was poor. Spiral CT angiography allows an excellent delineation of calcifications. Tandem lesions and collateral flow cannot be shown with spiral CT angiography. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Dependency Coefficient in Computerized GALS Examination Utilizing Motion Analysis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Shahidian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The GALS (Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine examination is a compact version of standard procedures used by rheumatologists to determine musculoskeletal disorders in patients. Computerization of such a clinical procedure is necessary to ensure an objective evaluation. This article presents the first steps in such an approach by outlining a procedure to use motion analysis techniques as a new method for GALS examination. Methods: A 3D motion pattern was obtained from two subject groups using a six camera motion analysis system. The range of motion associated with GALS was consequently determined using a MATLAB program. Results: The range of motion (ROM of the two subject groups was determined, the validity of the approach was outlined, and the symmetry of movement on both sides of the body was quantified through introduction of a dependency coefficient. Discussion: Analysis of GALS examination and diagnosis of musculoskeletal problems could be addressed more accurately and reliably by adopting motion analysis techniques. Furthermore, introduction of a dependency coefficient offers a wide spectrum of prospective applications in neuromuscular studies .

  3. Multislice spiral computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Tian, Zhi-liang; Lei, Zi-qiao; Kong, Wei-jia; Feng, Gan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of congenital inner ear malformations. Forty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were examined on a Somatom Sensation 16 (Siemens) CT scanner. The 3-dimensional reconstructions and multiplanar reformation (MPR) were performed using the volume-rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation. Of the 44 patients examined for this study, 25 patients were found to be normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were diagnosed with congenital inner ear malformations. Of the malformations, the axial, MPR, and VRT images can all display the site and degree in 33 of the ears. Volume-rendering technique images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The common malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears), enlarged vestibular aqueduct (16 ears, 6 of which had other malformations), and internal auditory canal malformation (8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). Multislice spiral CT allows a comprehensively assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high-quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. Volume-rendering technique images can display the site and degree of the malformation 3-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. This is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  5. Image Analysis Technique for Material Behavior Evaluation in Civil Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Michele; Rossi, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a hybrid monitoring technique for the measurement of the deformation field. The goal is to obtain information about crack propagation in existing structures, for the purpose of monitoring their state of health. The measurement technique is based on the capture and analysis of a digital image set. Special markers were used on the surface of the structures that can be removed without damaging existing structures as the historical masonry. The digital image analysis was done using software specifically designed in Matlab to follow the tracking of the markers and determine the evolution of the deformation state. The method can be used in any type of structure but is particularly suitable when it is necessary not to damage the surface of structures. A series of experiments carried out on masonry walls of the Oliverian Museum (Pesaro, Italy) and Palazzo Silvi (Perugia, Italy) have allowed the validation of the procedure elaborated by comparing the results with those derived from traditional measuring techniques. PMID:28773129

  6. Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.

  7. Gas chromatographic isolation technique for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Shibata, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Morita, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We present here a gas chromatographic isolation technique for the compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of biomarkers from the marine sediments. The biomarkers of fatty acids, hydrocarbon and sterols were isolated with enough amount for radiocarbon analysis using a preparative capillary gas chromatograph (PCGC) system. The PCGC systems used here is composed of an HP 6890 GC with FID, a cooled injection system (CIS, Gerstel, Germany), a zero-dead-volume effluent splitter, and a cryogenic preparative collection device (PFC, Gerstel). For AMS analysis, we need to separate and recover sufficient quantity of target individual compounds (>50 μgC). Yields of target compounds from C 14 n-alkanes to C 40 to C 30 n-alkanes and approximately that of 80% for higher molecular weights compounds more than C 30 n-alkanes. Compound specific radiocarbon analysis of organic compounds, as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis, provide valuable information on the origins and carbon cycling in marine system. Above PCGC conditions, we applied compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to the marine sediments from western north Pacific, which showed the possibility of a useful chronology tool for estimating the age of sediment using organic matter in paleoceanographic study, in the area where enough amounts of planktonic foraminifera for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are difficult to obtain due to dissolution of calcium carbonate. (author)

  8. Impact during equine locomotion: techniques for measurement and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, J F; Wilson, A; Nason, G P

    1997-05-01

    Impact is implicated in the development of several types of musculoskeletal injury in the horse. Characterisation of impact experienced during strenuous exercise is an important first step towards understanding the mechanism for injury. Measurement and analysis of large, short duration impacts is difficult. The measurement system must be able to record transient peaks and high frequencies accurately. The analysis technique must be able to characterise the impact signal in time and frequency. This paper presents a measurement system and analysis technique for the characterisation of large impacts. A piezo-electric accelerometer was securely mounted on the dorsal surface of the horses hoof. Saddle mounted charge amplifiers and a 20 m coaxial cable transferred these data to a PC based logging system. Data were down-loaded onto a UNIX workstation and analysed using a proprietary statistics package. The values of parameters calculated from the time series data were comparable to those of other authors. A wavelet decomposition showed that the frequency profile of the signal changed with time. While most spectral energy was seen at impact, a significant amount of energy was contained in the signal immediately following impact. Over 99% of this energy was contained in frequencies less than 1250 Hz. The sampling rate and the frequency response of a measurement system for recording impact should be chosen carefully to prevent loss or corruption of data. Time scale analysis using a wavelet decomposition is a powerful technique which can be used to characterise impact data. The use of contour plots provides a highly visual representation of the time and frequency localisation of power during impact.

  9. Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

  10. Fault tree technique: advances in probabilistic and logical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.; Amendola, A.; Contini, S.; Squellati, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fault tree reliability analysis is used for assessing the risk associated to systems of increasing complexity (phased mission systems, systems with multistate components, systems with non-monotonic structure functions). Much care must be taken to make sure that fault tree technique is not used beyond its correct validity range. To this end a critical review of mathematical foundations of reliability fault tree analysis is carried out. Limitations are enlightened and potential solutions to open problems are suggested. Moreover an overview is given on the most recent developments in the implementation of an integrated software (SALP-MP, SALP-NOT, SALP-CAFT Codes) for the analysis of a wide class of systems

  11. Analysis of diatomaceous earth by x-ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of diatomaceous earth in industry as filtering aids, mineral fillers, catalyst carriers, chromatographic supports, and paint additives is well documented. The diatomite matrix is well suited to x-ray analysis, but this application has not been cited in the literature. In our laboratory, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used to support the analytical needs of diatomite product development. Lithium borate fusion and pressed powder techniques have been used to determine major, minor, and trace elements in diatomite and synthetic silicate samples. Conventional matrix correction models and fundamental parameters have been used to reduce x-ray measurements to accurate chemical analyses. Described are sample and standard preparation techniques, data reduction methods, applications, and results

  12. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  13. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author) [fr

  14. Single Particle Tracking: Analysis Techniques for Live Cell Nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relich, Peter Kristopher, II

    Single molecule experiments are a set of experiments designed specifically to study the properties of individual molecules. It has only been in the last three decades where single molecule experiments have been applied to the life sciences; where they have been successfully implemented in systems biology for probing the behaviors of sub-cellular mechanisms. The advent and growth of super-resolution techniques in single molecule experiments has made the fundamental behaviors of light and the associated nano-probes a necessary concern amongst life scientists wishing to advance the state of human knowledge in biology. This dissertation disseminates some of the practices learned in experimental live cell microscopy. The topic of single particle tracking is addressed here in a format that is designed for the physicist who embarks upon single molecule studies. Specifically, the focus is on the necessary procedures to generate single particle tracking analysis techniques that can be implemented to answer biological questions. These analysis techniques range from designing and testing a particle tracking algorithm to inferring model parameters once an image has been processed. The intellectual contributions of the author include the techniques in diffusion estimation, localization filtering, and trajectory associations for tracking which will all be discussed in detail in later chapters. The author of this thesis has also contributed to the software development of automated gain calibration, live cell particle simulations, and various single particle tracking packages. Future work includes further evaluation of this laboratory's single particle tracking software, entropy based approaches towards hypothesis validations, and the uncertainty quantification of gain calibration.

  15. Analysis of Lipoasiprated Following Centrifugation: Wet Versus Dry Harvesting Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Tommaso; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Perello, Raffella; Bani, Daniele; Boccalini, Giulia

    2016-09-01

    The success of lipotransfer strongly depends on the harvesting, processing, and placement of the lipoaspirated samples. This study was designed to assess the histomorphometric characteristics and viability of fat harvested using different techniques (wet and dry) following centrifugation, as described by Coleman. The study enrolled 85 consecutive, nonrandomized, healthy patients from March 2010 to December 2014 (45 males and 40 females). The mean age was 40 years (range, 18-59 years), and the mean body mass index was 25.8 (range, 24-32). The authors performed a histological analysis (hematoxylin/eosin), morphometry (ImageJ 1.33 free-share image analysis software), and a viability assessment (Trypan Blue exclusion test; Sigma-Aldrich, Milan, Italy) of the lipoaspirated samples. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections exhibited similar features; in particular, clear-cut morphological signs of adipocyte disruption, apoptosis, or necrosis were not detected in the examined samples. Morphometry confirmed the visual findings, and the values of the mean surface area of the adipocyte vacuoles were not significantly different. Additionally, the adipocyte viability was not significantly different in the analyzed fat tissue samples. The results from this study showed, for the first time, that there is not a reduction in the viability of fat grafts harvested with the dry or wet technique following centrifugation according to Coleman technique. Both methods of fat harvesting collect viable cells, which are not influenced by standard centrifugation. The fat grafts harvested and processed by this technique could be used in clinical settings without increasing the reabsorption rate. V.

  16. Comparison of chromosome analysis using cell culture by coverslip technique with flask technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajapala, Suraphan; Buranawut, Kitti; NiwatArunyakasemsuk, Md

    2014-02-01

    To determine accuracy rate ofchromosome study from amniotic cellculture by coverslip technique compared with flask technique and to compared timing ofamniotic cell culture, amount ofamniotic cell culture media and cost ofamniotic cell culture. Cross sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Subjects: 70 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis at Phramongkutklao Hospital during November 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. Amniotic cell culture by flask technique and coverslip technique. Accuracy of amniotic cell culture for chromosome study by coverslip technique compared with flask technique. Totally 70 pregnant women who underwent to amniocentesis and dividedamniotic fluid to cell culture by flask technique and coverslip technique. 69 samples had similar resultfrom both techniques. The only one sample had cell culture failure inboth methods due to blood contamination. Accuracy in coverslip technique was 100% compared with flask technique. In timing of amniotic cell culture, amount ofamniotic cell culture media and cost of amniotic cell culture between 2 methods that coverslip technique was lesser than flask technique. There is statistically significant of accuracy in chromosome result between coverslip technique and flask technique. Coverslip technique was lesser than flask technique in timing, amniotic cell culture media and costs ofamniotic cell culture.

  17. Development of flow injection analysis technique for uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, A.H.; Pandit, S.S.; Shinde, S.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Flow injection analysis is increasingly used as a process control analytical technique in many industries. It involves injection of the sample at a constant rate into a steady flowing stream of reagent and passing this mixture through a suitable detector. This paper describes the development of such a system for the analysis of uranium (VI) and (IV) and its gross gamma activity. It is amenable for on-line or automated off-line monitoring of uranium and its activity in process streams. The sample injection port is suitable for automated injection of radioactive samples. The performance of the system has been tested for the colorimetric response of U(VI) samples at 410 nm in the range of 35 to 360mg/ml in nitric acid medium using Metrohm 662 Photometer and a recorder as detector assembly. The precision of the method is found to be better than +/- 0.5%. This technique with certain modifications is used for the analysis of U(VI) in the range 0.1-3mg/ailq. by alcoholic thiocynate procedure within +/- 1.5% precision. Similarly the precision for the determination of U(IV) in the range 15-120 mg at 650 nm is found to be better than 5%. With NaI well-type detector in the flow line, the gross gamma counting of the solution under flow is found to be within a precision of +/- 5%. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Enteroelysis and spiral CT examination in diagnosis and evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mako, E.K.; Mester, A.R.; Tarjan, Zs.; Karlinger, K.; Toth, G.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: During the last few decades introducing many of new radiologic methods, diagnostic conditions and facilities of Crohn's disease has became markedly improved. Appropriate using of these techniques definitely modifies the management of patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease serving reliable information about extent, severity and possible complications of disease. Enteroclysis and Computed tomography are the two major and basic methods to disclose or confirm diagnosis of Crohn's disease, obtain appropriate inforination about disease either with mucosal, transmural or extraintestinal manifestation. Methods and patients: We evaluated 281 patients who were referred in our institution under suspicion of Crohn's disease. Enteroclysis and abdominal spiral CT in all cases were carried out usually within 1 week. The 172 patients underwent abdominal spiral CT as the primary examination to evaluate diagnostic value of spiral CT in this entity, while 109 patients had enteroclysis followed by abdominal CT. In 11 cases we also perforined CT enteroclysis with administration of 0.5% methylcellulose solution thorough nasojejunal tube controlled by electric motor driven contrast pump. Results were compared with final clinical, pathological or surgical data were available. Results: From the 281 patients eventually 74 proved Crohn's disease; sensitivity and specificity of enteroclysis proved to be 96 and 98%, while spiral CT sensitivity and specificity was 94 and 95%, respectively. Enteroclysis was superior to the spiral CT in demonstration of early lesions and functional disorders, while spiral CT proved to be essential in evaluation of transmural and extraintestinal complications. Conclusions: Regarding enteroclysis and spiral CT as complementary methods, they provide excellent results in diagnosis of Crohn's disease

  19. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  20. Acceleration of multivariate analysis techniques in TMVA using GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoecker, A; Therhaag, J; Washbrook, A

    2012-01-01

    A feasibility study into the acceleration of multivariate analysis techniques using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) will be presented. The MLP-based Artificial Neural Network method contained in the TMVA framework has been chosen as a focus for investigation. It was found that the network training time on a GPU was lower than for CPU execution as the complexity of the network was increased. In addition, multiple neural networks can be trained simultaneously on a GPU within the same time taken for single network training on a CPU. This could be potentially leveraged to provide a qualitative performance gain in data classification.

  1. Reduction and analysis techniques for infrared imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Infrared detector arrays are becoming increasingly available to the astronomy community, with a number of array cameras already in use at national observatories, and others under development at many institutions. As the detector technology and imaging instruments grow more sophisticated, more attention is focussed on the business of turning raw data into scientifically significant information. Turning pictures into papers, or equivalently, astronomy into astrophysics, both accurately and efficiently, is discussed. Also discussed are some of the factors that can be considered at each of three major stages; acquisition, reduction, and analysis, concentrating in particular on several of the questions most relevant to the techniques currently applied to near infrared imaging.

  2. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  3. Nonactivation interaction techniques in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nonactivation interaction analytical methods are based on the interaction processes of nuclear and X-ray radiation with a sample, leading to their absorption and backscattering, to the ionization of gases or excitation of fluorescent X-ray by radiation, but not to the activation of determined elements. From the point of view of environmental analysis, the most useful nonactivation interaction techniques are X-ray fluorescence by photon or charged particle excitation, ionization of gases by nuclear radiation, elastic scattering of charged particles and backscattering of beta radiation. The significant advantage of these methods is that they are nondestructive. (author)

  4. Graphite target for the spiral project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putaux, J.C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Ferro, A.; Foury, P.; Kotfila, L.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bertrand, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Loiselet, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A study of the thermal and physical properties of graphite targets for the SPIRAL project is presented. The main objective is to develop an optimized set-up both mechanically and thermally resistant, presenting good release properties (hot targets with thin slices). The results of irradiation tests concerning the mechanical and thermal resistance of the first prototype of SPIRAL target with conical geometry are presented. The micro-structural properties of the graphite target is also studied, in order to check that the release properties are not deteriorated by the irradiation. Finally, the results concerning the latest pilot target internally heated by an electrical current are shown. (author). 5 refs.

  5. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  6. Envelopment technique and topographic overlays in bite mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05).

  7. Measuring caloric response: comparison of different analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, A I; Longridge, N S; Pace-Asciak, P; Ngo, R

    2010-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) testing has been supplanted by newer techniques of measuring eye movement with infrared cameras (VNG). Most techniques of quantifying caloric induced nystagmus measure the slow phase velocity in some manner. Although our analysis is carried out by very experienced assessors, some systems have computer algorithms that have been "taught" to locate and quantify maximum responses. We wondered what differences in measurement might show up when measuring calorics using different techniques and systems, the relevance of this being that if there was a change in slow phase velocity between ENG and VNG testing when measuring caloric response, then normative data would have to be changed. There are also some subjective but important aspects of ENG interpretation which comment on the nature of the response (e.g. responses which might be "sporadic" or "scant"). Our experiment compared caloric responses in 100 patients analyzed four different ways. Each caloric was analyzed by our old ENG system, our new VNG system, an inexperienced assessor and the computer algorithm, and data was compared. All four systems made similar measurements but our inexperienced assessor failed to recognize responses as sporadic or scant, and we feel this is a limitation to be kept in mind in the rural setting, as it is an important aspect of assessment in complex patients. Assessment of complex VNGs should be left to an experienced assessor.

  8. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. VIII. Structure of the cold ISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Draine, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Gonzalez, R. A.; Calzetti, D.; Thornley, M.; Buckalew, B.; Allen, Ronald J.; van der Kruit, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of dust in a spiral disk can be estimated using the dust's typical emission or the extinction of a known source. In this paper we compare two techniques, one based on emission and one on absorption, applied to sections of 14 disk galaxies. The two measurements reflect, respectively, the

  9. Three-dimensional cephalometry: spiral multi-slice vs cone-beam computed tomography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, G.R.J.; Schutyser, F.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial imaging techniques are becoming increasingly popular and have opened new possibilities for orthodontic assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Recently, a new 3D cephalometric method based on spiral multi-slice (MS) computed tomography (CT) was developed and

  10. Analysis of failure modes in multislice computed tomography during primary trauma survey; Analyse von Verzoegerungen der Schockraumdiagnostik bei Einsatz der Mehrschicht-Spiral-Computertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, C.; Stegmaier, J.; Kirchhoff, C.; Kanz, K.G. [Chirurgische Klinik, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Wirth, S.; Koerner, M.; Pfeifer, K.J. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Kay, M.V. [Plansafe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Purpose: in the case of major trauma, immediate recognition and treatment of life-threatening conditions are essential. An increasing number of European trauma centers use MSCT during the primary trauma survey due to its high diagnostic precision and speed. However, there is currently little empirical data about failures in this process to practice quality assurance. The aim of this study was to evaluate this process under operating resuscitation conditions and to identify failure modes that caused delays in completion. Materials and methods: an independent study monitor documented the course of trauma room treatment during a 10-month period. The inclusion criteria were patients who were admitted directly from the accident scene and the study monitor was present at the time of admission. Results: according to our ATLS-based trauma algorithm whole-body CT (WBCT) consists of non-contrast head CT (CCT) and contrast-enhanced trunk CT (TCT). 57 trauma patients receiving 45 WBCT. 5 single CCT and 4 single TCT studies were evaluated. After initial resuscitation, CCT was obtained within 17 min of trauma room admission (IQR 13.0 - 20.0). In 20% (95%CI 9 - 31%) of the cases, a CCT delay of median 5.0 min (IQR 3.8 - 8.0) was observed caused by e.g. earings, piercings and ECG cables in the scan field or intoxicated patients. Contrast-enhanced TCT was performed after 23.0 min (IQR 19.0 - 27.0). Due to preventable errors 12 of the 49 TCT studies were delayed (25%95%CI 12 - 37%) for 5 min (IQR 3.0 - 8.0). Conclusion: under ''front line'' conditions every fifth CCT and every fourth TCT study was completed with a median delay of 5 min. An independent process analysis revealed that unpreventable delays were due to uncooperative patients or system failure. Preventable delays were due to errors such as short intravenous lines or deviation from trauma room algorithms. Preventable delays could be avoided by addressing human and technical aspects such as revising

  11. Service Interaction Flow Analysis Technique for Service Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Olli; Kinnula, Marianne; Syrjanen, Anna-Liisa

    2017-01-01

    technology-mediated service interaction design is twofold: First, with the increased understanding on the role of personalization in managing variation in technology-mediated service interaction, our study contributes to designing service management information systems and human-computer interfaces......Service interaction flows are difficult to capture, analyze, outline, and represent for research and design purposes. We examine how variation of personalized service flows in technology-mediated service interaction can be modeled and analyzed to provide information on how service personalization...... could support interaction. We have analyzed service interaction cases in a context of technology-mediated car rental service. With the analysis technique we propose, inspired by Interaction Analysis method, we were able to capture and model the situational service interaction. Our contribution regarding...

  12. Mechanisms of subsidence for induced damage and techniques for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, E.C.; Bennett, R.M.; Kane, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Structural damage due to mining induced subsidence is a function of the nature of the structure and its position on the subsidence profile. A point on the profile may be in the tensile zone, the compressive zone, or the no-deformation zone at the bottom of the profile. Damage to structures in the tension zone is primarily due to a reduction of support during vertical displacement of the ground surface, and to shear stresses between the soil and structure resulting from horizontal displacements. The damage mechanisms due to tension can be investigated effectively using a two-dimensional plane stress analysis. Structures in the compression zone are subjected to positive moments in the footing and large compressive horizontal stresses in the foundation walls. A plane strain analysis of the foundation wall is utilized to examine compression zone damage mechanisms. The structural aspects affecting each mechanism are identified and potential mitigation techniques are summarized

  13. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  14. UPLC-ICP-MS - a fast technique for speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Sturup, S.; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2005-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography is a new development of the HPLC separation technique that allows separations on column materials at high pressures up to 10(8) Pa using particle diameters of 1.7 mu m. This increases the efficiency, the resolution and the speed of the separation. Four...... aqueous selenium standards were separated within 1.2 min on a 1.00 id x 50 mm reversed phase column in an ion-pair chromatographic system using a flow rate of 200 mu L min(-1). Hence, analysis times could be reduced to 1/10 compared with ordinary HPLC for aqueous standards. The precision and detection...... the use of short columns. Hence, analysis times could be halved without loss of separation efficiency in this biological sample...

  15. [Applications of spectral analysis technique to monitoring grasshoppers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Han, Jian-guo; Zhang, Lu-da

    2008-12-01

    Grasshopper monitoring is of great significance in protecting environment and reducing economic loss. However, how to predict grasshoppers accurately and effectively is a difficult problem for a long time. In the present paper, the importance of forecasting grasshoppers and its habitat is expounded, and the development in monitoring grasshopper populations and the common arithmetic of spectral analysis technique are illustrated. Meanwhile, the traditional methods are compared with the spectral technology. Remote sensing has been applied in monitoring the living, growing and breeding habitats of grasshopper population, and can be used to develop a forecast model combined with GIS. The NDVI values can be analyzed throughout the remote sensing data and be used in grasshopper forecasting. Hyper-spectra remote sensing technique which can be used to monitor grasshoppers more exactly has advantages in measuring the damage degree and classifying damage areas of grasshoppers, so it can be adopted to monitor the spatial distribution dynamic of rangeland grasshopper population. Differentialsmoothing can be used to reflect the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and leaf area index (LAI), and indicate the intensity of grasshopper damage. The technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been employed in judging grasshopper species, examining species occurrences and monitoring hatching places by measuring humidity and nutrient of soil, and can be used to investigate and observe grasshoppers in sample research. According to this paper, it is concluded that the spectral analysis technique could be used as a quick and exact tool in monitoring and forecasting the infestation of grasshoppers, and will become an important means in such kind of research for their advantages in determining spatial orientation, information extracting and processing. With the rapid development of spectral analysis methodology, the goal of sustainable monitoring

  16. Analysis of minor phase with neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engkir Sukirman; Herry Mugirahardjo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of minor phases in a sample have been analyzed with the neutron diffraction technique. In this research, the sample of Fe nanoparticles (FNP) has been selected as the object of case study. The first step was to prepare the FNP sample with the ball milling technique. Hereinafter, the sample of milling result was referred FIC2. The presence of phases formed in FIC2 were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the high resolution neutron diffraction (HRPD ) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The diffraction data were analyzed by means of the Rietveld method utilizing a computer code, namely FullProf and performed by referring to the supporting data, namely particle size and magnetic properties of materials. The two kinds of supporting data were obtained from the PSA (Particles Size Analyzer) and VSM (Vibrating Samples Magnetometer), respectively. The analysis result shows that quality of fitting for neutron diffraction pattern is better than the fitting quality for x-ray diffraction pattern. Of the HRPD data were revealed that FIC2 consists of Fe, γFe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 phases as much as 78.62; 21.37 and 0.01%, respectively. Of the XRD data were obtained that FIC2 consists of Fe and γFe 2 O 3 phases with amount of 99.96 and 0.04%, respectively; the presence of Fe 3 O 4 phase was not observed. With the neutron diffraction technique, the presence of minor phase can be determined accurately. (author)

  17. SURVEY ON CRIME ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Benjamin Fredrick David

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is the procedure which includes evaluating and examining large pre-existing databases in order to generate new information which may be essential to the organization. The extraction of new information is predicted using the existing datasets. Many approaches for analysis and prediction in data mining had been performed. But, many few efforts has made in the criminology field. Many few have taken efforts for comparing the information all these approaches produce. The police stations and other similar criminal justice agencies hold many large databases of information which can be used to predict or analyze the criminal movements and criminal activity involvement in the society. The criminals can also be predicted based on the crime data. The main aim of this work is to perform a survey on the supervised learning and unsupervised learning techniques that has been applied towards criminal identification. This paper presents the survey on the Crime analysis and crime prediction using several Data Mining techniques.

  18. Application of transport phenomena analysis technique to cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C H; Hansen, E A; Hall, W A; Hubel, A

    2013-12-01

    The study of hydrocephalus and the modeling of cerebrospinal fluid flow have proceeded in the past using mathematical analysis that was very capable of prediction phenomenonologically but not well in physiologic parameters. In this paper, the basis of fluid dynamics at the physiologic state is explained using first established equations of transport phenomenon. Then, microscopic and molecular level techniques of modeling are described using porous media theory and chemical kinetic theory and then applied to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Using techniques of transport analysis allows the field of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics to approach the level of sophistication of urine and blood transport. Concepts such as intracellular and intercellular pathways, compartmentalization, and tortuosity are associated with quantifiable parameters that are relevant to the anatomy and physiology of cerebrospinal fluid transport. The engineering field of transport phenomenon is rich and steeped in architectural, aeronautical, nautical, and more recently biological history. This paper summarizes and reviews the approaches that have been taken in the field of engineering and applies it to CSF flow.

  19. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Najarzadeh, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Ghasemzadeh, Roya

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  20. Maintenance Audit through Value Analysis Technique: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, M. C.; Delgado, S.

    2008-11-01

    The increase in competitiveness, technological changes and the increase in the requirements of quality and service have forced a change in the design and application of maintenance, as well as the way in which it is considered within the managerial strategy. There are numerous maintenance activities that must be developed in a service company. As a result the maintenance functions as a whole have to be outsourced. Nevertheless, delegating this subject to specialized personnel does not exempt the company from responsibilities, but rather leads to the need for control of each maintenance activity. In order to achieve this control and to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the company it is essential to carry out an audit that diagnoses the problems that could develop. In this paper a maintenance audit applied to a service company is developed. The methodology applied is based on the expert systems. The expert system by means of rules uses the weighting technique SMART and value analysis to obtain the weighting between the decision functions and between the alternatives. The expert system applies numerous rules and relations between different variables associated with the specific maintenance functions, to obtain the maintenance state by sections and the general maintenance state of the enterprise. The contributions of this paper are related to the development of a maintenance audit in a service enterprise, in which maintenance is not generally considered a strategic subject and to the integration of decision-making tools such as the weighting technique SMART with value analysis techniques, typical in the design of new products, in the area of the rule-based expert systems.

  1. Optical activities of micro-spiral photonic crystals fabricated by multi-beam holographic lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jenny; Gao, Wensheng; Tam, Wing Yim

    2011-09-01

    We report on the optical activities of left- and right-handed micro-spirals fabricated in dichromate gelatin emulsions using a holographic interference technique involving six linearly polarized side beams and one circularly polarized central beam. Photonic bandgaps in the visible range are observed. More importantly, opposite optical activities—a polarization rotation of a few degrees and a circular dichroism (CD) of about 20% at the photonic band edges—are observed for the left- and right-handed spirals. Furthermore, the transmittance of circularly polarized light obeys the Lorentz reciprocity lemma for forward and backward incidence. However neither polarization rotation nor CD is observed for achiral split rings and hollow rods fabricated using all linearly polarized beams and six side beams without the central beam, respectively; this indicates that the chiral nature of the spirals is essential for the observed optical activities.

  2. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  3. Galactic masers: Kinematics, spiral structure and the disk dynamic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Utkin, N. D.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    We applied the currently most comprehensive version of the statistical-parallax technique to derive kinematical parameters of the maser sample with 136 sources. Our kinematic model comprises the overall rotation of the Galactic disk and the spiral density-wave effects. We take into account the variation of radial velocity dispersion with Galactocentric distance. The best description of the velocity field is provided by the model with constant radial and vertical velocity dispersions, $(\\sigma U0, \\sigma W0) \\approx (9.4 \\pm 0.9~, 5.9 \\pm 0.8)~ km/s$. We compute flat Galactic rotation curve over the Galactocentric distance interval from 3 to 15 kpc and find the local circular rotation velocity to be $ V_0 \\approx (235-238)$~ km/s $\\pm 7$~ km/s. We also determine the parameters of the four-armed spiral pattern (pitch angle $i \\approx (-10.4 \\pm 0.3)^\\circ$ and the phase of the Sun $\\chi_0 \\approx (125 \\pm 10) ^\\circ$). The radial and tangential spiral perturbations are about $f_R \\approx (-6.9 \\pm 1.4)$~km/s, $f_\\Theta \\approx (+2.8 \\pm 1.0$) ~km/s. The kinematic data yield a solar Galactocentric distance of $R_0 \\approx (8.24 \\pm 0.12)~kpc$. Based on rotation curve parameters and the asymmetric drift we Infer the exponential disk scale $H_D \\approx (2.7 \\pm 0.2)$ ~kpc under assumption of marginal stability of the intermediate-age disk, and finally we estimate the minimum local surface disk density, $\\Sigma (R_0) > (26 \\pm 3) ~ M_\\odot pc^{-2}$.

  4. A spiral model of musical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBangert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model of how musicians make decisions about performing notated music. The model builds on psychological theories of decision-making and was developed from empirical studies of Western art music performance that aimed to identify intuitive and deliberate processes of decision-making, a distinction consistent with dual-process theories of cognition. The model proposes that the proportion of intuitive (Type 1 and deliberate (Type 2 decision-making processes changes with increasing expertise and conceptualises this change as movement along a continually narrowing upward spiral where the primary axis signifies principal decision-making type and the vertical axis marks level of expertise. The model is intended to have implications for the development of expertise as described in two main phases. The first is movement from a primarily intuitive approach in the early stages of learning towards greater deliberation as analytical techniques are applied during practice. The second phase occurs as deliberate decisions gradually become automatic (procedural, increasing the role of intuitive processes. As a performer examines more issues or reconsiders decisions, the spiral motion towards the deliberate side and back to the intuitive is repeated indefinitely. With increasing expertise, the spiral tightens to signify greater control over decision type selection. The model draws on existing theories, particularly Evans’ (2011 Intervention Model of dual-process theories, Cognitive Continuum Theory (Hammond et al., 1987; Hammond, 2007, and Baylor’s (2001 U-shaped model for the development of intuition by level of expertise. By theorising how musical decision-making operates over time and with increasing expertise, this model could be used as a framework for future research in music performance studies and performance science more generally.

  5. BATMAN: Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, J.; Ascasibar, Y.; García-Benito, R.; Guidi, G.; Choudhury, O. S.; Bellocchi, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; Díaz, A. I.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis (BATMAN), a novel image-segmentation technique based on Bayesian statistics that characterizes any astronomical data set containing spatial information and performs a tessellation based on the measurements and errors provided as input. The algorithm iteratively merges spatial elements as long as they are statistically consistent with carrying the same information (I.e. identical signal within the errors). We illustrate its operation and performance with a set of test cases including both synthetic and real integral-field spectroscopic data. The output segmentations adapt to the underlying spatial structure, regardless of its morphology and/or the statistical properties of the noise. The quality of the recovered signal represents an improvement with respect to the input, especially in regions with low signal-to-noise ratio. However, the algorithm may be sensitive to small-scale random fluctuations, and its performance in presence of spatial gradients is limited. Due to these effects, errors may be underestimated by as much as a factor of 2. Our analysis reveals that the algorithm prioritizes conservation of all the statistically significant information over noise reduction, and that the precise choice of the input data has a crucial impact on the results. Hence, the philosophy of BaTMAn is not to be used as a 'black box' to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, but as a new approach to characterize spatially resolved data prior to its analysis. The source code is publicly available at http://astro.ft.uam.es/SELGIFS/BaTMAn.

  6. Adaptation of the control system in view of SPIRAL integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecorche, E.

    1998-01-01

    As soon as the collaboration between the SPIRAL project and the Control Group has been defined, the first implementation of the SPIRAL control system started following various directions. Both the global hardware and software architectures has been specified and some practical works have been undertaken such as the Ethernet network installation or the first SPIRAL oriented software design and coding. (authors)

  7. The dynamics of the spiral galaxy M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the observations of the spiral galaxy M81 with the density-wave theory for tightly-wound spirals is presented. In particular, hydrogen-line observations are compared with the nonlinear density-wave theory for the gas with the aim of constructing a density-wave model for the spiral galaxy M81

  8. Geometric studies on variable radius spiral cone-beam scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yangbo; Zhu Jiehua; Wang Ge

    2004-01-01

    The goal is to perform geometric studies on cone-beam CT scanning along a three-dimensional (3D) spiral of variable radius. First, the background for variable radius spiral cone-beam scanning is given in the context of electron-beam CT/micro-CT. Then, necessary and sufficient conditions are proved for existence and uniqueness of PI lines inside the variable radius 3D spiral. These results are necessary steps toward exact cone-beam reconstruction from a 3D spiral scan of variable radius, adapting Katsevich's formula for the standard helical cone-beam scanning. It is shown in the paper that when the longitudinally projected planar spiral is not always convex toward the origin, the PI line may not be unique in the envelope defined by the tangents of the spiral. This situation can be avoided by using planar spirals whose curvatures are always positive. Using such a spiral, a longitudinally homogeneous region inside the corresponding 3D spiral is constructed in which any point is passed by one and only one PI line, provided the angle ω between planar spiral's tangent and radius is bounded by vertical bar ω-90 deg. vertical bar ≤ε for some positive ε≤32.48 deg. If the radius varies monotonically, this region is larger and one may allow ε≤51.85 deg. Examples for 3D spirals based on logarithmic and Archimedean spirals are given. The corresponding generalized Tam-Danielsson detection windows are also formulated

  9. A nutrient’s downstream spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of a stream’s ability to remove nutrients provide insights on watershed integrity and stream habitat characteristics that are needed to help managers to restore stream ecosystem services. We used the Tracer Additon Spiraling Characterization Curve (TASCC) to mea...

  10. The Distribution of Mass in Spiral Galaxies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, Rob; Andersen, David; Bershady, Matthew; Verheijen, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. Mass modeling of any rotation curve can yield an alarming range of results - from entirely halo-dominated, centrally- concentrated dark distributions, to disk-dominated inner potentials with shallow, low density

  11. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    Correlations between optical surface brightness and the radio properties of spiral galaxies are investigated. It is found that galaxies with high surface brightness are more likely to be strong continuum radio sources and that galaxies with low surface brightness have high 21-cm line emission. (author)

  12. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  13. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  14. The Spiral Curriculum. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The Spiral Curriculum is predicated on cognitive theory advanced by Jerome Bruner (1960), who wrote, "We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development." In other words, even the most complex material, if properly structured and presented, can be understood by…

  15. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  16. A section of a spiral coal chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.N.; Gorodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A section of a spiral coal chute includes a housing with support brackets. It differs in that to decrease the amount of work necessary for assembly, each support bracket is made with a guide slot and equipped with a pull-out cantilever in the shape of a fork which covers the slot from the lateral sides.

  17. Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems High quality drinking water can be produced with membrane filtration processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Because the global demand for fresh clean water is increasing, these membrane technologies will increase in importance in the

  18. TU-EF-BRD-02: Indicators and Technique Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  19. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2008-05-01

    To pursue the investigation of a new territory of nuclei with extreme N/Z called ``terra incognita'' several projects, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under discussions worldwide. In Europe, two major new projects have been approved recently FAIRatGSI using the so-called ``in-flight'' method and SPIRAL2atGANIL, based on the ISOL method. Both projects were selected in the European Strategic Roadmap For research Infrastructures (ESFRI). The main goal of SPIRAL2 is clearly to extend our knowledge of the limit of existence and the structure of nuclei deeply in the medium and heavy mass region (A = 60 to 140) which is to day an almost unexplored continent. SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting driver LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities for exotic species in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, of the order of 106 to 1010 pps will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100 μA to 1 mA), heavier ions up to Ar at 14 MeV/n producing also proton rich exotic nuclei. In applied areas SPIRAL2 is considered as a powerful variable energy neutron source, a must to study the impact of nuclear fission and fusion on materials. The intensities of these unstable species are excellent opportunities for new tracers and diagnostics either for solid state, material or for radiobiological science and medicine. The ``Go'' decision has been taken in May 2005. The investments and personnel costs amount to 190 M€, for the construction period 2006-2012. Construction of the SPIRAL2 facility is shared by ten French laboratories and a network of international partners. Under the 7FP program of European Union

  20. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1 maintain pattern stability, (2 transition into new states, and (3 are governed by short- and long-term (fractal correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  1. Computational techniques for inelastic analysis and numerical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A number of formulations have been proposed for inelastic analysis, particularly for the thermal elastic-plastic creep analysis of nuclear reactor components. In the elastic-plastic regime, which principally concerns with the time independent behavior, the numerical techniques based on the finite element method have been well exploited and computations have become a routine work. With respect to the problems in which the time dependent behavior is significant, it is desirable to incorporate a procedure which is workable on the mechanical model formulation as well as the method of equation of state proposed so far. A computer program should also take into account the strain-dependent and/or time-dependent micro-structural changes which often occur during the operation of structural components at the increasingly high temperature for a long period of time. Special considerations are crucial if the analysis is to be extended to large strain regime where geometric nonlinearities predominate. The present paper introduces a rational updated formulation and a computer program under development by taking into account the various requisites stated above. (Auth.)

  2. Use of decision analysis techniques to determine Hanford cleanup priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.; Gregory, R.; Winterfeldt, D. von; John, R.

    1992-01-01

    In January 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP) to ensure that technically sound and publicly acceptable decisions are made that support the environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the HIPP's key roles is to develop an understanding of the science and technology (S and T) requirements to support the cleanup mission. This includes conducting an annual systematic assessment of the S and T needs at Hanford to support a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to success is a planning and assessment methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the various Hanford stakeholders. Decision analysis techniques were used to help identify and prioritize problems and S and T needs at Hanford. The approach used structured elicitations to bring many Hanford stakeholders into the process. Decision analysis, which is based on the axioms and methods of utility and probability theory, is especially useful in problems characterized by uncertainties and multiple objectives. Decision analysis addresses uncertainties by laying out a logical sequence of decisions, events, and consequences and by quantifying event and consequence probabilities on the basis of expert judgments

  3. Techniques of DNA methylation analysis with nutritional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansego, Maria L; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are likely to play an important role in the regulation of metabolism and body weight through gene-nutrient interactions. This review focuses on methods for analyzing one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation, from single nucleotide to global measurement depending on the study goal and scope. In addition, this study highlights the major principles and methods for DNA methylation analysis with emphasis on nutritional applications. Recent developments concerning epigenetic technologies are showing promising results of DNA methylation levels at a single-base resolution and provide the ability to differentiate between 5-methylcytosine and other nucleotide modifications such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. A large number of methods can be used for the analysis of DNA methylation such as pyrosequencing™, primer extension or real-time PCR methods, and genome-wide DNA methylation profile from microarray or sequencing-based methods. Researchers should conduct a preliminary analysis focused on the type of validation and information provided by each technique in order to select the best method fitting for their nutritional research interests. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The value of spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhi; Liu Zhang; Yang Chaoxiang; Lin Chengye; Zhang Li; Li Yuxiang; Ma Yunyan; Xiao Haisong; Lu Zhifeng; Wang Bo; Zhou Yunhong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To approach the value of spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in order to improve the correctness of the diagnosis. Methods: Analysis the cases' clinical manifestation and the CT images, who were diagnosed as obstructive jaundice by operation. All of cases had high-resolution computed tomograyhy scan. The thickness and the interval is 5mm, reconstructed the thickness and the interval to 1 mm and 1.5 mm, then send the images to the workstation and MRR were processed. Analysis the date with the pathology. Results: Spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction have 98% and 93% in the accuracy of location and characterization in the obstruction. Conclusion: The spiral CT thin imaging reconstruction is a good method to improve the accuracy of location and characterization in the obstructive jaundice. (authors)

  5. GANIL-SPIRAL2: A new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Sydney

    2011-05-01

    GANIL presently offers unique opportunities in nuclear physics and many other fields that arise from not only the provision of low-energy stable beams, fragmentation beams and re-accelerated radioactive species, but also from the availability of a wide range of state-of-the-art spectrometers and instrumentation. A few examples of recent highlights are discussed in the present paper. With the construction of SPIRAL2 over the next few years, GANIL is in a good position to retain its world-leading capability. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 KW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore more than 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beam intensities in the mass range from A = 60 to A = 140, will surpass by two orders of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few KeV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100 μA to 1 mA), heavier ions (Ar up to Xe) at maximum energy of 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called *Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4M€ to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  6. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The soft'' ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  7. SHOT PUT O’BRIAN TECHNIQUE, EXTENDING THE ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUE FROM FOUR TO SIX PHASES WITH THE DESCRIPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Saračević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the motion, shot put technique is described in phases for easier analysis, easer learning of technique and error correction. It is complete so that in its implementation the transition from phase to phase is not noticed. In aforementioned and described phases of O'Brian spinal shot put technique a large distance, emptiness and disconnection appear between the initial position phase and a phase of overtaking the device, which in the training methods and training technique in primary and secondary education, as well as for students and athletes beginners in shot put represents a major problem regarding connecting, training and technique advancement. Therefore, this work is aimed at facilitating the methods of training of shot put technique, extending from four to six phases, which have been described and include the complete O'Brian technique.

  8. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C [University of Washington, Seattle; Abgrall, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Arnquist, I. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Avignone, III, F. T. [University of South Carolina/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Barabash, A.S. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bradley, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Busch, M. [Duke University/TUNL; Buuck, M. [University of Washington, Seattle; Byram, D. [University of South Dakota; Caldwell, A. S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Detwiler, J. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Efremenko, Yu. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ejiri, H. [Osaka University, Japan; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gilliss, T. [Univ. North Carolina-Chapel Hill/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab., Durham, NC; Giovanetti, G. K. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Goett, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gruszko, J [University of Washington, Seattle; Guinn, I S [University of Washington, Seattle; Guiseppe, V E [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Henning, R. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howe, M. A. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Jasinski, B R [University of South Dakota; Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, South Dakota; Kidd, M. F. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Konovalov, S.I. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia; Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leon, J. [University of Washington, Seattle; MacMullin, J. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Martin, R. D. [University of South Dakota; Meijer, S. J. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Mertens, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); O' Shaughnessy, C. [Univ. North Carolina-Chapel Hill/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab., Durham, NC; Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Radford, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rager, J. [Univ. North Carolina-Chapel Hill/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab., Durham, NC; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Robertson, R.G.H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Romero-Romero, E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, (UTK)/Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL); Shanks, B. [Univ. North Carolina-Chapel Hill/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab., Durham, NC; Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Snyder, N [University of South Dakota; Suriano, A. M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Tedeschi, D [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Trimble, J. E. [Univ. North Carolina-Chapel Hill/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab., Durham, NC; Varner, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vasilyev, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Vetter, K. [University of California/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); et al.

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0 nu beta beta-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  9. Evaluation of tritium analysis techniques for a continuous tritium monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Girton, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    Present methods for tritium monitoring are evaluated and a program is proposed to modify the existing methods or develop new instrumentation to establish a state-of-the-art monitoring capability for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages of the most popular counting and separation techniques are described. The following criteria were used to evaluate present methods: specificity, selectivity, precision, insensitivity to gamma radiation, and economy. A novel approach is explored to continuously separate the tritium from a complex mixture of stack gases. This approach, based on the different permeabilities of the stack gas constituents, is integrated into a complete monitoring system. This monitoring system is designed to perform real time tritium analysis. A schedule is presented for development and demonstration of the completed system

  10. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  11. Advances in zymography techniques and patents regarding protease analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2012-08-01

    Detection of enzymatic activity on gel electrophoresis, namely zymography, is a technique that has received increasing attention in the last 10 years, according to the number of articles published. A growing amount of enzymes, mainly proteases, are now routinely detected by zymography. Detailed analytical studies are beginning to be published, as well as new patents have been developed. This new article updates the information covered in our last review, condensing the recent publications dealing with the identification of proteolytic enzymes in electrophoretic gel supports and its variations. The new advances of this method are basically focused towards two dimensional zymography and transfer zymography. Though comparatively fewer patents have been published, they basically coincide in the study of matrix metalloproteases. The tendency is foreseen to be very productive in the area of zymoproteomics, combining electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for the analysis of proteases.

  12. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  13. Design and analysis of spiral inductors

    CERN Document Server

    Haobijam, Genemala

    2013-01-01

    The book addresses the critical challenges faced by the ever-expanding wireless communication market and the increasing frequency of operation due to continuous innovation of high performance integrated passive devices. The challenges like low quality factor, design complexity, manufacturability, processing cost, etc., are studied with examples and specifics. Silicon on-chip inductor was first reported in 1990 by Nguyen and Meyer in a 0.8 µm silicon bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology (BiCMOS). Since then, there has been an enormous progress in the research on the perfo

  14. The Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Moestl, C.; Rouillard, A.; Bothmer, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kilpua, E.; Gallagher, P.; Odstrcil, D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding solar wind evolution is fundamental to advancing our knowledge of energy and mass transport in the solar system, whilst also being crucial to space weather and its prediction. The advent of truly wide-angle heliospheric imaging has revolutionised the study of solar wind evolution, by enabling direct and continuous observation of both transient and background components of the solar wind as they propagate from the Sun to 1 AU and beyond. The recently completed, EU-funded FP7 Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) project (1st May 2014 - 30th April 2017) combined European expertise in heliospheric imaging, built up over the last decade in particular through leadership of the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments aboard NASA's STEREO mission, with expertise in solar and coronal imaging as well as the interpretation of in-situ and radio diagnostic measurements of solar wind phenomena. HELCATS involved: (1) the cataloguing of transient (coronal mass ejections) and background (stream/corotating interaction regions) solar wind structures observed by the STEREO/HI instruments, including estimates of their kinematic properties based on a variety of modelling techniques; (2) the verification of these kinematic properties through comparison with solar source observations and in-situ measurements at multiple points throughout the heliosphere; (3) the assessment of the potential for initialising numerical models based on the derived kinematic properties of transient and background solar wind components; and (4) the assessment of the complementarity of radio observations (Type II radio bursts and interplanetary scintillation) in the detection and analysis of heliospheric structure in combination with heliospheric imaging observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the HELCATS project emphasising, in particular, the principal achievements and legacy of this unprecedented project.

  15. Acoustical Characteristics of Mastication Sounds: Application of Speech Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochetti, Denise

    Food scientists have used acoustical methods to study characteristics of mastication sounds in relation to food texture. However, a model for analysis of the sounds has not been identified, and reliability of the methods has not been reported. Therefore, speech analysis techniques were applied to mastication sounds, and variation in measures of the sounds was examined. To meet these objectives, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a digital sound spectrograph generated waveforms and wideband spectrograms of sounds by 3 adult subjects (1 male, 2 females) for initial chews of food samples differing in hardness and fracturability. Acoustical characteristics were described and compared. For all sounds, formants appeared in the spectrograms, and energy occurred across a 0 to 8000-Hz range of frequencies. Bursts characterized waveforms for peanut, almond, raw carrot, ginger snap, and hard candy. Duration and amplitude of the sounds varied with the subjects. In the second experiment, the spectrograph was used to measure the duration, amplitude, and formants of sounds for the initial 2 chews of cylindrical food samples (raw carrot, teething toast) differing in diameter (1.27, 1.90, 2.54 cm). Six adult subjects (3 males, 3 females) having normal occlusions and temporomandibular joints chewed the samples between the molar teeth and with the mouth open. Ten repetitions per subject were examined for each food sample. Analysis of estimates of variation indicated an inconsistent intrasubject variation in the acoustical measures. Food type and sample diameter also affected the estimates, indicating the variable nature of mastication. Generally, intrasubject variation was greater than intersubject variation. Analysis of ranks of the data indicated that the effect of sample diameter on the acoustical measures was inconsistent and depended on the subject and type of food. If inferences are to be made concerning food texture from acoustical measures of mastication

  16. A Rectangular Planar Spiral Antenna for GIS Partial Discharge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular planar spiral antenna sensor was designed for detecting the partial discharge in gas insulation substations (GIS. It can expediently receive electromagnetic waves leaked from basin-type insulators and can effectively suppress low frequency electromagnetic interference from the surrounding environment. Certain effective techniques such as rectangular spiral structure, bow-tie loading, and back cavity structure optimization during the antenna design process can miniaturize antenna size and optimize voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR characteristics. Model calculation and experimental data measured in the laboratory show that the antenna possesses a good radiating performance and a multiband property when working in the ultrahigh frequency (UHF band. A comparative study between characteristics of the designed antenna and the existing quasi-TEM horn antenna was made. Based on the GIS defect simulation equipment in the laboratory, partial discharge signals were detected by the designed antenna, the available quasi-TEM horn antenna, and the microstrip patch antenna, and the measurement results were compared.

  17. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Shamir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  18. Optimized inspection techniques and structural analysis in lifetime management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, M.T.; Marcelles, I.

    1993-01-01

    Preservation of the option of extending the service lifetime of a nuclear power plant beyond its normal design lifetime requires correct remaining lifetime management from the very beginning of plant operation. The methodology used in plant remaining lifetime management is essentially based on the use of standard inspections, surveillance and monitoring programs and calculations, such as thermal-stress and fracture mechanics analysis. The inspection techniques should be continuously optimized, in order to be able to detect and dimension existing defects with the highest possible degree of accuracy. The information obtained during the inspection is combined with the historical data of the components: design, quality, operation, maintenance, and transients, and with the results of destructive testing, fracture mechanics and thermal fatigue analysis. These data are used to estimate the remaining lifetime of nuclear power plant components, systems and structures with the highest degree possible of accuracy. The use of this methodology allows component repairs and replacements to be reduced or avoided and increases the safety levels and availability of the nuclear power plant. Use of this strategy avoids the need for heavy investments at the end of the licensing period

  19. SPI Trend Analysis of New Zealand Applying the ITA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A natural temporary imbalance of water availability, consisting of persistent lower-than-average or higher-than-average precipitation, can cause extreme dry and wet conditions that adversely impact agricultural yields, water resources, infrastructure, and human systems. In this study, dry and wet periods in New Zealand were expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. First, both the short term (3 and 6 months and the long term (12 and 24 months SPI were estimated, and then, possible trends in the SPI values were detected by means of a new graphical technique, the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA, which allows the trend identification of the low, medium, and high values of a series. Results show that, in every area currently subject to drought, an increase in this phenomenon can be expected. Specifically, the results of this paper highlight that agricultural regions on the eastern side of the South Island, as well as the north-eastern regions of the North Island, are the most consistently vulnerable areas. In fact, in these regions, the trend analysis mainly showed a general reduction in all the values of the SPI: that is, a tendency toward heavier droughts and weaker wet periods.

  20. Crystallographic texture analysis of archaeological metals: interpretation of manufacturing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artioli, G.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron probes and high energy X-rays are sources of primary importance for the non-invasive characterization of materials related to cultural heritage. Their employment in the characterization of archaeological metal objects, combined with the recent instrumental and computational developments in the field of crystallographic texture analysis (CTA) from diffraction data proves to be a powerful tool for the interpretation of ancient metal working techniques. Diffraction based CTA, when performed using penetrating probes and adequate detector coverage of reciprocal space, for example using large detector arrays and/or ToF mode, allows simultaneous identification and quantification of crystalline phases, besides the microstructural and textural characterization of the object, and it can be effectively used as a totally non-invasive tool for metallographic analysis. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the object may also be obtained by the simultaneous detection of prompt gamma rays induced by neutron activation, or by the fluorescence signal from high energy X-rays, in order to obtain a large amount of complementary information in a single experiment. The specific application of neutron CTA to the characterization of the manufacturing processes of prehistoric copper axes is discussed in detail. (orig.)

  1. Crystallographic texture analysis of archaeological metals: interpretation of manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, G.

    2007-12-01

    Neutron probes and high energy X-rays are sources of primary importance for the non-invasive characterization of materials related to cultural heritage. Their employment in the characterization of archaeological metal objects, combined with the recent instrumental and computational developments in the field of crystallographic texture analysis (CTA) from diffraction data proves to be a powerful tool for the interpretation of ancient metal working techniques. Diffraction based CTA, when performed using penetrating probes and adequate detector coverage of reciprocal space, for example using large detector arrays and/or ToF mode, allows simultaneous identification and quantification of crystalline phases, besides the microstructural and textural characterization of the object, and it can be effectively used as a totally non-invasive tool for metallographic analysis. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the object may also be obtained by the simultaneous detection of prompt gamma rays induced by neutron activation, or by the fluorescence signal from high energy X-rays, in order to obtain a large amount of complementary information in a single experiment. The specific application of neutron CTA to the characterization of the manufacturing processes of prehistoric copper axes is discussed in detail.

  2. Structural reliability analysis based on the cokriging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Wang Wei; Dai Hongzhe; Xue Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    Approximation methods are widely used in structural reliability analysis because they are simple to create and provide explicit functional relationships between the responses and variables in stead of the implicit limit state function. Recently, the kriging method which is a semi-parameter interpolation technique that can be used for deterministic optimization and structural reliability has gained popularity. However, to fully exploit the kriging method, especially in high-dimensional problems, a large number of sample points should be generated to fill the design space and this can be very expensive and even impractical in practical engineering analysis. Therefore, in this paper, a new method-the cokriging method, which is an extension of kriging, is proposed to calculate the structural reliability. cokriging approximation incorporates secondary information such as the values of the gradients of the function being approximated. This paper explores the use of the cokriging method for structural reliability problems by comparing it with the Kriging method based on some numerical examples. The results indicate that the cokriging procedure described in this work can generate approximation models to improve on the accuracy and efficiency for structural reliability problems and is a viable alternative to the kriging.

  3. Analysis of Downs syndrome with molecular techniques for future diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Salem Al-Nbaheen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a genetic disorder appeared due to the presence of trisomy in chromosome 21 in the G-group of the acrocentric region. DS is also known as non-Mendelian inheritance, due to the lack of Mendel’s laws. The disorder in children is identified through clinical symptoms and chromosomal analysis and till now there are no biochemical and molecular analyses. Presently, whole exome sequencing (WES has largely contributed in identifying the new disease-causing genes and represented a significant breakthrough in the field of human genetics and this technique uses high throughput sequencing technologies to determine the arrangement of DNA base pairs specifying the protein coding regions of an individual’s genome. Apart from this next generation sequencing and whole genome sequencing also contribute for identifying the disease marker. From this review, the suggestion was to perform the WES is DS children to identify the marker region. Keywords: Downs syndrome, Exome sequencing, Chromosomal analysis, Genes, Genetics

  4. Virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT in gastric lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Yoon, Man Won; Song, Sang Gook; Jeong, Gwang Woo

    1998-01-01

    To compare virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT with conventional endoscopy for the detection and evaluation of gastric lesions. During a previous six-month period, 30 patients with pathologically-proven gastric lesions underwent conventional endoscopy and virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT. There were 18 cases of advanced gastric carcinoma, eight benign ulcers, and four submucosal tumors(two leiomyomas, two lymphomas). Source images of virtual gastroscopy were three-dim-ensionally reconstructed within an Advantage Windows Workstation and virtual gastroscopic images were obtained using Navigator Software. On analysis, images were graded according to their quality(excellent, good, poor). Virtual gastroscopic images were interpreted by two radiologists blinded to conventional endoscopic findings, and were subsequently compared with endoscopic findings in terms of detectability and findings. In the cases of advanced gastric carcinoma, lesions were classified according to Borrmann's system. For virtual gastroscopy, overall image quality was excellent in 21 cases(70%), good in five(17%), and poor in four(13%). Lesions were detected in 25 cases(83%). Among the 18 advanced gastric carcinomas, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent in 14 cases(78%), good in two(11%), and poor in two(11%). Lesions were detected in 16 cases(89%). Two Borrmann type IV cases were not detected. Among the eight benign ulcers, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent in three cases(38%), good in three(38%), and poor in two(25%). The detection of lesion was possible in five cases(63%). In all submucosal tumors, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent. Lesions were detected in all cases. Virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT is safe and noninvasive, and for the evaluation of gastric lesions may be complementary to axial CT. It successfully detects gastric lesions, and in depicting the pattern of gastric folds its image quality is excellent.=20

  5. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendl, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  6. The analysis of gastric function using computational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, between October 1996 and June 2000. This thesis describes the application of computerised techniques to the analysis of gastric function, in relation to Magnetic Resonance Imaging data. The implementation of a computer program enabling the measurement of motility in the lower stomach is described in Chapter 6. This method allowed the dimensional reduction of multi-slice image data sets into a 'Motility Plot', from which the motility parameters - the frequency, velocity and depth of contractions - could be measured. The technique was found to be simple, accurate and involved substantial time savings, when compared to manual analysis. The program was subsequently used in the measurement of motility in three separate studies, described in Chapter 7. In Study 1, four different meal types of varying viscosity and nutrient value were consumed by 12 volunteers. The aim of the study was (i) to assess the feasibility of using the motility program in a volunteer study and (ii) to determine the effects of the meals on motility. The results showed that the parameters were remarkably consistent between the 4 meals. However, for each meal, velocity and percentage occlusion were found to increase as contractions propagated along the antrum. The first clinical application of the motility program was carried out in Study 2. Motility from three patients was measured, after they had been referred to the Magnetic Resonance Centre with gastric problems. The results showed that one of the patients displayed an irregular motility, compared to the results of the volunteer study. This result had not been observed using other investigative techniques. In Study 3, motility was measured in Low Viscosity and High Viscosity liquid/solid meals, with the solid particulate consisting of agar beads of varying breakdown strength. The results showed that

  7. Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1 a custom-designed, non-invasive, electromechanical device was used in the data collection from 50 subjects; (2 the acquired position and amplitude of onset, Systolic Peak (SP, Point of Inflection (Pi and Dicrotic Wave (DW were used for the computation of some morphological attributes; (3 pre-processing work on the datasets was performed in order to reduce the number of input features and increase the model accuracy by selecting the most relevant ones; (4 classification of the dataset was carried out using four different machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, BayesNet (probabilistic, J48 (decision tree and RIPPER (rule-based induction; and (5 we evaluate the trained models, using the majority-voting system, comparatively to the respective calculated Augmentation Index (AIx. Classification algorithms have been proved to be efficient, in particular Random Forest has shown good accuracy (96.95% and high area under the curve (AUC of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (0.961. Finally, during validation tests, a correlation between high risk labels, retrieved from the multi-parametric approach, and positive AIx values was verified. This approach gives allowance for designing new hemodynamic morphology vectors and techniques for multiple APW analysis, thus improving the arterial pulse understanding, especially when compared to traditional single-parameter analysis, where the failure in one parameter measurement component, such as Pi, can jeopardize the whole evaluation.

  8. A dynamic mechanical analysis technique for porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Adam Jeffry; McGarry, Matthew; Weaver, John B; Paulsen, Keith D

    2015-02-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a common way to measure the mechanical properties of materials as functions of frequency. Traditionally, a viscoelastic mechanical model is applied and current DMA techniques fit an analytical approximation to measured dynamic motion data by neglecting inertial forces and adding empirical correction factors to account for transverse boundary displacements. Here, a finite-element (FE) approach to processing DMA data was developed to estimate poroelastic material properties. Frequency-dependent inertial forces, which are significant in soft media and often neglected in DMA, were included in the FE model. The technique applies a constitutive relation to the DMA measurements and exploits a nonlinear inversion to estimate the material properties in the model that best fit the model response to the DMA data. A viscoelastic version of this approach was developed to validate the approach by comparing complex modulus estimates to the direct DMA results. Both analytical and FE poroelastic models were also developed to explore their behavior in the DMA testing environment. All of the models were applied to tofu as a representative soft poroelastic material that is a common phantom in elastography imaging studies. Five samples of three different stiffnesses were tested from 1-14 Hz with rough platens placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the material specimen under test to restrict transverse displacements and promote fluid-solid interaction. The viscoelastic models were identical in the static case, and nearly the same at frequency with inertial forces accounting for some of the discrepancy. The poroelastic analytical method was not sufficient when the relevant physical boundary constraints were applied, whereas the poroelastic FE approach produced high quality estimates of shear modulus and hydraulic conductivity. These results illustrated appropriate shear modulus contrast between tofu samples and yielded a consistent contrast in

  9. Data analysis techniques: a tool for cumulative exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloué, Benoît; Monnez, Jean-Marie; Padilla, Cindy; Kihal, Wahida; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is subject to environmental exposures from various sources, with negative health impacts (air, water and soil contamination, noise, etc.or with positive effects (e.g. green space). Studies considering such complex environmental settings in a global manner are rare. We propose to use statistical factor and cluster analyses to create a composite exposure index with a data-driven approach, in view to assess the environmental burden experienced by populations. We illustrate this approach in a large French metropolitan area. The study was carried out in the Great Lyon area (France, 1.2 M inhabitants) at the census Block Group (BG) scale. We used as environmental indicators ambient air NO2 annual concentrations, noise levels and proximity to green spaces, to industrial plants, to polluted sites and to road traffic. They were synthesized using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA), a data-driven technique without a priori modeling, followed by a Hierarchical Clustering to create BG classes. The first components of the MFA explained, respectively, 30, 14, 11 and 9% of the total variance. Clustering in five classes group: (1) a particular type of large BGs without population; (2) BGs of green residential areas, with less negative exposures than average; (3) BGs of residential areas near midtown; (4) BGs close to industries; and (5) midtown urban BGs, with higher negative exposures than average and less green spaces. Other numbers of classes were tested in order to assess a variety of clustering. We present an approach using statistical factor and cluster analyses techniques, which seem overlooked to assess cumulative exposure in complex environmental settings. Although it cannot be applied directly for risk or health effect assessment, the resulting index can help to identify hot spots of cumulative exposure, to prioritize urban policies or to compare the environmental burden across study areas in an epidemiological framework.

  10. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  11. Parotid-Absorbed Doses: A Comparison Between Spiral Tomography and Panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hekmatian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Jaws spiral tomography and panoramic radiography have wide applications in dentistry, and the parotid gland is one of the most sensitive organs of the head and neck. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the parotid-absorbed dose in spiral tomography and panoramic radiographs using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Materials and Methods A radiation analog dosimetry phantom was placed in a Cranex Tome radiograph device, and a parotid absorbed dose was measured in both techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed bilaterally in the parotid region (on the tube side and the opposite side. Spiral tomography dosimetry was done for the upper and lower jaws in the anterior and posterior regions. Each region contained four slices of 2 mm and four slices of 4 mm in thickness. The results were analyzed by a Wilcoxon test. Results For the tube side parotid, the average absorbed doses in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.70/1.40 and 1.65/1.60 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.65/1.70 and 1.75/1.57 mGy, respectively. For the opposite parotid, the average absorbed dose in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.40/1.30 and 1.40/1.67 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.50/1.66 and 1.40/1.50 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed dose of the panoramic radiograph was 1.40 mGy. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in the parotid absorbed dose between spiral tomography and a panoramic radiograph (P value = 0.18. The overall results of this study were similar to other studies.

  12. Fast 3D imaging using variable-density spiral trajectories with applications to limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyung; Hargreaves, Brian A; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2003-12-01

    Variable-density k-space sampling using a stack-of-spirals trajectory is proposed for ultra fast 3D imaging. Since most of the energy of an image is concentrated near the k-space origin, a variable-density k-space sampling method can be used to reduce the sampling density in the outer portion of k-space. This significantly reduces scan time while introducing only minor aliasing artifacts from the low-energy, high-spatial-frequency components. A stack-of-spirals trajectory allows control over the density variations in both the k(x)-k(y) plane and the k(z) direction while fast k-space coverage is provided by spiral trajectories in the k(x)-k(y) plane. A variable-density stack-of-spirals trajectory consists of variable-density spirals in each k(x)-k(y) plane that are located in varying density in the k(z) direction. Phantom experiments demonstrate that reasonable image quality is preserved with approximately half the scan time. This technique was then applied to first-pass perfusion imaging of the lower extremities which demands very rapid volume coverage. Using a variable-density stack-of-spirals trajectory, 3D images were acquired at a temporal resolution of 2.8 sec over a large volume with a 2.5 x 2.5 x 8 mm(3) spatial resolution. These images were used to resolve the time-course of muscle intensity following contrast injection. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Three-dimensional dental imaging by spiral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Conover, Gary; Knapp, Robert H.; Yokoyama-Crothers, Naoko; Wang, Ge

    1995-05-01

    Three-dimensional image acquisition, display, and analysis of dental structures was performed and validated using spiral computed tomography (SCT) with metal artifact suppression. Isolated extracted teeth, a dry mandible, cadaver mandible, and cadaver head were scanned and reconstructed using a spiral CT scanner (Siemens Somatom PLUS-S) with 1 mm detector collimation, 1-mm table feed, and 0.1 - 1 mm reconstruction interval using specially developed software. Algorithms for metal artifact reduction including extended attenuation range and interpolation of missing projections were applied. Volumetric rendering of voxel sum images was performed to synthesize images comparable to conventional intraoral dental radiographs. Direct comparison of voxel-based synthetic and digitized film images was made. Several isolated, extracted teeth were sectioned with a diamond saw and submitted for histomorphometric analysis to aid in direct comparison with CT slice images obtained by multiplanar reconstruction. Metal artifact reduction was successful in markedly reducing the streaks and star patterns that usually accompany metallic restorations and intraoral appliances. Individual teeth were comparable to CT slice images. Voxel sum images were comparable to dental radiographs; however, for the SCT images, the spatial resolution was higher within the plane of section than it was orthogonal to the plane of section. Serial examinations were obtained by SCT, registered by surface matching, and interval change measured by 3D subtraction. Simulated lesions and restorations were introduced and quantitatively evaluated pre- and post-interventionally to assess imaging method performance.

  14. Automatic Satellite Telemetry Analysis for SSA using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, R.; Mao, J.

    In April 2016, General Hyten, commander of Air Force Space Command, announced the Space Enterprise Vision (SEV) (http://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/719941/hyten-announces-space-enterprise-vision/). The SEV addresses increasing threats to space-related systems. The vision includes an integrated approach across all mission areas (communications, positioning, navigation and timing, missile warning, and weather data) and emphasizes improved access to data across the entire enterprise and the ability to protect space-related assets and capabilities. "The future space enterprise will maintain our nation's ability to deliver critical space effects throughout all phases of conflict," Hyten said. Satellite telemetry is going to become available to a new audience. While that telemetry information should be valuable for achieving Space Situational Awareness (SSA), these new satellite telemetry data consumers will not know how to utilize it. We were tasked with applying AI techniques to build an infrastructure to process satellite telemetry into higher abstraction level symbolic space situational awareness and to initially populate that infrastructure with useful data analysis methods. We are working with two organizations, Montana State University (MSU) and the Air Force Academy, both of whom control satellites and therefore currently analyze satellite telemetry to assess the health and circumstances of their satellites. The design which has resulted from our knowledge elicitation and cognitive task analysis is a hybrid approach which combines symbolic processing techniques of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Behavior Transition Networks (BTNs) with current Machine Learning approaches. BTNs are used to represent the process and associated formulas to check telemetry values against anticipated problems and issues. CBR is used to represent and retrieve BTNs that represent an investigative process that should be applied to the telemetry in certain circumstances

  15. An assessment of a spiral duct centrifuge using standard and high concentration aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.D.

    1982-12-01

    The Stoeber spiral duct centrifuge has been calibrated by means of polystyrene latex microspheres for the subsequent measurement of aerosol particle size distributions. Intermediate (1 g m -3 ) ad high (100 g m -3 ) sodium chloride aerosol concentrations have been sampled by the centrifuge to determine possible limitations in the equipment. Corrections have to be made for the effect of Coriolis forces, and aerosol concentrations above 1 g m -3 should be diluted before sampling. The spiral duct centrifuge is an extremely versatile instrument for aerosol analysis, and shows a high degree of reliability when operated under well-defined conditions. (author)

  16. Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop a new classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is not necessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of 492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for future statistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; the latter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimates of arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness were compiled for most sample objects.

  17. The findings and the role of axial CT imaging and 3D imaging of gastric lesion by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of axial CT imaging and 3D imaging by spiral CT in the detection and evaluation of gastric lesion. Seventy-seven patients with pathologically-proven gastric lesions underwent axial CT and 3D imaging by spiral CT. There were 49 cases of advanced gastric carcinoma(AGC), 21 of early gastric carcinoma (EGC), three of benign ulcers, three of leiomyomas, and one case of lymphoma. Spiral CT was performed with 3-mm collimation, 4.5mm/sec table feed, and 1-1.5-mm reconstruction interval after the ingestion of gas. 3D imaging was obtained using the SSD technique, and on analysis a grade was given(excellent, good, poor). Axial CT scan was performed with 5-mm collimation, 7mm/sec table feed, and 5-mm reconstruction interval after the ingestion of water. Among 49 cases of AGC, excellent 3D images were obtained in seven patients (14.3%), good 3D images in 30(61.2%), and poor 3D images in 12(24.5%). Among the 12 patients with poor images, the cancers were located at the pyloric antrum in eight cases, were AGC Borrmann type 4 in three cases, and EGC-mimicking lesion in one case. Using axial CT scan alone, Borrmann's classification based tumor morphology were accurately identified in 67.3% of cases, but using 3D imaging, the corresponding figure was 85.7%. In 33 cases receiving surgery, good correlation between axial CT scan and pathology occurred in 72.7% of T class, and 69.7% of N class. Among 21 cases of EGC, excellent 3D images were obtained in three patients (14.3%), good 3D images in 14 (66.7%), and poor 3D images in two (9.5%). The other two cases of EGC were not detected. By axial CT scan, no tumor was detected in four cases, and there were two doubtful cases. 3D images of three benign ulcers were excellent in one case and good in two. 3D images of three leiomyomas and one lymphoma were excellent. Combined axial CT imaging and 3D imaging by spiral CT has the potential to accurately diagnose gastric lesions other than AGC

  18. Spiral optical designs for nonimaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pablo; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Vilaplana, Juan; Buljan, Marina

    2011-10-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. In some demanding nonimaging applications, these restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for negative draft angles. Some of these spiral symmetry examples will be shown here, as well as their simulated results.

  19. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  20. Trends in grazing emission x-ray analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieken, R. van; Tsuji, K.; Injuk, J.

    2000-01-01

    then, the detection limits imposed by the semiconductor industry roadmap can probably not be obtained by tube-excited GEXRF. Th perspectives for tube-excited GE-XRF are thus rather poor. Future developments imply the combination of GEXRF with synchrotron radiation excitation. Grazing-emission particle-induced X-ray emission (GE-PIXE) suffers of similar quantification Problems for material deposited on a carrier, but it makes PIXE a surface-sensitive technique, while normally the protons penetrate some tens of μm in the sample. Similarly, grazing-emission electron probe micro-analysis (GE-EPNIA) allows to selectively analyze particles on a flat carrier, allows surface sensitivities in the nm rather than μ range, and yields, in principle, a spatial resolution for chemical analysis similar to the size of the impinging electron beam, rather than of the electron-excited volume. Both GE-PIXE and GE-EPMA need to be explored more fully in the near future. (author)

  1. Spiral CT angiography of splanchnic artery aneurysms. Technique and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squillaci, E.; Ciolfi, M.G.; Maspes, F.; Simonetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The aneurysm of visceral vessel are characterized by few or no symptoms and the diagnosis is often occasional. The authors investigated the usefulness of CT angiography in the diagnosis and preoperative assessment in this conditions. In the experience of the authors CT angiography can replace digital subtraction angiography in the diagnosis and preoperative work-up of visceral vessel aneurysms. CT angiography was superior to digital angiography to the evaluation of the lesion exact dimensions in case with large thrombotic component and diffuse wall calcifications [it

  2. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  3. Dark and visible matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.; Durham Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Exploiting relevant information from the profiles of rotation curves, we calculate the dark-to-luminous mass ratio within the disc size for a sample of 43 spiral galaxies. The values we find, while proving the ubiquitous presence of dark matter, vary with luminosity. Faint and bright galaxies are found to be respectively halo- and disc-dominated in the disc regions. The luminosity sequence turns out to be a dark-to-luminous sequence. (author)

  4. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  5. Analysis of Biomechanical Structure and Passing Techniques in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. Izzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball, with 20.9 % – and by the two-handed over the head pass, with 18.2 %, and finally, one- or two-handed indirect passes (bounces, with 11.2 % and 9.8 %. Considering the most used pass in basketball, from the biomechanical point of view, the muscles involved in the correct movement consider all the muscles of the upper extremity, adding also the shoulder muscles as well as the body fixators (abdominals, hip flexors, knee extensors, and dorsal flexors of the foot. The technical and conditional analysis considers the throwing speed, the throw height and the air resistance. In conclusion, the aim of this study is to give some guidelines to improve the mechanical execution of the movements in training, without neglecting the importance of the harmony of the movements themselves.

  6. Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; El-Shershaby, A.; Walley El-Dine, N.

    1996-01-01

    Two brazing alloy samples (C P 2 and C P 3 ) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10 1 1 n/cm 2 /s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10 1 2 n/cm 2 /s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab

  7. Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.

  8. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed

  9. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thicknessdirection. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimizing the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.

  10. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  11. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  12. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  13. COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    MADKI.M.R; RUBINA KHAN

    2012-01-01

    The intensity histogram gives information which can be used for contrast enhancement. The histogram equalization could be flat for levels less than the total number of levels. This could deteriorate the image. This problem can be overcome various techniques. This paper gives a comparative of the Bi-Histogram Equalization, Recursive Mean Seperated Histogram Equalization, Multipeak Histogram Equalization and Brightness Preserving Dynamic Histogram Equalization techniques by using these techniqu...

  14. The DiskMass Survey. X. Radio synthesis imaging of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from 21 cm radio synthesis imaging of 28 spiral galaxies from the DiskMass Survey obtained with the VLA, WSRT, and GMRT facilities. We detail the observations and data reduction procedures and present a brief analysis of the radio data. We construct 21 cm continuum images, global

  15. The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Adwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem.

  16. The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Ayman; Binsaleh, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT) can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem.

  17. Heat transfer enhancement in two-start spirally corrugated tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid S. Kareem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various techniques have been tested on heat transfer enhancement to upgrade the involving equipment, mainly in thermal transport devices. These techniques unveiled significant effects when utilized in heat exchangers. One of the most essential techniques used is the passive heat transfer technique. Corrugations represent a passive technique. In addition, it provides effective heat transfer enhancement because it combined the features of extended surfaces, turbulators and artificial roughness. Therefore, A Computational Fluid Dynamics was employed for water flowing at low Reynolds number in spiral corrugated tubes. This article aimed for the determination of the thermal performance of unique smooth corrugation profile. The Performance Evaluation Criteria were calculated for corrugated tubes, and the simulation results of both Nusselt number and friction factor were compared with those of standard plain and corrugated tubes for validation purposes. Results showed the best thermal performance range of 1.8–2.3 for the tube which has the severity of 45.455 × 10−3 for Reynolds number range of 100–700. The heat transfer enhancement range was 21.684%–60.5402% with friction factor increase of 19.2–36.4%. This indicated that this creative corrugation can improve the heat transfer significantly with appreciably increasing friction factor.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Dark Ground Buffy Coat Technique (DG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of typanosome infection in 65 cattle reared under expensive system of management was determined using the dark ground buffy coat (DG) technique and the enzyme-linkedimmunisorbent assay (ELISA). The DG technique showed that there were 18 positive cases (27.69%) of total number of animals, made ...

  19. Advanced patch-clamp techniques and single-channel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biskup, B; Elzenga, JTM; Homann, U; Thiel, G; Wissing, F; Maathuis, FJM

    Much of our knowledge of ion-transport mechanisms in plant cell membranes comes from experiments using voltage-clamp. This technique allows the measurement of ionic currents across the membrane, whilst the voltage is held under experimental control. The patch-clamp technique was developed to study

  20. ERROR ANALYSIS FOR THE AIRBORNE DIRECT GEOREFERINCING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Elsharkawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct Georeferencing was shown to be an important alternative to standard indirect image orientation using classical or GPS-supported aerial triangulation. Since direct Georeferencing without ground control relies on an extrapolation process only, particular focus has to be laid on the overall system calibration procedure. The accuracy performance of integrated GPS/inertial systems for direct Georeferencing in airborne photogrammetric environments has been tested extensively in the last years. In this approach, the limiting factor is a correct overall system calibration including the GPS/inertial component as well as the imaging sensor itself. Therefore remaining errors in the system calibration will significantly decrease the quality of object point determination. This research paper presents an error analysis for the airborne direct Georeferencing technique, where integrated GPS/IMU positioning and navigation systems are used, in conjunction with aerial cameras for airborne mapping compared with GPS/INS supported AT through the implementation of certain amount of error on the EOP and Boresight parameters and study the effect of these errors on the final ground coordinates. The data set is a block of images consists of 32 images distributed over six flight lines, the interior orientation parameters, IOP, are known through careful camera calibration procedure, also 37 ground control points are known through terrestrial surveying procedure. The exact location of camera station at time of exposure, exterior orientation parameters, EOP, is known through GPS/INS integration process. The preliminary results show that firstly, the DG and GPS-supported AT have similar accuracy and comparing with the conventional aerial photography method, the two technologies reduces the dependence on ground control (used only for quality control purposes. Secondly, In the DG Correcting overall system calibration including the GPS/inertial component as well as the

  1. Qualitative analysis of Orzooiyeh plain groundwater resources using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsustainable development of human societies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, is one of the most important environmental hazards that require preservation of groundwater resources, and permanent study of qualitative and quantitative changes through sampling. Accordingly, this research attempts to assess and analyze the spatial variation of quantitative and qualitative indicators of Orzooiyeh groundwater resources in the Kerman province by using the geographic information system (GIS. Methods: This study attempts to survey the spatial analysis of these indexes using GIS techniques besides the evaluation of the groundwater resources quality in the study area. For this purpose, data quality indicators and statistics such as electrical conductivity, pH, sulphate, residual total dissolved solids (TDS, sodium, calcium; magnesium and chlorine of 28 selected wells sampled by the Kerman regional water organization were used. Results: A comparison of the present research results with standard of Industrial Research of Iran and also the World Health Organization (WHO shows that, among the measured indices, the electrical conductivity and TDS in the chosen samples are higher than the national standard of Iran and of the WHO but other indices are more favourable. Conclusion: Results showed that the electrical conductivity index of 64.3% of the samples have an optimal level, 71.4% have the limit of Iran national standard and only 3.6% of them have the WHO standard. The TDS index, too, did not reach national standards in any of the samples and in 82.1% of the samples this index was on the national standard limit. As per this index, only 32.1% of the samples were in the WHO standards.

  2. Ablation acceleration of macroparticle in spiral magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-05-01

    The rocket motion of macroparticles heated by energetic pulses in a spiral magnetic field was studied. The purpose of the present work is to study the ablation acceleration of a macroparticle in a spiral magnetic field with the help of the law of conservation of angular momentum. The basic equation of motion of ablatively accelerated projectile in a spiral magnetic field was derived. Any rocket which is ejecting fully ionized plasma in an intense magnetic field with rotational transform is able to have spin by the law of conservation of momentum. The effect of spiral magnetic field on macroparticle acceleration is discussed. The necessary mass ratio increase exponentially with respect to the field parameter. The spiral field should be employed with care to have only to stabilize the position of macroparticles. As conclusion, it can be said that the ablation acceleration of the projectile in a spiral field can give the accelerated body spin quite easily. (Kato, T.)

  3. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  4. Wave-particle dualism of spiral waves dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, I V; Biktashev, V N

    2003-02-01

    We demonstrate and explain a wave-particle dualism of such classical macroscopic phenomena as spiral waves in active media. That means although spiral waves appear as nonlocal processes involving the whole medium, they respond to small perturbations as effectively localized entities. The dualism appears as an emergent property of a nonlinear field and is mathematically expressed in terms of the spiral waves response functions, which are essentially nonzero only in the vicinity of the spiral wave core. Knowledge of the response functions allows quantitatively accurate prediction of the spiral wave drift due to small perturbations of any nature, which makes them as fundamental characteristics for spiral waves as mass is for the condensed matter.

  5. Application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaohui

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are favourable for continuous on-line analysis, because they are fast, non-intrusive. They can be used in the adverse circumstances in coal industry. The paper reviews the application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality and economic benefits derived from such techniques in developed countries

  6. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, V. V., E-mail: kiselev@imp.uran.ru; Raskovalov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of “precursors” and “tails” in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.

  8. Cochlea and other spiral forms in nature and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stanković, Predrag; Štrbac, Mile; Tomić, Irina; Ćetković, Mila

    2012-01-01

    The original appearance of the cochlea and the specific shape of a spiral are interesting for both the scientists and artists. Yet, a correlation between the cochlea and the spiral forms in nature and art has been very rarely mentioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between the cochlea and the other spiral objects in nature, as well as the artistic presentation of the spiral forms. We explored data related to many natural objects and examined 13,625 artworks created by 2049 artists. We also dissected 2 human cochleas and prepared histologic slices of a rat cochlea. The cochlea is a spiral, cone-shaped osseous structure that resembles certain other spiral forms in nature. It was noticed that parts of some plants are arranged in a spiral manner, often according to Fibonacci numbers. Certain animals, their parts, or their products also represent various types of spirals. Many of them, including the cochlea, belong to the logarithmic type. Nature created spiral forms in the living world to pack a larger number of structures in a limited space and also to improve their function. Because the cochlea and other spiral forms have a certain aesthetic value, many artists presented them in their works of art. There is a mathematical and geometric correlation between the cochlea and natural spiral objects, and the same functional reason for their formation. The artists' imagery added a new aspect to those domains. Obviously, the creativity of nature and Homo sapiens has no limits--like the infinite distal part of the spiral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of data mining techniques for business data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Jastini Mohd; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Data mining is the process of employing one or more computer learning techniques to automatically analyze and extract knowledge from data contained within a database. Companies are using this tool to further understand their customers, to design targeted sales and marketing campaigns, to predict what product customers will buy and the frequency of purchase, and to spot trends in customer preferences that can lead to new product development. In this paper, we conduct a systematic approach to explore several of data mining techniques in business application. The experimental result reveals that all data mining techniques accomplish their goals perfectly, but each of the technique has its own characteristics and specification that demonstrate their accuracy, proficiency and preference.

  10. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  11. Techniques for the Statistical Analysis of Observer Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, John G

    2001-01-01

    .... The two techniques are as follows: (1) fitting logistic curves to the vehicle data, and (2) using the Fisher Exact Test to compare the probability of detection of the two vehicles at each range...

  12. Analysis of neutron-reflectometry data by Monte Carlo technique

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-reflectometry data is collected in momentum space. The real-space information is extracted by fitting a model for the structure of a thin-film sample. We have attempted a Monte Carlo technique to extract the structure of the thin film. In this technique we change the structural parameters of the thin film by simulated annealing based on the Metropolis algorithm. (orig.)

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for Credit Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Nwulu, Nnamdi; Oroja, Shola; İlkan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Credit Scoring has become an oft researched topic in light of the increasing volatility of the global economy and the recent world financial crisis. Amidst the many methods used for credit scoring, machine learning techniques are becoming increasingly popular due to their efficient and accurate nature and relative simplicity. Furthermore machine learning techniques minimize the risk of human bias and error and maximize speed as they are able to perform computation...

  14. Quantitative Image Analysis Techniques with High-Speed Schlieren Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Victoria J.; Herron, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Optical flow visualization techniques such as schlieren and shadowgraph photography are essential to understanding fluid flow when interpreting acquired wind tunnel test data. Output of the standard implementations of these visualization techniques in test facilities are often limited only to qualitative interpretation of the resulting images. Although various quantitative optical techniques have been developed, these techniques often require special equipment or are focused on obtaining very precise and accurate data about the visualized flow. These systems are not practical in small, production wind tunnel test facilities. However, high-speed photography capability has become a common upgrade to many test facilities in order to better capture images of unsteady flow phenomena such as oscillating shocks and flow separation. This paper describes novel techniques utilized by the authors to analyze captured high-speed schlieren and shadowgraph imagery from wind tunnel testing for quantification of observed unsteady flow frequency content. Such techniques have applications in parametric geometry studies and in small facilities where more specialized equipment may not be available.

  15. Protein purification and analysis: next generation Western blotting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manish; Tiwari, Shuchita; Gomes, Aldrin V

    2017-11-01

    Western blotting is one of the most commonly used techniques in molecular biology and proteomics. Since western blotting is a multistep protocol, variations and errors can occur at any step reducing the reliability and reproducibility of this technique. Recent reports suggest that a few key steps, such as the sample preparation method, the amount and source of primary antibody used, as well as the normalization method utilized, are critical for reproducible western blot results. Areas covered: In this review, improvements in different areas of western blotting, including protein transfer and antibody validation, are summarized. The review discusses the most advanced western blotting techniques available and highlights the relationship between next generation western blotting techniques and its clinical relevance. Expert commentary: Over the last decade significant improvements have been made in creating more sensitive, automated, and advanced techniques by optimizing various aspects of the western blot protocol. New methods such as single cell-resolution western blot, capillary electrophoresis, DigiWest, automated microfluid western blotting and microchip electrophoresis have all been developed to reduce potential problems associated with the western blotting technique. Innovative developments in instrumentation and increased sensitivity for western blots offer novel possibilities for increasing the clinical implications of western blot.

  16. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Bergstrand, L.; Tylen, U.; Aspelin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  17. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B. [Department of Thoracic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstrand, L. [Department of Radiology, Danderyds Hospital, Danderyd (Sweden); Tylen, U. [Deparment of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenberg (Sweden); Aspelin, P. [Department of Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  18. SPIRAL2 Week 2012 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, F.; Jacquemet, M.; Lewitowicz, M.; Bertrand, P.; Tuske, O.; Caruso, A.; Leyge, J.F.; Perrot, L.; Di Giacomo, M.; Ausset, P.; Moscatello, M.H.; Savalle, A.; Rannou, B.; Lambert, M.; Petit, E.; Hulin, X.; Barre-Boscher, N.; Tusseau-Nenez, S.; Tecchio, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the 5. edition of the SPIRAL2 Week is to present and discuss the current status of the SPIRAL2 project in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. The program of the meeting will include presentations on scientific and technical developments related to the baseline project, experiments and theory. The main topics to be discussed at the conference are: -) physics and detectors at SPIRAL2, -) driver accelerators, -) production of radioactive ion beams (RIB), -) safety, -) buildings and infrastructure, -) RIB facilities worldwide, and -) SPIRAL2 preparatory phase. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  19. Self-regulated model of galactic spiral structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel; Khanna, Gaurav

    2002-01-01

    The presence of spiral structure in isolated galaxies is a problem that has only been partially explained by theoretical models. Because the rate and pattern of star formation in the disk must depend only on mechanisms internal to the disk, we may think of the spiral galaxy as a self-regulated system far from equilibrium. This paper uses this idea to look at a reaction-diffusion model for the formation of spiral structures in certain types of galaxies. In numerical runs of the model, spiral structure forms and persists over several revolutions of the disk, but eventually dies out.

  20. Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in Northwest and Central Nigeria.

  1. Topological Signatures in the Electronic Structure of Graphene Spirals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdoshenko, Stas.M.; Koskinen, Pekka; Sevincli, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    and graphene systems. Here, we introduce topologically distinct graphene forms - graphene spirals - and employ density-functional theory to investigate their geometric and electronic properties. We found that the spiral topology gives rise to an intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit splitting. Through a Hamiltonian...... constrained by space curvature, graphene spirals have topologically protected states due to time-reversal symmetry. In addition, we argue that the synthesis of such graphene spirals is feasible and can be achieved through advanced bottom-up experimental routes that we indicate in this work....

  2. Evaluation of nuclear reactor based activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Kucera, J.

    1977-09-01

    A survey is presented of the basic types of activation analysis applied in environmental control. Reactor neutron activation analysis is described (including the reactor as a neutron source, sample activation in the reactor, methodology of neutron activation analysis, sample transport into the reactor and sample packaging after irradiation, instrumental activation analysis with radiochemical separation, data measurement and evaluation, sampling and sample preparation). Sources of environmental contamination with trace elements, sampling and sample analysis by neutron activation are described. The analysis is described of soils, waters and biological materials. Methods are shown of evaluating neutron activation analysis results and of their interpretation for purposes of environmental control. (J.B.)

  3. Twitter Sentiment Analysis of Movie Reviews using Machine Learning Techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay Amolik; Niketan Jivane; Mahavir Bhandari; Dr.M.Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Sentiment analysis is basically concerned with analysis of emotions and opinions from text. We can refer sentiment analysis as opinion mining. Sentiment analysis finds and justifies the sentiment of the person with respect to a given source of content. Social media contain huge amount of the sentiment data in the form of tweets, blogs, and updates on the status, posts, etc. Sentiment analysis of this largely generated data is very useful to express the opinion of the mass. Twitter sentiment a...

  4. Fabrication and characterization on width of spiral interdigitated electrodes based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelyn, P. Y. P.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Voon, C. H.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Kahar, S. M.; Huda, A. R. N.; Lee, H. Cheun

    2017-03-01

    Simple and inexpensive mask layout design on a transparency film were demonstrated using the conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technique to produce interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for biomedical biosensors applications. Lift-off techniques were implemented during photolithography process in order to pattern an electrode widths of 200µm, 300µm, 400µm and 500µm, respectively with a standardized 400µm gap spacing spiral IDEs. Due to the effect of the transparent mask, a fabrication of these spiral IDEs resulted in shrinkage of electrode width and increment of the gap spacing. Among these electrode sizes, the conductance of 300µm, 400µm and 500µm electrode width were successfully examined as compared to 200µm.

  5. Production and post acceleration scheme for spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibet, D.

    2001-01-01

    SPIRAL, the R.I.B. facility of GANIL uses heavy ion beams to produce radioactive atoms inside a thick target. Atoms are ionised in a compact permanent magnet ECR ion source. The compact cyclotron CIME accelerates the radioactive ions in an energy range from 1.7 to 25 MeV/u. The cyclotron acts as a mass separator with resolving power of 2500. Plastic scintillator and silicon detectors are used to tune the machine at a very low intensity. An overview of the facility, stable beam tests results and the R and D program will be presented. (authors)

  6. Controls and automation in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothner, U.; Boulot, A.; Maherault, J.; Martial, L.

    1999-01-01

    The control and automation team of the R and D of Accelerator-Exotic Beam Department has had in the framework of SPIRAL collaboration the following tasks: 1. automation of the resonator high frequency equipment of the CIME cyclotron; 2. automation of the vacuum equipment, i.e. the low energy line (TBE), the CIME cyclotron, the low energy line (BE); 3. automation of load safety for power supply; 4. for each of these tasks a circuitry file based on the SCHEMA software has been worked out. The programs required in the automation of load safety for power supply (STEP5, PROTOOL, DESIGNER 4.1) were developed and implemented for PC

  7. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  8. Performance analysis of two-way DF relay selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Alabed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes novel bi-directional dual-relay selection techniques based on Alamouti space-time block coding (STBC using the decode and forward (DF protocol and analyzes their performance. In the proposed techniques, two- and the three-phase relaying schemes are used to perform bi-directional communication between the communicating terminals via two selected single-antenna relays that employ the Alamouti STBC in a distributed fashion to achieve diversity and orthogonalization of the channels and hence improve the reliability of the system and enable the use of a symbol-wise detector. Furthermore, the network coding strategy applied at all relays is not associated with any power wastage for broadcasting data already known at any terminal, resulting in improved overall performance at the terminals. Our simulations confirm the analytical results and show a substantially improved bit error rate (BER performance of our proposed techniques compared with the current state of the art.

  9. Radon remedial techniques in buildings - analysis of French actual cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The IRSN has compiled a collection of solutions from data provided by the various decentralised government services in 31 French departments. Contributors were asked to provide a description of the building, as well as details of measured radon levels, the type of reduction technique adopted and the cost. Illustrative layouts, technical drawings and photographs were also requested, when available. Of the cases recorded, 85% are establishments open to the public (schools (70%), city halls (4%) and combined city halls and school houses (26%)), 11% are houses and 4% industrial buildings. IRSN obtained 27 real cases of remedial techniques used. The data were presented in the form of fact sheets. The primary aim of this exercise was to illustrate each of the radon reduction techniques that can be used in the different building types (with basement, ground bearing slab, crawl space). This investigation not only enabled us to show that combining passive and active techniques reduces the operating cost of the installation, but above all that it considerably improves the efficiency. The passive technique reduces the amount of radon in the building and thus reduces the necessary ventilation rate, which directly affects the cost of operating the installation. For the 27 cases recorded, we noted:(a) the application of 7 passive techniques: sealing of floors and semi-buried walls, together with improved aeration by installing ventilation openings or ventilation strips in the windows. Radon concentrations were reduced on average by a factor of 4.7. No measurement in excess of 400 Bq.m -3 (the limit recommended by the French public authorities) was obtained following completion of the works; (b) the application of 15 active techniques: depressurization of the underlying ground, crawl space or basement and/or pressurization of the building. Radon concentrations were reduced on average by a factor of 13.8. Radon concentrations of over 400 Bq.m -3 were measured in only 4 cases

  10. Genetic programming system for building block analysis to enhance data analysis and data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Christoph F.; Sanz, Walter D.; Zhang, Ruijian

    1999-02-01

    Recently, many computerized data mining tools and environments have been proposed for finding interesting patterns in large data collections. These tools employ techniques that originate from research in various areas, such as machine learning, statistical data analysis, and visualization. Each of these techniques makes assumptions concerning the composition of the data collection to be analyzed. If the particular data collection does not meet these assumptions well, the technique usually performs poorly. For example, decision tree tools, such as C4.5, rely on rectangular approximations, which do not perform well if the boundaries between different classes have other shapes, such as a 45 degree line or elliptical shapes. However, if we could find a transformation f that transforms the original attribute space, in which class boundaries are more, better rectangular approximations could be obtained. In this paper, we address the problem of finding such transformations f. We describe the features of the tool, WOLS, whose goal is the discovery of ingredients for such transformation functions f, which we call building blocks. The tool employs genetic programming and symbolic regression for this purpose. We also present and discuss the results of case studies, using the building block analysis tool, in the areas of decision tree learning and regression analysis.

  11. Geotechnical Analysis of Paleoseismic Shaking Using Liquefaction Features: Part I. Major Updating of Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Obermeier, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the geotechnical analysis of strength of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects. The proposed method provides recommendations for selection of both individual and regionally located test sites, techniques for validation of field data for use in back-analysis, and use of a recently developed energy-based solution to back-calculate paleoearthquake magnitude and strength of shaking. The proposed method allows investigators to assess the influence of post-earthquake density change and aging. The proposed method also describes how the back-calculations from individual sites should be integrated into a regional assessment of paleoseismic parameters.

  12. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. A review on applications of the wavelet transform techniques in spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Albdel-hafiez, A.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Awaad, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Starting from 1989, a new technique known as wavelet transforms (WT) has been applied successfully for analysis of different types of spectra. WT offers certain advantages over Fourier transforms for analysis of signals. A review of using this technique through different fields of elemental analysis is presented

  14. Determining the Number of Factors in P-Technique Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lawrence L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Rovine, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Determining the number of factors is a critical first step in exploratory factor analysis. Although various criteria and methods for determining the number of factors have been evaluated in the usual between-subjects R-technique factor analysis, there is still question of how these methods perform in within-subjects P-technique factor analysis. A…

  15. Optimized preoperative planning of calcaneal fractures using spiral computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.; Hohendorf, B.; Heller, M. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Kiel (Germany); Thomsen, M. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical School, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Zenker, W. [Department of Traumatology, Medical School, University of Kiel (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of spiral-CT examinations in preoperative planning of calcaneal fractures supported by 3D reconstructions after electronic disarticulation. We examined 45 patients with 47 calcaneal fractures with diagnostic spiral-CT examinations in a prospective study. In addition to the conventional axial slices and sagittal reconstructions, 3D reconstructions prior to and after electronic disarticulation were performed and rated by orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists. The following diagnostic criteria were rated: involvement of articular facets, number of fragments and hindfoot deformities. Axial slices were considered to be the gold standard, because not all patients underwent surgical treatment. Axial slices showed involvement of 90 articular facets (100 %). Three-dimensional reformations after electronic disarticulation depicted 82 fractures (82 of 90, 91 %), sagittal reconstructions 63 fractures (63 of 90, 70 %). Three-dimensional reconstructions without electronic disarticulation showed five fractures (5 of 90, 5.5 %). The number of fragments was demonstrated best on sagittal reconstructions (two, three or four fragments); five fragments were diagnosed best on axial slices, and 3D reconstruction without electronic disarticulation showed only a very small number of fragments, due to overlaying bones. Hindfoot deformities (lateralisation, varus deformation, shortening) were demonstrated best on axial slices, except in terms of showing height reduction, which was demonstrated better on sagittal and 3D reconstructions. Three-dimensional reconstructions after electronic disarticulation support a clear understanding of the 3D position of the fragments and of their displacement in comparison with 3D reconstruction without electronic disarticulation, which is essential for an effective surgical reduction. Due to the potential manipulation of surface-oriented 3D reconstructions, regardless of whether electronic disarticulation is used

  16. Volumetric evaluation of various obturation techniques in primary teeth using cone beam computed tomography – An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Nagaveni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficiency of five different obturation methods in delivering the filling material into the canals of primary teeth using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT scan. Method: A total of fifty prepared canals of primary teeth which further divided into five groups with ten canals in each group were obturated with zinc oxide-eugenol cement using five different obturation methods such as endodontic plugger, lentulo spiral (handheld, lentulo spiral mounted on slow speed handpiece, local anesthetic syringe, and tuberculin syringe. Using CBCT scan, the pre- and post-obturation volume and the percentage of obturated volume (POV were calculated for each group. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Following CBCT scan, the method obturated with lentulo spiral mounted to handpiece showed the highest POV value followed by the method of lentulo spiral mounted to handpiece, hand plugger, and tuberculin syringe. Local anesthetic syringe gave the least POV (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Lentulo spiral mounted to handpiece showed the best technique of obturation using CBCT evaluation among the five groups evaluated in primary teeth. However, more studies are highly essential to prove it a boon for estimating obturation quality in primary teeth.

  17. Experimental Analysis of Temperature Differences During Implant Site Preparation: Continuous Drilling Technique Versus Intermittent Drilling Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Adolfo; Sivolella, Stefano; Stocco, Elena; Favero, Vittorio; Stellini, Edoardo

    2018-02-01

    Implant site preparation through drilling procedures may cause bone thermonecrosis. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, using a thermal probe, overheating at implant sites during osteotomies through 2 different drilling methods (continuous drilling technique versus intermittent drilling technique) using irrigation at different temperatures. Five implant sites 13 mm in length were performed on 16 blocks (fresh bovine ribs), for a total of 80 implant sites. The PT-100 thermal probe was positioned 5 mm from each site. Two physiological refrigerant solutions were used: one at 23.7°C and one at 6.0°C. Four experimental groups were considered: group A (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group B (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group C (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C), and group D (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test (2-tailed) was used to compare groups. While there was no difference between group A and group B (W = 86; P = .45), statistically significant differences were observed between experimental groups A and C (W = 0; P =.0001), B and D (W = 45; P =.0005), and C and D (W = 41; P = .003). Implant site preparation did not affect the overheating of the bone. Statistically significant differences were found with the refrigerant solutions. Using both irrigating solutions, bone temperature did not exceed 47°C.

  18. Critical analysis of procurement techniques in construction management sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Suman Tiwari Suresh; Chan, Shiau Wei; Faraz Mubarak, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last three decades, numerous procurement techniques have been one of the highlights of the Construction Management (CM) for ventures, administration contracting, venture management as well as design and construct. Due to the development and utilization of those techniques, various researchers have explored the criteria for their choice and their execution in terms of time, cost and quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of giving an account on the relationship between the procurement techniques and the progressed related issues, for example, supply chain, sustainability, innovation and technology development, lean construction, constructability, value management, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as well as e-procurement. Through chosen papers from the reputable CM-related academic journals, the specified scopes of these issues are methodically assessed with the objective to explore the status and trend in procurement related research. The result of this paper contributes theoretically as well as practically to the researchers and industrialist in order to be aware and appreciate the development of procurement techniques.

  19. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  20. An analysis of batting backlift techniques among coached and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship for batting coaches is to teach junior cricketers to play using a straight bat. This requires the bat to be lifted directly towards the stumps with the bat face facing downwards. No study has yet examined whether there are differences in the batting back lift techniques (BTT) of ...

  1. Multidimensional scaling technique for analysis of magnetic storms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the amplitude of H decreases progressively with increasing latitudes at the Indian chain of observa- tories (Rastogi et al 1997). The aim of this study is to apply the method of multidimensional scal- ing technique to examine the accuracy of results in comparison with the conventional method of cor- relation coefficients in the ...

  2. Protease analysis by zymography: a review on techniques and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Zymography, the detection of enzymatic activity on gel electrophoresis, has been a technique described in the literature for at least in the past 50 years. Although a diverse amount of enzymes, especially proteases, have been detected, advances and improvements have been slower in comparison with other molecular biology, biotechnology and chromatography techniques. Most of the reviews and patents published focus on the technique as an element for enzymatic testing, but detailed analytical studies are scarce. Patents referring to zymography per se are few and the technique itself is hardly an important issue in titles or keywords in many scientific publications. This review covers a small condensation of the works published so far dealing with the identification of proteolytic enzymes in electrophoretic gel supports and its variations like 2-D zymography, real-time zymography, and in-situ zymography. Moreover, a scope will be given to visualize the new tendencies of this method, regarding substrates used and activity visualization. What to expect from zymography in the near future is also approached.

  3. UPLC-ICP-MS - a fast technique for speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Sturup, S.; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2005-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography is a new development of the HPLC separation technique that allows separations on column materials at high pressures up to 10(8) Pa using particle diameters of 1.7 mu m. This increases the efficiency, the resolution and the speed of the separation. Four aque...

  4. Sixth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts of 77 lectures. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume

  5. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Slotved, H.-C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy ...

  6. Alternative Colposcopy Techniques: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, M.; Ebisch, R.M.F.; Galaal, K.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of alternative (digital) colposcopy techniques for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or worse in a colposcopy population. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception up to

  7. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. IV. A NEW ASTROMETRIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE AND A COMPARISON WITH RESULTS FROM OTHER TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lederman, J. I.; Ransom, R. R.; Campbell, R. M.; Gordon, D.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-01-01

    When very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations are used to determine the position or motion of a radio source relative to reference sources nearby on the sky, the astrometric information is usually obtained via (1) phase-referenced maps or (2) parametric model fits to measured fringe phases or multiband delays. In this paper, we describe a 'merged' analysis technique which combines some of the most important advantages of these other two approaches. In particular, our merged technique combines the superior model-correction capabilities of parametric model fits with the ability of phase-referenced maps to yield astrometric measurements of sources that are too weak to be used in parametric model fits. We compare the results from this merged technique with the results from phase-referenced maps and from parametric model fits in the analysis of astrometric VLBI observations of the radio-bright star IM Pegasi (HR 8703) and the radio source B2252+172 nearby on the sky. In these studies we use central-core components of radio sources 3C 454.3 and B2250+194 as our positional references. We obtain astrometric results for IM Peg with our merged technique even when the source is too weak to be used in parametric model fits, and we find that our merged technique yields astrometric results superior to the phase-referenced mapping technique. We used our merged technique to estimate the proper motion and other astrometric parameters of IM Peg in support of the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B mission.

  8. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  9. Models, Web-Based Simulations, and Integrated Analysis Techniques for Improved Logistical Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    ... Laboratory, Logistics Research Division, Logistics Readiness Branch to propose a research agenda entitled, "Models, Web-based Simulations, and Integrated Analysis Techniques for Improved Logistical Performance...

  10. 2D array based on fermat spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, O.; Martín, C. J.; Godoy, G.; Ullate, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    The main challenge faced by 3D ultrasonic imaging with 2D array transducer is the large number of elements required to achieve an acceptable level of quality in the images. Therefore, the optimization of the array layout to reduce the number of active elements in the aperture has been a research topic in the last years. Nowadays, CMUT array technology has made viable the production of 2D arrays with larger flexibility on elements size, shape and position. This is opening new options in 2D array design, allowing to revise as viable alternatives others layouts that had been studied in the past, like circular and Archimedes spiral layout. In this work the problem of designing an imaging system array with a diameter of 60 λ and a limited number of elements using the Fermat spiral layout has been studied. This study has been done for two different numbers of electronic channels (N = 128 and N = 256). As summary, a general discussion of the results and the most interesting cases are presented.

  11. Spiral-shaped reactor for water disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2016-04-20

    Chlorine-based processes are still widely used for water disinfection. The disinfection process for municipal water consumption is usually carried out in large tanks, specifically designed to verify several hydraulic and disinfection criteria. The hydrodynamic behavior of contact tanks of different shapes, each with an approximate total volume of 50,000 m3, was analyzed by solving turbulent momentum transport equations with a computational fluid dynamics code, namely ANSYS fluent. Numerical experiments of a tracer pulse were performed for each design to generate flow through curves and investigate species residence time distribution for different inlet flow rates, ranging from 3 to 12 m3 s−1. A new nature-inspired Conch tank design whose shape follows an Archimedean spiral was then developed. The spiral design is shown to strongly outperform the other tanks’ designs for all the selected plug flow criteria with an enhancement in efficiency, less short circuiting, and an order of magnitude improvement in mixing and dispersion. Moreover, following the intensification philosophy, after 50% reduction in its size, the new design retains its properties and still gives far better results than the classical shapes.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  13. Fault Tree Analysis with Temporal Gates and Model Checking Technique for Qualitative System Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) has suffered from several drawbacks such that it uses only static gates and hence can not capture dynamic behaviors of the complex system precisely, and it is in lack of rigorous semantics, and reasoning process which is to check whether basic events really cause top events is done manually and hence very labor-intensive and time-consuming for the complex systems while it has been one of the most widely used safety analysis technique in nuclear industry. Although several attempts have been made to overcome this problem, they can not still do absolute or actual time modeling because they adapt relative time concept and can capture only sequential behaviors of the system. In this work, to resolve the problems, FTA and model checking are integrated to provide formal, automated and qualitative assistance to informal and/or quantitative safety analysis. Our approach proposes to build a formal model of the system together with fault trees. We introduce several temporal gates based on timed computational tree logic (TCTL) to capture absolute time behaviors of the system and to give concrete semantics to fault tree gates to reduce errors during the analysis, and use model checking technique to automate the reasoning process of FTA

  14. Impact of spiral separator geometrical parameters on the density separation of various fine-grained materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpyrka Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at the assessment of the impact of geometrical parameters of spiral separators on the efficiency of density separation of fine-grained materials. Experiments were carried out on three spiral separators: Krebs 2.85, Reichert LD-4 and Reichert LG-7. Three materials were used for the tests: raw coal, coal waste and mix of sand and magnetite as the model material. Results of raw coal and coal waste upgrading showed that density separation was most efficient in Reichert LD-4 spiral. This is due to the fact that this device had the highest amount of coils, height of sluice as well as was equipped with additional dense product collector and additional water sluice for transport water. The lower slope of sluice and larger height made separation even more efficient. Analysis of separation of model material, that is the mix of sand and magnetite, showed that in this case the existence of additional water sluice does not have an impact on product separation and best results were obtained in the Reichert LG-7 spiral separator. The shape and width of sluices did not have a significant impact on the separation process.

  15. Modified spiral organic curriculum on organic chemistry courses for chemistry education undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi'ah, Lina; Diniaty, Artina; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to know the effect of implementation modified spiral (or two-cycle) organic curriculum for Chemistry Education Undergraduate Students. The changing of curriculum that impacted in the organization of topics, was due to the low of student's achievement in Organic Chemistry courses. In a spiral curriculum, the first cycle was surveyed course which students learned about general organic chemistry that must be studied in year-long courses in the previous curriculum. The survey course discussed topics in less detail but with some emphasis on the topics that related to the chemistry for high school. The second course was the spiral of the first cycle that discussed the same chapter but in a more advanced discussion. In this cycle, students began to study about stereochemistry, mechanism of organic reaction and its application for daily need and industry. From the data analysis, there was a significant difference of students' achievement that learned with previous and spiral organic curriculum. It can be concluded that this modified curriculum is more appropriate to be applied for Chemistry Education students.

  16. Time-series-analysis techniques applied to nuclear-material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Downing, D.J.

    1982-05-01

    This document is designed to introduce the reader to the applications of Time Series Analysis techniques to Nuclear Material Accountability data. Time series analysis techniques are designed to extract information from a collection of random variables ordered by time by seeking to identify any trends, patterns, or other structure in the series. Since nuclear material accountability data is a time series, one can extract more information using time series analysis techniques than by using other statistical techniques. Specifically, the objective of this document is to examine the applicability of time series analysis techniques to enhance loss detection of special nuclear materials. An introductory section examines the current industry approach which utilizes inventory differences. The error structure of inventory differences is presented. Time series analysis techniques discussed include the Shewhart Control Chart, the Cumulative Summation of Inventory Differences Statistics (CUSUM) and the Kalman Filter and Linear Smoother

  17. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  18. Error analysis of compensation cutting technique for wavefront error of KH2PO4 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Guipeng; Dai, Yifan; Guan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Dengchao; Song, Bing

    2013-09-20

    Considering the wavefront error of KH(2)PO(4) (KDP) crystal is difficult to control through face fly cutting process because of surface shape deformation during vacuum suction, an error compensation technique based on a spiral turning method is put forward. An in situ measurement device is applied to measure the deformed surface shape after vacuum suction, and the initial surface figure error, which is obtained off-line, is added to the in situ surface shape to obtain the final surface figure to be compensated. Then a three-axis servo technique is utilized to cut the final surface shape. In traditional cutting processes, in addition to common error sources such as the error in the straightness of guide ways, spindle rotation error, and error caused by ambient environment variance, three other errors, the in situ measurement error, position deviation error, and servo-following error, are the main sources affecting compensation accuracy. This paper discusses the effect of these three errors on compensation accuracy and provides strategies to improve the final surface quality. Experimental verification was carried out on one piece of KDP crystal with the size of Φ270 mm×11 mm. After one compensation process, the peak-to-valley value of the transmitted wavefront error dropped from 1.9λ (λ=632.8 nm) to approximately 1/3λ, and the mid-spatial-frequency error does not become worse when the frequency of the cutting tool trajectory is controlled by use of a low-pass filter.

  19. New data mining technique for multidimensional aircraft trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solntseva-Chaley Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of growing airport workload, airspace sectorization is necessary for accidents prevention. Sectorization should be performed taking into account regular traffic of aircrafts. A new data mining technique, solving the problem, is described. It allows to fulfill stable partition of aircraft intent trajectory sample into the groups (asymptotically converged beams, corresponding to the same runway approaches. Method is taking into account special geometric characteristics (curvature, torsion and multiple intersections of multidimensional space trajectories of aircrafts.

  20. Application of radioisotope techniques in analysis of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is tabulated of the use of radioisotope techniques, giving the detected pollutant and the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. The most frequently used principle is the substoichiometric variant of isotope dilution which may be divided into the method of isotope dilution and the radio-reagent method. Both methods are described and examples are given of the determination of pollutants. (J.P.)

  1. Analysis of photoisomerizable dyes using laser absorption and fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, R.; Di Paolo, R.E.; Scaffardi, L.; Tocho, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    The attention of the present report has been directed mainly to the description of laser-based techniques developed in order to obtain kinetic and spectroscopic properties of polymethine cyanine dyes in solution. Special attention was dedicated to photoisomerizable molecules where the absorption spectra of both isomers are strongly overlapped. As an example, measurements of two different dyes of laser technological interest, DTCI and DODCI were performed. The developed methods provide a complete quantitative description of photophysical processes. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  2. An ASIC Low Power Primer Analysis, Techniques and Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Chadha, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an invaluable primer on the techniques utilized in the design of low power digital semiconductor devices.  Readers will benefit from the hands-on approach which starts form the ground-up, explaining with basic examples what power is, how it is measured and how it impacts on the design process of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs).  The authors use both the Unified Power Format (UPF) and Common Power Format (CPF) to describe in detail the power intent for an ASIC and then guide readers through a variety of architectural and implementation techniques that will help meet the power intent.  From analyzing system power consumption, to techniques that can employed in a low power design, to a detailed description of two alternate standards for capturing the power directives at various phases of the design, this book is filled with information that will give ASIC designers a competitive edge in low-power design. Starts from the ground-up and explains what power is, how it is measur...

  3. A phenomenological theory for polarization flop in spiral multiferroic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven polarization flop in TbMnO3. The Néel wall-like magnetic structure in spiral multiferroics induces a space-dependent internal magnetic field which exerts a torque on spins to rotate bc-spiral to abspiral. The external magnetic field is argued ...

  4. A phenomenological theory for polarization flop in spiral multiferroic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a space-dependent internal magnetic field which exerts a torque on spins to rotate bc-spiral to ab- spiral. The external ... Fv; 75.85.+t. Electric control of magnetization and magnetic control of polarization have been long ... divergence of magnetization, an internal field is induced which has important physical. Figure 1. ab ...

  5. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  6. Up the Down Spiral with English: Guidelines, Project Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catholic Board of Education, Diocese of Cleveland, OH.

    This curriculum guide presents the philosophy, objectives, and processes which unify a student-centered English program based on Jerome Bruner's concept of the spiral curriculum. To illustrate the spiraling of the learning process (i.e., engagement, perception, interpretation, evaluation, and personal integration), the theme of "hero" is traced…

  7. The cold interstellar medium - An HI view of spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Bender, R; Davies, RL

    1996-01-01

    An HI view of spiral galaxies is presented. In the first part the standard picture of isolated, normal spiral galaxies is briefly reviewed. In the second part attention is drawn to all those phenomena, such as tidal interactions, accretion and mergers, that depend on the galaxy environment and seem

  8. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  9. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  10. The design and basic performance of a Spiral Fiber Tracker for the J-PARC E36 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, O., E-mail: oleg@inr.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bianchin, S. [Canada' s National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics (TRIUMF) (Canada); Hasinoff, M.D. [University of British Columbia (Canada); Horie, K. [Osaka University (Japan); Igarashi, Y.; Imazato, J. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Ito, H.; Kawai, H.; Kodama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Kohl, M. [Hampton University (United States); Kudenko, Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Shimizu, S. [Osaka University (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University (Japan); Toyoda, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Yershov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    A spiral fiber tracker (SFT) has been designed and produced for the J-PARC E36 experiment as an element of the tracking system for conducting a high-resolution momentum measurement of charged particles from kaon decays. A novel technique to wind the pre-made fiber ribbons spirally was employed for the configuration with four detector layers made of 1 mm diameter plastic scintillating fibers. Good position alignment and sufficiently high detection efficiency for charged particles with minimum ionizing energy were confirmed in cosmic ray test. The tracker was successfully used in the E36 experiment.

  11. New trends and techniques in chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: automation of chromosome analysis; storage of fixed cells from cultures of lymphocytes obtained routinely during periodic employee medical examinations; analysis of banded chromosomes; identification of first division metaphases; sister chromatid exchange; and patterns of aberration induction

  12. Efficacy of the Principal Components Analysis Techniques Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second, the paper reports results of principal components analysis after the artificial data were submitted to three commonly used procedures; scree plot, Kaiser rule, and modified Horn's parallel analysis, and demonstrate the pedagogical utility of using artificial data in teaching advanced quantitative concepts. The results ...

  13. Improvements in analysis techniques for segmented mirror arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.; Bisson, Gary R.

    2016-08-01

    The employment of actively controlled segmented mirror architectures has become increasingly common in the development of current astronomical telescopes. Optomechanical analysis of such hardware presents unique issues compared to that of monolithic mirror designs. The work presented here is a review of current capabilities and improvements in the methodology of the analysis of mechanically induced surface deformation of such systems. The recent improvements include capability to differentiate surface deformation at the array and segment level. This differentiation allowing surface deformation analysis at each individual segment level offers useful insight into the mechanical behavior of the segments that is unavailable by analysis solely at the parent array level. In addition, capability to characterize the full displacement vector deformation of collections of points allows analysis of mechanical disturbance predictions of assembly interfaces relative to other assembly interfaces. This capability, called racking analysis, allows engineers to develop designs for segment-to-segment phasing performance in assembly integration, 0g release, and thermal stability of operation. The performance predicted by racking has the advantage of being comparable to the measurements used in assembly of hardware. Approaches to all of the above issues are presented and demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  14. Cross-impact analysis experimentation using two techniques to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-impact analysis relies on decision makers to provide marginal probability estimates of interdependent events. Generally, these have to be revised in order to ensure overall system coherency. This paper describes cross-impact analysis experimentation in which a Monte Carlo based approach and a dierence equation ...

  15. Comparative Performance Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for Software Bug Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Saiqa Aleem; Luiz Fernando Capretz; Faheem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning techniques can be used to analyse data from different perspectives and enable developers to retrieve useful information. Machine learning techniques are proven to be useful in terms of software bug prediction. In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of different machine learning techniques is explored f or software bug prediction on public available data sets. Results showed most of the mac ...

  16. Air pollution studies in Tianjing city using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Nie Nuiling; Wang Pingsheng

    1999-01-01

    Two sites of airborne sampling from industrial and residential areas were made in Tianjing city during February and June using PM-10 sampler and analyzed by NAA techniques; Comparison of air pollution between urban and rural area in Tianjing city was made using neutron activation analysis techniques and some other data analyzing techniques. (author)

  17. Development of an automated technique for failure modes and effect analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Borch, Ole; Bagnoli, F.

    implementing an automated technique for Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This technique is based on the matrix formulation of FMEA for the investigation of failure propagation through a system. As main result, this technique will provide the design engineer with decision tables for fault handling...

  18. Development of an Automated Technique for Failure Modes and Effect Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Borch, Ole; Allasia, G.

    1999-01-01

    implementing an automated technique for Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This technique is based on the matrix formulation of FMEA for the investigation of failure propagation through a system. As main result, this technique will provide the design engineer with decision tables for fault handling...

  19. The Critic and the Computer: A Multiple Technique Analysis of the "ABC Evening News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantz, Charles R.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes "ABC Evening News" coverage of the 1972 presidential campaign with a rhetorical analytic technique and a computerized text analysis technique. Compares results and considers three possibilities: (1) the role of technique in research results; (2) different aspects of a phenomenon; and (3) the degree of confidence of results. (JMF)

  20. Uranium solution mining cost estimating technique: means for rapid comparative analysis of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve graphs provide a technique for determining relative cost ranges for uranium solution mining projects. The use of the technique can provide a consistent framework for rapid comparative analysis of various properties of mining situations. The technique is also useful to determine the sensitivities of cost figures to incremental changes in mining factors or deposit characteristics